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1. Oguri H, Izumiya C, Maeda N, Fukaya T, Moriki T: A primary amelanotic melanoma of the vagina, diagnosed by immunohistochemical staining with HMB-45, which recurred as a pigmented melanoma. J Clin Pathol; 2004 Sep;57(9):986-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A primary amelanotic melanoma of the vagina, diagnosed by immunohistochemical staining with HMB-45, which recurred as a pigmented melanoma.
  • Usually, malignant melanoma is readily diagnosed by the presence of melanin granules.
  • Although amelanotic melanoma contains a few melanin granules, it is often difficult to differentiate from non-epithelial malignant tumours.
  • This report describes a case of amelanotic melanoma of the vagina, which was originally suspected to be a non-epithelial malignant tumour, but was subsequently correctly diagnosed by immunohistochemical staining with the HMB-45 antibody and for the S-100 protein.
  • A light grey tumour with superficial ulceration was located in the upper third of the vagina.
  • The patient was treated with irradiation followed by chemotherapy.
  • However, 20 months after complete remission, the tumour recurred locally: the site had a grossly black appearance, which was pathognomonic for a malignant melanoma.
  • Thus, HMB-45 and S-100 protein immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis of amelanotic melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma, Amelanotic / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Vaginal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, Neoplasm. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins. S100 Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 15333663.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / S100 Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 9
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1770413
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2. Jahnke A, Makovitzky J, Briese V: Primary melanoma of the female genital system: a report of 10 cases and review of the literature. Anticancer Res; 2005 May-Jun;25(3A):1567-74
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  • [Title] Primary melanoma of the female genital system: a report of 10 cases and review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Primary melanoma of the female genital system are extremely rare (2-3%).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was undertaken of patients with primary melanoma of the female genital system treated from 1990-2003 at Rostock University Hospital, Germany.
  • Different treatments (sentinel node biopsy, inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy, en bloc resection, adjuvant Interferon-alpha-therapy, adjuvant chemotherapy) are discussed.
  • RESULTS: We report on 10 patients, aged 26 to 76 years, with primary melanoma of the female genital tract.
  • Seven women developed a vulvar melanoma and one woman a malignant melanoma of the cutaneous inguinal region, while another 2 women had an unusual primary location of the malignant melanoma, the cervico-vaginal region (n=1) and the left ovary (n = 1).
  • [MeSH-major] Genital Neoplasms, Female / diagnosis. Melanoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Lymph Node Excision. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16033062.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interferon-alpha
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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3. Signorelli M, Lissoni AA, Garbi A, Perego P, Mangioni C: Primary malignant vaginal melanoma treated with adriamycin and ifosfamide: a case report and literature review. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 May;97(2):700-3
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  • [Title] Primary malignant vaginal melanoma treated with adriamycin and ifosfamide: a case report and literature review.
  • BACKGROUND: Vaginal melanoma is a very rare but highly malignant gynecological disease, usually diagnosed in postmenopausal woman.
  • CASE: The following paper describes a case report regarding a 72-year-old woman with a locally advanced malignant melanoma.
  • She underwent chemotherapy with 3 courses of doxorubicin and ifosfamide.
  • The diagnosis of malignant melanoma was obtained after a repeated biopsy and further pathological investigations.
  • She later underwent radical surgery and 2 additional cycles of the same chemotherapy.
  • At present, 7 months after the last cycle, the patient was locally disease-free, but developed brain metastases, requiring chemotherapy treatment.
  • CONCLUSION: In view of poor survival, this chemotherapy regimen may be an interesting alternative to the traditional treatment of vaginal melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Melanoma / drug therapy. Vaginal Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 15863186.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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4. Frumovitz M, Etchepareborda M, Sun CC, Soliman PT, Eifel PJ, Levenback CF, Ramirez PT: Primary malignant melanoma of the vagina. Obstet Gynecol; 2010 Dec;116(6):1358-65
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary malignant melanoma of the vagina.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical and pathologic features of vaginal melanoma and to determine predictors of outcome in patients with this disease.
  • METHODS: Thirty-seven women with clinical and radiographic stage I vaginal melanoma treated at one institution between 1980 and 2009 were included in this retrospective study.
  • Treatment modalities were assigned to one of three categories: pelvic exenteration, wide excision, and nonsurgical (primary radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or both).
  • Vaginal bleeding was the most common presenting symptom.
  • Lesions were located in the distal third of the vagina in the majority (65%) of patients.
