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1. Huang YD, Hung YC, Yeh LS, Chiang IP, Zeng GC, Chang WC: Synchronous ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma and endocervical mucinous adenocarcinoma. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol; 2006 Sep;45(3):264-7
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Synchronous ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma and endocervical mucinous adenocarcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: We report a rare case of synchronous cancer consisting of ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma and endocervical mucinous adenocarcinoma.
  • Computed tomography showed an 18 x 16 cm right pelvic tumor, with both cystic and solid components, ascites and bilateral massive pleural effusion.
  • Cytology of the pleural effusion showed no malignant cells.
  • Histology showed moderately to poorly differentiated endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the right ovary with extensive lymphovascular permeation, as well as paraaortic and bilateral pelvic lymph node metastases.
  • Endocervical adenocarcinoma, < 3 mm in depth, was also identified on the cervix.
  • The final surgical-pathologic stage of ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma was stage IIIc and of endocervical mucinous adenocarcinoma was stage IA1.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy with carboplatin and paclitaxel was prescribed postoperatively, but the malignancy was not controlled due to lung, brain and vulva metastases.
  • Diagnosis should be based on histologic examination and requires appropriate treatment for both tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / metabolism. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Necrosis. Vulvar Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 17175478.001).
  • [ISSN] 1875-6263
  • [Journal-full-title] Taiwanese journal of obstetrics & gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen
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2. Li X, Fan Z: The epidermal growth factor receptor antibody cetuximab induces autophagy in cancer cells by downregulating HIF-1alpha and Bcl-2 and activating the beclin 1/hVps34 complex. Cancer Res; 2010 Jul 15;70(14):5942-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Here, we report that autophagy is induced by cetuximab, a therapeutic antibody that blocks epidermal growth factor receptor function.
  • Cancer cell treatment with cetuximab triggered autophagosome formation, conversion of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 from its cytoplasmic to membrane-associated form, and increased acidic vesicular organelle formation.
  • Knockdown of autophagy regulator beclin 1 or cell treatment with autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine, a class III PI3K (hVps34) inhibitor, also inhibited cetuximab-induced autophagy.
  • Furthermore, knockdown of beclin 1 or Atg7 or treatment with the lysosome inhibitor chloroquine sensitized cancer cells to cetuximab-induced apoptosis.

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  • [Copyright] (c)2010 AACR.
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  • (PMID = 20634405.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA129036-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA016672; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5R01CA129036; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA129036
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; 0 / BECN1 protein, human; 0 / HIF1A protein, human; 0 / Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / VPS35 protein, human; 0 / Vesicular Transport Proteins; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.1.1 / MTOR protein, human; EC 2.7.1.1 / TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 2.7.11.25 / MAP Kinase Kinase Kinases; PQX0D8J21J / Cetuximab
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS210969; NLM/ PMC2933174
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; EGFR / autophagy / cetuximab
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3. Stewart AK, Bland KI, McGinnis LS Jr, Morrow M, Eyre HJ: Clinical highlights from the National Cancer Data Base, 2000. CA Cancer J Clin; 2000 May-Jun;50(3):171-83

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  • The NCDB collects oncology patient demographic information, diagnostic and treatment information, and outcomes data from a broad spectrum of hospital-based cancer registries throughout the US, ranging from large research and teaching facilities to small community hospitals.
  • Included among these are articles on breast cancer, gastric carcinoma, head and neck cancers, leukemia, liver carcinoma, lung cancer, parathyroid tumors, prostate carcinoma, small bowel adenocarcinoma, testicular malignancies, and vulvar melanoma.
  • The NCDB has accrued more than 6.4 million cancer cases for this time period.
  • Sufficient numbers of rare cancers are reported to the NCDB to permit some types of clinical evaluation not possible using other data sources.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma / epidemiology. Female. Head and Neck Neoplasms / epidemiology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / therapy. Humans. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / drug therapy. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / epidemiology. Liver Neoplasms / epidemiology. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Lung Neoplasms / epidemiology. Lung Neoplasms / therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / therapy. Stomach Neoplasms / epidemiology. Survival Rate. Testicular Neoplasms / epidemiology. Testicular Neoplasms / therapy. United States / epidemiology. Vulvar Neoplasms / epidemiology. Vulvar Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 10901740.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-9235
  • [Journal-full-title] CA: a cancer journal for clinicians
  • [ISO-abbreviation] CA Cancer J Clin
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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4. Yamamoto R, Sakuragi N, Shirato H, Shimizu M, Fujimoto S: Radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy for vulvar adenocarcinoma associated with extramammary Paget's disease. Gynecol Oncol; 2001 Feb;80(2):267-71
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Vulvar Cancer.

