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1. Halberg F, Prem K, Halberg F, Norman C, Cornélissen G: Cancer chronomics I. Origins of timed cancer treatment: early marker rhythm-guided individualized chronochemotherapy. J Exp Ther Oncol; 2006;6(1):55-61
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  • [Title] Cancer chronomics I. Origins of timed cancer treatment: early marker rhythm-guided individualized chronochemotherapy.
  • A 21-year old patient who presented in 1973 with a rare and highly malignant ovarian endodermal sinus tumor with spillage into the peritoneal cavity is alive and well today after receiving chronochemotherapy.
  • During the first four courses of treatment, medications were given at different circadian stages.
  • Complete blood counts and marker variables such as mood, vigor, nausea, and temperature were monitored around the clock and analyzed by cosinor to seek times of highest tolerance.
  • Remaining treatment courses were administered at a time corresponding to the patient's best drug tolerance, rather than extrapolating the timing of optimal cyclophosphamide administration from also-implemented parallel laboratory studies on mice.

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  • (PMID = 17228525.001).
  • [ISSN] 1359-4117
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of experimental therapeutics & oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Exp. Ther. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM013981-44; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / K06 GM013981; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM-13981; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / K06 GM013981-44
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS75750; NLM/ PMC2581882
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2. Shimizu Y, Komiyama S, Kobayashi T, Nakata K, Iida T: Successful management of endodermal sinus tumor of the ovary associated with pregnancy. Gynecol Oncol; 2003 Mar;88(3):447-50
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  • [Title] Successful management of endodermal sinus tumor of the ovary associated with pregnancy.
  • BACKGROUND: Pregnancy complicated by endodermal sinus tumor of the ovary has rarely been reported.
  • CASE: A 32-year-old pregnant woman was found to have an ovarian tumor.
  • At 19 weeks of gestation, tumorectomy was performed and a diagnosis of primary endodermal sinus tumor of the ovary (stage Ic) was made.
  • Pregnancy was continued without postoperative chemotherapy.
  • Subsequently, three courses of combination chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin were administered.
  • There was no evidence of recurrence at 27 months after initial treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Successful management of endodermal sinus tumor of the ovary in a pregnant woman is reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 12648602.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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3. Kang H, Kim TJ, Kim WY, Choi CH, Lee JW, Kim BG, Bae DS: Outcome and reproductive function after cumulative high-dose combination chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin (BEP) for patients with ovarian endodermal sinus tumor. Gynecol Oncol; 2008 Oct;111(1):106-10
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  • [Title] Outcome and reproductive function after cumulative high-dose combination chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin (BEP) for patients with ovarian endodermal sinus tumor.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the outcome and reproductive function of patients with ovarian endodermal sinus tumor (EST) after cumulative high-dose combination chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin (BEP).
  • METHODS: Between 1995 and 2006, 1034 patients with the diagnosis of ovarian cancer were treated at a single institution.
  • Among these patients, 51 had a confirmed diagnosis of malignant ovarian germ cell tumor (MOGCT) including 20 cases of EST.
  • We retrospectively reviewed those patients with EST, who received BEP as adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Of the 15 patients who were treated with fertility-sparing surgery, all had regular menstruation following the completion of adjuvant chemotherapy, and two of these patients had pregnancies with live birth deliveries and no complications.
  • CONCLUSION: In patients with EST, the cumulative high-dose BEP regimen resulted in excellent overall survival and did not seem to impair ovarian function.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / drug therapy. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / physiopathology. Fertility. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / physiopathology. Ovary / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Bleomycin / adverse effects. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Etoposide / adverse effects. Female. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures / methods. Humans. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18656249.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; BEP protocol
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4. Motegi M, Takakura S, Takano H, Tanaka T, Ochiai K: Adjuvant chemotherapy in a pregnant woman with endodermal sinus tumor of the ovary. Obstet Gynecol; 2007 Feb;109(2 Pt2):537-40
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  • [Title] Adjuvant chemotherapy in a pregnant woman with endodermal sinus tumor of the ovary.
  • BACKGROUND: The administration of chemotherapeutic drugs during pregnancy is rare.
  • We describe a case of malignant ovarian tumor complicating pregnancy.
  • A normal infant was delivered, and no evidence of tumor recurrence was observed.
  • There was no evidence of recurrence observed at 65 months after the initial treatment.
  • CONCLUSION: Although the risk of chemotherapy to the fetus cannot be assessed based on a single case, this experience is encouraging.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / diagnosis. Prenatal Diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Cesarean Section. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Trimester, Third. Prenatal Care. Vinblastine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 17267887.001).
  • [ISSN] 0029-7844
  • [Journal-full-title] Obstetrics and gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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5. Jeyakumar A, Chalas E, Hindenburg A: Sustained complete remission in a patient with platinum-resistant ovarian yolk sac tumor. Gynecol Oncol; 2001 Sep;82(3):578-80
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  • [Title] Sustained complete remission in a patient with platinum-resistant ovarian yolk sac tumor.
  • BACKGROUND: Yolk sac tumors of the ovary are generally very responsive to chemotherapy; however, they are difficult to manage in the setting of platinum resistance where treatment options are limited and outcomes are poorer.