  • Initial management included a wide local or radical excision (76% of patients); pelvic exenteration (14%); and radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or radiotherapy and chemotherapy (10%).
  • CONCLUSION: Malignant vaginal melanoma, even when localized at presentation, has a very poor prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma. Vaginal Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 21099603.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-233X
  • [Journal-full-title] Obstetrics and gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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5. Schmidt M, Honig A, Schwab M, Adam P, Dietl J: Primary vaginal melanoma: a case report and literature review. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2008;29(3):285-8
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  • [Title] Primary vaginal melanoma: a case report and literature review.
  • BACKGROUND: Malignant melanoma of the vagina is a rare malignancy associated with high risk of recurrence, distant metastasis and short survival time.
  • Due to the rarity of the disease, no prospective studies or validated treatment recommendations exist.
  • CASE: We describe the case of a 54-year-old patient with a locally advanced melanoma located on the anterior vaginal wall.
  • At the time of diagnosis there was no evidence of nodal or distant metastasis.
  • A more radical approach, adjuvant radio- or chemotherapy did not seem to be justifiable since there are no data demonstrating prolonged survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / pathology. Vaginal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18592798.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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6. Samolis S, Panagopoulos P, Kanellopoulos N, Papastefanou I, Karadaglis S, Katsoulis M: Primary melanoma of the vagina: a case report. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2010;31(2):233-4
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  • [Title] Primary melanoma of the vagina: a case report.
  • Primary malignant vaginal melanoma is a rare vaginal tumour accompanied by an extremely high risk of local recurrence, distant metastasis and a small survival rate.
  • Due to the fact that vaginal melanoma is quite uncommon there is lack of powerful prospective studies in the literature, thus the treatment choice remains controversial.
  • An 85-year-old woman with a primary malignant vaginal melanoma located on the left lateral aspect of the distal vagina, with the greatest diameter almost 5 cm, was referred to our clinic.
  • According to the most recently published data in the international literature, we decided along with the patient to perform conservative dissection of the tumor with free surgical margins as the appropriate mode of therapy.
  • Radiotherapy, chemotherapy or radical extirpation cannot increase the survival time, even if there is a local or distant spread of melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / pathology. Vaginal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20527252.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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7. Gupta D, Malpica A, Deavers MT, Silva EG: Vaginal melanoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 26 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2002 Nov;26(11):1450-7
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  • [Title] Vaginal melanoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 26 cases.
  • Malignant melanomas of the vagina are rare tumors.
  • The most common presenting symptom was vaginal bleeding, followed by vaginal mass.
  • The neoplastic cells were epithelioid in 15 cases and spindled in three cases; eight cases had both cell types.
  • The patients were treated as follows: anterior exenteration with or without lymph node dissection and with or without radiotherapy (RT) or chemotherapy (CT) (7 cases), wide local excision with or without lymph node dissection and RT/CT (10 cases), hysterectomy with vaginectomy with or without RT/CT (3 cases), vaginectomy with RT (1 case), RT (1 case), and RT and CT (1 case).
  • Local recurrence after primary treatment was seen in six patients and distant metastases in 11 patients.
  • This study confirms the poor prognosis of patients with vaginal melanoma.
  • HMB-45 is negative in 23% cases of vaginal melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / secondary. Vaginal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 12409721.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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8. Baloglu A, Bezircioglu I, Cetinkaya B, Yavuzcan A: Primary malignant melanoma of the vagina. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2009 Nov;280(5):819-22
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  • [Title] Primary malignant melanoma of the vagina.
  • BACKGROUND: Primary vaginal melanoma is a rare, highly malignant, and poor prognostic disease.
  • CASE: The 51-year-old patient with diagnosis of vaginal malignant melanoma was referred to our clinic.
  • Since detection of pervasive brown lesions in the vagina total vaginectomy was performed.
  • At pathological investigation melanoma was not determined.
  • Cisplatin and tremozolamide chemotherapy was administered for six cycles after surgery.
  • CONCLUSION: The impact of therapy on outcome of primary vaginal malign melanomas is poorly understood.
  • We presented a case of FIGO stage I primary vaginal malignant melanoma, which metastasized to the paraaortic lymph nodes 9 months after the primary operation.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / pathology. Melanoma / therapy. Vaginal Neoplasms / pathology. Vaginal Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Female. Humans. Interferon-alpha / administration & dosage. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19242707.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0711
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interferon-alpha; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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9. Piura B: Management of primary melanoma of the female urogenital tract. Lancet Oncol; 2008 Oct;9(10):973-81
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  • [Title] Management of primary melanoma of the female urogenital tract.
