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1. Benedetti-Panici P, Zullo MA, Plotti F, Manci N, Muzii L, Angioli R: Long-term bladder function in patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and type 3-4 radical hysterectomy. Cancer; 2004 May 15;100(10):2110-7
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  • [Title] Long-term bladder function in patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and type 3-4 radical hysterectomy.
  • BACKGROUND: The objective of the current study was to evaluate the incidence of long-term bladder dysfunction after type 3-4 radical hysterectomy in patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT).
  • METHODS: A case-control study was conducted to evaluate the occurrence of long-term bladder dysfunction in 76 patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Stage IB-IIA (> 4 cm), Stage IIB, and Stage III cervical carcinoma who underwent type 3-4 radical hysterectomy after NACT.
  • Among patients who underwent type 4 radical hysterectomy, the extent of caudal resection of rectovaginal ligaments and vaginal tissue was found to be more strongly associated with bladder dysfunction than was the extent of lateral parametrial resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Hysterectomy. Urinary Bladder / physiopathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / physiopathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Case-Control Studies. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Time Factors. Urinary Incontinence, Stress / etiology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2004 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 15139052.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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2. Monk BJ, Sill MW, Burger RA, Gray HJ, Buekers TE, Roman LD: Phase II trial of bevacizumab in the treatment of persistent or recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix: a gynecologic oncology group study. J Clin Oncol; 2009 Mar 1;27(7):1069-74
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  • [Title] Phase II trial of bevacizumab in the treatment of persistent or recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix: a gynecologic oncology group study.
  • PURPOSE: Vascular endothelial growth factor is a key promoter of tumor progression in cervical carcinoma.
  • Treatment consisted of bevacizumab 15 mg/kg intravenously every 21 days until disease progression or prohibitive toxicity.
  • Grade 3 or 4 adverse events at least possibly related to bevacizumab included hypertension (n = 7), thrombo-embolism (n = 5), GI (n = 4), anemia (n = 2), other cardiovascular (n = 2), vaginal bleeding (n = 1), neutropenia (n = 1), and fistula (n = 1).
  • The median PFS and overall survival times were 3.40 months (95% CI, 2.53 to 4.53 months) and 7.29 months (95% CI, 6.11 to 10.41 months), respectively.
  • CONCLUSION Bevacizumab seems to be well tolerated and active in the second- and third-line treatment of patients with recurrent cervical cancer and merits phase III investigation.

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  • (PMID = 19139430.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 27469; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA027469; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA037517; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 37517; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K23 CA087558; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 87558
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2667811
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3. Tanaka H, Masuda H, Komai Y, Yokoyama M, Iwai A, Numao N, Sakai Y, Saito K, Fujii Y, Kobayashi T, Kawakami S, Kihara K: [Primary adenocarcinoma of the female urethra treated by multimodal therapy]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2009 Jan;55(1):43-6

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  • [Title] [Primary adenocarcinoma of the female urethra treated by multimodal therapy].
  • Physical examination revealed a firm mass on the anterior vaginal wall.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging showed a tumor surrounding the urethra, which invaded to the vesical triangle and the anterior vaginal wall.
  • Serum levels of carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 were elevated, but squamous cell carcinoma antigen and prostate specific antigen were within normal limits.
  • First, the patient received local chemoradiotherapy and systemic chemotherapy using a fluoropyrimidine drug TS-1 and cisplatin.
  • The tumor markers declined to within normal limits after this preoperative therapy.
  • Then she underwent total cysto-urethrectomy with anterior vaginal wall resection, pelvic lymphadenectomy, and urinary diversion with ureterocutaneous fistula.
  • Histopathological examination of the surgical specimen showed mutinous adenocarcinoma invading to the vesical triangle and the anterior vaginal wall.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / therapy. Urethral Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / therapy. Vaginal Neoplasms / pathology. Vaginal Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19227213.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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4. Shen K, Lang JH, Yang JX, Chen YL, Xiang Y, Hua KQ, Huang HF, Pan LY, Wu M, Feng YJ: [Analysis of 16 patients with early cervical cancer treated by laparoscopic vaginal radical trachelectomy]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi; 2006 Apr;41(4):222-5
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

