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1. Crowder S, Tuller E: Small cell carcinoma of the female genital tract. Semin Oncol; 2007 Feb;34(1):57-63
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  • [Title] Small cell carcinoma of the female genital tract.
  • Small cell carcinoma (SCC) of the female genital tract is rare, constituting less than 2% of all gynecologic malignancies.
  • Patients with SCC of the female genital tract may be asymptomatic but usually present with localized pain, vaginal bleeding, abdominal bloating or a mass, or symptoms of metastasis disease to the liver, bone, lung, or regional lymph nodes.
  • Therapy has included surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy akin to those regimens used for SCC of the lung.
  • Although there are no randomized clinical trials, it appears that multimodality therapy is associated with the best results and is the treatment of choice for most patients.
  • Despite aggressive therapy, however, the prognosis for SCC of the female genital tract is poor, with only a minority of patients enjoying a prolonged survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell. Genital Neoplasms, Female
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cranial Irradiation. Diagnosis, Differential. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Fallopian Tube Neoplasms / epidemiology. Female. Humans. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / therapy. Vaginal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vaginal Neoplasms / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vulvar Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17270667.001).
  • [ISSN] 0093-7754
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 41
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2. Marioni G, Savastano M, Mattiello L, Koussis H, Carpenè S, Marino F, Staffieri A: Tongue base metastasis from neuroendocrine endometrial small cell carcinoma. Am J Otolaryngol; 2007 Jul-Aug;28(4):284-7
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  • [Title] Tongue base metastasis from neuroendocrine endometrial small cell carcinoma.
  • The endometrial small cell carcinoma (ESCC) is a rare and aggressive malignancy with an estimated prevalence of less than 1% of endometrial carcinomas.
  • Endometrial small cell carcinoma is frequently diagnosed at an advanced stage and has a poor prognosis.
  • Although the most common presenting sign of ESCC is definitely a peri- or postmenopausal vaginal bleeding, we report for the first time the occurrence of tongue base bleeding as first manifestation of disseminated neuroendocrine ESCC.
  • From a clinical viewpoint, tongue metastasis from primary endometrial carcinoma is a manifestation of widespread disease.
  • Albeit, our patient underwent complete hysterectomy and postoperative chemotherapy, she died of disseminated disease 3 months after ESCC diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / secondary. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Tongue Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17606050.001).
  • [ISSN] 0196-0709
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Otolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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3. Cheng M, Wu LY, Bai P, Zhang R, Zheng S: [Clinicopathologic characteristics of eight patients with small cell carcinoma of the cervix]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi; 2008 Mar;43(3):189-92
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  • [Title] [Clinicopathologic characteristics of eight patients with small cell carcinoma of the cervix].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinicopathologic characteristics, therapy and prognostic factors of small cell carcinoma of the cervix.
  • RESULTS: Eight patients all presented with symptoms of abnormal vaginal bleeding or postcoital spotting.
  • Histopathologic findings showed the small tumor cells had scant cytoplasm, round nuclei, absence of nucleoli, and finely dispersed chromatin.
  • Three patients with stage I b disease and 1 patient with stage III b disease underwent radical hysterectomy and postoperative chemotherapy, with or without radiotherapy, and the survival period was 64, 22, 14 and 6 months respectively.
  • Two patients with stage II b disease and 2 with stage III b disease underwent chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and the survival period was 25, 9, 10 and 5 months respectively.
  • It is necessary to use comprehensive treatment including surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy for patients with small cell carcinoma of the cervix.
  • Chemotherapy may play an important role in the treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Immunohistochemistry. Lymph Node Excision. Microscopy. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18788567.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-567X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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4. Conner MG, Richter H, Moran CA, Hameed A, Albores-Saavedra J: Small cell carcinoma of the cervix: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 23 cases. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2002 Dec;6(6):345-8
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  • [Title] Small cell carcinoma of the cervix: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 23 cases.
  • Twenty-three patients with primary small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix are presented.
  • Blood spotting or vaginal bleeding was the most common clinical presentation.
  • Nuclear molding, single cell necrosis, and high mitotic activity were found in all tumors.
  • There was a minor component of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma in three cases, while foci of adenocarcinoma were identified in two cases.
  • Ten small cell carcinomas were immunoreactive for chromogranin, 13 for synaptophysin, and 10 expressed p53 protein.
  • Treatment modalities included hysterectomy alone or combined with chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy.
  • A few patients received chemotherapy and/or radiation alone.
  • Small cell carcinoma of the cervix is a highly aggressive neoplasm.