  • Primary melanoma of the urogenital tract in women is rare, but biologically aggressive.
  • They usually affect elderly women and account for less than 10% of all cancer of the urogenital tract in women and less than 10% of all melanoma diagnosed in women.
  • Tumour staging can be challenging; however, the American Joint Committee on Cancer melanoma staging system has been recommended for use in vulvar and vaginal melanoma.
  • Surgery is the treatment of choice; less-extensive surgery can be a sensible approach because satisfactory locoregional control might be obtained from wide local excision and radiotherapy, without the morbidity and disfigurement associated with radical surgery.
  • Complete regional lymphadenectomy does not seem necessary if a sentinel lymph-node biopsy sample is negative; however, this decision should be made with caution.
  • Various chemotherapy and biotherapy (ie, immunotherapy and biological-response modifiers) regimens have been used in advanced or metastatic melanoma.
  • However, the role of chemotherapy for women with urogenital-tract melanoma has not been established, and biotherapy methods presented to date have been anecdotal.
  • [MeSH-major] Genital Neoplasms, Female / surgery. Melanoma / surgery. Urologic Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 19071254.001).
  • [ISSN] 1474-5488
  • [Journal-full-title] The Lancet. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lancet Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 75
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10. Jahng AW, Liao SS: Successful palliation with octreotide of a neuroendocrine syndrome from malignant melanoma. J Pain Symptom Manage; 2006 Aug;32(2):191-5
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  • [Title] Successful palliation with octreotide of a neuroendocrine syndrome from malignant melanoma.
  • We present a unique case of a neuroendocrine syndrome in a patient with Stage IV vaginal melanoma metastatic to the liver that was successfully palliated with octreotide.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Pain / prevention & control. Chest Pain / prevention & control. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Melanoma / secondary. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Palliative Care / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Gastrointestinal Agents / therapeutic use. Humans. Middle Aged. Neuroendocrine Tumors / drug therapy. Neuroendocrine Tumors / secondary. Syndrome. Treatment Outcome. Vaginal Neoplasms / drug therapy


11. Takai N, Kai N, Hirata Y, Kashima K, Narahara H: Primary malignant melanoma of the vagina. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2008;29(5):558-9
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  • [Title] Primary malignant melanoma of the vagina.
  • Malignant melanoma originating in the vagina is considered extremely rare and has a very poor prognosis.
  • We report a case of a 70-year-old woman with primary malignant melanoma of the vagina, and discuss the importance of prognostic factors and the efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / pathology. Vaginal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 19051838.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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12. Ohno T, Kato S, Sasaki E, Mizutani K, Tsujii H: Carbon ion radiotherapy for vaginal malignant melanoma: a case report. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2007 Sep-Oct;17(5):1163-6
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  • [Title] Carbon ion radiotherapy for vaginal malignant melanoma: a case report.
  • Malignant melanoma of the vagina is a very rare neoplasm and resistant to conventional radiotherapy.
  • We report a case of vaginal malignant melanoma that was locally well controlled by carbon ion radiotherapy.
  • A 55-year-old postmenopausal woman presented with abnormal vaginal bleeding.
  • On pelvic and imaging examinations, an irregular mass of the posterior vaginal wall sized 7.5 x 5 x 5 cm, an enlarged right inguinal lymph node, and two lung metastases were observed.
  • Histologic diagnosis based on positive immunostaining for HMB-45 was malignant melanoma.
  • She received dacarbazine-based chemotherapy and carbon ion radiotherapy for vaginal and inguinal tumor sites with 57.6 Gy equivalent dose per 16 fractions using five ports.
  • Six months later, she was also given carbon ion radiotherapy for regrowing lung metastasis with 52.8 Gy equivalent dose per four fractions using four ports.
  • She died 19 months after initial treatment due to brain metastases.
  • The primary irradiated tumor disappeared completely 12 months after initial treatment.
  • The vaginal tumor, right inguinal lymph node, and lung tumor treated with carbon ion radiotherapy did not show any evidence of recurrence until her death.