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  • [Title] Radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy for vulvar adenocarcinoma associated with extramammary Paget's disease.
  • BACKGROUND: There have been no reports of the efficacy of primary radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy for vulvar adenocarcinoma associated with extramammary Paget's disease.
  • In this report we discuss the differential diagnosis and efficacy of treatment for this rare tumor.
  • CASE: The patient was diagnosed as having vulvar carcinoma stage IVb.
  • A dose of 40 Gy in 20 fractions was administered to the vulva, including the tumor mass, and the inguinal-femoral lymph nodes with concurrent systemic chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Within the radiated field, the efficacy was brought about by either radiotherapy only or by radiotherapy together with the sensitizing effects of chemotherapy.
  • As for the chemotherapy itself, it was not effective in this case.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Paget Disease, Extramammary / drug therapy. Paget Disease, Extramammary / radiotherapy. Vulvar Neoplasms / drug therapy. Vulvar Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 11161871.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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5. Beleznay KM, Levesque MA, Gill S: Response to 5-fluorouracil in metastatic extramammary Paget disease of the scrotum presenting as pancytopenia and back pain. Curr Oncol; 2009 Sep;16(5):81-3

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Extramammary Paget disease is a rare intraepithelial neoplasm of the vulvar, penoscrotal, or perianal skin.
  • No effective therapies for metastatic disease have been reported, and prognosis for metastatic disease is poor.Here, we report the case of an Asian man who was initially diagnosed with extramammary Paget disease of the scrotum.
  • After an extensive work-up, biopsies of liver and bone marrow revealed adenocarcinoma with signet cells and immunohistochemical staining positive for keratin 7, carcinoembryonic antigen, and prolactin-induced protein, but negative for keratin 20, S100, and prostate markers, consistent with his previous biopsyproven Paget disease of the scrotum.
  • The patient was treated with 5-fluorouracil-based therapy in addition to palliative radiotherapy to selected spine levels.
  • A promising palliative response was demonstrated following 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy.A review of the literature on the pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment options, and outcomes for metastatic extramammary Paget disease is presented.

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  • (PMID = 19862365.001).
  • [ISSN] 1718-7729
  • [Journal-full-title] Current oncology (Toronto, Ont.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2768510
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; 5-fluorouracil / Paget disease / extramammary / metastatic
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6. Huang GS, Juretzka M, Ciaravino G, Kohler S, Teng NN: Liposomal doxorubicin for treatment of metastatic chemorefractory vulvar adenocarcinoma. Gynecol Oncol; 2002 Dec;87(3):313-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Liposomal doxorubicin for treatment of metastatic chemorefractory vulvar adenocarcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Primaryadenocarcinoma of the vulva is a rare entity, and for widely metastatic vulvar adenocarcinoma, no effective treatment has been established.
  • CASE: A 65-year-old woman was diagnosed with regionally advanced vulvar adenocarcinoma, with bulky involvement of bilateral groin lymph nodes, and associated extramammary Paget's disease.
  • Initial therapy consisted of multiagent chemotherapy and vulvar and groin irradiation, followed by radical vulvectomy with groin and pelvic lymph node dissection.
  • She subsequently developed widely metastatic disease including brain, pulmonary, hepatic, osseus, and subcutaneous lesions.
  • Treatment with liposomal doxorubicin (Doxil) resulted in dramatic regression of metastatic lesions and marked improvement in quality-of-life.
  • She remains clinically well, greater than 1 year since initiating Doxil treatment for widely metastatic vulvar adenocarcinoma, and has surpassed 5 years of survival since her initial diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We report the first case of Doxil used for the treatment of metastatic chemorefractory vulvar adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Vulvar Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Paget Disease, Extramammary / complications

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  • (PMID = 12468332.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
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7. Suenaga M, Yamaguchi A, Soda H, Orihara K, Tokito Y, Sakaki Y, Umehara M, Terashi K, Kawamata N, Oka M, Kohno S, Tei C: Antiproliferative effects of gefitinib are associated with suppression of E2F-1 expression and telomerase activity. Anticancer Res; 2006 Sep-Oct;26(5A):3387-91
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • RESULTS: In the A431 and A549 cells, treatment with gefitinib inhibited cell proliferation and was associated with an increase in G1-phase.