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  • [Title] [Analysis of 16 patients with early cervical cancer treated by laparoscopic vaginal radical trachelectomy].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the therapeutic efficacies of preserving fertility treatment in patients with early cervical cancer.
  • METHODS: Sixteen patients with early cervical cancer treated by laparoscopic vaginal radical trachelectomy and pre- or postoperative chemotherapy were analyzed retrospectively, focusing on the treatment indication and management of high risk patients.
  • Fifteen patients had squamous cell carcinoma and 1 had adenosquamous cell carcinoma.
  • Mean operative time was 3 hours and 12 minutes, and mean blood loss was 320 ml.
  • With mean follow-up time of 13 months, one patient had recurrence (6%), and no one became pregnant.
  • CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to preserve fertility in the treatment of patients with early cervical cancer, but treatment indication should be considered carefully.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Fertility. Laparoscopy / methods. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Therapy / methods. Female. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures / methods. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Postoperative Care. Preoperative Care. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16759453.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-567X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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5. Dalrymple JL, Russell AH, Lee SW, Scudder SA, Leiserowitz GS, Kinney WK, Smith LH: Chemoradiation for primary invasive squamous carcinoma of the vagina. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2004 Jan-Feb;14(1):110-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Chemoradiation for primary invasive squamous carcinoma of the vagina.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report outcomes for patients with primary, invasive, squamous carcinoma of the vagina treated with chemoradiation.
  • METHODS: Between 1986 and 1996, 14 patients were treated with primary therapy consisting of synchronous radiation and chemotherapy.
  • Patients were judged not to be surgical candidates based on tumor size, location, and concerns related to urinary, bowel, or sexual function.
  • Chemotherapy consisted of 5-fluorouracil alone (seven patients), or with cisplatin (six patients) or mitomycin-C (one patient).
  • Four patients died of intercurrent illness (46, 92, 104, 109 months) and nine are alive and cancer-free 74-168 months after treatment (median 100 months).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Radiation with synchronous chemotherapy is an effective treatment for squamous carcinoma of the vagina.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Vaginal Neoplasms / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brachytherapy. California / epidemiology. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Longitudinal Studies. Medical Records. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Registries. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 14764038.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Aoki Y, Tomita M, Sato T, Watanabe M, Kase H, Fujita K, Kurata H, Tanaka K: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for patients younger than 50 years with high-risk squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Gynecol Oncol; 2001 Nov;83(2):263-7
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  • [Title] Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for patients younger than 50 years with high-risk squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the response rate and toxicity and to improve survival, neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) was utilized in patients younger than 50 years with locally advanced cervical squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Eligibility included patients with previously untreated stage IB or IIA with deep stromal invasion assessed by magnetic resonance imaging or bulky tumor or IIB squamous cell carcinoma who were younger than 50 years.
  • Treatment was repeated every 3 weeks for a total of two cycles.
  • We used 21 patients who underwent radical hysterectomy and postoperative radiation therapy as a nonrandomized control group.
  • Two patients required discontinuation of PVP treatment after one administration because of grade 4 neutropenia and thrombocytopenia, and decreased carbon monoxide diffusion capacity, respectively.
  • No patients had positive parametrial and vaginal margins.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Peplomycin / administration & dosage. Peplomycin / adverse effects. Risk Factors. Vinblastine / administration & dosage. Vinblastine / adverse effects


7. Aggarwal S, Goel G, Banerji N, Khullar H: Sustained complete remission with taxane-based chemotherapy in stage IVB primary vaginal squamous cell carcinoma. Hematol Oncol Stem Cell Ther; 2009;2(2):362-3
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  • [Title] Sustained complete remission with taxane-based chemotherapy in stage IVB primary vaginal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Bridged Compounds / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Taxoids / therapeutic use. Vaginal Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Remission Induction. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20118062.001).
  • [ISSN] 1658-3876
  • [Journal-full-title] Hematology/oncology and stem cell therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hematol Oncol Stem Cell Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Bridged Compounds; 0 / Taxoids; 1605-68-1 / taxane
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8. Linghu H, Xu XR, Mei YY, Tang JY, Tang LD, Sun T: Response of early stage bulky cervical squamous carcinoma to preoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. Chin Med Sci J; 2004 Jun;19(2):116-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Response of early stage bulky cervical squamous carcinoma to preoperative adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential role of preoperative adjuvant chemotherapy on early stage cervical squamous carcinoma with bulky tumor.
  • METHODS: One hundred and forty-five patients with cervical squamous cancer stages Ib-IIa were investigated, among which 17 patients with bulky tumors (> or = 4 cm) were managed by cisplatin-based chemotherapy for 1-2 courses followed by radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy (BC group).
  • The change of tumor size, pelvic lymph nodes metastasis, cervical wall invasion, the involvement of surgical specimen margin, and the blood loss during operation were assessed after operation and compared with those in 51 patients with bulky tumors (BN group) and 77 patients with small local tumors (S group) who underwent surgery directly. RESULTS:.
  • (1) The tumor size of 17 patients in BC group were decreased in various degrees after chemotherapy, with 13 patients of clinical effectiveness (76.47%).
  • And the responsiveness pertained to neither histological differentiation nor size of local tumors. (2) Post-operative histology has showed that patients in BC and BN group have higher incidence of lymph node metastasis and deep cervical infiltration (5/68 and 3/68, respectively) than in S group (1/77 and 1/77, respectively) while with no statistical significance. (3) Blood loss during operation in BC group was less than BN and S group. (4) Seventeen patients, including those underwent surgeries of vaginal prolongation and/or ovarian transposition, appeared disease-free survival within the follow-up time.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Most of patients with bulky early stage cervical squamous carcinoma are sensitive to cisplatin-based chemotherapy, which could greatly reduce local tumor size and in turn facilitate the following operation by well controlling blood loss.

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  • (PMID = 15250247.001).
  • [ISSN] 1001-9294
  • [Journal-full-title] Chinese medical sciences journal = Chung-kuo i hsueh k'o hsueh tsa chih
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chin. Med. Sci. J.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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9. Khanna N, Dalby R, Tan M, Arnold S, Stern J, Frazer N: Phase I/II clinical safety studies of terameprocol vaginal ointment. Gynecol Oncol; 2007 Dec;107(3):554-62
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  • [Title] Phase I/II clinical safety studies of terameprocol vaginal ointment.
  • This trial was designed to define the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicity and determine the pharmacokinetic profiles of intravaginal terameprocol in women with HPV-linked cervical squamous intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • There were no serious adverse events (SAEs) and possible treatment-related Adverse Events (AEs) reported were mild and self-limiting.
  • There was no detectable absorption of terameprocol from the vaginal ointment application.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Terameprocol in 1% and 2% vaginal ointment use in Phase I/II trials with women with HPV-linked cervical intraepithelial neoplasia has an excellent safety profile, no SAEs reported and mild, self-limiting treatment-related AEs.
  • These data support the continued evaluation of terameprocol in in vitro and animal efficacy models followed by definitive human Phase II clinical trials in CIN.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / drug therapy. Masoprocol / analogs & derivatives. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. CDC2-CDC28 Kinases / biosynthesis. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / biosynthesis. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. Neoplasm Staging. Ointments. Papillomaviridae / classification. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Papillomavirus Infections / virology

