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1. Castillo-Avila W, Piulats JM, Garcia Del Muro X, Vidal A, Condom E, Casanovas O, Mora J, Germà JR, Capellà G, Villanueva A, Viñals F: Sunitinib inhibits tumor growth and synergizes with cisplatin in orthotopic models of cisplatin-sensitive and cisplatin-resistant human testicular germ cell tumors. Clin Cancer Res; 2009 May 15;15(10):3384-95
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sunitinib inhibits tumor growth and synergizes with cisplatin in orthotopic models of cisplatin-sensitive and cisplatin-resistant human testicular germ cell tumors.
  • PURPOSE: Germ cell tumors (GCT) of the testis are highly curable, but those patients who are refractory to cisplatin (CDDP)-based combination chemotherapy have a poor prognosis.
  • Therefore, identifying new alternatives for treatment remains a priority.
  • Several studies support an important role for angiogenesis in GCTs, suggesting that antiangiogenic treatment might be a good alternative.
  • In the present study, we evaluated the effect of sunitinib, CDDP, or the combination of both drugs using an orthotopic model of human testicular GCT.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Mice were implanted with four different testicular tumors: a yolk sac, two choriocarcinomas, and a CDDP-resistant choriocarcinoma variant induced in mice by continuous exposure to CDDP.
  • Mice were treated with vehicle, CDDP, sunitinib, or the combination of both drugs and their effects on tumors were analyzed.
  • RESULTS: We observed a significant inhibition in tumor growth accompanied by longer survival after sunitinib treatment.
  • Combination therapy with CDDP significantly enhanced these effects.
  • Sunitinib induced apoptosis, reduced tumor cell proliferation and tumor vasculature, and inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1, 2, and 3 and platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha phosphorylation without affecting phosphorylation of other tyrosine kinase receptors.
  • More importantly, tumor growth inhibition induced by sunitinib was also observed in the induced CDDP-resistant choriocarcinoma model.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these results suggest that sunitinib might be a new alternative for treatment of CDDP-refractory patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Indoles / therapeutic use. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Pyrroles / therapeutic use. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
  • [MeSH-minor] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / administration & dosage. Angiogenesis Inhibitors / pharmacology. Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Animals. Apoptosis / drug effects. Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cell Survival / drug effects. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / pharmacology. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Drug Synergism. Humans. Male. Mice. Mice, Nude. Neovascularization, Pathologic / genetics. Neovascularization, Pathologic / metabolism. Neovascularization, Pathologic / prevention & control. Receptors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor / genetics. Receptors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor / metabolism. Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor / genetics. Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Survival Analysis. Tumor Burden / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 19417025.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Indoles; 0 / Pyrroles; 0 / sunitinib; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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2. Chen YS, Kuo JY, Chin TW, Wei CF, Chen KK, Lin AT, Chang LS: Prepubertal testicular germ cell tumors: 25-year experience in Taipei Veterans General Hospital. J Chin Med Assoc; 2008 Jul;71(7):357-61
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  • [Title] Prepubertal testicular germ cell tumors: 25-year experience in Taipei Veterans General Hospital.
  • BACKGROUND: Due to the rarity of testicular tumors in the prepubertal population, adequate information about their biological course is difficult to document well in a single institution.
  • The purpose of this study was to focus on prepubertal males in an attempt to evaluate clinical features and optimal management among various testicular germ cell tumors with long-term follow-up.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of children younger than 12 years of age with primary testicular germ cell tumors between February 1981 and December 2005 at Taipei Veterans General Hospital.
  • Mean follow-up time was 139 months (range, 2-283 months).
  • The mean age of the patients at diagnosis ranged from 6 months to 84 months (mean, 20.5 months).
  • All patients underwent radical orchiectomy as an initial treatment.
  • Twenty-nine (85.3%) patients had yolk sac tumors, and 5 (14.7%) had mature teratomas.
  • Of the 29 patients with yolk sac tumor, 26 (89.7%) were diagnosed as stage I, 1 (3.4%) as stage III, and 2 (7.0%) as stage IV.
  • Five (19.2%) of the 26 stage I yolk sac tumors progressed to metastasis after radical orchiectomy, and all of these 5 patients later received chemotherapy.
  • One patient initially with stage III yolk sac tumor and 2 patients with stage IV yolk sac tumor were also treated with chemotherapy.
  • Eventually, 1 patient with stage IV yolk sac tumor died due to tumor progression; the remaining 28 patients with yolk sac tumor all survived without tumor relapse after appropriate treatment.
  • In the 5 patients with teratomas, there was no tumor relapse after radical orchiectomy with a mean follow-up time of 139.1 months.