  • In both cell types, gefitinib decreased the expression of E2F-1 mRNA and protein, followed by the suppression of hTERT mRNA and telomerase activity.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. E2F1 Transcription Factor / antagonists & inhibitors. G1 Phase / drug effects. Quinazolines / pharmacology. Telomerase / antagonists & inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor Proteins / metabolism. Down-Regulation. Female. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / antagonists & inhibitors. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Vulvar Neoplasms / drug therapy. Vulvar Neoplasms / metabolism. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17094457.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor Proteins; 0 / E2F1 Transcription Factor; 0 / E2F1 protein, human; 0 / Quinazolines; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.7.49 / TERT protein, human; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase; S65743JHBS / gefitinib
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8. Ferrandina G, Testa AC, Zannoni GF, Poerio A, Scambia G: Skull metastasis in primary vulvar adenocarcinoma of the Bartholin's gland: a case report. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Aug;98(2):322-4
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Vulvar Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Skull metastasis in primary vulvar adenocarcinoma of the Bartholin's gland: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Metastatic bone involvement in vulvar squamous carcinoma is very rare.
  • Here, we present a case of primary adenocarcinoma of the Bartholin's gland giving rise to isolated skull metastasis.
  • CASE: A 74-year-old woman was referred with a diagnosis of primary vulvar adenocarcinoma of the right labium minus.
  • A right hemivulvectomy was performed with ipsilateral inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy, revealing a primary adenocarcinoma of the Bartholin's gland and metastatic involvement in 6 out of 13 lymphnodes.
  • During chemotherapy administration, the patient started complaining of a worsening of right hypoacousis.
  • The diagnosis was metastatic poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: In adenocarcinoma of the Bartholin's gland at an advanced stage of disease, a bone scan or survey in the preoperative as well as follow up staging procedures could be useful.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Bartholin's Glands / pathology. Skull Neoplasms / secondary. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15936060.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Furuhashi M, Suganuma N: Primary adenocarcinoma of the vulva with an unusual histological pattern. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2004 May;269(4):287-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary adenocarcinoma of the vulva with an unusual histological pattern.
  • CASE REPORT: The authors present a case report of primary adenocarcinoma of the vulva.
  • An ulcerated tumor on the left side of the vulva in a 59-year-old woman was presented.
  • The tumor was excised, and histological examination revealed both papillary and tubulocystic patterns of adenocarcinoma.
  • Following the operation, both chemotherapy and irradiation therapy were undergone to her.
  • She has been without evidence of disease for more than 5 years following the completion of the treatment.
  • CONCLUSION: Because primary adenocarcinoma of the vulva is very rare, therapeutic modality to date is individually selected.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Vulvar Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Diabetes Mellitus. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 15205982.001).
  • [ISSN] 0932-0067
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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10. Matsuo K, Chi DS, Eno ML, Im DD, Rosenshein NB: Vulvar mucinous adenocarcinoma associated with Crohn's disease: report of two cases. Gynecol Obstet Invest; 2009;68(4):276-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Vulvar mucinous adenocarcinoma associated with Crohn's disease: report of two cases.
  • BACKGROUND: Rectovaginal fistula in long-standing Crohn's disease is possibly associated with malignant transformation to mucinous adenocarcinoma of the vagina.
  • However, there have been no previously reported cases documenting vulvar cancer in association with rectovaginal fistula in Crohn's disease.
  • We report 2 cases of vulvar mucinous adenocarcinoma associated with Crohn's disease.
  • Both showed vulvar symptoms after the development of rectovaginal fistula.
  • CASE 1: A 48-year-old woman, with a 30-year history of Crohn's disease including a rectovaginal fistula, developed persistent pyoderma gangrenosum.
  • Further workup revealed metastatic vulvar mucinous adenocarcinoma.
  • CASE 2: A 37-year-old woman with long-standing Crohn's disease including numerous episodes of perianal or rectovaginal fistulas complained of a vulvar mass suspicious for an abscess.
  • Biopsy showed mucinous adenocarcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Vulvar lesions or symptoms in the setting of rectovaginal fistula in Crohn's disease are an important clinical feature and the possible development of vulvar cancer should be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / etiology. Crohn Disease / complications. Rectovaginal Fistula / complications. Vulvar Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bevacizumab. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Leucovorin / administration & dosage. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Middle Aged. Organoplatinum Compounds / administration & dosage. Positron-Emission Tomography

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  • [Copyright] 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19828998.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-002X
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic and obstetric investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Obstet. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 04ZR38536J / oxaliplatin; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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11. Preti M, Micheletti L, Ghiringhello B, Privitera S, Condello V, Chieppa P, Massobrio M: [Vulvar Paget's disease. Clinico-pathologic review of the literature]. Minerva Ginecol; 2000 May;52(5):203-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Vulvar Paget's disease. Clinico-pathologic review of the literature].