  • However, early diagnosis and combined therapeutic modalities may lead to longer survival in some patients.
  • Although the use of immunohistochemistry may be helpful in the diagnosis, small cell carcinoma still remains a morphologic diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Biomarkers. Chromogranins / metabolism. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / metabolism. Middle Aged. Synaptophysin / metabolism. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 12478483.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-9134
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / CAM 5.2 antigen; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Synaptophysin; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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5. Petru E, Pasterk C, Reich O, Obermair A, Winter R, Breitenecker G: Small-cell carcinoma of the uterus and the vagina: experience with ten patients. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2005 Apr;271(4):316-9
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  • [Title] Small-cell carcinoma of the uterus and the vagina: experience with ten patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Small cell carcinomas (small-CCs) of the uterine cervix are rare and highly malignant neoplasms.
  • Patients tend to develop distant metastasis early and thus are potential candidates for systemic therapy.
  • We reviewed the experience with small-CCs of the uterus and vagina at two Austrian University hospitals.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten patients (median age, 50 years; range, 18-92) with small-CC of the cervix (n=7), uterine corpus (n=2), and the vagina (n=1) were treated at the two centers between 1988 and 1998.
  • Eight patients underwent radical surgery, 7 of whom also received chemotherapy.
  • Of the 7 patients with small-CC of the cervix only one, who had FIGO stage IIB disease and positive pelvic nodes, survived long-term (86 months) with no evidence of disease.
  • She had received six courses of dose-intensive platinum chemotherapy after radical surgery.
  • All three patients with small-CC of the uterine corpus or vagina developed recurrence within the first year after diagnosis.
  • Of the 7 patients who received chemotherapy, 5 developed progressive or recurrent disease in the paraaortic region (n=2), peritoneum (n=1), liver (n=1), or pelvis (n=1).
  • CONCLUSION: These results confirm the particularly unfavorable prognosis of patients with small-CC of the genital tract.
  • The optimal treatment for these patients most probably including concurrent chemo-radiotherapy remains to be defined.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Small Cell / therapy. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / therapy. Vaginal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vaginal Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 15197564.001).
  • [ISSN] 0932-0067
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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6. Deng GH, Zhang X, Wu LY: [Clinicopathological analysis of nine cases of small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2010 Mar;32(3):199-202
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  • [Title] [Clinicopathological analysis of nine cases of small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinicopathologic characteristics, therapy and prognostic factors of small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix (SCCC).
  • Irregular vaginal bleeding and postcoital spotting were the most common symptoms.
  • All tumors were composed of small-sized cells with scant cytoplasm, darkly stained round to oval nuclei, finely dispersed chromatin and absence of nucleoli.
  • All patients received postoperative chemotherapy, with or without radiotherapy.
  • It is necessary to use multimodality treatment for SCCC, especially the chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Hysterectomy. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism. Transcription Factors / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antigens, CD56 / metabolism. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chromogranin A / metabolism. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Phosphopyruvate Hydratase / metabolism. Radiotherapy, High-Energy. Survival Rate. Synaptophysin / metabolism. Taxoids / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 20450588.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD56; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Synaptophysin; 0 / Taxoids; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / thyroid nuclear factor 1; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; TP protocol
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7. Liu J, Li Y, Li S, Wang D, Hu T, Meng Y, Ma D, Cai H, Wang Z, Xiong C, Zhang H: Clinicopathological features and prognosis of small cell carcinoma of the cervix. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci; 2010 Oct;30(5):626-30
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  • [Title] Clinicopathological features and prognosis of small cell carcinoma of the cervix.
  • Small cell carcinoma of cervix (SCCC) is a rare disease with highly aggressive behaviour and is pathologically hard to diagnose.
  • In this study, the clinicopathological features, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of the condition were examined.
  • Our results showed that five non-recurrent cases initially presented irregular vaginal bleeding or increased apocenosis of varying degrees.
  • Pathological examination revealed that the stroma was diffusely infiltrated with small monomorphous cells ranging from round to oval shape.
  • One case was accompanied with squamous cell cancer.
  • On the basis of their stages of condition, one subject with stage III b underwent chemotherapy, and one with stage Ib2 received extensive hysterectomy plus pelvic lymphadenectomy, while the other 5 cases were treated by extensive hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy in combination with pre- and/or post-operative adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • Early-stage patients should be treated by extensive hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy in combination with pre- and/or post-operative adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy / methods. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 21063846.001).
