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1. Hentati D, Belghith B, Kochbati L, Driss M, Maalej M: Clear cell carcinoma of the uterus. Tunis Med; 2010 Apr;88(4):230-3
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  • After a median follw up of 32 months, 4 patients presented with recurrences: one vaginal recurrence, two cases of pelvic and abdominal recurrence and abdominal recurrence in one patient.
  • Two patients with abdomino-pelvic recurrences progressed despite the association of surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Extrauterine extension is frequent at diagnosis and not correlated to classical risk factors observed in endometrioid carcinoma.
  • A comptlete surgical staging is necessary for adjuvant treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • (PMID = 20446254.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-4131
  • [Journal-full-title] La Tunisie médicale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tunis Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Tunisia
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2. Dvalishvili I, Charkviani L, Turashvili G, Burkadze G: The expression of cadherin e and clinical prognostic factors in uterine endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Georgian Med News; 2005 Nov;(128):17-21
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  • [Title] The expression of cadherin e and clinical prognostic factors in uterine endometrioid adenocarcinoma.
  • The aim of our study was to evaluate the association between the expression of E-cadherin and clinical prognostic factors in uterine endometrioid adenocarcinoma of different histological grade.
  • We have studied 104 postmenopausal women with diagnosis of endometrioid adenocarcinoma.
  • We evaluated the presence of obesity and vaginal bleeding.
  • 4 mm sections were stained by hematoxylin-eosin, von Gieson, and histological type of cancer, metastatic involvement of lymph nodes and depth of myometrial invasion were evaluated.
  • Histological study by hematoxylin-eosin has showed grade 1 endometrioid carcinoma in 35 cases (33.7%, group I), grade 2 adenocarcinoma in 44 cases (42.3%, group II), and grade 3 adenocarcinoma in 25 cases (24%, group III).
  • Our results suggest that the loss of E-cadherin expression is associated with a higher histological grade of uterine endometrioid adenocarcinoma, depth of myometrial invasion, lymph node positivity, coexistence of obesity and vaginal bleeding.
  • Therefore, E-cadherin negativity can be used as a poor prognostic factor and more aggressive chemotherapy regimen should be used.
  • [MeSH-major] Cadherins / metabolism. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / metabolism. Uterine Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16369055.001).
  • [ISSN] 1512-0112
  • [Journal-full-title] Georgian medical news
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Georgian Med News
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Georgia (Republic)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cadherins
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3. Areia A, Sousa V, Frutuoso C, Dias I, Martins MI, de Oliveira CF: Endometrioid adenocarcinoma arising in endometriosis foci six years after estrogen replacement therapy: a case report. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2004;25(2):255-6
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  • [Title] Endometrioid adenocarcinoma arising in endometriosis foci six years after estrogen replacement therapy: a case report.
  • We present a case of a 53-year-old woman who developed an endometrioid adenocarcinoma six years after total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH) and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO), who was on estrogenic-only hormone replacement therapy (HRT).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / diagnosis. Endometriosis / pathology. Vaginal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Diagnosis, Differential. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Rectal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Rectal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Rectal Neoplasms / secondary. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / secondary. Uterine Hemorrhage / etiology

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  • (PMID = 15032298.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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4. Toyoda H, Hirai T, Ishii E: Alpha-fetoprotein producing uterine corpus carcinoma: A hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the endometrium. Pathol Int; 2000 Oct;50(10):847-52

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  • [Title] Alpha-fetoprotein producing uterine corpus carcinoma: A hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the endometrium.
  • The patient complained of abnormal vaginal bleeding of 10 days' duration.
  • The postoperative serum AFP value transiently decreased with chemotherapy, however, lung metastases were found and the patient died 12 months following surgery.
  • Histologically, the tumor was composed of the main medullary carcinoma area with microcysts and admixed small areas of well-differentiated endometrioid adenocarcinoma, accompanied by a smooth transition with one another.
  • Although the histogenesis remains controversial, we assume the hypothesis that the tumor may arise in the endometrium per se in association with abnormal differentiation of muellerian duct elements.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. alpha-Fetoproteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 11107058.001).
  • [ISSN] 1320-5463
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] AUSTRALIA
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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5. Fujiwara K, Suzuki S, Yoden E, Ishikawa H, Imajo Y, Kohno I: Local radiation therapy for localized relapsed or refractory ovarian cancer patients with or without symptoms after chemotherapy. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2002 May-Jun;12(3):250-6
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  • [Title] Local radiation therapy for localized relapsed or refractory ovarian cancer patients with or without symptoms after chemotherapy.