  • [Transliterated title] La malattia di Paget vulvare. Revisione clinico-patologica della letteratura.
  • In 1986 the International Society For the Study of Vulvar Disease classified vulvar Paget's disease (VPD) as a non-squamous intraepithelial lesion of the vulva.
  • Patients with VPD are at risk for a second synchronous or metachronous neoplasia: colo-rectal adenocarcinoma (more frequent in perianal localization of VPD), cervical adenocarcinoma, carcinoma of the transitional epithelium from the renal pelvis to urethra and mammary carcinoma.
  • Therapy for intraepithelial VPD is wide and deep surgical resection comprising all the skin appendages.
  • When association with underlying invasive adenocarcinoma or stromal invasion is histologically confirmed, vulvar surgical approach must be integrated with inguino-femoral lymphadenectomy.
  • The role of chemotherapy and radiotherapy in the multimodal approach to extensive or recurring VPD is still controversial.
  • [MeSH-major] Paget Disease, Extramammary / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary

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  • (PMID = 11048477.001).
  • [ISSN] 0026-4784
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva ginecologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Ginecol
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] ITALY
  • [Number-of-references] 69
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12. Hou JL, Wu LY, Zhang HT, Lv NN, Huang Y, Yu GZ: Clinicopathologic characteristics of 12 patients with vulvar sweat gland carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2010 Jul;20(5):874-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinicopathologic characteristics of 12 patients with vulvar sweat gland carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVES: The aim of this article was to evaluate the clinical and pathologic characteristics, therapy, and prognostic factors of vulvar sweat gland carcinoma.
  • MATERIALS: Clinical and pathologic data for 12 patients with vulvar sweat gland carcinoma treated at our institution from January 1958 to April 2009 were retrospectively analyzed.
  • Of the 12 cases, 7 cases were vulvar sweat gland carcinoma, 3 cases were vulvar Paget disease with underlying sweat gland adenocarcinoma, 1 case was vulvar apocrine adenocarcinoma, and 1 case was adenoid cystic carcinoma of the vulvar sweat gland.
  • Two patients were treated with simple vulvar tumor excision at other medical institutions without adjuvant therapy.
  • Among the other 10 patients, 6 underwent radical vulvectomy; 3, wide local excision of the vulva; and 1, a simple vulvectomy.
  • For 1 patient with bulky inguinal lymph nodes, only a biopsy was performed, and the patient received radiotherapy after vulvar surgery.
  • Five of the 11 patients had recurrences after primary treatment.
  • For 2 of these patients, recurrence was local 6 and 48 months after treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Vulvar sweat gland carcinoma is a very rare entity.
  • Surgery is the primary treatment modality, and the function of radiotherapy and chemotherapy is uncertain.
  • The vulvar tumor size and inguinal lymph nodes metastasis will influence the prognosis, with pathologic differentiation and surgical margin status being the probable prognostic factors.
  • [MeSH-major] Sweat Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vulvar Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Vulva

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  • (PMID = 20606537.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Gadducci A, Cionini L, Romanini A, Fanucchi A, Genazzani AR: Old and new perspectives in the management of high-risk, locally advanced or recurrent, and metastatic vulvar cancer. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol; 2006 Dec;60(3):227-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Old and new perspectives in the management of high-risk, locally advanced or recurrent, and metastatic vulvar cancer.
  • During the last decades there has been a continuing evolution in the surgical approach of squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva that has been traditionally treated with radical vulvectomy and bilateral inguinal-femoral lymphadenectomy.
  • Patients with T1 tumour are usually treated with radical local excision, if the lesion is unifocal and the remainder of the vulva is normal.
  • Modifications of the surgical technique of deep femoral lymphadenectomy and the mapping of sentinel node can offer new interesting therapeutic perspectives.
  • Locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva has been long surgically treated with en-block radical vulvectomy and bilateral inguinal-femoral lymphadenectomy plus partial resection of urethra, vagina or anum, or by exenteration, with severe postsurgical complications, poor quality of life, and unsatisfactory survival rates.