  • CASE: We present a 39-year-old woman who had a platinum-resistant yolk sac ovarian tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: The combination of docetaxel, gemcitabine, and thalidomide might be an active regimen for platinum-resistant ovarian nondysgerminomas and further investigation of this combination is warranted.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Taxoids
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Humans. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Paclitaxel / analogs & derivatives. Thalidomide / administration & dosage

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
  • (PMID = 11520160.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Taxoids; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; 4Z8R6ORS6L / Thalidomide; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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6. Aoki Y, Higashino M, Ishii S, Tanaka K: Yolk sac tumor of the ovary during pregnancy: a case report. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Nov;99(2):497-9
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  • [Title] Yolk sac tumor of the ovary during pregnancy: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: There is a therapeutic dilemma for the pregnant patient with malignancy requiring chemotherapy.
  • CASE: We had a case of a 30-year-old pregnant woman with a yolk sac tumor who underwent right salpingo-oophorectomy at 22 weeks gestation.
  • Chemotherapy during pregnancy was postponed because of concern with the risks of the chemotherapy to the fetus.
  • Tumor recurrence was confirmed clinically at 34 weeks gestation.
  • She was induced, delivering a healthy baby, and received seven complete chemotherapy courses (cisplatin, etoposide, and peplomycin).
  • Currently, the mother (39 months after last chemotherapy) and child are doing well.
  • CONCLUSION: AFP-L2 may be a sensitive indicator for a yolk sac tumor derived AFP, leading to an earlier detection of tumor recurrence during pregnancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor. Ovarian Neoplasms. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Peplomycin / administration & dosage. Plant Lectins. Pregnancy. alpha-Fetoproteins / metabolism


7. Thanaboonyawat I, Benjapibal M: A case of ovarian endodermal sinus tumor diagnosed during pregnancy. J Med Assoc Thai; 2008 May;91(5):764-8
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  • [Title] A case of ovarian endodermal sinus tumor diagnosed during pregnancy.
  • Pregnancy complicated by endodermal sinus tumor of the ovary is extremely rare.
  • The authors present a case report of a pregnant woman with persistent left adnexal mass and subsequently found to have a primary endodermal sinus tumor of the ovary that was diagnosed at 19 weeks of gestation.
  • After left salpingo-oophorectomy had been performed, the patient chose to terminate the pregnancy before the initiation of combination chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin.
  • The response to chemotherapy was not satisfactory.
  • The patient expired after seven cycles of treatment had been completed because of pulmonary fibrosis and the drug toxicity of bleomycin.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Abortion, Induced. Adult. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / adverse effects. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / adverse effects. Bleomycin / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Etoposide / adverse effects. Etoposide / therapeutic use. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Ovariectomy / methods. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Trimester, First. Pulmonary Fibrosis / chemically induced

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  • (PMID = 18672645.001).
  • [ISSN] 0125-2208
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Assoc Thai
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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8. de La Motte Rouge T, Pautier P, Duvillard P, Rey A, Morice P, Haie-Meder C, Kerbrat P, Culine S, Troalen F, Lhommé C: Survival and reproductive function of 52 women treated with surgery and bleomycin, etoposide, cisplatin (BEP) chemotherapy for ovarian yolk sac tumor. Ann Oncol; 2008 Aug;19(8):1435-41
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  • [Title] Survival and reproductive function of 52 women treated with surgery and bleomycin, etoposide, cisplatin (BEP) chemotherapy for ovarian yolk sac tumor.
  • BACKGROUND: Ovarian yolk sac tumor (YST) is a very rare malignancy arising in young women.
  • Chemotherapy has dramatically improved the prognosis.
  • Current treatment consists of surgery followed by bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) chemotherapy.
  • However, given the rarity of this tumor, ovarian YST-specific survival and outcome after such treatment are not precisely known.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: This report concerns prospectively recorded cases that were either treated at Institut Gustave Roussy (Villejuif, France) or referred there for advice about therapy.
  • From 1990 to 2006, 52 patients underwent surgery followed by BEP chemotherapy.
  • Data on patient characteristics, treatment, survival, and fertility outcome were analyzed to assess treatment efficacy and gonadal toxicity after achieving a complete remission.
  • With a median follow-up of 68 months, the overall 5-year survival and disease-free survival rates were 94% and 90%, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: BEP chemotherapy following fertility-sparing surgery is a very effective treatment of ovarian YSTs.

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  • (PMID = 18408223.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-8041
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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9. Benjapibal M, Chaopotong P, Leelaphatanadit C, Jaishuen A: Ruptured ovarian endodermal sinus tumor diagnosed during pregnancy: case report and review of the literature. J Obstet Gynaecol Res; 2010 Oct;36(5):1137-41
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  • [Title] Ruptured ovarian endodermal sinus tumor diagnosed during pregnancy: case report and review of the literature.
  • Pregnancy complicated by endodermal sinus tumor of the ovary is a very rare event.
  • We present a case report of a pregnant woman with a ruptured primary endodermal sinus tumor of the ovary that was diagnosed at 13 weeks of gestation.
  • After right salpingo-oophorectomy had been performed the patient received four cycles of combination chemotherapy (bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin) starting at the 15th week of pregnancy.