  • The purpose of this paper is to prospectively evaluate the effects of local radiation therapy upon localized ovarian cancer following chemotherapy.
  • Patients with objective relapses or refractory disease but with localized epithelial ovarian cancers and who had undergone at least one regimen of chemotherapy were enrolled in this study.
  • The interval between previous chemotherapy and radiation therapy was 4.5 months.
  • The irradiation dose was 52.3 +/- 8.3 Gy.
  • Forty-four disease sites, including the lymph nodes, vaginal cuff, pelvis, abdomen, subcutaneous regions, and the brain were irradiated.
  • Regression rates correlated with longer survivals (P = 0.0195) after radiation therapy.
  • Survival was significantly better when radiation therapy was given before patients had symptoms (P = 0.001).
  • We conclude that local radiation therapy may be one of the treatment options for relapsed or refractory but localized ovarian cancer, particularly when the tumor is small and/or located in the lymph nodes, even when patients had no symptoms.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / radiotherapy. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / radiotherapy. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / radiotherapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / drug therapy. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / radiotherapy. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / pathology. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / radiotherapy. Pilot Projects. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 12060445.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Yokoyama Y, Sakamoto A, Umemoto M, Futagami M, Sakamoto T, Maruyama H, Sato S, Mizunuma H: A case of adenocarcinoma of the endometrial type mixed with a clear cell component that metastasized to the vagina. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2003;24(5):435-7
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  • [Title] A case of adenocarcinoma of the endometrial type mixed with a clear cell component that metastasized to the vagina.
  • We present a patient with adenocarcinoma of the endometrial type mixed with a clear cell component (AMC) that metastasized to the vagina and one of the pelvic lymph nodes.
  • She underwent a radical hysterectomy and pelvic and paraaortic lymphadenectomy, and then received postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Histologic features of the endometrial tumor included clear cell adenocarcinoma with an approximate 10% extent to endometrioid adenocarcinoma.
  • On the other hand, histologic examination on the vaginal tumor predominatly showed clear cell adenocarcinoma and also revealed endometrioid adenocarcinoma to a very small extent, suggesting metastasis to the vagina from AMC.
  • On immunohistochemical examination, expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, VEGF-C and VEGF-D was apparently stronger in the component of clear cell adenocarcinoma than in that of endometrioid adenocarcinoma.
  • Interestingly, locations of endometrial and vaginal lesions were consistent with the sites of an intrauterine device and ring pessary insertion, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / secondary. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Vaginal Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 14584665.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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7. Silva EG, Deavers MT, Bodurka DC, Malpica A: Association of low-grade endometrioid carcinoma of the uterus and ovary with undifferentiated carcinoma: a new type of dedifferentiated carcinoma? Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2006 Jan;25(1):52-8
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  • [Title] Association of low-grade endometrioid carcinoma of the uterus and ovary with undifferentiated carcinoma: a new type of dedifferentiated carcinoma?
  • Low-grade endometrioid carcinomas, either of the endometrium or the ovaries, usually have an excellent prognosis.
  • The association of this type of tumor with undifferentiated carcinoma is rare.
  • At presentation, the patients had either vaginal bleeding or pelvic pain.
  • The endometrioid carcinoma involved the endometrium in 14 cases, the endometrium and 1 or both ovaries in 9 cases, and the ovaries in 2 cases.
  • Undifferentiated carcinoma associated with low-grade endometrioid carcinoma was found at presentation in 19 grade 1 or 2 endometrioid carcinomas: 15 in the endometrium and 5 in the ovary.
  • Undifferentiated carcinoma was found after resection of low-grade endometrioid carcinoma in six cases, involving the retroperitoneum, pelvis, vagina, or liver.
  • Twenty-two patients received additional therapy as follows: chemotherapy (), radiotherapy (), and tamoxifen ().
  • Foci of undifferentiated carcinoma may be confused with solid endometrioid adenocarcinoma erroneously leading to the diagnosis of a grade 3 or a significantly less aggressive grade 2 endometrioid carcinoma.