  • [ISSN] 1672-0733
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical sciences = Hua zhong ke ji da xue xue bao. Yi xue Ying De wen ban = Huazhong keji daxue xuebao. Yixue Yingdewen ban
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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8. Hayashi M, Mori Y, Takagi Y, Hoshimoto K, Ohkura T: Primary small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the vagina. Marked effect of combination chemotherapy: a case report. Oncology; 2000 May;58(4):300-4
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  • [Title] Primary small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the vagina. Marked effect of combination chemotherapy: a case report.
  • Primary small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the vagina is extremely rare and very aggressive.
  • Punch biopsy specimens of the vaginal tumor were studied.
  • These findings were consistent with small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma.
  • The patient was treated with combination chemotherapy.
  • The cancer mass completely disappeared after five cycles of the therapy.
  • This is the first report of such a remarkable effect of combination chemotherapy on small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the vagina.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Vaginal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 10838495.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-2414
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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9. Linghu H, Xu XR, Mei YY, Tang JY, Tang LD, Sun T: Response of early stage bulky cervical squamous carcinoma to preoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. Chin Med Sci J; 2004 Jun;19(2):116-9
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  • [Title] Response of early stage bulky cervical squamous carcinoma to preoperative adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential role of preoperative adjuvant chemotherapy on early stage cervical squamous carcinoma with bulky tumor.
  • METHODS: One hundred and forty-five patients with cervical squamous cancer stages Ib-IIa were investigated, among which 17 patients with bulky tumors (> or = 4 cm) were managed by cisplatin-based chemotherapy for 1-2 courses followed by radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy (BC group).
  • The change of tumor size, pelvic lymph nodes metastasis, cervical wall invasion, the involvement of surgical specimen margin, and the blood loss during operation were assessed after operation and compared with those in 51 patients with bulky tumors (BN group) and 77 patients with small local tumors (S group) who underwent surgery directly. RESULTS:.
  • (1) The tumor size of 17 patients in BC group were decreased in various degrees after chemotherapy, with 13 patients of clinical effectiveness (76.47%).
  • And the responsiveness pertained to neither histological differentiation nor size of local tumors. (2) Post-operative histology has showed that patients in BC and BN group have higher incidence of lymph node metastasis and deep cervical infiltration (5/68 and 3/68, respectively) than in S group (1/77 and 1/77, respectively) while with no statistical significance. (3) Blood loss during operation in BC group was less than BN and S group. (4) Seventeen patients, including those underwent surgeries of vaginal prolongation and/or ovarian transposition, appeared disease-free survival within the follow-up time.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Most of patients with bulky early stage cervical squamous carcinoma are sensitive to cisplatin-based chemotherapy, which could greatly reduce local tumor size and in turn facilitate the following operation by well controlling blood loss.

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  • (PMID = 15250247.001).
  • [ISSN] 1001-9294
  • [Journal-full-title] Chinese medical sciences journal = Chung-kuo i hsueh k'o hsueh tsa chih
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chin. Med. Sci. J.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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10. Weberpals J, Djordjevic B, Khalifa M, Oza A: A rare case of ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone syndrome in small cell carcinoma of the vagina: a case report. J Low Genit Tract Dis; 2008 Apr;12(2):140-5
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  • [Title] A rare case of ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone syndrome in small cell carcinoma of the vagina: a case report.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) syndrome (EAS) to increase awareness of this condition when treating patients with gynecological small cell carcinoma (SmCC).
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a review of a 61-year-old woman with primary vaginal SmCC and an atypical presentation of Cushing syndrome.
  • RESULTS: After treatment with primary chemotherapy, the patient presented acutely with delirium and metabolic disturbances.
  • Complications developed related to her Cushing syndrome, and she succumbed to complications of her disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Vaginal SmCC complicated by EAS is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome, and this case history outlines the management options for patients with this condition and reviews the pertinent literature.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH Syndrome, Ectopic / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Small Cell / secretion. Rare Diseases / diagnosis. Vaginal Neoplasms / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Vagina / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18369310.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-0976
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of lower genital tract disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Low Genit Tract Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Yang YJ, Trapkin LK, Demoski RK, Bellerdine J, Powers CN: The small blue cell dilemma associated with tamoxifen therapy. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2001 Aug;125(8):1047-50
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  • [Title] The small blue cell dilemma associated with tamoxifen therapy.
  • CONTEXT: Several endometrial diseases, such as endometrial hyperplasia, endometrial carcinoma, and endometrial polyps, have been reported to be associated with tamoxifen administration.
  • We recently observed a high incidence of distinctive small blue cells in Papanicolaou tests of women who had received tamoxifen treatment for breast carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVES: To define the characteristics of these small blue cells, to identify the patient population in which they are found, and to determine the clinical significance and possible etiology of these findings.