  • The 5-year survival rates for yolk sac tumor and teratomas were 96.5% and 100%, respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: The most common prepubertal malignant testicular tumor is yolk sac tumor, and the most common benign testicular tumor is teratoma.
  • Children with testicular germ cell tumors have excellent long-term survival rates after appropriate treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18653399.001).
  • [ISSN] 1726-4901
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Chinese Medical Association : JCMA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chin Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
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3. Kitahara K, Hori J, Tokumitsu M, Saga Y, Hashimoto H, Kaneko S, Yachiku S: [Retroperitoneal germ cell tumor with testicular calcification indicating tiny testicular origin: consideration of the origin of retroperitoneal germ cell tumors: report of two cases]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2003 May;49(5):291-5
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  • [Title] [Retroperitoneal germ cell tumor with testicular calcification indicating tiny testicular origin: consideration of the origin of retroperitoneal germ cell tumors: report of two cases].
  • Two cases of germ cell neoplasm retrospectively considered to have been of testicular origin are reported. Case 1.
  • A 19-year-old male with brain, liver and retroperitoneal tumors was diagnosed with yolk sac tumor by retroperitoneal tumor biopsy.
  • After multidisciplinary treatment, a region of calcification was detected in the left testis on scrotal sonography and left high inguinal orchiectomy was performed. Case 2.
  • A 57-year-old male with neck, lung and retroperitoneal tumors was diagnosed with yolk sac tumor by supraclavicular biopsy.
  • From initial examination, scrotal sonography revealed a small calcified lesion in the right testis.
  • After chemotherapy, high inguinal orchiectomy and retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy were simultaneously performed.
  • Pathologic evaluation of these testicular specimens revealed calcification and a fibrous scar in correspondence with the clinical diagnosis.
  • These changes were considered as scars of the primary testicular tumor due to burned-out tumor or the result of reaction to chemotherapy.
  • Since a primary tumor of testicular origin may exist in the extragonadal germ cell tumor, it is important to examine the intrascrotal contents in detail in the case of so-called extragonadal germ cell tumors with palpably normal testes.
  • In such cases, there are two possible conditions, an occult testicular tumor and a burned-out testicular tumor.
  • It appears that there are very few true extragonadal germ cell tumors, and that the possibility of primary testicular origin metastasizing from viable occult testicular tumor or burned-out testicular tumor with spontaneous regression is high in retroperitoneal germ cell tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcinosis / pathology. Germinoma / pathology. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / pathology. Testicular Diseases / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Endodermal Sinus Tumor. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 12822460.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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4. Dede M, Pabuccu R, Yagci G, Yenen MC, Goktolga U, Gunhan O: Extragonadal yolk sac tumor in pelvic localization. A case report and literature review. Gynecol Oncol; 2004 Mar;92(3):989-91
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  • [Title] Extragonadal yolk sac tumor in pelvic localization. A case report and literature review.
  • BACKGROUND: Yolk sac tumor (YST) is a rare neoplasm that usually arises in the testis or ovary.
  • We report a case of extragonadal yolk sac tumor located in the pelvic area.
  • Histological evaluation of the specimen exhibited typical patterns of endodermal sinus tumor and stained for a-fetoprotein and cytokeratin.
  • Four courses of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin combination chemotherapy repeated every 3 weeks were added to therapy and she has remained free of disease for 6 months after completion of the therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Pelvic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 14984973.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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5. Lee JK, Kim SH, Kim JH, Kim IY, Kim TS, Jung S, Kang SS, Lee JH, Lee MC: Metastatic spinal cord compression of testicular yolk sac tumor. Childs Nerv Syst; 2002 Apr;18(3-4):171-4
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  • [Title] Metastatic spinal cord compression of testicular yolk sac tumor.
  • INTRODUCTION: Pediatric testicular tumors are rare.
  • Spinal metastasis of testicular yolk sac tumor (YST) is extremely rare, with only one reported case.
  • CASE REPORT: We report a rare case of metastatic spinal cord compression of testicular YST in a 14-month-old boy who presented with progressive paraparesis and neurological bladder dysfunction.
  • Two months prior to admission, he underwent a left radical orchiectomy for YST of the testis.
  • Emergency surgical resection was performed for tissue diagnosis and spinal decompression.
  • Histopathological features of the epidural mass indicated metastasis of the testicular YST.