  • The recognition of undifferentiated carcinoma in an otherwise low-grade endometrioid adenocarcinoma is extremely important because it indicates aggressive behavior.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [ErratumIn] Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2006 Jul;25(3):304
  • (PMID = 16306785.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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8. Fruscio R, Padula F, Mancini E, Pellegrino A, De Nictolis M: Malignant transformation of vaginal endometriosis treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and surgery. J Obstet Gynaecol Res; 2008 Aug;34(4 Pt 2):706-8
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  • [Title] Malignant transformation of vaginal endometriosis treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and surgery.
  • Physical examination revealed a 3 x 3.5 cm vaginal nodule.
  • The histological examination of a bioptic sample revealed a moderately differentiated endometrioid adenocarcinoma.
  • The patient was treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery and is free from disease after 24 months.
  • The frequency of malignant transformation of vaginal endometriosis is unknown.
  • In our case, preoperative chemotherapy allowed a complete resection without a vaginal demolitive surgery.
  • This therapeutic option may be considered in order to reduce surgical resection and to preserve sexual function.
  • However, because of the rarity of this disease, it is difficult to establish a standard treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / etiology. Endometriosis / complications. Vaginal Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Neoadjuvant Therapy

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  • (PMID = 18840186.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-8076
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of obstetrics and gynaecology research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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9. Myriokefalitaki E, Iavazzo C, Vorgias G, Akrivos T: A two eterochronous primary gynaecological malignancies of different origin. Bratisl Lek Listy; 2009;110(11):726-8
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  • CASE: A 65-year-old para-2, white obese female, presented in our department 4 years ago, due to a single event of vaginal spotting.
  • Histology showed an endometrioid adenocarcinoma of endometrium stage Ib, moderately differentiated.
  • No additional therapy was given.
  • Although, recurrence on vaginal cuff was possible, the biopsies of anterior vaginal wall showed a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina.
  • The patient was classified as stage II vaginal carcinoma and underwent complete radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: This case indicates that female genital carcinomas of different histological origins may occur with minimal time-interval, even in the absence of known predisposing factors like previous chemo-radiotherapy, HPV infection or diethylstilbestrol exposure.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis. Vaginal Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20120445.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-9248
  • [Journal-full-title] Bratislavské lekárske listy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bratisl Lek Listy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Slovakia
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10. Silver SA, Devouassoux-Shisheboran M, Mezzetti TP, Tavassoli FA: Mesonephric adenocarcinomas of the uterine cervix: a study of 11 cases with immunohistochemical findings. Am J Surg Pathol; 2001 Mar;25(3):379-87
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  • Mesonephric adenocarcinoma is a rare variant of cervical carcinoma with relatively few, well-documented cases reported.
  • Most (64%) patients had abnormal vaginal bleeding.
  • Microscopically, the carcinomas showed various morphologies, most commonly a small tubular pattern or a ductal pattern resembling endometrioid adenocarcinoma; one tumor had an associated malignant spindle cell component.
  • In a patient with stage IB disease, a mediastinal metastasis and a malignant pleural effusion developed 5.6 years after diagnosis, and the patient died of disease at 6.2 years.
  • Another patient with stage IB disease and a positive vaginal cuff margin that recurred locally after 1.7 years received chemotherapy and was alive and clinically free of disease at 2.5 years.
  • This staining profile is similar to that of mesonephric remnants and may be useful in the distinction of mesonephric carcinoma from mullerian endometrioid adenocarcinoma, with which it may be confused.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Rate


11. Pinto AB, Gopal M, Herzog TJ, Pfeifer JD, Williams DB: Successful in vitro fertilization pregnancy after conservative management of endometrial cancer. Fertil Steril; 2001 Oct;76(4):826-9
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  • OBJECTIVE: To report a successful IVF pregnancy in an infertile couple after conservative treatment of endometrial cancer.
  • INTERVENTION(S): Grade 1 endometrial adenocarcinoma diagnosed at hysteroscopy, followed by dilatation and curettage (D&C).
  • On follow-up D&C, pathologic examination was normal after high-dose progesterone therapy.
  • Laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was then done.
  • No residual endometrial cancer was evident in the hysterectomy specimen, but a 1.1-cm cystic mixed endometrioid and clear cell-type adenocarcinoma was discovered in the left ovary.
  • The patient is doing well after 3 cycles of chemotherapy; her CA-125 level is normal.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / therapy. Fertilization in Vitro. Pregnancy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy, Vaginal. Neoplasms, Second Primary / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11591422.001).