  • 5-Fluorouracil [5-FU] or 5-FU- and cisplatin-based chemotherapy concurrent with irradiation followed by tailored surgery represents an attractive therapeutic option for advanced disease, planned to avoid such ultra-radical surgical procedures and, hopefully, to improve patient outcome.
  • Chemotherapy has also been used in neoadjuvant setting, with contrasting and generally unsatisfactory results, and in palliative treatment of patients with distant metastases.
  • Surgery is the primary treatment also for vulvar malignancies other than squamous cell carcinoma, whereas the clinical usefulness of adjuvant irradiation or chemotherapy is still to be defined.
  • Primary chemoradiation can be also used for advanced carcinoma of the Bartholin gland or for advanced adenocarcinoma associated with extramammary Paget's disease.
  • The drugs used for chemotherapy of metastatic melanomas or sarcomas of the vulva are the same employed for the melanomas or sarcomas developed in other sites.
  • [MeSH-major] Vulvar Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Recurrence

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  • (PMID = 16945551.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8428
  • [Journal-full-title] Critical reviews in oncology/hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Number-of-references] 167
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14. Temkin SM, Hellman M, Lee YC, Abulafia O: Surgical resection of vulvar metastases of endometrial cancer: a presentation of two cases. J Low Genit Tract Dis; 2007 Apr;11(2):118-21
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  • [Title] Surgical resection of vulvar metastases of endometrial cancer: a presentation of two cases.
  • Whereas pelvic recurrence is most common in patients who do not receive postoperative adjuvant radiation therapy, distant metastases predominate among patients who received postoperative radiation therapy.
  • Surgical resection of disease may be possible, therapeutic and even curative, in select patients with isolated cancer recurrence.
  • CASE 1: A 63-year-old patient presented 7 years after treatment of endometrial cancer with a vulvar lesion and groin mass.
  • Adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy were prescribed leading to a complete clinical response.
  • CASE 2: An 83-year-old patient with a history of a hysterectomy for endometrial cancer and radiation therapy for a vaginal vault recurrence presented with an exophytic labial mass.
  • After radical wide excision of her vulvar mass and bilateral groin dissection, final pathology revealed that the mass was consistent with recurrent endometrial cancer.
  • This patient remains without evidence of disease 18 months after treatment of disease recurrence.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Uncommon sites of recurrence of endometrial cancer may include the vulva.
  • These rare metastases may be amenable to surgical resection with adjuvant therapy as indicated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures. Vulvar Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17415118.001).
  • [ISSN] 1089-2591
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of lower genital tract disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Low Genit Tract Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Tanaka H, Umekawa T, Nagao K, Ishihara A, Toyoda N: Adenocarcinoma of mammary-like glands in the vulva successfully treated by weekly paclitaxel. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2005 May-Jun;15(3):568-71
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  • [Title] Adenocarcinoma of mammary-like glands in the vulva successfully treated by weekly paclitaxel.
  • Histologic examination showed the same morphologic findings as scirrhus type of primary breast carcinoma.
  • This disease was diagnosed as an adenocarcinoma arising in mammary-like glands of the vulva.
  • We administered five courses of weekly paclitaxel chemotherapy, which achieved a partial response.
  • In our case, the fine-needle aspiration cytology was a rapid and minimally invasive method of diagnosis, and the findings were extremely similar to those of the scirrhus type of primary breast carcinoma.
  • Rapid and accurate diagnosis made with this technique might contribute to a good prognosis in the early-staged cases.
  • Weekly paclitaxel chemotherapy may be one of the safe and effective treatments for this disease with distant metastases, even in extremely aged patients (over 80 years).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use. Vulvar Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 15882189.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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16. Sasaki T, Sugiyama T, Nanjo H, Hoshi N, Murakami M, Sugita A, Takahashi M, Kawamura K, Ono I, Masuda H: Endometrioid adenocarcinoma arising from adenomyosis: report and immunohistochemical analysis of an unusual case. Pathol Int; 2001 Apr;51(4):308-13
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  • [Title] Endometrioid adenocarcinoma arising from adenomyosis: report and immunohistochemical analysis of an unusual case.
  • A case of endometrioid adenocarcinoma arising from adenomyosis is reported.
  • The patient was a 53-year-old woman who complained of vulvar itching.
  • Smear cytology of the endometrium revealed adenocarcinoma.
  • Semiradical total hysterectomy and bilateral adnexectomy were performed, followed by chemotherapy.
  • Histologically, the lesion in the uterine fundus was composed mostly of adenocarcinoma with stromal invasion.
  • There were many adenomyotic foci in and around the carcinoma, including some showing transition to adenocarcinoma.