  • CONCLUSION: Although spinal involvement with metastatic YST is rare, it must be considered in children with testicular YST exhibiting evidence of pain or weakness, and surgical decompression followed by adjuvant chemotherapy should not be delayed.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor / complications. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / secondary. Spinal Cord Compression / etiology. Spinal Neoplasms / complications. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 11981629.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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6. Pectasides D, Skarlos D, Dimopoulos AM, Farmakis D, Pectasides M, Fountzilas G, Aravantinos G: Two cycles of carboplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy for high-risk clinical stage I and stage IM non-seminomatous germ cell tumours of the testis: a HECOG trial. Anticancer Res; 2003 Sep-Oct;23(5b):4239-44
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  • [Title] Two cycles of carboplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy for high-risk clinical stage I and stage IM non-seminomatous germ cell tumours of the testis: a HECOG trial.
  • BACKGROUND: We investigated the efficacy and safety of 2 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy with carboplatin, etoposide and bleomycin (CEB90) in patients with high-risk clinical stage I or stage IM non-seminomatous germ cell tumours (NSGCT).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 52 consecutive patients (22 patients with high-risk histological features [vascular invasion, presence of embryonal carcinoma, absence of yolk sac tumour] and 30 with tumour marker activity post-orchidectomy-stage IM) were entered into this prospective study.
  • Chemotherapy consisted of carboplatin 400 mg/m2 or AUC 5 (day 1), etoposide 165 mg/m2 (days 1-3) and bleomycin 30 mg (days 1, 8, 15).
  • Chemotherapy was repeated every 3 weeks.
  • These cases had a disseminated, marker-positive germ cell tumour (GCT), extensively involving both liver and lungs in the first case and para-aortic lymph nodes and lung in the second one; both patients died of the tumour after a number of salvage chemotherapy (including high-dose therapy) regimens.
  • CONCLUSION: Despite the general consensus that ciplatin-based chemotherapy is superior to carboplatin-containing regimens in testicular cancer, 2 cycles of CEB90 may be an equally effective treatment option as adjuvant therapy for high-risk clinical stage I and IM patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Germinoma / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Embryonal / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Embryonal / pathology. Carcinoma, Embryonal / surgery. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Drug Administration Schedule. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Orchiectomy. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 14666633.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; JEB protocol
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7. Berney DM, Shamash J, Gaffney J, Jordan S, Oliver RT: DNA topoisomerase I and II expression in drug resistant germ cell tumours. Br J Cancer; 2002 Sep 9;87(6):624-9
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  • [Title] DNA topoisomerase I and II expression in drug resistant germ cell tumours.
  • A small number of testicular germ cell tumours are refractory to current chemotherapy regimens.
  • DNA topoisomerase I is the target for several new drugs and a potential candidate treatment for chemorefractory germ cell tumours.
  • DNA topoisomerase II alpha is the target for etoposide, which is currently used regularly in germ cell tumour treatment.
  • The expression of DNA topoisomerase I and II alpha were therefore assessed immunohistochemically in a range of testicular tumours, especially those with persistent malignant elements on retroperitoneal lymph node dissection.
  • Pre-chemotherapy orchidectomy specimens were matched with post-chemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissections to examine changes in expression.
  • There was considerable variation in the expression of topoisomerase I in different tumour types.
  • Both yolk sac tumours and teratoma, mature showed universal expression of topoisomerase I, while 38% of seminomas and 30% of embryonal carcinomas were positive.
  • There was a negative correlation between topoisomerase I and II alpha expression (P=0.004) and downregulation of topoisomerase II alpha after chemotherapy (P=0.02).
  • These results suggest that topoisomerase I inhibitors may be useful in chemorefractory germ cell tumours, especially yolk sac tumours and where there are unresectable residual teratoma, mature deposits.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Embryonal / metabolism. DNA Topoisomerases, Type I / metabolism. DNA Topoisomerases, Type II / metabolism. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Seminoma / metabolism. Teratoma / metabolism. Testicular Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Case-Control Studies. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Down-Regulation. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Testis / chemistry. Testis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 12237772.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; EC 5.99.1.2 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type I; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2364243
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8. Hirayama Y, Kubota M, Imamura M, Imai C, Okuyama N, Tsukada M, Kobayashi K, Sato K, Takachi T, Iwavuchi H, Uchiyama M: A 2-year-old boy with a stage III yolk sac tumor occurring in an intra-abdominal retained testis. J Pediatr Surg; 2009 Dec;44(12):2395-8
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  • [Title] A 2-year-old boy with a stage III yolk sac tumor occurring in an intra-abdominal retained testis.
  • We, herein, report the case of a 2-year-old boy who presented with a huge yolk sac tumor with retroperitoneal lymph nodes metastasis that originated in a left intra-abdominal undescended testis.
  • Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a huge round tumor connecting to the left retroperitoneal lymph nodes with metastasis extending from the left pelvic region to the left renal hilum.
  • The right abdominal tumor appeared to be a giant testis that had strangulated at the neck of the cord.
  • The tumor had ruptured at the side of the left pelvic lymph node metastasis, and a yolk sac tumor was diagnosed from a histologic analysis of the resected specimens.
  • Postoperative PEB chemotherapy was effective, and a complete surgical resection of the tumor was performed 3 months after the initial laparotomy.
  • The pathologic findings showed fibrous tissue without any tumor cells.
  • This case might be a coincidental association of a yolk sac tumor occurring in an undescended testis, which thus caused a delay in making an accurate diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Cryptorchidism / diagnosis. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] CA-125 Antigen / blood. Child, Preschool. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Preoperative Care. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Testis / pathology. Testis / surgery. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. alpha-Fetoproteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 20006035.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CA-125 Antigen; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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9. Tangour-Bouaicha M, Bel Haj Salah M, Ben Brahim E, Ben Othmène M, Douggaz A, Sassi S, Chatti-Dey S: [Primary peritoneal yolk sac tumour. A case report]. Ann Pathol; 2010 Oct;30(5):378-81

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  • [Title] [Primary peritoneal yolk sac tumour. A case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumeur vitelline péritonéale primitive. À propos d'une observation.
  • Yolk sac tumours are rare germinal neoplasms that often arise in ovary and testis.
  • Microscopic examination of the pathologic specimen concluded to a yolk sac tumour.
  • Patient underwent intensive chemotherapy; she's free of disease 2 years after diagnosis.
  • Through this case, clinicopathologic features of this rare neoplasm will be discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Peritoneal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
  • (PMID = 21055525.001).
  • [ISSN] 0242-6498
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pathol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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10. Ross JH, Rybicki L, Kay R: Clinical behavior and a contemporary management algorithm for prepubertal testis tumors: a summary of the Prepubertal Testis Tumor Registry. J Urol; 2002 Oct;168(4 Pt 2):1675-8; discussion 1678-9
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  • [Title] Clinical behavior and a contemporary management algorithm for prepubertal testis tumors: a summary of the Prepubertal Testis Tumor Registry.
  • PURPOSE: The Prepubertal Testis Tumor Registry was established by the Urologic Section of the American Academy of Pediatrics in 1980 to record data on a large number of prepubertal testis tumors regarding presentation, treatment and outcome to define appropriate management better.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Relevant data in the prepubertal testis tumor registry were tabulated and analyzed.
  • RESULTS: There were 395 prepubertal patients who had a primary testis tumor.
  • Of the patients with yolk sac tumor 80% presented with stage 1 disease and overall survival was excellent.
  • Of all patients with stromal tumors metastases developed in only 1.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We recommend initial excisional biopsy for all amenable prepubertal testis tumors, except those with an alpha-fetoprotein level that is clearly increased for patient age.
  • Patients with stage I yolk sac tumor should be monitored closely, and those with recurrent or metastatic yolk sac tumor should be treated with chemotherapy.
  • Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection is reserved for patients with recurrent retroperitoneal masses following chemotherapy.
  • Aggressive treatment of metastatic Sertoli cell or undifferentiated stromal tumors is warranted.
  • [MeSH-major] Registries / statistics & numerical data. Testicular Neoplasms / congenital
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / congenital. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / mortality. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / therapy. Humans. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Sertoli Cell Tumor / congenital. Sertoli Cell Tumor / mortality. Sertoli Cell Tumor / pathology. Sertoli Cell Tumor / therapy. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / congenital. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / mortality. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / therapy. Survival Rate. United States. alpha-Fetoproteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 12352332.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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11. Ye YL, Qin ZK, Zhou FJ, Han H, Liu ZW, Yu SL, Li YH, Chen ZF: [Clinical analysis of stage I pediatric testicular yolk sac tumors: a report of ten cases]. Ai Zheng; 2008 Nov;27(11):1226-8
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  • [Title] [Clinical analysis of stage I pediatric testicular yolk sac tumors: a report of ten cases].
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: At present, pediatric testicular yolk sac tumor is hard to be diagnosed at early stage, and the treatment strategy for this disease after radical inguinal orchiectomy is uncertain.
  • This study was to summarize our experience in diagnosing and treating clinical stage I pediatric testicular yolk sac tumors.
  • METHODS: Clinical data of ten patients with clinical stage I pediatric testicular yolk sac tumors treated from July 2001 to June 2007 were analyzed.