  • The patient did not have any evidence of tumor recurrence for 23 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Ovariectomy. Pregnancy. Rupture, Spontaneous / diagnosis. Rupture, Spontaneous / drug therapy. Rupture, Spontaneous / surgery. Treatment Outcome


10. Manchana T, Sirisabya N, Lertkhachonsuk R, Tresukosol D: Transient cortical blindness during chemotherapy (PVB) for ovarian germ cell tumor. J Med Assoc Thai; 2006 Aug;89(8):1265-8
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  • [Title] Transient cortical blindness during chemotherapy (PVB) for ovarian germ cell tumor.
  • A 17 year-old female with stage IIIc endodermal sinus tumor of the ovary developed transient cortical blindness and severe hypertension after 5 cycles of PVB regimen consisting of cisplatin, vinblastine and bleomycin.
  • Her visual acuity and blood pressure completely recovered within a few days after supportive treatment with antihypertensive drug.
  • Most reports suggested that this rare toxicity was from cisplatin therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Bleomycin / adverse effects. Blindness, Cortical / chemically induced. Brain Diseases / chemically induced. Brain Diseases / pathology. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Vinblastine / administration & dosage. Vinblastine / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Staging


11. Cyganek A, Ejmocka-Ambroziak A, Wiczyńska-Zajac A, Marianowski L: [Ovarian endodermal sinus tumor associated with pregnancy--a case report]. Ginekol Pol; 2002 Apr;73(4):408-11
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  • [Title] [Ovarian endodermal sinus tumor associated with pregnancy--a case report].
  • An ovarian endodermal sinus tumor was found in a 29-years old patient with a 32-week intrauterine gestation.
  • She received caesarean section, conservative surgery and three courses of combination chemotherapy.
  • She died 6 months after the diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor. Ovarian Neoplasms. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Pregnancy

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  • (PMID = 12152296.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-0011
  • [Journal-full-title] Ginekologia polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ginekol. Pol.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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12. Kamoi S, Ohaki Y, Mori O, Okada S, Seto M, Matsushita N, Kawamura T, Araki T: A case of ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma with yolk sac tumor component in a postmenopausal woman. APMIS; 2002 Jun;110(6):508-14
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  • [Title] A case of ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma with yolk sac tumor component in a postmenopausal woman.
  • The co-existence of an endometrioid adenocarcinoma with an ovarian yolk sac tumor is very rare.
  • A 54-year-old postmenopausal woman with a 6-month history of progressive abdominal distension was seen at our hospital.
  • MR imaging revealed a large cyst with a solid intramural node.
  • At laparotomy, a large tumor approximately 20 cm in diameter was found to occupy the abdominal cavity, adhering to the swollen appendix and part of the omentum.
  • Microscopically, foci of endometrioid adenocarcinoma together with a yolk sac tumor component were observed within a large endometriotic cyst.
  • Since the tumor was clinically staged 1c, the patient was given 500 mg of intraperitoneal carboplatin postoperatively, followed by five courses of combination chemotherapy consisting of cisplatin, etoposide and peplomycin at 4-week intervals.
  • In contrast to a very poor prognosis of this tumor in previously reported cases, our patient showed no sign of recurrence during a 21-month follow-up period.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Postmenopause. alpha-Fetoproteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 12193212.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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13. Nawa A, Obata N, Kikkawa F, Kawai M, Nagasaka T, Goto S, Nishimori K, Nakashima N: Prognostic factors of patients with yolk sac tumors of the ovary. Am J Obstet Gynecol; 2001 May;184(6):1182-8
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  • [Title] Prognostic factors of patients with yolk sac tumors of the ovary.
  • OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to evaluate the prognostic factors in yolk sac tumors of the ovary.
  • STUDY DESIGN: We performed a retrospective review of 47 patients with yolk sac tumors of the ovary from 1979 to 1997.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-two patients had pure yolk sac tumors and 25 had germ cell tumors with yolk sac tissue as a component of the disease.
  • All patients who did not respond to chemotherapy died of this disease within 36 months of the first treatment.
  • Chemotherapy regimens that included cisplatin gave better results than those without cisplatin (P <.05).
  • The difference in prognosis was significant in cases in which the size of residual tumor was <2 cm in diameter (P <.01) and in cases in which ascites was either absent or <100 mL in volume (P <.05).
  • Coexistence of other components of ovarian germ cell tumors in histologic specimens, preoperative serum alpha-fetoprotein level, fertility-sparing surgery, dissection of intrapelvic nodes, and p53 status had no significant correlation with the prognosis in this study.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Staging and tumor-reductive surgery strongly affected the prognosis of this disease.
  • Tumor-reductive surgery is advisable when ascites is minimal.
  • Cisplatin-based chemotherapy after surgery was superior to chemotherapy without cisplatin; however, p53 status seemed to have no impact on chemosensitivity in yolk sac tumors of the ovary.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor / physiopathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Ascites / metabolism. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Mortality. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 11349186.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9378
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of obstetrics and gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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14. Dede M, Pabuccu R, Yagci G, Yenen MC, Goktolga U, Gunhan O: Extragonadal yolk sac tumor in pelvic localization. A case report and literature review. Gynecol Oncol; 2004 Mar;92(3):989-91
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  • [Title] Extragonadal yolk sac tumor in pelvic localization. A case report and literature review.