  • Carbon ion radiotherapy may be of value for vaginal malignant melanoma as a conservative approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / radiotherapy. Vaginal Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Carbon Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Dacarbazine / therapeutic use. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Ions / therapeutic use. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17451456.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Carbon Radioisotopes; 0 / Ions; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine
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13. Betschart C, von Orelli S, Mihic D, Fink D: [Primary malignant melanoma of the vagina--case report and review of the literature]. Gynakol Geburtshilfliche Rundsch; 2007;47(1):39-44
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  • [Title] [Primary malignant melanoma of the vagina--case report and review of the literature].
  • [Transliterated title] Primares malignes Melanom der Vagina--Fallbericht und Literaturubersicht.
  • The primary malignant melanoma of the vagina is a very rare tumor with less than 300 cases reported worldwide.
  • Metastatic melanomas of the vagina are even rarer and only 5 cases have been reported so far.
  • We describe the case of patient with a melanoma of the left side of the vagina with a tumor size of 6 cm and a tumor invasion of 2.5 cm.
  • At the time of diagnosis there were no signs of nodal metastases in the positron emission tomography.
  • In the literature, wide local excision with adjuvant radiotherapy is recommended, and radical surgery with adjuvant radiotherapy as second-line therapy.
  • To reduce the risk of metastases, we had planned an immunotherapy with interferon-alpha, which has been shown to improve relapse-free and overall survival in patients with high-risk cutaneous melanoma.
  • Unfortunately, the cancer was found to have heavily metastasized 6 months later; the patient therefore received a palliative chemotherapy with dacarbazine and thalidomide.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / diagnosis. Vaginal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Palliative Care. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Vagina / pathology. Vagina / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17272935.001).
  • [ISSN] 1018-8843
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynäkologisch-geburtshilfliche Rundschau
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynakol Geburtshilfliche Rundsch
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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14. Gupta D, Neto AG, Deavers MT, Silva EG, Malpica A: Metastatic melanoma to the vagina: clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of three cases and literature review. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2003 Apr;22(2):136-40
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  • [Title] Metastatic melanoma to the vagina: clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of three cases and literature review.
  • We report the clinicopathologic features of three cases of malignant melanoma metastatic to the vagina; only one similar case has been previously reported.
  • The age of the patients ranged from 33 to 70 years; two presented with vaginal bleeding.
  • Two patients had a history of a previous primary malignant melanoma, one a preauricular melanoma treated 7 years earlier and the other a vulvar melanoma treated 2 years earlier.
  • In the third case, a primary malignant melanoma was found on the sole of the right foot after the patient had presented with the vaginal metastases.
  • On gross examination, the vaginal tumors were polypoid; two were on the posterior wall and one was on the anterior wall.
  • All were of epithelioid cell type and were positive with S-100 and microphthalmia-transcription factor.
  • One patient underwent wide local excision of tumor followed by chemotherapy, one patient had intracavitary radiotherapy, and one had palliative radiotherapy to the brain only.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Melanoma / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Vaginal Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antigens, Neoplasm. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. MART-1 Antigen. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor. Monophenol Monooxygenase / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Retrospective Studies. S100 Proteins / metabolism. Transcription Factors / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 12649667.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / MART-1 Antigen; 0 / MITF protein, human; 0 / MLANA protein, human; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / S100 Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; EC 1.14.18.1 / Monophenol Monooxygenase
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15. Ben-Hur H, Zusman R, Zusman I: Autologous soluble tumor-associated antigens prevent the toxic side effects of cancer chemotherapy and inhibit the progress of tumorigenesis: case report. Oncol Rep; 2003 Nov-Dec;10(6):2059-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Autologous soluble tumor-associated antigens prevent the toxic side effects of cancer chemotherapy and inhibit the progress of tumorigenesis: case report.
  • In this communication, we report for the first time, that immunization of cancer patients with autologous soluble tumor-associated antigens (sTAA) isolated from their own serum prevents the toxic side effects of chemotherapy, improves the patients' clinical status, and has therapeutic effects without chemotherapy.
  • In 2001 and 2002, two cancer patients were treated, during chemotherapy, with autologous sTAA.
  • Toxic side effects caused by chemotherapy decreased or even disappeared.
  • We concluded that vaccination of patients with autologous sTAA prevents the toxic side effects of chemotherapy in cancer patients and improves their clinical status.