  • RESULTS: Testicular masses with low or uneven echoes were detected by B ultrasound in 11 testes of ten patients.
  • Radical inguinal orchiectomy (RIO) was performed for all patients whereas chemotherapy was not administered preoperatively.
  • Pathology examination was used to confirm the diagnosis of yolk sac tumor.
  • One patient with vascular invasion and another one with bilateral testicular yolk sac tumor received cisplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • The patient with bilateral testicular tumor had retroperitoneal and lung metastases at 23 months after adjuvant chemotherapy, and achieved complete remission again after salvage chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: With the combination of B ultrasound and serum AFP level, we can assess and diagnose stage I pediatric testicular yolk sac tumor.
  • Chemotherapy is recommended to treat patients with high-risk of relapse.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor. Testicular Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child, Preschool. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Etoposide / therapeutic use. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Orchiectomy / methods. Remission Induction. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / secondary. alpha-Fetoproteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19000459.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; BEP protocol
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12. Terenziani M, Piva L, Spreafico F, Salvioni R, Massimino M, Luksch R, Cefalo G, Casanova M, Ferrari A, Polastri D, Mazza E, Bellani FF, Nicolai N: Clinical stage I nonseminomatous germ cell tumors of the testis in childhood and adolescence: an analysis of 31 cases. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2002 Aug-Sep;24(6):454-8
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  • [Title] Clinical stage I nonseminomatous germ cell tumors of the testis in childhood and adolescence: an analysis of 31 cases.
  • A 20-year single-institution experience of clinical stage I nonseminomatous germ cell tumors of the testis (NSGCTT) in childhood and adolescents was reviewed in relation to clinical characteristics, treatment modalities, and survival.
  • Yolk sac tumors and/or teratomas occurred in the children, whereas mixed histologies, including embryonal carcinoma, were predominant in the adolescents.
  • After orchiectomy, the children were assigned to surveillance and the adolescents to active treatment: 16 underwent retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) and 1 had adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy because of a high-risk histology.
  • Three of the 14 children (21.4%) relapsed 3, 7, and 8 months after orchiectomy: all 3 had yolk sac tumors and presented with increased alpha-fetoprotein levels.
  • All three children were treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy with or without surgery.
  • All were treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy with or without surgery.
  • In particular, almost all the childhood cases had the same yolk sac tumor histology, the children tended to have localized disease, and an increased alpha-fetoprotein level had a very high predictive value, suggesting that follow-up should include AFP measurements.
  • A conservative approach is the best option in children, while adolescent NSGCTT behaves like the adult disease and management must include similar treatment strategies.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Germinoma / pathology. Teratoma / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Orchiectomy. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Survival Rate. alpha-Fetoproteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 12218592.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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13. Carver BS, Bianco FJ Jr, Shayegan B, Vickers A, Motzer RJ, Bosl GJ, Sheinfeld J: Predicting teratoma in the retroperitoneum in men undergoing post-chemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection. J Urol; 2006 Jul;176(1):100-3; discussion 103-4
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  • [Title] Predicting teratoma in the retroperitoneum in men undergoing post-chemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection.
  • We evaluated patients undergoing post-chemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for nonseminomatous germ cell tumors to determine predictors of teratomatous elements in the retroperitoneum.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified 532 patients from 1989 to 2003 who underwent retroperitoneal lymph node dissection following chemotherapy for nonseminomatous germ cell tumors at our institution.
  • RESULTS: Of the 532 patients in our series 450 (85%) received only induction chemotherapy and 82 (15%) required salvage chemotherapy.
  • By multivariate analysis testicular yolk sac tumor (p = 0.046), teratoma in the orchiectomy specimen (p <0.005), relative change in nodal size before and after chemotherapy (p <0.005), and no requirement for salvage chemotherapy (p = 0.03) were independent predictors for the presence of teratoma in the retroperitoneum.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Teratoma remains a common histological finding in the retroperitoneal lymph nodes following chemotherapy.
  • We have identified several pre-retroperitoneal lymph node dissection variables that predict the finding of teratoma in the retroperitoneum for men treated with chemotherapy for metastatic nonseminomatous germ cell tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Lymph Node Excision. Teratoma / secondary. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Logistic Models. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Multivariate Analysis. Retroperitoneal Space. Salvage Therapy

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  • (PMID = 16753380.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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14. Yang WP, Zou Y, Huang CS, Zhang SZ, Xiao Q, Dai KL, Zhong HS, Xiong XJ: [Clinicopathologic and prognostic study of pediatric immature teratoma]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2007 Oct;36(10):666-71
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  • RESULTS: Amongst the 39 cases studied, 12 arose in the sacrococcygeal region, 12 in testis, 5 in retroperitoneum, 4 in ovary, 4 in abdomen and 2 in mediastinum.