  • BACKGROUND: Yolk sac tumor (YST) is a rare neoplasm that usually arises in the testis or ovary.
  • We report a case of extragonadal yolk sac tumor located in the pelvic area.
  • CASE: A 33-year-old woman was admitted with a history of abdominal pain and distension.
  • Exploration findings revealed an extragonadal mass and she was treated with left pelvic mass extirpation, bilateral ovarian wedge resection, and reconstruction.
  • Histological evaluation of the specimen exhibited typical patterns of endodermal sinus tumor and stained for a-fetoprotein and cytokeratin.
  • Four courses of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin combination chemotherapy repeated every 3 weeks were added to therapy and she has remained free of disease for 6 months after completion of the therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Pelvic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 14984973.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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15. Yang WP, Zou Y, Huang CS, Zhang SZ, Xiao Q, Dai KL, Zhong HS, Xiong XJ: [Clinicopathologic and prognostic study of pediatric immature teratoma]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2007 Oct;36(10):666-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • RESULTS: Amongst the 39 cases studied, 12 arose in the sacrococcygeal region, 12 in testis, 5 in retroperitoneum, 4 in ovary, 4 in abdomen and 2 in mediastinum.
  • Seven of the cases contained foci of yolk sac tumor.
  • Immature neuroepithelial features used in histologic grading included the presence of primitive neural tubules, immature rosettes, undifferentiated neuroblastoma cells and primitive neuroectodermal structures.
  • Three of them, including 2 cases with histologic grade 3 (with or without yolk sac tumor component), recurred after operation.
  • On the other hand, p27 overexpression shows little correlation with tumor grade.
  • Sacrococcygeal immature teratoma occurring in patients younger than 1 year old and with low histologic grade do not require postoperative chemotherapy if the tumor is completely excised.
  • Similarly, for testicular immature teratoma occurring in patients below 1 year of age, regardless of tumor grading, need no adjunctive therapy.
  • On the other hand, ovarian immature teratoma with high histologic grade requires postoperative chemotherapy, regardless of age of the patients.
  • The presence of microscopic foci of yolk sac tumor is a useful predictor of recurrence in pediatric immature teratoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / pathology. Teratoma / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Cyclin D1 / metabolism. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / drug therapy. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / metabolism. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / surgery. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Mediastinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Mediastinal Neoplasms / metabolism. Mediastinal Neoplasms / pathology. Mediastinal Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / metabolism. Sacrococcygeal Region. Survival Rate. alpha-Fetoproteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18194599.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins; 0 / p27 antigen; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1
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16. Erdemoglu E, Ozen S: Ovarian gonodoblastoma with yolk sac tumor in a young 46, XX female: case report. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2007;28(6):516-8
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  • [Title] Ovarian gonodoblastoma with yolk sac tumor in a young 46, XX female: case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Gonodoblastomas with ovarian germ cell tumors (OGCTs) other than dysgerminoma are very unusual.
  • This is the first case report of a pure endodermal sinus tumor of the ovary with gonodoblastoma in a 46 XX, female.
  • Fertility sparing surgery was undertaken and revealed a Stage IA endodermal sinus tumor and gonodoblastoma in the same ovary.
  • The patient refused chemotherapy and was followed-up for six months without disease.
  • Tumor markers and immunohistochemical examination may help in the diagnosis of these OGCTs with gonodoblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor / genetics. Gonadoblastoma / genetics. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18179152.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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17. Cicin I, Saip P, Guney N, Eralp Y, Ayan I, Kebudi R, Topuz E: Yolk sac tumours of the ovary: evaluation of clinicopathological features and prognostic factors. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol; 2009 Oct;146(2):210-4
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  • [Title] Yolk sac tumours of the ovary: evaluation of clinicopathological features and prognostic factors.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinicopathological prognostic features, factors and outcomes of chemotherapy in ovarian yolk sac tumours (YST).
  • STUDY DESIGN: We reviewed the medical records of 32 women with ovarian YST treated from 1990 to 2006 at two centres.
  • The most common symptoms at diagnosis included abdominal swelling or mass (72%) and abdominopelvic pain (62%).
  • The location of the tumour was bilateral in 2 cases.
  • Of 32 patients who received postoperative chemotherapy, 27 were treated with a bleomycin/etoposide/cisplatin (BEP) regimen.
  • Ten (31%) patients suffered from a recurrence of the disease with a median time to recurrence of 8 months (range, 6-28 months).
  • While age, histology (mixed vs. pure), stage, tumour size, ascites, and marker levels were not found as prognostic factors, the presence of residual tumour (P=0.014) and BEP chemotherapy (P=0.016) were significant prognostic factors in univariate analysis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In patients with ovarian YST, fertility-sparing surgery is as effective as radical surgery.
  • In these tumours, adjunctive therapeutic modalities to eradicate intra-abdominal disease and effective salvage therapy strategies are needed.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor / diagnosis. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Child. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hysterectomy. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Ovariectomy. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19419810.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7654
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; BEP protocol
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18. Rzepka-Górska I, Błogowska A, Zajaczek S, Zielińska D: [Germinal cell tumors in young and adolescent girls]. Ginekol Pol; 2003 Sep;74(9):840-6
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  • [Title] [Germinal cell tumors in young and adolescent girls].