  • [ISSN] 0015-0282
  • [Journal-full-title] Fertility and sterility
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fertil. Steril.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Ma SK, Zhang HT, Sun YC, Wu LY: [Synchronous primary cancers of the endometrium and ovary: review of 43 cases]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2008 Sep;30(9):690-4
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  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical and pathological characteristics, treatment methods, and prognosis of synchronous primary cancers of the endometrium and ovary.
  • The most common symptoms were abnormal vaginal bleeding (69.8%) and abdominal or pelvic pain (44.2%).Pelvic masses were found in 39.5% of the patients and enlarged corpus in 27.9% at physical examination, while pelvic masses were found in 67.4% of the 43 patients (29 cases) and thickening or abnormal endometrium in 23.3% (10 cases) during ultrasound examination.
  • Thirty-eight of the 43 patients (88.4%) had a pathologically proven endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • The predominant ovarian histology was endometrioid or mixed tumor with endometrioid components (30/43, 69.8%).
  • Postoperatively, 26 patients (60.5%) received adjuvant chemotherapy alone, 12 had chemotherapy plus radiotherapy, only one patient had radiation alone and the remaining 4 cases received no adjuvant treatment.
  • The 3- and 5-year survival rates of patients with both endometrioid and ovarian carcinomas were higher than that of those with non-endometrioid or mixed subtypes (93.8%, 82.0% vs. 79.7%, 69.0%).
  • Recurrence developed in 15 patients (34.9%).
  • It was showed by univariate analysis that lower CA125 level, early FIGO stage, and adjuvant chemotherapy plus radiotherapy significantly and positively affect the 5-year survival rates, while only early FIGO stage and chemotherapy plus radiotherapy were revealed by multivariate analysis as independent prognostic factors.
  • Surgical treatment alone may be enough for early stage patients.
  • Chemotherapy plus radiotherapy may be necessary for advanced stage patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid. Endometrial Neoplasms. Hysterectomy / methods. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Ovarian Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Proportional Hazards Models. Proteins / metabolism. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 19173912.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / NBR1 protein, human; 0 / Proteins
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13. Ettinger B, Kenemans P, Johnson SR, Mol-Arts M, Van Os S, Seifert W, Verweij PJ, Cummings SR: Endometrial effects of tibolone in elderly, osteoporotic women. Obstet Gynecol; 2008 Sep;112(3):653-9
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  • We evaluated effects on endometrial thickness in all women, and examined endometrial histology in 635 participants considered to be at increased risk for abnormalities (with unexpected vaginal bleeding or endometrial thickness more than 4 mm).
  • A marginal increase in grade 1 endometrioid adenocarcinoma (P=.06 compared with placebo) was found among women receiving tibolone.
  • Prevalences of vaginal bleeding during the study were 10.8% in the tibolone group and 2.8% in the placebo group (P<.001).
  • CONCLUSION: Tibolone treatment during 3 years minimally increased endometrial thickness, hyperplastic polyps, endometrial carcinoma, and vaginal bleeding.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / chemically induced. Endometrial Neoplasms / chemically induced. Estrogen Replacement Therapy / adverse effects. Norpregnenes / adverse effects. Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Bone Density Conservation Agents / pharmacology. Endometrium / drug effects. Endometrium / pathology. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia / chemically induced. Metrorrhagia / chemically induced. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18757665.001).
  • [ISSN] 0029-7844
  • [Journal-full-title] Obstetrics and gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Density Conservation Agents; 0 / Norpregnenes; FF9X0205V2 / tibolone
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14. Ajit D, Gavas S, Jagtap S, Chinoy RF: Cytodiagnostic problems in cervicovaginal smears from symptomatic breast cancer patients on tamoxifen therapy. Acta Cytol; 2009 Jul-Aug;53(4):383-8
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  • [Title] Cytodiagnostic problems in cervicovaginal smears from symptomatic breast cancer patients on tamoxifen therapy.
  • Of the 6 cases reported as adenocarcinoma, 3 were histologically confirmed, and the others were false positives.
  • Conversely, 1 false negative case histologically was an endometrioid carcinoma.
  • To avoid diagnostic errors, cervicovaginal smears should be repeated after discontinuing tamoxifen treatment.