  • Seven of the cases contained foci of yolk sac tumor.
  • Immature neuroepithelial features used in histologic grading included the presence of primitive neural tubules, immature rosettes, undifferentiated neuroblastoma cells and primitive neuroectodermal structures.
  • Three of them, including 2 cases with histologic grade 3 (with or without yolk sac tumor component), recurred after operation.
  • On the other hand, p27 overexpression shows little correlation with tumor grade.
  • Sacrococcygeal immature teratoma occurring in patients younger than 1 year old and with low histologic grade do not require postoperative chemotherapy if the tumor is completely excised.
  • Similarly, for testicular immature teratoma occurring in patients below 1 year of age, regardless of tumor grading, need no adjunctive therapy.
  • On the other hand, ovarian immature teratoma with high histologic grade requires postoperative chemotherapy, regardless of age of the patients.
  • The presence of microscopic foci of yolk sac tumor is a useful predictor of recurrence in pediatric immature teratoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / pathology. Teratoma / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Cyclin D1 / metabolism. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / drug therapy. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / metabolism. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / surgery. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Mediastinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Mediastinal Neoplasms / metabolism. Mediastinal Neoplasms / pathology. Mediastinal Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / metabolism. Sacrococcygeal Region. Survival Rate. alpha-Fetoproteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18194599.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins; 0 / p27 antigen; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1
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15. Porcaro AB, Zecchini Antoniolli S, Novella G, Martignoni G, Bassetto MA, Poli A, Schiavone D, Tallarigo C, D'Amico A, Ficarra V, Curti P: [Histopathologic risk factors in patients with non-seminomatous germ tumors of the testis in clinical stage 1. Retrospective study of 75 patients]. Arch Ital Urol Androl; 2001 Dec;73(4):177-80
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  • [Title] [Histopathologic risk factors in patients with non-seminomatous germ tumors of the testis in clinical stage 1. Retrospective study of 75 patients].
  • [Transliterated title] Fattori istopatologici di rischio in pazienti con tumore germinale non seminomatoso del testicolo in stadio clinico 1. Uno studio retrospettivo su 75 pazienti.
  • OBJECTIVES: This retrospective study was performed to evaluate histopathologic prognostic risk factors in 75 patients on clinical stage 1 nonseminomatous germ cell cancer of the testis (NSGCTT).
  • After orchiectomy, therapeutic options included retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RLND) for 44 patients (58.6%), surveillance for 26 (34.6%) and neoadjuvant chemotherapy for 5 (6.6%).
  • Testis primary tumor samples were assessed for studying prognostic risk factors that included vascular and/or lymphatic invasion (IV/IL+), percentage of embryonal carcinoma (%EC) and absence of yolk sac tumor (YS-).
  • CONCLUSIONS: EC% > 80 is a prognostic risk factor for disease relapse in patients with clinical stage 1 NSGCT who are selected in a high risk group requiring RPLND or neoadjuvant chemotherapy as therapeutical option.

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  • (PMID = 11822063.001).
  • [ISSN] 1124-3562
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivio italiano di urologia, andrologia : organo ufficiale [di] Societa italiana di ecografia urologica e nefrologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Ital Urol Androl
  • [Language] ITA
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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16. Tröbs RB, Krauss M, Geyer C, Tannapfel A, Körholz D, Hirsch W: Surgery in infants and children with testicular and paratesticular tumours: a single centre experience over a 25-year-period. Klin Padiatr; 2007 May-Jun;219(3):146-51
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  • [Title] Surgery in infants and children with testicular and paratesticular tumours: a single centre experience over a 25-year-period.
  • Testicular and even more paratesticular tumours in children are rare.
  • The aim of the study is to characterise the spectrum of these lesions with focus on the feasibility and effectiveness of testis sparing surgery.
  • The spectrum of testicular tumours comprised 13 germ cell tumours (6 yolk sac tumours, 6 teratomas, 1 embryonal carcinoma) and 4 sex cord stromal tumours (2 Leydig's cell, Sertoli's cell, granulosa cell).
  • Further on, we observed 3 boys with paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), and three with testicular and paratesticular metastases (Wilms' tumour, neuroblastoma, leukaemia).
  • Serum alpha1-fetoprotein (AFP) was clearly elevated in 5 of 6 yolk sac tumours but remained within normal limits concerning the other entities.
  • Dependent on tumour histology, stage and the recommended treatment schedule postoperative chemotherapy was added.