  • OBJECTIVE: Germ cell tumours are the most common ovarian tumours in childhood and adolescence.
  • This diverse group of tumours derives from germ cells.
  • DESIGN: The aim of this work is presentation of germ cell tumours in the material from our clinic with characteristic clinical features, the scope of operation and effects of many years of observation.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We treated 109 girls with germ cell tumours of the ovary: 13 had malignant tumours: there were 7 patients with dysgerminomas, 2 with endodermal sinus tumour of the ovary, 3 with immature teratomas, 1 with carcinoma embryonale.
  • There can be problems with diagnosis of the syndrome, because developmental features imitate the onset of normal puberty.
  • It must be suggested that patients of stage I who wish to preserve childbearing function may be treated with unilateral salpingoophorectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Monitoring of the treatment is connected with measurement of biochemical markers.
  • Some of these markers are useful for monitoring of response to therapy.
  • Cytological smears and biopsy specimens from the remaining ovary, peritoneum and subdiaphragmatic area should be obtained laparoscopically.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The sift ultrasonographic investigations can be helpful in the early diagnosis of germ cell tumours of the ovary in girls.
  • Fertility sparing operative treatment is preferred when karyotype is normal.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Dysgerminoma / pathology. Dysgerminoma / therapy. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / therapy. Female. Germinoma / pathology. Germinoma / therapy. Gonadoblastoma / pathology. Gonadoblastoma / therapy. Gonadotropins / blood. Gonadotropins / genetics. Humans. Poland. Risk Factors. Teratoma / pathology. Teratoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 14674134.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-0011
  • [Journal-full-title] Ginekologia polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ginekol. Pol.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Gonadotropins
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19. Lopez JM, Malpica A, Deavers MT, Ayala AG: Ovarian yolk sac tumor associated with endometrioid carcinoma and mucinous cystadenoma of the ovary. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2003 Oct;7(5):300-5
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  • [Title] Ovarian yolk sac tumor associated with endometrioid carcinoma and mucinous cystadenoma of the ovary.
  • The clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical findings of an unusual case of ovarian yolk sac tumor associated with endometrioid carcinoma and mucinous cystadenoma of the ovary are reported.
  • The tumor was detected in a 51-year-old postmenopausal woman who presented with abdominal swelling and a pelvic mass.
  • The tumor was confined to the right ovary and measured 16.0 cm in greatest dimension.
  • Microscopic examination revealed that the tumor had a yolk sac component associated with an endometrioid carcinoma, grade I, and a mucinous cystadenoma.
  • Immunoperoxidase studies showed that the yolk sac component stained diffusely with a cytokeratin cocktail and was focally positive for alpha-fetoprotein.
  • In contrast, the endometrioid carcinoma stained positive for keratin 7 in addition to the cytokeratin cocktail, but was negative for alpha-fetoprotein.
  • After surgery, the patient received three cycles of chemotherapy.
  • However, the disease progressed and the patient died 10 months after the diagnosis of the ovarian tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Cystadenoma, Mucinous / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Postmenopause

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  • (PMID = 14571433.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-9134
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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20. Tangour-Bouaicha M, Bel Haj Salah M, Ben Brahim E, Ben Othmène M, Douggaz A, Sassi S, Chatti-Dey S: [Primary peritoneal yolk sac tumour. A case report]. Ann Pathol; 2010 Oct;30(5):378-81

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  • [Title] [Primary peritoneal yolk sac tumour. A case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumeur vitelline péritonéale primitive. À propos d'une observation.
  • Yolk sac tumours are rare germinal neoplasms that often arise in ovary and testis.
  • Microscopic examination of the pathologic specimen concluded to a yolk sac tumour.
  • Patient underwent intensive chemotherapy; she's free of disease 2 years after diagnosis.
  • Through this case, clinicopathologic features of this rare neoplasm will be discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Peritoneal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
  • (PMID = 21055525.001).
  • [ISSN] 0242-6498
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pathol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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21. Jha S, Chan KK, Poole CJ, Rollason TP: Pregnancy following recurrent angiosarcoma of the ovary--a case report and review of literature. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Jun;97(3):935-7
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  • [Title] Pregnancy following recurrent angiosarcoma of the ovary--a case report and review of literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Ovarian angiosarcomas are rare tumors which may to be distinguished from other unusual primary ovarian tumors such as clear cell carcinoma, yolk sac tumor and leiomyosarcoma on the basis of histological appearance and immunohistochemistry.
  • Angiosarcomas of the ovary occur in all age groups but are more frequent in women of child bearing age (less than 40 years).
  • Surgery and radiotherapy have been the traditional treatment modalities.
  • CASE: The case we present is the only reported long-term survivor of recurrent ovarian angiosarcoma.
  • Her initial treatment was surgical, both at presentation and relapse but since she wished conservation of fertility, radical surgery and radiotherapy were avoided and she underwent further adjuvant chemotherapy with doxorubicin and ifosfamide.
  • She remains in remission 6 years after treatment of recurrence of the primary tumor and has had a successful pregnancy following treatment.