  • We suggest that immunotherapy with autologous sTAA provides significant clinical benefits in cancer patients and appears to be an important new adjuvant treatment of cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic / therapeutic use. Antigens, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Cancer Vaccines. Immunotherapy, Active / methods. Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Colon, Sigmoid / surgery. Colonic Diseases / therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Melanoma / pathology. Melanoma / surgery. Middle Aged. Polyps / therapy. Vaginal Diseases / therapy

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  • (PMID = 14534743.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Cancer Vaccines
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16. Durrieu G, Rigal M, Bugat R, Lapeyre-Mestre M: Fertility and outcomes of pregnancy after chemotherapy in a sample of childbearing aged women. Fundam Clin Pharmacol; 2004 Oct;18(5):573-9
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  • [Title] Fertility and outcomes of pregnancy after chemotherapy in a sample of childbearing aged women.
  • The aim of the study was to review the characteristics and outcomes of pregnancies occurring in women of childbearing age after chemotherapy for malignant disease.
  • Between November 1998 and October 1999, a total of 16 patients who were treated for ovary (three), mole (one), vaginal (one), breast (four), Hodgkin's disease (four), lung (one), melanoma (one) and osteosarcoma (one) carcinoma were identified and retrospectively questioned about their fertility status.
  • Five patients (31%) experienced anomalies of hormonal cycle during and after the treatment.
  • The present survey suggests that cytotoxic drug exposure had no deleterious effects on subsequent pregnancies.
  • A prospective and systemic survey would be the only means able to clarify the actual cancer therapy on reproductive outcome and to investigate the long-term effects in the progeny.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Fertility / drug effects. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Abnormalities, Drug-Induced / epidemiology. Abnormalities, Drug-Induced / etiology. Abortion, Spontaneous / epidemiology. Abortion, Spontaneous / etiology. Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Outcome / epidemiology. Premature Birth / epidemiology. Premature Birth / etiology. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome


17. Gökaslan H, Sişmanoğlu A, Pekin T, Kaya H, Ceyhan N: Primary malignant melanoma of the vagina: a case report and review of the current treatment options. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol; 2005 Aug 1;121(2):243-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary malignant melanoma of the vagina: a case report and review of the current treatment options.
  • A case with primary malignant melanoma located in the posterior lower third of the vagina was encountered and treated by surgery, postoperative immunotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • The need for such radical treatment prompted us to review the literature and discuss our case with the rarest localization of the tumor in the vagina.
  • We focused on the treatment options and the possible complication that may arise during the treatment of the primary malignant melanoma of the vagina.
  • The need for radical surgery was discussed and the current treatment options were reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / therapy. Vaginal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vaginal Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16054970.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2115
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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18. Moodley M, Daya M, Moodley J: Vaginal malignant melanoma: a case report and literature review. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2004 Jul-Aug;14(4):687-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Vaginal malignant melanoma: a case report and literature review.
  • Vaginal melanomas are rare genital malignancies occurring mainly in the 6th and 7th decades of life.
  • In the past, various treatment modalities have been recommended including radical pelvic surgery.
  • More recently, more conservative treatment in the form of wide local excision combined with adjuvant chemotherapy, high-dose radiotherapy, and immunotherapy seem to have promising results.
  • We describe a patient with vaginal malignant melanoma treated with conservative local excision as well as adjuvant radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and interferon.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / therapy. Vaginal Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15304168.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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19. Ma SQ, Bai CM, Zhong S, Yu XH, Lang JH: Clinical analysis of primary malignant melanoma of the cervix. Chin Med Sci J; 2005 Dec;20(4):257-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical analysis of primary malignant melanoma of the cervix.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical and pathological characteristics of primary cervical malignant melanoma, and its prognosis.
  • METHODS: The clinical and pathological data of four patients with primary malignant melanoma of the cervix were analyzed retrospectively.
  • Nerve tissue protein S-100 and monoclonal antibody to melanoma (HMB-45) were measured in all cases by immunohistochemical method.
  • Three of them received chemotherapy preoperation or postoperation, and one of them received biotherapy with interferon-gamma and interleukin-2 at the same time.
  • Clinical symptoms presented with irregular vaginal bleeding, postcoital bleeding, or increase of vaginal discharge.
  • All the four cases were pathologically diagnosed with cervical malignant melanoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: S-100 protein and HMB-45 play very important roles in the diagnosis of primary malignant melanoma of cervix.
  • Radical hysterectomy, chemotherapy combined with dimethyl triazemo imidazole carboxamide and biological therapies may improve the prognosis of the primary malignant melanoma of cervix if the disease could be diagnosed in an early stage.

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  • International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .
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  • (PMID = 16422255.001).
  • [ISSN] 1001-9294
  • [Journal-full-title] Chinese medical sciences journal = Chung-kuo i hsueh k'o hsueh tsa chih
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chin. Med. Sci. J.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / S100 Proteins; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma
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20. Harting MS, Kim KB: Biochemotherapy in patients with advanced vulvovaginal mucosal melanoma. Melanoma Res; 2004 Dec;14(6):517-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Biochemotherapy in patients with advanced vulvovaginal mucosal melanoma.
  • Patients with advanced vulvovaginal mucosal melanoma generally have a dismal prognosis, and no effective systemic therapy for the disease has been reported.
  • We evaluated the medical records of all patients with advanced vulvovaginal mucosal melanoma treated with biochemotherapy at our institution.
  • Our search yielded 11 patients with adequate documentation for study inclusion: eight patients had undergone treatment with cisplatin (CDDP), vinblastine (VB), dacarbazine (DTIC), interferon-alpha (IFN) and interleukin-2 (IL-2), one with CDDP, VB, DTIC and IFN, one with CDDP, temozolomide and IFN, and one with CDDP, VB, DTIC, tamoxifen, IFN and IL-2.
  • All IL-2 treatments were administered intravenously.
  • Two patients did not return for follow-up evaluation after the completion of treatment.
  • The median time to disease progression in all 11 patients was 3 months; however, the median time to disease progression in those with a partial response or stable disease was 6 months.
  • Biochemotherapy appears to have significant activity against advanced vulvovaginal melanoma, and should be considered as a systemic treatment option for advanced, metastatic, vulvovaginal melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Melanoma / drug therapy. Mucous Membrane / drug effects. Vaginal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Vulvar Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Interferon-alpha / administration & dosage. Interleukin-2 / administration & dosage. Male. Medical Records. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Survival Rate. Tamoxifen / administration & dosage. Treatment Outcome. Vinblastine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 15577323.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-8931
  • [Journal-full-title] Melanoma research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Melanoma Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Interleukin-2; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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21. Lai YH, D'Souza MJ: Formulation and evaluation of an oral melanoma vaccine. J Microencapsul; 2007 May;24(3):235-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Formulation and evaluation of an oral melanoma vaccine.
  • The purpose of this study was to formulate and evaluate the physicochemical properties and efficacy of an oral melanoma vaccine.
  • Blood, feces and vaginal wash were collected weekly and analysed by ELISA.
  • The oral melanoma vaccine microparticles demonstrated desirable particle size, product yield, and zeta potentials.
  • [MeSH-major] Cancer Vaccines / chemistry. Cancer Vaccines / pharmacology. Melanoma, Experimental / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Animals. Calorimetry, Differential Scanning. Drug Evaluation, Preclinical. Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared

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  • (PMID = 17454435.001).
  • [ISSN] 0265-2048
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of microencapsulation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Microencapsul
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cancer Vaccines
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22. An JS, Wu LY, Li N, Li B, Yu GZ, Liu LY: [Clinical analysis of 42 cases of primary malignant melanoma in female genital tract]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi; 2007 May;42(5):320-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Clinical analysis of 42 cases of primary malignant melanoma in female genital tract].
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical characteristics, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of primary malignant melanoma in female genital tract.
  • METHODS: The clinical data of 42 patients of primary malignant melanoma in female genital tract were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: The tumors were originated from vulva, vagina and cervix in 14 (33%), 23 (55%) and 5 (12%) cases, respectively.
  • S-100 protein was positive in all cases, and monoclonal antibody to melanoma of human (HMB-45) was positive in 14 cases.
  • In the 40 patients who received surgery, univariate analysis showed that the adjuvant chemotherapy improved the recurrence-free survival and the overall survival significantly (P < 0.05), and the other factors including radical surgery, regional lymphadenectomy, biotherapy and radiotherapy did not affect prognosis (P > 0.05).
  • Compared with chemotherapy, biochemotherapy did not improve prognosis significantly (P > 0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Biopsy for the malignant melanoma in female genital tract has high misdiagnosis rate.