  • DESIGN: A total of 154 Papanicolaou tests from 60 patients with a clinical history of tamoxifen therapy were reviewed retrospectively.
  • RESULTS: Small blue cells were found in 40% of Papanicolaou tests from patients who received tamoxifen therapy.
  • Patients with small blue cells in their Papanicolaou tests were an average of 9 years older at the time tamoxifen therapy was initiated than those without.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that these distinctive small blue cells are found more frequently in older patients and most probably represent proliferative reserve cells of cervical/vaginal epithelium resulting from the estrogenic agonist effect of tamoxifen.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervix Uteri / pathology. Papanicolaou Test. Tamoxifen / adverse effects. Vagina / pathology. Vaginal Smears
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Atrophy. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / chemically induced. Endometrium / pathology. Epithelium / pathology. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Menstrual Cycle. Middle Aged


12. Alphandery C, Dagrada G, Frattini M, Perrone F, Pilotti S: Neuroendocrine small cell carcinoma of the cervix associated with endocervical adenocarcinoma: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2007 Jul-Aug;51(4):589-93
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  • [Title] Neuroendocrine small cell carcinoma of the cervix associated with endocervical adenocarcinoma: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Small-cell carcinoma (SCC) of the cervix is an uncommon member of the neuroendocrine group of cervical carcinomas that is frequently intermixed with a non-SCC component in the form of an adenocarcinoma (ADC) or squamous carcinoma.
  • The patient received 3 cycles of chemotherapy and then underwent major surgery.
  • On subsequent molecular investigation to assess clonality by microsatellite analysis, the presence of HR-HPV DNA18 on real-time polymerase chain reaction, p16(INK4a) fluorescence in situ hybridization status and the corresponding immunohistochemical expression supported the hypothesis that the two components of the tumor shared the same cell origin.
  • CONCLUSION: SCC of the cervix is a rare but distinct HR-HPV-18-related cervical carcinoma often intermixed with a clonally related non-small cell component consisting of an ADC or squamous carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antigens, CD56 / metabolism. Biopsy. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Chromogranin A / metabolism. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 18 / genetics. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism. Female. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Microsatellite Repeats / genetics. Papanicolaou Test. Synaptophysin / metabolism. Vaginal Smears

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  • (PMID = 17718130.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD56; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / Synaptophysin
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13. Jin B, Pickens A, Shah MB, Turrisi A, Saleh H: Primary large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the vagina: cytomorphology of previously unreported case. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 Dec;38(12):925-8
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  • [Title] Primary large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the vagina: cytomorphology of previously unreported case.
  • Squamous carcinoma is the most common malignancy of the vagina.
  • Other malignancies include adenocarcinoma, melanoma, lymphoma, and very rarely, neuroendocrine carcinoma/small-cell carcinoma.
  • Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) has not been reported in this location.
  • The patient is a 53-year old gravida 3, para 2, African-American woman who had a 4 month history of severe pelvic pain and difficulty voiding and was found to have a firm plate-like mass on the anterior vaginal wall.
  • Thin prep of vaginal swap was interpreted as atypical glandular cells; however, the biopsies showed a large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma which was confirmed by diffuse strong immunoreactivity to AE1/3, CAM5.2, CK7, and CD56 in the tumor cells.
  • Subsequent clinical workup showed that the patient also had numerous metastatic nodules in the bilateral lungs and a vaginal-urethral fistula caused by the tumor.
  • The patient underwent palliative radiation of pelvis for local pain control and then chemotherapy.
  • Although the vaginal tumor increased in size even after radiation, her symptoms were under control and she was doing well for a short period of time.
  • The patient is still alive but developed brain metastasis a year later after initial diagnosis.
  • Despite its rarity, large cell neuroendocrine cell carcinoma should be included in the differential diagnosis when cytomorphology shows features suggestive of neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Large Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Vaginal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD56 / metabolism. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Copyright] ¬© 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 20222107.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD56
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14. Sato Y, Shimamoto T, Amada S, Asada Y, Hayashi T: Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the uterine cervix: a clinicopathological study of six cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2003 Jul;22(3):226-30
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  • [Title] Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the uterine cervix: a clinicopathological study of six cases.
  • Six cases of cervical large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (LCNEC) were found among 972 patients (0.6%) with invasive cervical carcinoma.
  • The patients, who were from 27 to 51 (mean 38) years of age, presented with vaginal bleeding or an abnormal Papanicolaou smear.