  • There was no malignant finding in the normally situated endometrium.
  • The carcinoma was, therefore, considered to be endometrioid adenocarcinoma arising from adenomyosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / etiology. Endometrial Neoplasms / etiology. Endometriosis / complications

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  • (PMID = 11350616.001).
  • [ISSN] 1320-5463
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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17. Bafna UD, Devi UM, Naik KA, Hazra S, Sushma N, Babu N: Carcinoma of the vulva: a retrospective review of 37 cases at a regional cancer centre in South India. J Obstet Gynaecol; 2004 Jun;24(4):403-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Carcinoma of the vulva: a retrospective review of 37 cases at a regional cancer centre in South India.
  • A retrospective review of 37 cases of carcinoma of the vulva presenting between 1996 and 2000 has been carried out.
  • The surgical treatment consisted of wide excision in one case, radical vulvectomy (RV) in six cases, radical vulvectomy and bilateral groin node dissection (RV+BGND) in 25 cases and radical vulvectomy and unilateral groin node dissection in one case.
  • Nine of these 33 women also received adjuvant chemotherapy preoperatively in the hope of achieving better tumour-free surgical margins.
  • One case received neoadjuvant radiotherapy to the vulva and pelvis followed by RV+BGND, which revealed no residual tumour.
  • The role of neoadjuvant chemotherapy as compared to neoadjuvant radiotherapy, in locally advanced tumours, needs to be explored further.
  • [MeSH-major] Vulvar Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma / etiology. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. India / epidemiology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Medical Records. Medically Underserved Area. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Palliative Care. Regional Medical Programs. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 15203581.001).
  • [ISSN] 0144-3615
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology : the journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Obstet Gynaecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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18. Piura B, Gemer O, Rabinovich A, Yanai-Inbar I: Primary breast carcinoma of the vulva: case report and review of literature. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2002;23(1):21-4
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  • [Title] Primary breast carcinoma of the vulva: case report and review of literature.
  • The occurrence of ectopic breast tissue within the vulva is uncommon and the development of breast carcinoma within vulvar ectopic breast tissue is very rare.
  • To date, only 12 cases of primary vulvar breast carcinoma have previously been reported in the English literature.
  • This paper presents the 13th reported case of primary breast carcinoma of the vulva.
  • The patient presented with a vulvar ulcerated lump and the diagnosis was based on a morphologic pattern consistent with breast carcinoma and the presence of estrogen and progesterone receptors.
  • Adjuvant therapy consisted of systemic chemotherapy (4 cycles of adriamycin and cyclophosphamide followed by 4 cycles of paclitaxel) and pelvic radiotherapy.
  • It is concluded that the management of primary breast carcinoma of the vulva should be modeled after that for primary carcinoma of the orthotopic breast with primary surgery followed by systemic chemotherapy and pelvic radiotherapy.
  • Chemotherapy should be similar to that employed for breast carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Breast. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Choristoma / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy, Needle. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11876386.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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19. Kiyohara T, Kumakiri M, Kawami K, Kouraba S, Takeuchi A, Sawai T, Lao LM, Ansai S, Hashimoto K: Apocrine carcinoma of the vulva in a band-like arrangement with inflammatory and telangiectatic metastasis via local lymphatic channels. Int J Dermatol; 2003 Jan;42(1):71-4
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  • [Title] Apocrine carcinoma of the vulva in a band-like arrangement with inflammatory and telangiectatic metastasis via local lymphatic channels.
  • BACKGROUND: Primary adenocarcinomas of the vulva have been classified as sweat gland carcinomas, extramammary Paget's disease, and primary breast carcinomas of the vulva.
  • METHODS: We describe a 72-year-old Japanese woman with apocrine carcinoma of the vulva and local lymphatic metastasis.
  • Microscopic examination revealed a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma with signet ring cells.
  • The patient died in spite of combination chemotherapy and irradiation therapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We report a rare case of apocrine carcinoma of the vulva in a band-like arrangement with local lymphatic metastasis which showed the clinical and histopathologic characteristics of inflammatory and telangiectatic carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Sweat Glands / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biopsy, Needle. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis. Palliative Care / methods. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Risk Assessment

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  • (PMID = 12581149.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-9059
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Manchana T, Ittiwut C, Mutirangura A, Kavanagh JJ: Targeted therapies for rare gynaecological cancers. Lancet Oncol; 2010 Jul;11(7):685-93
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Targeted therapies for rare gynaecological cancers.