  • CONCLUSION: Adjuvant chemotherapy of ovarian angiosarcoma with a combination of doxorubicin and ifosfamide appears effective and should be considered in women at risk of relapse who wish to conserve fertility.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangiosarcoma / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Fertility. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Pregnancy

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  • (PMID = 15943995.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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22. Moodley M, Moodley J: Ovarian germ cell malignancy and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection: a case report. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2003 Jul-Aug;13(4):541-2
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  • [Title] Ovarian germ cell malignancy and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection: a case report.
  • The occurrence of germ cell tumors in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has not been previously reported.
  • The approach to management as well as the role of adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy is problematic as many of these therapies are toxic.
  • The presentation, management, and outcome of ovarian endodermal sinus tumor in a HIV-infected patient is reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma / complications. Germinoma / therapy. HIV Infections / complications. Ovarian Neoplasms / complications. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Biopsy, Needle. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ovariectomy / methods. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Risk Assessment. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12911735.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Göbel U, Calaminus G, Schneider DT, Koch S, Teske C, Harms D: The malignant potential of teratomas in infancy and childhood: the MAKEI experiences in non-testicular teratoma and implications for a new protocol. Klin Padiatr; 2006 Nov-Dec;218(6):309-14
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  • [Title] The malignant potential of teratomas in infancy and childhood: the MAKEI experiences in non-testicular teratoma and implications for a new protocol.
  • Since 1982, mature and immature teratomas have been recruited into the MAHO and MAKEI protocols of the German Society for Pediatric Oncology and Hematology (GPOH) for testicular and non-testicular germ cell tumors in order to study the epidemiology and clinical behaviour of teratomas.
  • Patients were registered in the epidemiologic German Childrens Cancer Registry and the GPOH Childrens Tumor Registry for pathological review.
  • Patients with immaturity grade 2 and 3 according to Gonzales-Crussi were eligible for adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • 1) EFS after complete tumor resection has been estimated to 0.96 +/- 0.01 in both observation periods.
  • 2) Incomplete tumor resection remains the main risk factor for relapse (EFS 0.55 +/- 0.09).
  • 4) In MAKEI 83/86/89 four newborns with teratoma died due to perioperative complications and nine children as a result of tumor progression, whereas in MAKEI 96 no newborn died, only one child died from tumor progression, and another child died during long time observation for another reason (meningitis).
  • 5) In accordance to the experience of the MAKEI 83/86/89 studies, no child of the MAKEI 96 study presented with yolk sac tumor at recurrence if adjuvant chemotherapy was administered during first-line treatment because of immaturity.
  • In contrast, more than half of the children with tumor recurrence after watch and wait strategy had yolk sac tumor in addition to teratoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms. Teratoma
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Chi-Square Distribution. Child. Child, Preschool. Data Interpretation, Statistical. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Ovary / pathology. Prospective Studies. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Sacrococcygeal Region. Sex Factors. Treatment Outcome. World Health Organization

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  • (PMID = 17080332.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8630
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinische Pädiatrie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Padiatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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24. Mann JR, Gray ES, Thornton C, Raafat F, Robinson K, Collins GS, Gornall P, Huddart SN, Hale JP, Oakhill A, UK Children's Cancer Study Group Experience: Mature and immature extracranial teratomas in children: the UK Children's Cancer Study Group Experience. J Clin Oncol; 2008 Jul 20;26(21):3590-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • PURPOSE: The purpose of this article is to describe the features, treatment, and risk factors for relapse of children with mature teratoma (MT) and immature teratoma (IT) to assist future treatment plans.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were younger than 16 years of age and referred to the UK Children's Cancer Study Group centers with biopsy-proven extracranial MT and IT and no prior chemotherapy.
  • Complete excision, with the coccyx in sacrococcygeal patients, and follow-up, including serum alpha-fetoprotein monitoring for early detection of malignant yolk sac tumor (YST) recurrence, were recommended.
  • Pathology was reviewed and treatments, outcome, and prognostic features assessed.
  • Tumor sites were: testis (n = 53), ovary (n = 130), sacrococcygeal region (n = 98), thorax (n = 23), and other (n = 47).
  • Poorer outcome occurred with incomplete resection, tumor rupture, nongonadal site (particularly sacrococcygeal), young age, higher stage and grade, and gliomatosis peritonei, but not with cyst fluid aspiration/spillage, tumor enucleation, nodal gliomatosis, or microfoci of YST in the tumor (Heifetz lesions).
  • CONCLUSION: Treatment remains primarily surgical, with JEB chemotherapy for YST relapse.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy after surgery for sacrococcygeal patients is not advocated.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Teratoma / pathology. Teratoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Great Britain. Humans. Infant. Male. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 18541896.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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25. Hong DG, Chong GO, Seong WJ, Lee YS, Cho YL, Park JY, Chae JM, Park IS: A case of ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma with yolk sac tumor in a 35-year-old woman. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2010;31(4):471-4
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  • [Title] A case of ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma with yolk sac tumor in a 35-year-old woman.
  • Ovarian yolk sac tumor (YST) is a malignant ovarian neoplasm differentiated from primordial germ cells that occur in young age, while endometrioid carcinoma (ECA) is a müllerian epithelial tumor that usually occurs in older patients.