  • All patients underwent radical hysterectomy and received adjuvant chemotherapy and pelvic radiotherapy.
  • On histologic examination, the tumor cells were arranged in an organoid growth pattern and were larger than those of typical small cell carcinoma.
  • The recognition of LCNECs is necessary to establish the most effective treatment for these aggressive tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Fallopian Tubes / surgery. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Ovariectomy. Papanicolaou Test. Uterine Hemorrhage. Vaginal Smears

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  • (PMID = 12819387.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Albores-Saavedra J, Martinez-Benitez B, Luevano E: Small cell carcinomas and large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas of the endometrium and cervix: polypoid tumors and those arising in polyps may have a favorable prognosis. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2008 Jul;27(3):333-9
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  • [Title] Small cell carcinomas and large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas of the endometrium and cervix: polypoid tumors and those arising in polyps may have a favorable prognosis.
  • We report 5 polypoid high-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas of the uterus, 2 small cell carcinomas of the endometrium, and 3 large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, 2 from the cervix and 1 from the endometrium.
  • The 2 small cell carcinomas of the endometrium arose from and were confined to endometrial polyps, one of which also showed foci of endometrioid adenocarcinoma.
  • The 3 large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, 2 from the cervix and 1 from the endometrium, were polypoid but did not originate in polyps.
  • Four patients presented with vaginal bleeding.
  • All 5 patients were treated by radical hysterectomy and 4 received adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • All patients are alive and disease-free from 9 months to 7 years after treatment (mean survival, 47 months).
  • Two small cell carcinomas and 2 large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas accumulated p53 protein.
  • Two small cell carcinomas and 2 large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas expressed p16.
  • Our findings suggest that stage of disease and a polypoid gross feature are the best predictors for outcome in small cell carcinomas and large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas of the uterus.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology. Polyps / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18580310.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Gostout BS, Lindor NM, DiMarco CS, Peethambaram PP, Clayton AC: Pelvic primitive neuroectodermal tumor associated with a cluster of small round cell tumors: case report and review of current literature. Gynecol Oncol; 2003 Oct;91(1):247-53
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  • [Title] Pelvic primitive neuroectodermal tumor associated with a cluster of small round cell tumors: case report and review of current literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (pPNET) is aggressive and rare, comprising 1% of soft tissue sarcomas.
  • Frozen-section examination at laparotomy revealed small round cell tumor confirmed as pPNET.
  • Chemotherapy with vincristine, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide alternating with ifosfamide and etoposide with mesna yielded complete response.
  • Surgical resection and multiagent chemotherapy may enhance survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / pathology. Peritoneal Neoplasms / pathology. Vaginal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 14529689.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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17. Niwa K, Nonaka-Shibata M, Satoh E, Hirose Y: Cervical large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma with cytologic presentation: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2010 Sep-Oct;54(5 Suppl):977-80
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  • [Title] Cervical large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma with cytologic presentation: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) is a rare and aggressive cervical neoplasm.
  • CASE: A 37-year-old woman, gravida 6, para 4, presented with vaginal bleeding for 3 months.
  • The cervical smears showed cells dispersed as single cells or arranged as loosely cohesive sheets or glandlike aggregate and the nuclear size was almost 3-5 times larger than that of small lymphocytes.
  • The patient underwent a radical hysterectomy and then received radiation and systemic chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Large Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Colposcopy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 21053581.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Veras E, Deavers MT, Silva EG, Malpica A: Ovarian nonsmall cell neuroendocrine carcinoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 11 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 May;31(5):774-82
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  • [Title] Ovarian nonsmall cell neuroendocrine carcinoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 11 cases.
  • Nonsmall cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (NSCNEC) of the ovary is a rare and aggressive tumor commonly associated with other surface epithelial and germ cell neoplasms.
  • The most common presentation was abdominal/pelvic pain (6 cases), followed by ascites (2 cases), pelvic mass, vaginal bleeding, and abdominal bloating (1 case each).
  • In 8 cases, NSCNEC was associated with other epithelial neoplasms, including mucinous neoplasms of low malignant potential, mucinous carcinoma, endometrioid carcinoma, mixed endometrioid and mucinous carcinoma, and a high-grade carcinoma, not otherwise specified.
  • In 2 cases, the intermediate cells were intermixed with small cells.
  • Seven patients were treated with total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy followed by chemotherapy.
  • One patient had a bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with omentectomy and appendectomy followed by chemotherapy; 1 patient had a total abdominal hysterectomy with right salpingo-oophorectomy followed by chemotherapy; one had a bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy followed by chemotherapy, and one had a right salpingo-oophorectomy with appendectomy followed by chemotherapy.