  • Some gynaecological cancers are uncommon, such as sex cord-stromal tumours, malignant germ-cell tumours, vulvar carcinoma, melanoma of the female genital tract, clear-cell carcinoma of the ovary and endometrium, neuroendocrine tumours of the cervix, and gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.
  • Despite aggressive treatment, some cancers recur or respond poorly to therapy.
  • Comprehensive knowledge of the molecular biology of each cancer might help with development of novel treatments that maximise efficacy and minimise toxic effects.
  • Targeted therapy is a new treatment strategy that has been investigated in various tumours in clinical and laboratory settings.
  • Novel targeted agents either alone or in combination with other treatments offer promising therapeutic options.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Drug Delivery Systems / trends. Genital Neoplasms, Female / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / drug therapy. Female. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / drug therapy. Humans. Melanoma / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Neuroendocrine Tumors / drug therapy. Pregnancy. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / drug therapy. Vulvar Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20362508.001).
  • [ISSN] 1474-5488
  • [Journal-full-title] The Lancet. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lancet Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 77
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21. Sendagorta E, Herranz P, Feito M, Ramírez P, Floristán U, Feltes R, Benito DM, Casado M: Successful treatment of three cases of primary extramammary Paget's disease of the vulva with Imiquimod--proposal of a therapeutic schedule. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2010 Apr;24(4):490-2
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  • [Title] Successful treatment of three cases of primary extramammary Paget's disease of the vulva with Imiquimod--proposal of a therapeutic schedule.
  • BACKGROUND/AIM: Extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD) is an intraepidermal adenocarcinoma of apocrine gland-bearing skin.
  • Although surgery remains the mainstay of treatment, loss of tissue function and high recurrence rates have been reported.
  • Recently, topical Imiquimod has been shown as a safe and effective treatment option for extramammary Paget's disease.
  • METHODS: Three patients diagnosed of EMPD of the vulva were treated with a daily application of 5% Imiquimod cream for three weeks, followed by an every other day application for an additional three weeks.
  • CONCLUSION: Based on our results, we consider that Imiquimod cream is a safe and effective therapeutic option for the treatment of vulvar EMPD.
  • These promising results warrant further studies to determine the real efficacy and safety of Imiquimod 5% cream for the treatment of this uncommon disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Paget Disease, Extramammary / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Vulvar Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Remission Induction

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  • (PMID = 19840203.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-3083
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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22. Parker LP, Parker JR, Bodurka-Bevers D, Deavers M, Bevers MW, Shen-Gunther J, Gershenson DM: Paget's disease of the vulva: pathology, pattern of involvement, and prognosis. Gynecol Oncol; 2000 Apr;77(1):183-9
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  • [Title] Paget's disease of the vulva: pathology, pattern of involvement, and prognosis.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine prognostic factors and risk factors for recurrence in patients with Paget's disease of the vulva.
  • METHODS: The medical records of 76 patients with a diagnosis of Paget's disease of the vulva were retrospectively reviewed.
  • The diagnosis in each case was confirmed by reviewing the pathology.
  • Patients were then divided into four groups by diagnosis: intraepithelial Paget's disease (IEP) (n = 46), invasive Paget's disease (IP) (n = 9), intraepithelial Paget's disease with underlying adenocarcinoma (IEPUA) (n = 13), and intraepithelial Paget's disease with a coexisting cancer (CCA) (n = 8).
  • Comorbid conditions, location of disease, pathologic diagnosis, method of treatment, margin status, and current status of the patient were evaluated.
  • RESULTS: A diagnosis of IEPUA, IP, or CCA predicted a poor survival (P = 0. 0017).
  • Patients who had received chemotherapy or radiation as treatment had a poor survival (P < 0.0001 and 0.0002).
  • When death from all causes was considered, patients treated with wide local excision (WLE) had a significantly longer survival than patients treated with other more radical treatments (P = 0.02).
  • Risk factors for recurrence included treatment with WLE (P = 0.004).
  • Location of Paget's disease is important for prognosis; and patients with clitoral Paget's disease may require more aggressive treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Paget Disease, Extramammary / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Clitoris / pathology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis. Risk Factors. Survival Analysis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 Academic Press.
  • (PMID = 10739709.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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23. Levgur M: Estrogen and combined hormone therapy for women after genital malignancies: a review. J Reprod Med; 2004 Oct;49(10):837-48
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  • [Title] Estrogen and combined hormone therapy for women after genital malignancies: a review.