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  • (PMID = 17905420.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BIRC5 protein, human; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Ointments; 53YET703F2 / terameprocol; 7BO8G1BYQU / Masoprocol; EC 2.7.11.22 / CDC2-CDC28 Kinases
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10. Silver SA, Tavassoli FA: Glomus tumor arising in a mature teratoma of the ovary: report of a case simulating a metastasis from cervical squamous carcinoma. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2000 Sep;124(9):1373-5
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  • [Title] Glomus tumor arising in a mature teratoma of the ovary: report of a case simulating a metastasis from cervical squamous carcinoma.
  • Herein we report the case of a glomus tumor constituting the major component of a mature teratoma of the ovary.
  • This lesion represented an incidental finding in a 43-year-old woman who underwent bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy at the time of detection of locally recurrent squamous carcinoma of the cervix.
  • The glomus tumor was initially interpreted as a metastasis due to its superficial morphologic resemblance to the recurrent carcinoma in the vagina.
  • To our knowledge, no similar tumor has been described in the ovary or in teratomas at any other site.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Glomus Tumor / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Teratoma / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Immunohistochemistry. Lymph Node Excision. Microscopy, Electron. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Ovariectomy. Vaginal Neoplasms / pathology. Vaginal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 10975942.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-9985
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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11. Mizuno K, Kidokoro K, Miyazaki K, Yoshida K, Nakagawa A, Mizuno M, Suzuki S, Kuno N, Furuhashi M, Ishizuka T, Ishikawa K: [Neoadjuvant chemotherapy with intra-arterial infusion in the treatment of advanced cervical cancer]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2005 Jun;32(6):815-9
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  • [Title] [Neoadjuvant chemotherapy with intra-arterial infusion in the treatment of advanced cervical cancer].
  • Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) with intra-arterial infusion was performed in the treatment for 53 patients with advanced cervical squamous cell carcinoma.
  • The response to therapy was observed in 45 of all patients (84.9%) clinically, and 36 of 42 patients (85.7%) pathologically.
  • Cancer cells disappeared in 11.9% of patients with cervical invasion, 69.2% with vaginal wall invasion and 39.4% with parametrium invasion after NAG.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Hysterectomy. Lymph Node Excision. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Infusions, Intra-Arterial. Middle Aged. Mitomycin / administration & dosage. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Survival Rate. Vincristine / administration & dosage


12. Adewuyi SA, Shittu OS, Rafindadi AH, Zayyan MS, Samaila MO, Oguntayo AO: Cisplatin chemotherapy for haemostasis in bleeding cervical cancer: experience from a resource-poor setting. Niger Postgrad Med J; 2010 Jun;17(2):122-7
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  • [Title] Cisplatin chemotherapy for haemostasis in bleeding cervical cancer: experience from a resource-poor setting.
  • The number of patients requiring radiotherapy for various malignancies is beyond the available facilities and expertise leading to long waiting time and disease progression with its attendant sequelae.
  • This is the basis of using other orthodox treatment modalities as first line.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between January 2006 and December 2007, 116 patients with histologically confirmed cervical cancer with vaginal bleeding as the predominant symptom were treated.
  • Patients were interviewed with a structured pro forma on a 3-weekly basis during chemotherapy schedules to assess and evaluate per vaginal bleeding and discharge.
  • Dose of chemotherapy was 70 mg/m² every 3 weeks.
  • 62 patients were having per vagina bleeding for more than 6 months before commencement of chemotherapy (range 1-60 months).
  • 49 patients had blood transfusion before chemotherapy, average of 2.7 pints of blood transfused per patient.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma is the commonest histology type followed by adenocarcinoma with 95 and 16 patients respectively.
  • 81 patients had complete cessation of per vagina bleeding with 69 having complete cessation on or before 4th course of chemotherapy (9th week) and complete cessation of per vagina discharges was seen in 52 patients.
  • 115 patients had a performance status KPS of below 80 prior to chemotherapy, and after completing 6 cycles, 100 patients had KPS of 80 and above.
  • CONCLUSION: In resource-poor setting, Cisplatin based chemotherapy can be used by medical, gynaecological oncologists and general practitioners to control vaginal bleeding and improve the quality of life of patients pending radiotherapy.
  • For optimal treatment with chemoradiotherapy, government and non-governmental agencies must do all it takes to remedy the problems of shortage of resources.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Hemostasis / drug effects. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Hemorrhage / drug therapy. Hemorrhage / etiology. Humans. Karnofsky Performance Status. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Nigeria