  • In summary, ovarian NSCNEC is an aggressive tumor with a tendency to present at advanced stage and cause death within a mean of 17 months after diagnosis; however, some patients, particularly those with stage I disease and/or those who have received platinum-based therapy, may have a more favorable prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Remission Induction. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17460463.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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19. Murphy KT, Rotmensch J, Yamada SD, Mundt AJ: Outcome and patterns of failure in pathologic stages I-IV clear-cell carcinoma of the endometrium: implications for adjuvant radiation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2003 Apr 1;55(5):1272-6
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  • [Title] Outcome and patterns of failure in pathologic stages I-IV clear-cell carcinoma of the endometrium: implications for adjuvant radiation therapy.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the outcome and patterns of failure in women with uterine clear-cell carcinoma and discuss implications for adjuvant radiation therapy (RT).
  • METHODS: Between 1980 and 2000, 686 endometrial carcinoma patients underwent primary surgery at our institution.
  • Thirty-eight women (5.5%) had clear-cell tumors (18 clear-cell only, 8 clear-cell + adenocarcinoma, and 12 clear-cell + other unfavorable histologies [10 papillary serous, 1 uterine sarcoma, 1 both]).
  • Adjuvant therapies included the following: 5 none, 22 RT (13 pelvic RT, 2 vaginal brachytherapy, 7 both), 11 chemotherapy (8 alone, 3 after pelvic RT), and 3 hormones.
  • Patients with clear +/- adenocarcinoma histology had a similar 5-year disease-free survival (38.8% vs. 38.7%, p = 0.95) compared with those with clear-cell + other unfavorable histologies.
  • Only 1 (2%) patient developed an isolated abdominal failure (This patient had a mixed clear-cell/papillary serous tumor).
  • Of the 26 women with clear-cell +/- adenocarcinoma histology, only 1 (3.8%) relapsed in the abdomen.
  • CONCLUSION: Clear-cell carcinoma comprises a small percentage of endometrial cancers, frequently presents as a mixed histology, and has a poor overall outcome.
  • Unlike papillary serous tumors, clear-cell carcinoma does not seem to have a high propensity for abdominal failure.
  • Future protocols should focus instead on combinations of locoregional RT and chemotherapy to reduce the risk of local and systemic recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Neoplasms / secondary. Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / mortality. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Brachytherapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Cystadenocarcinoma / pathology. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hysterectomy. Life Tables. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / mortality. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / radiotherapy. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery. Pelvic Neoplasms / secondary. Prognosis. Sarcoma / pathology. Treatment Failure. Treatment Outcome. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology. Vaginal Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 12654437.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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20. Fujiwara K, Suzuki S, Yoden E, Ishikawa H, Imajo Y, Kohno I: Local radiation therapy for localized relapsed or refractory ovarian cancer patients with or without symptoms after chemotherapy. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2002 May-Jun;12(3):250-6
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  • [Title] Local radiation therapy for localized relapsed or refractory ovarian cancer patients with or without symptoms after chemotherapy.
  • The purpose of this paper is to prospectively evaluate the effects of local radiation therapy upon localized ovarian cancer following chemotherapy.
  • Patients with objective relapses or refractory disease but with localized epithelial ovarian cancers and who had undergone at least one regimen of chemotherapy were enrolled in this study.
  • The interval between previous chemotherapy and radiation therapy was 4.5 months.
  • The irradiation dose was 52.3 +/- 8.3 Gy.
  • Forty-four disease sites, including the lymph nodes, vaginal cuff, pelvis, abdomen, subcutaneous regions, and the brain were irradiated.
  • Regression rates correlated with longer survivals (P = 0.0195) after radiation therapy.
  • Survival was significantly better when radiation therapy was given before patients had symptoms (P = 0.001).
  • We conclude that local radiation therapy may be one of the treatment options for relapsed or refractory but localized ovarian cancer, particularly when the tumor is small and/or located in the lymph nodes, even when patients had no symptoms.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / radiotherapy. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / radiotherapy. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / radiotherapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / drug therapy. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / radiotherapy. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / pathology. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / radiotherapy. Pilot Projects. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 12060445.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Mundt AJ, Murphy KT, Rotmensch J, Waggoner SE, Yamada SD, Connell PP: Surgery and postoperative radiation therapy in FIGO Stage IIIC endometrial carcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2001 Aug 1;50(5):1154-60
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  • [Title] Surgery and postoperative radiation therapy in FIGO Stage IIIC endometrial carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the outcome, pattern(s) of failure, and optimal treatment volume in Stage IIIC endometrial carcinoma patients treated with surgery and postoperative radiation therapy (RT).