  • Surgery plays an important role in treatment, while the adjuvant chemotherapy could improve survival effectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Genital Neoplasms, Female / diagnosis. Genital Neoplasms, Female / therapy. Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymph Node Excision. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy. Retrospective Studies. S100 Proteins / analysis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / therapy. Vaginal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vaginal Neoplasms / metabolism. Vaginal Neoplasms / therapy. Vulvar Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vulvar Neoplasms / metabolism. Vulvar Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17673044.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-567X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / S100 Proteins
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23. Yücesoy G, Kus E, Cakiroglu Y, Muezzinoglu B, Yildiz K, Yucesoy I: Primary malignant melanoma of the cervix: report of a case. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2009 Apr;279(4):573-5
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary malignant melanoma of the cervix: report of a case.
  • BACKGROUND: To present a case of primary malignant melanoma of the cervix.
  • CASE: The patient was admitted with the complaint of vaginal bleeding.
  • Histopathology showed a malignant neoplasm with increased vascularity, indicating the possibility of a primary uterine cervical melanoma.
  • Diagnosis of malignant melanoma was confirmed with immunohistochemistry, which showed diffuse positive reactions for S-100 protein and HBM-45, with no reaction for epithelial markers, namely cytokeratin AE1/AE3 and epithelial membrane antigen.
  • An extensive search for a melanotic lesion in skin and in uveal tract was performed to verify the distinct site of melanoma.
  • Radiotherapy or chemotherapy was not performed in the postoperative period.
  • CONCLUSION: Primary malignant melanoma of the cervix is a rare cervical malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18726108.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0711
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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24. Gupta D, Deavers MT, Silva EG, Malpica A: Malignant melanoma involving the ovary: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 23 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2004 Jun;28(6):771-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignant melanoma involving the ovary: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 23 cases.
  • Ovarian malignant melanoma (MM), primary or metastatic, is an extremely rare tumor and in the absence of a previous diagnosis can represent a diagnostic challenge.
  • The tumor size ranged from 4.5 to 23 cm (average 10 cm); the melanoma arising in a cystic teratoma was 0.2 mm in thickness.
  • The tumor cell type was epithelioid in 19 cases, spindled in 2 cases, mixed epithelioid and spindled in 1 case, and small cell in 1 case.
  • Treatment performed in 18 of the cases are as follows: oophorectomy with/without chemotherapy (10); total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with/without chemotherapy (6); vaginal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and chemotherapy (1); and total abdominal hysterectomy with salpingo-oophorectomy (1).
  • Thirteen patients died of disease (range 2-76 months), 3 are alive with disease (6-18 months), and 2 have no evidence of disease at 24 and 96 months; one was the patient with melanoma arising within a teratoma.
  • Nodular or diffuse pattern and epithelioid cell type are most frequently seen, and the tumor can be mistaken for germ cell and sex cord stromal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antigens, Neoplasm. Calbindin 2. DNA-Binding Proteins / analysis. Ethnic Groups. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Immunohistochemistry. Inhibins / analysis. MART-1 Antigen. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor. Middle Aged. Monophenol Monooxygenase / analysis. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. S100 Calcium Binding Protein G / analysis. S100 Proteins / analysis. Teratoma / pathology. Transcription Factors / analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15166669.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / CALB2 protein, human; 0 / Calbindin 2; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / MART-1 Antigen; 0 / MITF protein, human; 0 / MLANA protein, human; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein G; 0 / S100 Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins; EC 1.14.18.1 / Monophenol Monooxygenase
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25. Pusceddu S, Bajetta E, Buzzoni R, Carcangiu ML, Platania M, Del Vecchio M, Ditto A: Primary uterine cervix melanoma resembling malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor: a case report. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2008 Oct;27(4):596-600
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

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  • [Title] Primary uterine cervix melanoma resembling malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor: a case report.
  • A rare variant of malignant melanoma (MM) of the uterine cervix that mimics a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) is described.
  • A 43-year-old white woman was admitted to the hospital complaining of genital discharge and vaginal bleeding.
  • Neoadjuvant chemotherapy and total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-ovariectomy plus pelvic lymphadenectomy were performed, and the diagnosis was MPNST, FIGO IIB.
  • The patient remained disease-free for 43 months, when an abdominal computed tomographic scan showed local polypoid vaginal lesions, with histological features of typical MM.
  • A pathological review was obtained in our institution by a gynecological pathologist, who defined the primary neoplasm in the cervix as an MM, with a pattern of growth histologically simulating an MPNST, metastatic to the vagina.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / pathology. Nerve Sheath Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


26. Jin B, Pickens A, Shah MB, Turrisi A, Saleh H: Primary large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the vagina: cytomorphology of previously unreported case. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 Dec;38(12):925-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the vagina: cytomorphology of previously unreported case.