13. Maneo A, Colombo A, Landoni F, Colombo A, Villa A, Mangioni C: [Treatment of stage IIIB cervical carcinoma. A comparison between radiotherapy, concurrent chemo-radiotherapy and neoadjuvant chemotherapy]. Minerva Ginecol; 2005 Apr;57(2):141-52
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  • [Title] [Treatment of stage IIIB cervical carcinoma. A comparison between radiotherapy, concurrent chemo-radiotherapy and neoadjuvant chemotherapy].
  • [Transliterated title] Trattamento del carcinoma della cervice uterina stadio IIIB. Confronto tra radioterapia, chemio-radioterapia concomitante e chemioterapia neoadiuvante.
  • AIM: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of radiation, concomitant chemoradiation and primary chemotherapy in the treatment of FIGO stage IIIB cervical carcinoma.
  • Exclusive radiotherapy was administered in 30 cases (32%), radiotherapy and radiosensitizing chemotherapy in 20 cases (21%) and primary chemotherapy in 44 cases (47%); among the latter patients 2 (4%) developed neoplastic progression, 28 (64%) underwent surgery and 14 (32%) underwent radiotherapy.
  • Total dose to point A greater than 60 Gy and the use of brachyradiotherapy are suggestive for a better outcome among women treated with radiation therapy (5-year overall survival 31% versus 18%, p=0.8 and 33% versus 23%, p=0.4, respectively).
  • Although not statistically significant, vaginal involvement is a relevant factor influencing survival (p=0.1).
  • Women treated with concomitant chemoradiation showed a better 5-year disease-free survival (45%) when compared to the other treatment groups (radiation alone 27%, primary chemotherapy 30%, p=0.4).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Primary chemotherapy, although useful to allow subsequent surgery, does not yield a survival advantage with respect to the irradiated patients.
  • Among these, concomitant radiosensitizing chemotherapy is likely to improve the disease-free survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / drug therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Brachytherapy / methods. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Radiation Dosage. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 15940074.001).
  • [ISSN] 0026-4784
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva ginecologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Ginecol
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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14. Huguet F, Cojocariu OM, Levy P, Lefranc JP, Darai E, Jannet D, Ansquer Y, Lhuillier PE, Benifla JL, Seince N, Touboul E: Preoperative concurrent radiation therapy and chemotherapy for bulky stage IB2, IIA, and IIB carcinoma of the uterine cervix with proximal parametrial invasion. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2008 Dec 1;72(5):1508-15
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  • [Title] Preoperative concurrent radiation therapy and chemotherapy for bulky stage IB2, IIA, and IIB carcinoma of the uterine cervix with proximal parametrial invasion.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate toxicity, local tumor control, and survival after preoperative chemoradiation for operable bulky cervical carcinoma.
  • Treatment consisted of preoperative external beam pelvic radiation therapy (EBRT) and concomitant chemotherapy (CT) during the first and fourth weeks of radiation combining 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin.
  • The pelvic radiation dose was 40.5 Gy over 4.5 weeks.
  • EBRT was followed by low-dose rate uterovaginal brachytherapy with a total dose of 20 Gy in 62 patients.
  • Thirty patients who had not received preoperative uterovaginal brachytherapy underwent postoperative low-dose-rate vaginal brachytherapy at a dose of 20 Gy.
  • RESULTS: Pathologic residual tumor was observed in 43 patients.
  • Pathologic residual cervical tumor was the single independent factor decreasing the probability of DFS (p = 0.020).
  • [MeSH-major] Brachytherapy / methods. Hysterectomy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / drug therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Combined Modality Therapy. Endometrium / pathology. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Preoperative Care. Recurrence. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18676093.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Lilic V, Lilic G, Filipovic S, Visnjic M, Zivadinovic R: Primary carcinoma of the vagina. J BUON; 2010 Apr-Jun;15(2):241-7
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  • In this paper we reviewed the risk factors for primary carcinoma of the vagina (PCV), diagnostic and therapeutic modalities, and principles leading to rational decision-making in the individualized management of vaginal carcinoma patients.
  • Histopathologically, most common are squamous cell carcinoma (80-90%) and adenocarcinoma (4-10%).
  • The leading risk factor for vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN) and subsequent squamous cell vaginal carcinoma is long-lasting infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16.
  • Prognosis of the disease depends on several factors, the most important of which are age, histologic type, and tumor stage.
  • Due to its being a rare entity, there are still controversies as to the most optimal treatment.
  • Individualized treatment approaches have been increasingly used.
  • In most centres, standard treatment for this cancer is radiotherapy.
  • Some reports have shown that surgery might also be an option, while in some centres radiation is supplemented by cisplatin-based chemotherapy.
  • However, preservation of the vaginal function after treatment of invasive vaginal cancer is a rare phenomenon, both in the literature and from our own experience.
  • [MeSH-major] Vaginal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vaginal Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Incidence. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / pathology. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / surgery. Prognosis. Risk Factors. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 20658716.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J BUON
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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16. Wielgos M, Szymusik I, Banaszek A, Suchonska B, Kaminski P, Gadomska H, Bablok L: Cancer of the urinary bladder neovagina in a patient with Morris' syndrome. Onkologie; 2008 Feb;31(1-2):53-5
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  • BACKGROUND: Vaginal agenesis is a rare condition, therefore the incidence of a malignant transformation in the neovagina is extremely low.
  • The biopsy revealed a squamous cell carcinoma arising from the neovagina.
  • The patient underwent combined radio- and chemotherapy and was disqualified from surgical treatment because of the advanced stage of the disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Androgen-Insensitivity Syndrome / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Postoperative Complications / pathology. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures. Surgical Flaps / pathology. Urinary Bladder / pathology. Vagina / abnormalities. Vagina / surgery. Vaginal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Pelvis / pathology. Radioisotope Teletherapy. Syndrome


17. Luo LM, Huang HF, Pan LY, Shen K, Wu M, Xu L: [Clinical analysis of 42 cases of primary malignant tumor in vagina]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi; 2008 Dec;43(12):923-7
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  • [Title] [Clinical analysis of 42 cases of primary malignant tumor in vagina].
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical characters, treatment and prognosis of primary malignant tumor in vagina.
  • METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 42 patients diagnosed with primary malignant tumor in vagina in Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH) between Jan 1984 and Aug 2006 was performed.
  • RESULTS: Primary malignant tumor accounted for 0.98% (42/4286) in the total gynecological malignant tumors during that period in PUMCH.
  • Thirteen cases were squamous carcinoma, 13 cases were malignant melanoma, 8 cases were adenocarcinoma, 3 cases were yolk sac tumor and 5 cases were other types.
  • The majority of patients were treated with surgery combined with radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • The longest follow up was 10 years, with the median time of 2 years.
  • The 2-year survival rate of patients with squamous carcinoma was 46.8%, malignant melanoma 72.9%, adenocarcinoma 20.0% and patients with yolk sac tumor were all alive tumor-free after 6 - 10 years' follow up.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The prognosis of primary malignant tumor in vagina is affected by clinical stage and histological type.
  • As to malignant melanoma, radical surgery combined with chemotherapy and immunotherapy produce good effects.
  • Patients with yolk sac tumor can be cured only with chemotherapy.
  • As to other types, more treatment experiences are needed.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Vaginal Neoplasms / pathology. Vaginal Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hysterectomy / methods. Infant. Melanoma / mortality. Melanoma / pathology. Melanoma / surgery. Melanoma / therapy. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Vagina / pathology. Vagina / surgery. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19134332.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-567X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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18. Suprasert P, Srisomboon J, Charoenkwan K, Siriaree S, Cheewakriangkrai C, Kietpeerakool C, Phongnarisorn C, Sae-Teng J: Twelve years experience with radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy in early stage cervical cancer. J Obstet Gynaecol; 2010 Apr;30(3):294-8
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