  • Testis sparing surgery was performed in 3 boys with primary testicular tumours (2 Leydig's cell, mature cystic teratoma).
  • During a median follow up of 5 years all patients with primary testicular tumours survived event free.
  • Meta-analysis of the recent literature revealed that testis sparing surgery is feasible and save in prepubertal boys after exclusion of a malignant tumour.
  • If a testis sparing approach is planned, the following criteria are essential: 1.
  • 3. The presence of sufficient healthy testicular parenchyma.
  • However, the high rate of malignant or potentially malignant tumours suggests that high inguinal orchidectomy should remain the surgical standard of therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulosa Cell Tumor / surgery. Leydig Cell Tumor / surgery. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Sertoli Cell Tumor / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / blood. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnostic Imaging. Feasibility Studies. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Orchiectomy / methods. Retrospective Studies. alpha-Fetoproteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17525908.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8630
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinische Pädiatrie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Padiatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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17. Mikuz G: [Testicular tumors. Predictive factors]. Pathologe; 2008 Nov;29 Suppl 2:270-2
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  • [Title] [Testicular tumors. Predictive factors].
  • Patients with germ cell tumors of the testis can be given adjuvant treatment immediately after orchidectomy or put under surveillance with definitive treatment deferred until relapse.
  • Both therapies are equally successful (success rate 98-99%), with surveillance alone, however, only approximately 50% of cases need toxic chemotherapy.
  • In seminomas the strongest predictor of metastases is tumor invasion of the rete testis followed by the size (Ø > or =4 cm) of the tumor.
  • The presence of teratomas and yolk sac tumors are considered to be predictors of a favorable course of the disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Orchiectomy. Prognosis. Testis / pathology

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  • [Cites] Arch Ital Urol Androl. 2001 Dec;73(4):177-80 [11822063.001]
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  • (PMID = 18712393.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1963
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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18. Mann JR, Gray ES, Thornton C, Raafat F, Robinson K, Collins GS, Gornall P, Huddart SN, Hale JP, Oakhill A, UK Children's Cancer Study Group Experience: Mature and immature extracranial teratomas in children: the UK Children's Cancer Study Group Experience. J Clin Oncol; 2008 Jul 20;26(21):3590-7
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  • [Title] Mature and immature extracranial teratomas in children: the UK Children's Cancer Study Group Experience.
  • PURPOSE: The purpose of this article is to describe the features, treatment, and risk factors for relapse of children with mature teratoma (MT) and immature teratoma (IT) to assist future treatment plans.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were younger than 16 years of age and referred to the UK Children's Cancer Study Group centers with biopsy-proven extracranial MT and IT and no prior chemotherapy.
  • Complete excision, with the coccyx in sacrococcygeal patients, and follow-up, including serum alpha-fetoprotein monitoring for early detection of malignant yolk sac tumor (YST) recurrence, were recommended.
  • Pathology was reviewed and treatments, outcome, and prognostic features assessed.
  • Tumor sites were: testis (n = 53), ovary (n = 130), sacrococcygeal region (n = 98), thorax (n = 23), and other (n = 47).
  • Poorer outcome occurred with incomplete resection, tumor rupture, nongonadal site (particularly sacrococcygeal), young age, higher stage and grade, and gliomatosis peritonei, but not with cyst fluid aspiration/spillage, tumor enucleation, nodal gliomatosis, or microfoci of YST in the tumor (Heifetz lesions).
  • CONCLUSION: Treatment remains primarily surgical, with JEB chemotherapy for YST relapse.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy after surgery for sacrococcygeal patients is not advocated.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Teratoma / pathology. Teratoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Great Britain. Humans. Infant. Male. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 18541896.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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19. Subramanian VS, Gilligan T, Klein EA: A case of spermatic cord teratoma in low-stage testicular cancer managed by surveillance. Nat Clin Pract Urol; 2008 Apr;5(4):220-3
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  • [Title] A case of spermatic cord teratoma in low-stage testicular cancer managed by surveillance.
  • BACKGROUND: A 25-year-old male presented to his local urologist with new-onset right testicular pain and swelling detected on self examination.
  • A scrotal ultrasound scan showed a right testicular mass, suspicious for neoplasm.
  • The patient underwent right inguinal orchiectomy and was diagnosed with nonseminomatous germ cell tumor of the right testis, composed of yolk sac tumor, teratoma, and embryonal carcinoma with no evidence of metastatic disease.
  • He opted to remain under surveillance rather than undergo primary chemotherapy or retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for his clinical stage I disease.
  • Serologic relapse at 4 months after orchiectomy was successfully treated with bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin (BEP) chemotherapy.