  • The coexistence of an ovarian ECA and YST component is very rare.
  • After completion of four courses of BEP chemotherapy, two courses of taxane and carboplatin chemotherapy were added.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20882900.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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26. Matsuura Y, Kitajima M, Hachisuga T, Tanimoto A, Okura N, Kihara I: Malignant mixed müllerian tumor with malignant neuroectodermal components (teratoid carcinosarcoma) of the ovary: Report of a case with clinicopathologic findings. J Obstet Gynaecol Res; 2010 Aug;36(4):907-11
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  • [Title] Malignant mixed müllerian tumor with malignant neuroectodermal components (teratoid carcinosarcoma) of the ovary: Report of a case with clinicopathologic findings.
  • Malignant mixed müllerian tumor (MMMT) or carcinosarcoma of the female genital tract is a rare neoplasm.
  • Malignant ovarian tumor composed of müllerian epithelial tumor and malignant germ cell tumor is also rare, with most cases composed of endometrioid adenocarcinoma and yolk sac tumor.
  • Ovarian MMMT with malignant neuroectodermal components resembling immature teratoma is extremely rare.
  • We report a case of teratoid carcinosarcoma of the ovary occurring in a 40-year-old female.
  • The resected tumor measuring over 20 cm in diameter consisted of cystic and solid components and was very fragile.
  • Microscopic examination showed a heterogenous mixed tumor composed of malignant epithelial, malignant mesodermal and malignant neuroectodermal components.
  • There was no tumor immunoreactivity to alpha-fetoprotein, carcinoembryonic antigen, human chorionic gonadotropin, and inhibin.
  • In spite of aggressive combination chemotherapy and three times of laparotomy, the patient died of disease 3 years 10 months after the initial treatment.
  • This quite rare ovarian tumor closely resembled nasopharyngeal tumors described as 'teratoid carcinosarcoma' is biologically aggressive.
  • We report the fourth case of ovarian teratoid carcinosarcoma.
  • Further cases need to be accumulated to make diagnosis and to determine a successful treatment modality.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinosarcoma / pathology. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Teratoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Ovary / pathology. Ovary / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20666968.001).
  • [ISSN] 1447-0756
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of obstetrics and gynaecology research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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27. Isonishi S, Ogura A, Kiyokawa T, Suzuki M, Kunito S, Hirama M, Tachibana T, Ochiai K, Tanaka T: Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)-producing ovarian tumor in an elderly woman. Int J Clin Oncol; 2009 Feb;14(1):70-3
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  • [Title] Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)-producing ovarian tumor in an elderly woman.
  • Apart from typical yolk sac tumors, ovarian tumors with elevated alfa-fetoprotein (AFP) are uncommon and the differential diagnosis needs to consider the hepatoid pattern of a yolk sac tumor, hepatocellular carcinoma metastatic to the ovary, hepatoid carcinoma, and other epithelial ovarian tumors.
  • We report here an AFP-producing ovarian tumor with uncertain pathological diagnosis, which was extremely responsive to chemotherapy.
  • A 59-year-old Japanese woman presented with lower abdominal distension and was found to have a left ovarian mass on pelvic examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan.
  • Total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, partial omentectomy, and low anterior resection of the rectum was performed, without any residual macroscopic tumor.
  • Microscopically, the tumor was characterized by a hepatoid carcinomatous component composed of solid sheets of large eosinophilic cells with pleomorphic nuclei.
  • Tumor cells were diffusely immunoreactive for AFP and cytokeratin (CAM5.2), but monoclonal CEA and CA19-9 were focally positive in the cytoplasm, while CA125 was negative.
  • The patient was treated postoperatively with three cycles of chemotherapy consisting of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin; with this regimen, serum AFP decreased to 16 ng/ml from 12 600 ng/ml just before the initiation of chemotherapy.
  • The patient received secondary cytoreductive surgery of systemic lymphadenectomy, which revealed no evidence of residual tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / secretion. Ovarian Neoplasms / secretion. alpha-Fetoproteins / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Lymph Node Excision. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Omentum / surgery. Ovariectomy. Rectum / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19225928.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-9625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AFP protein, human; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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28. De Backer A, Madern GC, Oosterhuis JW, Hakvoort-Cammel FG, Hazebroek FW: Ovarian germ cell tumors in children: a clinical study of 66 patients. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2006 Apr;46(4):459-64
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  • [Title] Ovarian germ cell tumors in children: a clinical study of 66 patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Ovarian germ cell tumors are rare in childhood.
  • The aim of this study is to review clinical presentation, management, and outcome in a two-center series of girls with ovarian germ cell tumor.
  • PROCEDURE: The records of 66 patients (median age 9 years) with histologically proven ovarian germ cell tumor (either benign or malignant), treated over a 44-year-span, were reviewed.
  • Sixteen patients had an emergency operation for tumor torsion.
  • Unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was the most frequently performed procedure (n = 46), and ovarian-sparing tumorectomy was performed in 9 patients (one bilaterally).
  • Histologically, teratomas were found most frequently (mature: 45, immature: 9), followed by mixed tumors (n = 7), yolk sac tumors (n = 3), dysgerminoma (n = 2), gonadoblastoma (n = 2), and embryonal carcinoma (n = 1).