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  • The most common histology was squamous cell carcinoma (67%) followed by adenocarcinoma (23%).
  • Pelvic nodes, parametrial and vaginal margin involvement were detected in 15.9%, 10.7% and 3.8% of the patients, respectively.
  • A total of 66.5% of patients underwent RHPL without adjuvant treatment; 12.1% received neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Stage IB2/IIA, non-squamous cell carcinoma, nodal involvement and positive vaginal margins were independent, significant, poor prognostic factors.
  • Stage IB2 and IIA, non-squamous cell carcinoma, nodal and vaginal involvement were independent adverse prognostic factors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Hysterectomy. Lymph Node Excision. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Connective Tissue / pathology. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20373935.001).
  • [ISSN] 1364-6893
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology : the journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Obstet Gynaecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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19. Morelli G, Pagni R, Mariani C, Campo G, Menchini-Fabris F, Minervini R, Minervini A: Glansectomy with split-thickness skin graft for the treatment of penile carcinoma. Int J Impot Res; 2009 Sep-Oct;21(5):311-4

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  • [Title] Glansectomy with split-thickness skin graft for the treatment of penile carcinoma.
  • Using our prospectively derived database, we identified 17 patients with squamous-cell carcinoma involving the glans penis, who were treated using organ-sparing surgery between March 2003 and January 2008.
  • All patients maintained their erectile function with good vaginal penetration starting from 3 months after surgery, with a range between 2 and 6 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Penile Neoplasms / surgery. Penis / surgery. Skin Transplantation / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Ejaculation / drug effects. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Orgasm / physiology. Postoperative Complications / pathology. Reoperation. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19458620.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5489
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of impotence research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Impot. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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20. Delpech Y, Haie-Meder C, Rey A, Zafrani Y, Uzan C, Gouy S, Pautier P, Lhommé C, Duvillard P, Castaigne D, Morice P: Para-aortic involvement and interest of para-aortic lymphadenectomy after chemoradiation therapy in patients with stage IB2 and II cervical carcinoma radiologically confined to the pelvic cavity. Ann Surg Oncol; 2007 Nov;14(11):3223-31
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  • [Title] Para-aortic involvement and interest of para-aortic lymphadenectomy after chemoradiation therapy in patients with stage IB2 and II cervical carcinoma radiologically confined to the pelvic cavity.
  • BACKGROUND: Pelvic radiation therapy with concomitant chemotherapy (PCRT) is the standard treatment of stage IB2/II cervical carcinoma.
  • The impact of concomitant chemotherapy on positive para-aortic nodes (PA+), however, remains unknown.
  • (1) stage IB2/II cervical carcinoma, (2) histological subtype: squamous cell, adenocarcinoma or an adenosquamous tumor, (3) exclusion of patients with radiological PA+ (CT scan/MRI), (4) pelvic external radiation therapy of 45 Gy with concomitant chemotherapy (cisplatin 40 mg/m2/week) + utero-vaginal brachytherapy, and (5) completion surgery after the end of PCRT including at least a para-aortic lymphadenectomy.
  • These important results suggest that detection of PA + at the time of completion surgery (after PCRT) is not beneficial for improving survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Lymph Node Excision. Neoplasm, Residual / surgery. Para-Aortic Bodies / pathology. Pelvic Neoplasms / therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / pathology. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. France / epidemiology. Humans. Laparoscopy. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate


21. Levgur M: Estrogen and combined hormone therapy for women after genital malignancies: a review. J Reprod Med; 2004 Oct;49(10):837-48
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  • [Title] Estrogen and combined hormone therapy for women after genital malignancies: a review.
  • This review summarizes information regarding estrogen therapy (ET) and hormone therapy (HT) for women with endometrial cancer as well as other gynecologic malignancies.
  • Of the 228 patients who received estrogen therapy, 3.5% developed recurrences as opposed to 16.5% among the 309 women receiving no therapy.
  • It is agreed, however, that the histologic type of the tumor is an important factor to consider prior to the initiation of such therapy.
  • Utilizing estrogen compounds has no bearing on risks of later developing squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix, or tubal, vulvar or vaginal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Genital Neoplasms, Female / pathology. Genital Neoplasms, Female / therapy. Hormone Replacement Therapy / adverse effects. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / chemically induced
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Case-Control Studies. Continuity of Patient Care. Drug Therapy, Combination. Estrogen Replacement Therapy / adverse effects. Estrogen Replacement Therapy / methods. Female. Humans. Incidence. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Risk Assessment. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15568410.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-7758
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of reproductive medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Reprod Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 75
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22. Kim HS, Park NH, Kang SB: Rare metastases of recurrent cervical cancer to the pericardium and abdominal muscle. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2008 Nov;278(5):479-82
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