  • METHODS: Between 1983 and 1998, 30 Stage IIIC endometrial carcinoma patients were treated with primary surgery and postoperative RT at the University of Chicago.
  • Adjuvant vaginal brachytherapy (VB) was delivered in 10, chemotherapy in 5, and hormonal therapy in 7 patients.
  • Of the 7 pelvic failures, 4 were vaginal (3 vaginal only).
  • Patients treated with VB had a trend to a lower vaginal recurrence rate (0/10 vs. 4/20, p = 0.12) than those not receiving VB.
  • No patient developed an isolated abdominal recurrence.
  • Two patients developed significant RT sequelae: chronic diarrhea in 1 patient treated with WPRT and VB, and small bowel obstruction in 1 patient treated with EFRT.
  • CONCLUSION: FIGO Stage IIIC disease comprises a small percentage of endometrial carcinoma patients but carries a poor prognosis.
  • Given the predominance of failure in distant sites, attention should be focused on the development of systemic chemotherapy protocols.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / mortality. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / radiotherapy. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / surgery. Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Brachytherapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Chicago / epidemiology. Combined Modality Therapy. Cystadenocarcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Cystadenocarcinoma, Papillary / mortality. Cystadenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Papillary / radiotherapy. Cystadenocarcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Life Tables. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11483324.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal
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22. Toyoda H, Hirai T, Ishii E: Alpha-fetoprotein producing uterine corpus carcinoma: A hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the endometrium. Pathol Int; 2000 Oct;50(10):847-52

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  • [Title] Alpha-fetoprotein producing uterine corpus carcinoma: A hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the endometrium.
  • A case of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) producing endometrial carcinoma in a 60-year-old Japanese woman is presented.
  • The patient complained of abnormal vaginal bleeding of 10 days' duration.
  • Histologically, the biopsy specimen taken from the uterine mass showed a poorly differentiated endometrial carcinoma and a radical hysterectomy was subsequently performed.
  • The postoperative serum AFP value transiently decreased with chemotherapy, however, lung metastases were found and the patient died 12 months following surgery.
  • Histologically, the tumor was composed of the main medullary carcinoma area with microcysts and admixed small areas of well-differentiated endometrioid adenocarcinoma, accompanied by a smooth transition with one another.
  • There was no histologic evidence for a germ cell tumor.
  • Based on these findings, this uterine corpus tumor was regarded as hepatoid variant of endometrial carcinoma.
  • Although the histogenesis remains controversial, we assume the hypothesis that the tumor may arise in the endometrium per se in association with abnormal differentiation of muellerian duct elements.

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  • (PMID = 11107058.001).
  • [ISSN] 1320-5463
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] AUSTRALIA
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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23. Menell JH, Chi DS, Hann LE, Hricak H: The use of MRI in the diagnosis and management of a bulky cervical carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol; 2003 Jun;89(3):517-21
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  • [Title] The use of MRI in the diagnosis and management of a bulky cervical carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: In the treatment of gynecologic cancer, surgical planning depends on the site and extent of disease.
  • Surgery for presumed ovarian carcinoma was planned.
  • Because a vaginal Pap smear revealed squamous-cell carcinoma, MRI was performed for further evaluation.
  • Multiple biopsies of the cervix confirmed the diagnosis of a bulky Stage IIA squamous-cell carcinoma of the cervix.
  • The patient was subsequently treated with concomitant chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
  • Follow-up MRI demonstrated an excellent treatment response.
  • Modified radical hysterectomy was performed demonstrating very small residual tumor.

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  • (PMID = 12798721.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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24. Boughanim M, Leboulleux S, Rey A, Pham CT, Zafrani Y, Duvillard P, Lumbroso J, Haie-Meder C, Schlumberger M, Morice P: Histologic results of para-aortic lymphadenectomy in patients treated for stage IB2/II cervical cancer with negative [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scans in the para-aortic area. J Clin Oncol; 2008 May 20;26(15):2558-61
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  • [Title] Histologic results of para-aortic lymphadenectomy in patients treated for stage IB2/II cervical cancer with negative [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scans in the para-aortic area.
  • PURPOSE: Histologic results of complete para-aortic lymphadenectomy were studied in patients treated for stage IB2/II cervical carcinoma who had no para-aortic uptake on [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography combined with integrated computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT).