  • Surgical removal of the tumor with or without the ovary and/or adnex was the sole treatment in 55 patients, chemotherapy was administered in 10 and radiotherapy + chemotherapy in one.
  • Two patients, with malignant disease, died.
  • The 64 survivors are now between 8 months and 44 years after treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: With a recurrence rate of 4.5% and a mortality rate of 3%, this series confirms the excellent prognosis for girls with ovarian germ cell tumor (GCT).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Staging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16206211.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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29. Ayhan A, Taskiran C, Bozdag G, Altinbas S, Altinbas A, Yuce K: Endodermal sinus tumor of the ovary: the Hacettepe University experience. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol; 2005 Dec 1;123(2):230-4
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  • [Title] Endodermal sinus tumor of the ovary: the Hacettepe University experience.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the treatment regimens used for patients with endodermal sinus tumors (EST), and also to examine the prognostic value of surgicopathological variables.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Twenty-two patients treated for pure EST, and seven patients who had mixed germ cell tumors with EST components were included.
  • Initial surgery consisting of surgical staging to achieve optimal debulking was the principal mode of therapy.
  • RESULTS: The median age at the time of diagnosis was 18 (range 8-45).
  • As an adjuvant therapy 18 patients (62%) received platin-based chemotherapy, three patients (10%) had non-platin-based chemotherapy, four patients (14%) had radiotherapy, and four patients (14%) had combined radiotherapy plus non-platin-based chemotherapy.
  • Platin-based chemotherapy achieved significant survival benefit (P = 0.03 and P < 0.001, respectively).
  • There was no significant survival difference with respect to age, histology, and tumor size.
  • CONCLUSION: Fertility-sparing surgery with a postoperative platin-based combination chemotherapy should be the selected mode of treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor / therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures. Hospitals, University. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Platinum Compounds / therapeutic use. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Turkey

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  • (PMID = 16026921.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2115
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Platinum Compounds
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30. Ali L, Bambach BJ, Kozielski R, Wagner H, Lele S, Mhawech-Fauceglia P: Ovarian yolk sac tumor associated with major fibrosarcoma component in a 13-year-old girl. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2010 May;29(3):252-5
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  • [Title] Ovarian yolk sac tumor associated with major fibrosarcoma component in a 13-year-old girl.
  • We are presenting a case of a 13-year-old girl with a chief complaint of lower abdominal pain.
  • A computed tomographic scan showed a 10-cm right ovarian mass.
  • The final diagnosis was a yolk sac tumor with a major (95%) fibrosarcoma component, based on morphology and further confirmed by an extensive panel of immunohistochemistry.
  • The patient completed 7 cycles of multiagent chemotherapy with cisplatin without major complications.
  • To our knowledge, our case is the first of its kind in the literature to document yolk sac tumor associated with fibrosarcoma in a teenage female.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Fibrosarcoma / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20407325.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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31. Palenzuela G, Martin E, Meunier A, Beuzeboc P, Laurence V, Orbach D, Frappaz D: Comprehensive staging allows for excellent outcome in patients with localized malignant germ cell tumor of the ovary. Ann Surg; 2008 Nov;248(5):836-41
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  • [Title] Comprehensive staging allows for excellent outcome in patients with localized malignant germ cell tumor of the ovary.
  • BACKGROUND: The management of malignant germ cell tumors of the ovary (OMGCT) requires multidisciplinary expertise.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data concerning diagnosis, surgery, and medical decisions were reviewed for all patients seen for postoperative management of OMGCT at the Centre Léon Bérard in Lyon and the Institut Curie in Paris between 1985 and 2003.
  • Sixty patients aged 0.4 to 27.9 years (mean 12.8 years) at diagnosis were included.
  • Relapses occurred in 8 of 24 stage I tumors that were observed (0/8 stage Ia; 5/13 stage Ix (P = 0.044) and 3/3 stage Ic) versus 0/14 stage I treated by adjuvant chemotherapy (P = 0.0015).
  • The risk of relapse was significantly increased if patients underwent postsurgical observation ((HR) = 4.5 (95% CI, 1.5 to 13.3)), and when the tumor contained yolk sac tumor (HR = 7.3 (95% CI, 2.3 to 22.7)).
  • There was no significant prognostic value for age, stage, level of tumor markers at diagnosis, type of surgery, and type of chemotherapy.
  • Patients with stages Ix and Ic tumors may benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Dysgerminoma / diagnosis. Dysgerminoma / surgery. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / surgery. Fallopian Tubes / surgery. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Ovariectomy. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Teratoma / diagnosis. Teratoma / pathology. Teratoma / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18948812.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1140
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. Ratnapala SR, Ratnapala SD: Pregnancy after excision of a yolk sac tumour of the ovary followed by chemotherapy. Ceylon Med J; 2004 Dec;49(4):134-5
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  • [Title] Pregnancy after excision of a yolk sac tumour of the ovary followed by chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Dysgerminoma / diagnosis. Dysgerminoma / therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Outcome. Pregnancy, High-Risk. Yolk Sac / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cesarean Section. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Ovariectomy / methods. Risk Assessment






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