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  • A 64-year-old woman with intermittent vaginal bleeding was referred under the clinical impression of cervical cancer.
  • During the post-operative follow-up period of 6 months, pericardial and abdominal muscular metastases were developed along with the symptoms of dry cough and dyspnea.
  • Although palliative radiation therapy and chemotherapy were performed for the control of the metastases, she expired due to cardiac failure 16 months after the operation.
  • Aggressive local and systemic treatments may provide significant palliation of associated symptoms.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Muscles. Abdominal Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Heart Neoplasms / secondary. Pericardium. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness


23. Pearl ML, Johnston CM, McMeekin DS: A phase II study of weekly docetaxel for patients with advanced or recurrent cancer of the cervix. Gynecol Obstet Invest; 2007;64(4):193-8
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  • Patients were allowed to receive chemosensitization and not more than one prior chemotherapy regimen excluding taxanes.
  • Docetaxel 35 mg/m2 was administered intravenously weekly for 3 weeks followed by 1 week off until disease progression or adverse effects prohibited further therapy.
  • The most frequent drug-related toxicities were anemia and fatigue.
  • One patient died of exsanguination from a known vaginal metastasis after completing her second cycle.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Taxoids / therapeutic use. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / mortality. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / mortality. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / mortality. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Middle Aged. Oklahoma. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome


24. Frank SJ, Deavers MT, Jhingran A, Bodurka DC, Eifel PJ: Primary adenocarcinoma of the vagina not associated with diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure. Gynecol Oncol; 2007 May;105(2):470-4
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  • [Title] Primary adenocarcinoma of the vagina not associated with diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure.
  • OBJECTIVE: Primary non-diethylstilbestrol (DES)-associated adenocarcinoma of the vagina (NDAV) is a rare entity that has not been well described.
  • METHODS: The tumors of all patients treated with definitive radiation therapy for NDAV between 1970 and 2000 were centrally reviewed.
  • Data regarding patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics were abstracted from the hospital records of each patient.
  • Survival rates were calculated and outcomes of patients with NDAV were compared with those of patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the vagina treated similarly over the same period.
  • Twenty patients (77%) were treated with external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) followed by brachytherapy, and six patients (23%) were treated with EBRT alone.
  • At 5 years, 39% of patients with NDAV and 15% with SCC had developed distant metastasis (p<0.01).
  • Patients with this disease have significantly worse outcomes than do patients with SCC, and chemotherapy or novel systemic biologic agents may be needed to achieve higher cure rates.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / etiology. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Diethylstilbestrol / adverse effects. Vaginal Neoplasms / etiology. Vaginal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Brachytherapy. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 17292459.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 731DCA35BT / Diethylstilbestrol
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25. Bafna UD, Devi UM, Naik KA, Hazra S, Sushma N, Babu N: Carcinoma of the vulva: a retrospective review of 37 cases at a regional cancer centre in South India. J Obstet Gynaecol; 2004 Jun;24(4):403-7
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  • The surgical treatment consisted of wide excision in one case, radical vulvectomy (RV) in six cases, radical vulvectomy and bilateral groin node dissection (RV+BGND) in 25 cases and radical vulvectomy and unilateral groin node dissection in one case.
  • Nine of these 33 women also received adjuvant chemotherapy preoperatively in the hope of achieving better tumour-free surgical margins.
  • It appears that although bilateral involvement of the inguinal lymph nodes carries a worse prognosis, unilateral involvement with or without vaginal involvement carries an excellent prognosis provided multiple nodes are not involved.
  • The role of neoadjuvant chemotherapy as compared to neoadjuvant radiotherapy, in locally advanced tumours, needs to be explored further.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma / etiology. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. India / epidemiology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Medical Records. Medically Underserved Area. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Palliative Care. Regional Medical Programs. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 15203581.001).
  • [ISSN] 0144-3615
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology : the journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Obstet Gynaecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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26. Leblanc E, Querleu D, Castelain B, Occelli B, Chauvet MP, Chevalier A, Lesoin A, Vilain MO, Taieb S: [Role of laparoscopy in the management of uterine cervix cancer]. Cancer Radiother; 2000 Mar-Apr;4(2):113-21
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  • [Transliterated title] Rôle de la coeliochirurgie dans la prise en charge des cancers du col utérin.
  • At the turn of this century, the evidence of the benefits of a concurrent chemo-radiotherapy in locally advanced tumors and the development of mini-invasive surgery (laparoscopic and radical vaginal surgery) are the two main advances in the management of cervical carcinomas.
  • 2) it can spare a systematic extended-field radiation therapy in high-risk patients with node-negative para-aortic exploration;.
  • 3) it can spare surgery in patients with a centro-pelvic advanced stage or recurrence, possibly candidates for an exenterative procedure, if occult spread is found in the intra- or retroperitoneal areas.
  • The more and more frequent combination of the mini-invasive surgery for staging and treatment and radiotherapy or chemotherapy explains the need for new protocols of a more and more complex and specialized management.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Laparoscopy. Lymph Node Excision. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Ovary / surgery. Probability. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Survival Analysis. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 10812356.001).
  • [ISSN] 1278-3218
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer radiothérapie : journal de la Société française de radiothérapie oncologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Radiother
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] FRANCE
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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27. Kim DH, Wang-Chesebro A, Weinberg V, Pouliot J, Chen LM, Speight J, Littell R, Hsu IC: High-dose rate brachytherapy using inverse planning simulated annealing for locoregionally advanced cervical cancer: a clinical report with 2-year follow-up. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2009 Dec 1;75(5):1329-34
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. FLUOROURACIL .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: From February 2004 through December 2006, 51 patients were treated at the University of California, San Francisco with HDR brachytherapy boost as part of definitive radiation for International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Stage IB1 to Stage IVA cervical cancer.
  • Of the patients, 46 received concurrent chemotherapy, 43 with cisplatin alone and 3 with cisplatin/5-fluorouracil.
  • All patients had IPSA-planned HDR brachytherapy boost after whole-pelvis external radiation to a total tumor dose of 85 Gy or greater (for alpha/beta = 10).
  • Low-grade late toxicities included Grade 1 or 2 vaginal, gastrointestinal, and hormonal toxicities in 31%, 18%, and 4% of patients, respectively.
  • During the follow-up period, local recurrence developed in 2 patients, regional recurrence developed in 2, and new distant metastases developed in 15.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Definitive radiation by use of inverse planned HDR brachytherapy boost for locoregionally advanced cervical cancer is well tolerated and achieves excellent local control of disease.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Follow-Up Studies. Gastrointestinal Tract / radiation effects. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Radiation Injuries / pathology. Radiotherapy Dosage. Treatment Outcome. Urogenital System / radiation effects