  • This review summarizes information regarding estrogen therapy (ET) and hormone therapy (HT) for women with endometrial cancer as well as other gynecologic malignancies.
  • Of the 228 patients who received estrogen therapy, 3.5% developed recurrences as opposed to 16.5% among the 309 women receiving no therapy.
  • It is agreed, however, that the histologic type of the tumor is an important factor to consider prior to the initiation of such therapy.
  • Utilizing estrogen compounds has no bearing on risks of later developing squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix, or tubal, vulvar or vaginal cancer.
  • A previous history of cervical adenocarcinoma, however, definitely prohibits the use of these hormonal regimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Genital Neoplasms, Female / pathology. Genital Neoplasms, Female / therapy. Hormone Replacement Therapy / adverse effects. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / chemically induced
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Case-Control Studies. Continuity of Patient Care. Drug Therapy, Combination. Estrogen Replacement Therapy / adverse effects. Estrogen Replacement Therapy / methods. Female. Humans. Incidence. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Risk Assessment. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15568410.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-7758
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of reproductive medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Reprod Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 75
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24. Brummer O, Stegner HE, Böhmer G, Kühnle H, Petry KU: HER-2/neu expression in Paget disease of the vulva and the female breast. Gynecol Oncol; 2004 Nov;95(2):336-40
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  • [Title] HER-2/neu expression in Paget disease of the vulva and the female breast.
  • OBJECTIVES: Paget disease of the vulva is a rare lesion that accounts for <1% of vulva neoplasms.
  • Furthermore, a high recurrence rate of 30% after surgical therapy is observed.
  • This study aims to search for therapeutic strategies for recurrent Paget disease, which are less mutilating and less aggressive than reexcision, x-ray therapy, or chemotherapy.
  • FDA for the treatment of patients with HER-2/neu-positive metastatic breast carcinomas.
  • METHODS: Using HercepTest, we analyzed HER-2/neu overexpression in seven noninvasive Paget lesions, two invasive lesions, and one Paget disease of the vulva with underlying adenocarcinoma.
  • One noninvasive and one with underlying adenocarcinoma stained negatively.
  • CONCLUSION: Using HercepTest as a standardized detection system, overexpression of HER-2/neu can be demonstrated in a majority of both noninvasive and invasive Paget disease of the vulva.
  • The use of Trastuzumab should be considered for the treatment of patients with recurrent Paget disease of the vulva with overexpression of HER-2/neu.
  • [MeSH-major] Paget Disease, Extramammary / metabolism. Paget's Disease, Mammary / metabolism. Receptor, ErbB-2 / biosynthesis. Vulvar Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / metabolism. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal / pathology. Female. Humans. Paraffin Embedding

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  • (PMID = 15491754.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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25. Diaz A, Batista AE, Montero E: Interferon-alpha conditioned sensitivity to an anti-epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody in a human lung cancer cell line with intermediate expression of the receptor. J Interferon Cytokine Res; 2009 Aug;29(8):433-40
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  • Targeted therapy to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) seems to be related to its expression level on tumor cells.
  • H125, a lung adenosquamous carcinoma, and A431, a vulvar epidermoid carcinoma, cell lines express intermediate and high levels of EGFR, respectively, whereas MDA MB231, a breast adenocarcinoma cell line expresses undetectable levels of EGFR measured by flow cytometry/FACS.
  • Noteworthy, the combined treatment did not modify the complement-mediated cytotoxicity of the antibody although the antiproliferative activity of nimotuzumab in H125 cells in vitro increased when an IFN-alpha-conditioning treatment was used.
  • In conclusion, this study may provide insights about the rational use of EGFR inhibitors into the immunopharmacological management of targeted therapies including the IFN-alpha for lung cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / pharmacology. Epithelial Cells / immunology. Growth Inhibitors / metabolism. Immunologic Factors / pharmacology. Immunotherapy. Interferon-alpha / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / immunology. Lung Neoplasms / therapy. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Breast Neoplasms / immunology. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / therapy. Cell Growth Processes / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Separation. Complement System Proteins / metabolism. Cytotoxicity, Immunologic / drug effects. Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic. Drug Synergism. Female. Flow Cytometry. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Vulvar Neoplasms / immunology. Vulvar Neoplasms / metabolism. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19514842.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-7465
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of interferon & cytokine research : the official journal of the International Society for Interferon and Cytokine Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Interferon Cytokine Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Growth Inhibitors; 0 / Immunologic Factors; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / nimotuzumab; 9007-36-7 / Complement System Proteins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
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