  • Pathology of the testicular mass was reviewed.
  • DIAGNOSIS: A 1.7 cm nodule anterior to the right psoas muscle suspicious for metastatic disease that was seen on CT 16 months after orchiectomy was pathologically confirmed as recurrent mature teratoma in the spermatic cord.
  • The patient has since remained disease-free, with normal levels of serum tumor markers and no evidence of metastasis on chest X-ray and abdominal CT.
  • [MeSH-major] Genital Neoplasms, Male / therapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Spermatic Cord / pathology. Teratoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chorionic Gonadotropin / blood. Disease Management. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Orchiectomy. alpha-Fetoproteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 18268549.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-4289
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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20. Popadiuk S, Korzon M, Chybicka A, Szmyd K, Balwierz W, Trelinska J, Kowalczyk J, Wisniewska-Slusarz H, Woźniak W, Bilska K, Wachowiak J, Wysocki M, Krawczuk-Rybak M, Szumera M, Sznurkowska K, Renke J: [Analysis of risk factor treatment failures in therapeutic programme for malignant germ cell tumours in children. Multicentre prospective study of Polish Pediatric Group for Solid Tumours 1998--2006]. Med Wieku Rozwoj; 2007 Jul-Sep;11(3 Pt 2):301-6

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  • [Title] [Analysis of risk factor treatment failures in therapeutic programme for malignant germ cell tumours in children. Multicentre prospective study of Polish Pediatric Group for Solid Tumours 1998--2006].
  • [Transliterated title] Analiza czynników ryzyka niepowodzenia terapii w programie leczenia dzieci ze złośliwymi guzami terminalnymi. Wieloośrodkowe badania prospektywne Polskiej Pediatrycznej Grupy Guzów Litych (PPGGL) w Latach 1998--2006.
  • AIMS: The aim of the study was the analysis of risk factors of therapeutic failures in children with malignant germ cell tumours treated within the multicentre programme of PPGGL from 1999--2006.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The investigated group included 18 (14.3%) patients, of 123 who have finished the treatment of malignant germ cell tumour, in whom no remission was obtained or relapse occurred.
  • RESULTS: Among 18 patients with therapeutic failures 12 died.
  • Two patients from the high risk group died of complications of the treatment--sepsis during neutropenia after chemotherapy and one after haemorrhage to the central nervous system.
  • 10 (82%) of 12 patients who died had extragonadal location and in 11 (92%) the tumour was in stage III or IV of the disease.
  • The most frequent histology in this group was mixed germ cell tumour with component of yolk sac tumour or carcinoma embrionale.
  • In 3 patients testis was the primary location (I and II stage), in 3 patients the tumour was localized in the sacrococcygeal region (III and IV stage).
  • All the patients are alive in remission after second line therapy, with 78 months (median) of follow-up.
  • The main risk factor for therapeutic failures in malignant germ cell tumours was primary chemoresistance in inoperable tumours of the sacrococcygeal region.
  • 2. The mortality of treatment complications was low.
  • 3. The relapse of cancer was not a risk factor for therapeutic failure due to the high probability of second remission 4.
  • Therapeutic failures are mainly observed in patients with mixed germ cell tumour with components of yolk sac tumour or carcinoma embrionale.
  • 5. Tumour chemoresistance should be considered an essential factor in identifying high risk patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Poland. Risk Factors. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 18663271.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Medycyna wieku rozwojowego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Wieku Rozwoj
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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21. Agarwal PK, Palmer JS: Testicular and paratesticular neoplasms in prepubertal males. J Urol; 2006 Sep;176(3):875-81
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Testicular Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Testicular and paratesticular neoplasms in prepubertal males.
  • PURPOSE: We reviewed the current diagnosis, staging and management of testicular and paratesticular neoplasms in prepubertal males.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a medical literature search in English using MEDLINE/PubMed that addressed testicular and/or paratesticular neoplasms in prepubertal males.
  • RESULTS: There is still a predominance of yolk sac tumors in prepubertal males, although some studies suggest that teratomas are more common but underreported due to their benign course in children.
  • A palpable, nontender mass suggests the diagnosis and prompts scrotal ultrasound and tumor markers.
  • Although treatment for most primary tumors has historically been radical inguinal orchiectomy, most benign tumors can now be managed by testis sparing surgery.
  • The addition of radiation, chemotherapy and/or retroperitoneal lymph node dissection depends on tumor stage and histological type.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although it is rare in children, any solid scrotal mass in prepubertal males warrants evaluation for possible testicular or paratesticular neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Testicular Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 16890643.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 50
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