28. Rob L, Pluta M, Skapa P, Robova H: Advances in fertility-sparing surgery for cervical cancer. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther; 2010 Jul;10(7):1101-14
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Planning and Implementing Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Programs: A Manual for Managers .

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  • Oncological outcomes are not statistically different among single groups (vaginal radical trachelectomy, abdominal radical trachelectomy, simple trachelectomy or cone with or without neoadjuvant chemotherapy).
  • Less radical procedures (simple trachelectomy or cone with or without neoadjuvant chemotherapy) show statistically significant better pregnancy results.
  • The pregnancy rate after abdominal radical trachelectomy was dramatically lower than in women treated with other types of fertility-sparing surgery.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Colposcopy. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnostic Imaging. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy / adverse effects. Hysterectomy / methods. Laparoscopy / methods. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Postoperative Care. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Rate. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Treatment Outcome


29. Kodama J, Seki N, Nakamura K, Hongo A, Hiramatsu Y: Prognostic factors in pathologic parametrium-positive patients with stage IB-IIB cervical cancer treated by radical surgery and adjuvant therapy. Gynecol Oncol; 2007 Jun;105(3):757-61
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prognostic factors in pathologic parametrium-positive patients with stage IB-IIB cervical cancer treated by radical surgery and adjuvant therapy.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to identify prognostic factors and recurrent patterns in pathologic parametrium-positive patients with stage IB-IIB cervical cancers treated by radical surgery and adjuvant therapy.
  • All these patients were treated postoperatively with adjuvant external whole pelvic irradiation, combination chemotherapy, or chemoradiotherapy.
  • Multivariate analysis revealed that vaginal invasion (p=0.0008), lymph node metastasis (p=0.002), and non-squamous histology (p=0.010) were independent indicators of the disease-free survival rates and that the vaginal invasion (p=0.009) and lymph node metastasis (p=0.011) were independent prognostic factors for the overall survival rates.
  • Disease recurrence was observed in 26 patients (31.0%) with a median time of 16.5 months (range, 5-59 months) from the surgery.
  • Hematogenous recurrences, including those in the lung, liver, and bone, were significantly higher in patients with non-squamous cell carcinomas (p=0.008).
  • Distant lymph node recurrences were significantly higher in patients with positive pelvic lymph node and vaginal invasion (p=0.004 and p=0.023, respectively).
  • Pelvic recurrences were significantly higher in patients with vaginal invasion (p=0.026).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Vaginal invasion and lymph node metastasis are independent indicators for disease-free and overall survival rates in pathologic parametrium-positive patients with stage IB-IIB cervical cancer treated by radical surgery and adjuvant therapy.
  • Hematogenous recurrence may be evident in patients with non-squamous cell carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Pelvic Floor / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • (PMID = 17433424.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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30. Johann S, Mueller MD: [Follow-up after malignant tumours of the uterus (cancer of the uterine corpus / cervical cancer)]. Ther Umsch; 2008 Jun;65(6):341-6
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Cervical cancer presents an own entitity, regarding both histology and therapeutic options.
  • Histologically, the endometrial cancer can be subdivided in two groups: type I is hormonal sensitive and well differentiated, type II represents an undifferenciated aggressive tumour with poor prognosis.
  • Due to the main symptom - abnormal vaginal bleeding - endometrial cancer is detected in an early stage in about 75% of all patients.
  • First choice in therapy is stage related surgery.
  • National and international groups recommend regular follow-up visits to detect the early vaginal vault relapse which is curable.
  • Cervical cancer is mainly a squamous cell carcinoma and oncogenic Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) associated.
  • Surgery is only indicated up to stage IIA, advanced stages should be treated by radio-chemotherapy.
  • Intention is the detection of the curable local relapse.
  • [MeSH-major] Aftercare / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis. Postoperative Complications / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery. Uterine Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Evidence-Based Medicine. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Prognosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