  • Patients with no para-aortic abnormalities were treated with external pelvic radiation therapy and concomitant chemotherapy followed by utero-vaginal brachytherapy.
  • PET/CT imaging without histologic examination of the para-aortic area used to determine radiation therapy fields in stage IB2/II cervical cancer would overlook 8% of patients with histologic para-aortic nodal involvement.
  • [MeSH-major] Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Lymph Node Excision. Lymph Nodes / radionuclide imaging. Para-Aortic Bodies / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / radiography. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / radiography. Carcinoma, Small Cell / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiography. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Pelvic Neoplasms / pathology. Pelvic Neoplasms / radiography. Prognosis. Survival Rate. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

  • Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Cervical cancer.
  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Cervical Cancer.
  • International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .
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  • [CommentIn] J Clin Oncol. 2008 Nov 1;26(31):5140; author reply 5140-1 [18838701.001]
  • [CommentIn] J Clin Oncol. 2008 Dec 1;26(34):5654-5; author reply 5655-7 [18981456.001]
  • (PMID = 18487573.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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25. Silver SA, Devouassoux-Shisheboran M, Mezzetti TP, Tavassoli FA: Mesonephric adenocarcinomas of the uterine cervix: a study of 11 cases with immunohistochemical findings. Am J Surg Pathol; 2001 Mar;25(3):379-87
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Mesonephric adenocarcinoma is a rare variant of cervical carcinoma with relatively few, well-documented cases reported.
  • Most (64%) patients had abnormal vaginal bleeding.
  • Microscopically, the carcinomas showed various morphologies, most commonly a small tubular pattern or a ductal pattern resembling endometrioid adenocarcinoma; one tumor had an associated malignant spindle cell component.
  • In a patient with stage IB disease, a mediastinal metastasis and a malignant pleural effusion developed 5.6 years after diagnosis, and the patient died of disease at 6.2 years.
  • Another patient with stage IB disease and a positive vaginal cuff margin that recurred locally after 1.7 years received chemotherapy and was alive and clinically free of disease at 2.5 years.
  • This staining profile is similar to that of mesonephric remnants and may be useful in the distinction of mesonephric carcinoma from mullerian endometrioid adenocarcinoma, with which it may be confused.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Rate


26. Kim HS, Park NH, Kang SB: Rare metastases of recurrent cervical cancer to the pericardium and abdominal muscle. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2008 Nov;278(5):479-82
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Cases of additional abdominal muscular metastasis have not been reported previously, although a small number of cases of additional skin metastasis have been reported.
  • A 64-year-old woman with intermittent vaginal bleeding was referred under the clinical impression of cervical cancer.
  • During the post-operative follow-up period of 6 months, pericardial and abdominal muscular metastases were developed along with the symptoms of dry cough and dyspnea.
  • Although palliative radiation therapy and chemotherapy were performed for the control of the metastases, she expired due to cardiac failure 16 months after the operation.
  • Aggressive local and systemic treatments may provide significant palliation of associated symptoms.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Muscles. Abdominal Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Heart Neoplasms / secondary. Pericardium. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


27. Gupta D, Deavers MT, Silva EG, Malpica A: Malignant melanoma involving the ovary: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 23 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2004 Jun;28(6):771-80
COS Scholar Universe. author profiles.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The tumor cell type was epithelioid in 19 cases, spindled in 2 cases, mixed epithelioid and spindled in 1 case, and small cell in 1 case.
  • In 8 cases, initial diagnoses included sex cord stromal tumor, germ cell tumor, sarcoma, or undifferentiated carcinoma.
  • Treatment performed in 18 of the cases are as follows: oophorectomy with/without chemotherapy (10); total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with/without chemotherapy (6); vaginal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and chemotherapy (1); and total abdominal hysterectomy with salpingo-oophorectomy (1).
  • Nodular or diffuse pattern and epithelioid cell type are most frequently seen, and the tumor can be mistaken for germ cell and sex cord stromal tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antigens, Neoplasm. Calbindin 2. DNA-Binding Proteins / analysis. Ethnic Groups. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Immunohistochemistry. Inhibins / analysis. MART-1 Antigen. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor. Middle Aged. Monophenol Monooxygenase / analysis. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. S100 Calcium Binding Protein G / analysis. S100 Proteins / analysis. Teratoma / pathology. Transcription Factors / analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15166669.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / CALB2 protein, human; 0 / Calbindin 2; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / MART-1 Antigen; 0 / MITF protein, human; 0 / MLANA protein, human; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein G; 0 / S100 Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins; EC 1.14.18.1 / Monophenol Monooxygenase
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