  • Squamous carcinoma is the most common malignancy of the vagina.
  • Other malignancies include adenocarcinoma, melanoma, lymphoma, and very rarely, neuroendocrine carcinoma/small-cell carcinoma.
  • In this report, we describe a case of LCNEC of the vagina, which is believed to be the first case to date in the English literature.
  • The patient is a 53-year old gravida 3, para 2, African-American woman who had a 4 month history of severe pelvic pain and difficulty voiding and was found to have a firm plate-like mass on the anterior vaginal wall.
  • Thin prep of vaginal swap was interpreted as atypical glandular cells; however, the biopsies showed a large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma which was confirmed by diffuse strong immunoreactivity to AE1/3, CAM5.2, CK7, and CD56 in the tumor cells.
  • Subsequent clinical workup showed that the patient also had numerous metastatic nodules in the bilateral lungs and a vaginal-urethral fistula caused by the tumor.
  • The patient underwent palliative radiation of pelvis for local pain control and then chemotherapy.
  • Although the vaginal tumor increased in size even after radiation, her symptoms were under control and she was doing well for a short period of time.
  • The patient is still alive but developed brain metastasis a year later after initial diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Large Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Vaginal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD56 / metabolism. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 20222107.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD56
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27. Luo LM, Huang HF, Pan LY, Shen K, Wu M, Xu L: [Clinical analysis of 42 cases of primary malignant tumor in vagina]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi; 2008 Dec;43(12):923-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Clinical analysis of 42 cases of primary malignant tumor in vagina].
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical characters, treatment and prognosis of primary malignant tumor in vagina.
  • METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 42 patients diagnosed with primary malignant tumor in vagina in Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH) between Jan 1984 and Aug 2006 was performed.
  • Thirteen cases were squamous carcinoma, 13 cases were malignant melanoma, 8 cases were adenocarcinoma, 3 cases were yolk sac tumor and 5 cases were other types.
  • The majority of patients were treated with surgery combined with radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • The longest follow up was 10 years, with the median time of 2 years.
  • The 2-year survival rate of patients with squamous carcinoma was 46.8%, malignant melanoma 72.9%, adenocarcinoma 20.0% and patients with yolk sac tumor were all alive tumor-free after 6 - 10 years' follow up.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The prognosis of primary malignant tumor in vagina is affected by clinical stage and histological type.
  • As to malignant melanoma, radical surgery combined with chemotherapy and immunotherapy produce good effects.
  • Patients with yolk sac tumor can be cured only with chemotherapy.
  • As to other types, more treatment experiences are needed.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Vaginal Neoplasms / pathology. Vaginal Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hysterectomy / methods. Infant. Melanoma / mortality. Melanoma / pathology. Melanoma / surgery. Melanoma / therapy. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Vagina / pathology. Vagina / surgery. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19134332.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-567X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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28. Toyoshima M, Okamura C, Niikura H, Ito K, Yaegashi N: Epithelioid leiomyosarcoma of the uterine cervix: a case report and review of the literature. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Jun;97(3):957-60
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • CASE: A 53-year-old Japanese woman was admitted to our university hospital due to massive vaginal bleeding from a cervical tumor.
  • The patient underwent adjuvant chemotherapy and has been disease-free for over 20 months.
  • CONCLUSION: Immunohistochemical studies may be needed to differentiate among the alternative diagnoses of malignant melanoma, metastatic carcinoma, and epithelioid sarcoma.

  • Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Leiomyosarcoma.
  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Cervical Cancer.
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  • (PMID = 15890394.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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29. Akçay MN: Metastatic disease in the breast. Breast; 2002 Dec;11(6):526-8
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Of solid tumors at other sites, the most common cancers to metastasize to the breast are, in declining order of frequency, malignant melanoma, lymphoma, lung cancer, ovarian carcinoma, soft tissue sarcoma, and gastrointestinal and genitourinary tumors.
  • Besides these, metastases from osteosarcoma, thyroid neoplasms, and cervical, vaginal and endometrial carcinomas to the breast have been sporadically reported in the literature.
  • In recent reports, particular importance has been attached to the performance of fine-needle aspiration cytology diagnosis, to differentiate a metastasis from a second primary tumor, thus making it possible to avoid unnecessary mastectomy and ensure that appropriate chemotherapy and radiotherapy are implemented.

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  • (PMID = 14965721.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-9776
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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