31. Liu J, Li Y, Li S, Wang D, Hu T, Meng Y, Ma D, Cai H, Wang Z, Xiong C, Zhang H: Clinicopathological features and prognosis of small cell carcinoma of the cervix. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci; 2010 Oct;30(5):626-30
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • In this study, the clinicopathological features, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of the condition were examined.
  • Our results showed that five non-recurrent cases initially presented irregular vaginal bleeding or increased apocenosis of varying degrees.
  • One case was accompanied with squamous cell cancer.
  • On the basis of their stages of condition, one subject with stage III b underwent chemotherapy, and one with stage Ib2 received extensive hysterectomy plus pelvic lymphadenectomy, while the other 5 cases were treated by extensive hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy in combination with pre- and/or post-operative adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • It is concluded that SCCC is an aggressive tumor with propensity for early pelvis lymph node metastases.
  • Early-stage patients should be treated by extensive hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy in combination with pre- and/or post-operative adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy / methods. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 21063846.001).
  • [ISSN] 1672-0733
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical sciences = Hua zhong ke ji da xue xue bao. Yi xue Ying De wen ban = Huazhong keji daxue xuebao. Yixue Yingdewen ban
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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32. Boughanim M, Leboulleux S, Rey A, Pham CT, Zafrani Y, Duvillard P, Lumbroso J, Haie-Meder C, Schlumberger M, Morice P: Histologic results of para-aortic lymphadenectomy in patients treated for stage IB2/II cervical cancer with negative [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scans in the para-aortic area. J Clin Oncol; 2008 May 20;26(15):2558-61
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Histologic results of para-aortic lymphadenectomy in patients treated for stage IB2/II cervical cancer with negative [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scans in the para-aortic area.
  • PURPOSE: Histologic results of complete para-aortic lymphadenectomy were studied in patients treated for stage IB2/II cervical carcinoma who had no para-aortic uptake on [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography combined with integrated computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT).
  • Patients with no para-aortic abnormalities were treated with external pelvic radiation therapy and concomitant chemotherapy followed by utero-vaginal brachytherapy.
  • PET/CT imaging without histologic examination of the para-aortic area used to determine radiation therapy fields in stage IB2/II cervical cancer would overlook 8% of patients with histologic para-aortic nodal involvement.
  • [MeSH-major] Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Lymph Node Excision. Lymph Nodes / radionuclide imaging. Para-Aortic Bodies / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / radiography. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / radiography. Carcinoma, Small Cell / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiography. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Pelvic Neoplasms / pathology. Pelvic Neoplasms / radiography. Prognosis. Survival Rate. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [CommentIn] J Clin Oncol. 2008 Nov 1;26(31):5140; author reply 5140-1 [18838701.001]
  • [CommentIn] J Clin Oncol. 2008 Dec 1;26(34):5654-5; author reply 5655-7 [18981456.001]
  • (PMID = 18487573.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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33. Sorbe B, Bohr L, Karlsson L, Bermark B: Combined external and intracavitary irradiation in treatment of advanced cervical carcinomas: predictive factors for local tumor control and early recurrences. Int J Oncol; 2010 Feb;36(2):371-8
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Combined external and intracavitary irradiation in treatment of advanced cervical carcinomas: predictive factors for local tumor control and early recurrences.
  • In a series of 131 primary cervical carcinomas in FIGO stages I-IV suitable for combined external pelvic and intraluminal cervical-vaginal brachytherapy predictive and prognostic factors were analyzed with regard to locoregional tumor control, recurrences and survival data.
  • Patients with prior surgery or patients treated with external beam therapy alone were excluded from this series.
  • Concomitant chemotherapy was given to 47 patients (36%).
  • The external beam therapy was given with a four-field technique (50-60 Gy) and brachytherapy with high dose-rate (Ir-192) using a ring applicator set.
  • The dose (18-30 Gy) was specified according to the rules in ICRU 38 (a minimum dose to the surface of the target volume).
  • A CT-based 3-D dose-planning system (TMS) was used for the external beam therapy and for the brachytherapy planning (PLATO).
  • One hundred and seven tumors were squamous cell carcinomas (82%) and 24 adenocarcinomas or adenosquamous carcinomas.
  • The mean tumor diameter was 44 mm.
  • Squamous cell carcinomas had complete remission in 96% and adenocarcinomas in 81% (Pearson Chi-square; P=0.00002).
  • Tumor size was also highly significantly associated with local tumor control.
  • The brachytherapy dose, the combined external and brachytherapy dose and the number of days of interruption (delay) of external irradiation were all significant predictive factors of local tumor control.
  • A lower FIGO stage, chemoradiotherapy, squamous cell histology, diploid DNA-profile, a higher brachytherapy dose, more brachytherapy fractions and a higher total combined irradiation dose were favorable factors with regard to the risk of tumor recurrences.
  • Tumor size was the strongest individual prognostic factor in multivariate analysis.
  • Chemoradiotherapy therapy versus radiotherapy alone and squamous cell carcinomas versus adenocarcinomas were associated with improved survival rates.
  • [MeSH-major] Brachytherapy / methods. Carcinoma / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy / methods. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy Dosage

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  • (PMID = 20043071.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-2423
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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34. Wax JR, Pinette MG, Blackstone J, Cartin A, McCrann DJ: Nonbilharzial bladder carcinoma complicating pregnancy: review of the literature. Obstet Gynecol Surv; 2002 Apr;57(4):236-44
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Tumors and Pregnancy.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The purpose of this review is to evaluate tumor presentation and characteristics, and maternal-fetal outcomes of pregnancies complicated by nonbilharzial bladder carcinoma.
  • Presenting complaints included painless gross hematuria [N = 12 (50%)], vaginal bleeding [N = 7 (29%)], dysuria [N = 2 (8.4%)], abdominal pain [N = 2 (8.4%)], and 1 instance each of urgency, frequency, recurrent cystitis, and no symptoms.
  • Transitional cell carcinoma was found in 17 (74%), adenocarcinoma in 5 (22%), and squamous cell carcinoma in 1 (4.5%) patient.
  • Treatment was typically by transurethral resection (N = 18), but 3 women required radical cystectomy, 2 received radiation, 1 received chemotherapy, and 1 underwent partial cystectomy.
  • Three (14%) women died of their disease and 3 (14%) fetuses were lost because of complications of cancer or its treatment.
  • LEARNING OBJECTIVES: After completion of this article, the reader will be able to list the various types of bladder cancers, to describe the presenting symptoms in a patient with a bladder cancer, and to outline the work up and treatment strategies for bladder cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Hematuria. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11961481.001).
  • [ISSN] 0029-7828
  • [Journal-full-title] Obstetrical & gynecological survey
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Obstet Gynecol Surv
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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