  • Regular follow-up with cervicovaginal smears from patients on tamoxifen treatment is recommended.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervix Uteri / pathology. Tamoxifen / adverse effects. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Vagina / pathology. Vaginal Neoplasms / pathology. Vaginal Smears
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / adverse effects. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. False Positive Reactions. Female. Humans. Middle Aged


15. Abadi MA, Barakat RR, Saigo PE: Effects of tamoxifen on cervicovaginal smears from patients with breast cancer. Acta Cytol; 2000 Mar-Apr;44(2):141-6
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  • STUDY DESIGN: A group of 48 women with prior breast cancer were divided into three groups: A, tamoxifen-treated patients who developed endometrial carcinoma (n = 20); B, patients with endometrial cancer not treated with tamoxifen (n = 22); and C, tamoxifen-treated patients with no endometrial carcinoma (n = 16).
  • The number of cases with endometrial cells was significantly higher in smears of treated patients who developed endometrial cancer (A) as compared to groups B and C (P = .01 and .02, respectively).
  • Histiocytes were also significantly increased in the two groups that subsequently developed endometrial carcinoma (A and B) as compared to the group that did not (group C) (P = .02).
  • CONCLUSION: Patients treated with tamoxifen exhibited a partial estrogenic effect in their smears regardless of whether they developed endometrial cancer.
  • However, the presence of endometrial cells in the smears indicated a higher risk of endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / chemically induced. Cervix Uteri / drug effects. Endometrial Neoplasms / chemically induced. Estrogen Antagonists / adverse effects. Tamoxifen / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / adverse effects. Epithelial Cells / drug effects. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Mitotic Index / drug effects. Vaginal Smears


16. Siow TR, Yeo MC, Khoo-Tan HS, Yap SP, Soong YL, Chua EJ, Soh LT, Lim YK, Chia YN, Yam KL: Stage 1C grade 3 endometrial cancer: the KK Hospital gynaecological oncology group experience. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2010 Dec;20(9):1557-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: It is our standard of care to include pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) in the staging of endometrial cancer, followed by adjuvant vaginal vault brachytherapy.
  • Details of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy were recorded, as were prognostic factors such as histological subtype and number of lymph nodes removed.
  • All but 1 case received postoperative vaginal vault brachytherapy.
  • Eight of 10 patients with nonendometrioid adenocarcinoma (eg, clear cell) histology also received adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Pelvic lymph node dissection and vaginal vault brachytherapy seem to be effective in preventing locoregional recurrences, with few associated adverse effects.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy should also be considered for cases with poor prognostic factors.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Algorithms. Brachytherapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Gynecology / organization & administration. Hospitals. Humans. Hysterectomy. Lymphatic Metastasis. Medical Oncology / organization & administration. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Singapore. Societies, Medical. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 21119369.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Dhar KK, NeedhiRajan T, Koslowski M, Woolas RP: Is levonorgestrel intrauterine system effective for treatment of early endometrial cancer? Report of four cases and review of the literature. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Jun;97(3):924-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Is levonorgestrel intrauterine system effective for treatment of early endometrial cancer? Report of four cases and review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Intrauterine progesterone therapy potentially provides a simple alternative treatment for women with Stage I Grade I endometrial cancers who are at high risk for surgery.
  • CASES: Four women had Stage I grade 1 endometrial adenocarcinoma with positive progesterone receptor.
  • One of three women who did not respond to treatment subsequently had a vaginal hysterectomy, which showed endometrial cancer with superficial myometrial invasion.
  • CONCLUSION: This report raises doubts about the effectiveness of intrauterine progesterone therapy as a definitive alternative for the treatment of early endometrial cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / drug therapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Levonorgestrel / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Drug Administration Routes. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Uterus

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  • (PMID = 15943993.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 5W7SIA7YZW / Levonorgestrel
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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18. Itoh K, Shiozawa T, Shiohara S, Ashida T, Konishi I: Endometrial carcinoma in septate uterus detected 6 months after full-term delivery: case report and review of the literature. Gynecol Oncol; 2004 Apr;93(1):242-7
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  • CASE: The patient complained of vaginal bleeding from 32 weeks' gestation, and had a spontaneous vaginal delivery at 37 weeks.
  • Histological examination revealed G3 endometrioid adenocarcinoma with squamous differentiation, which arose in the septum of the uterus and deeply invaded the myometrium.
  • The patient received postoperative chemotherapy and is healthy with no evidence of disease 3 years after the treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although pregnancy-associated endometrial carcinoma is rare, careful examinations are needed when unexplained vaginal bleeding continued.

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  • (PMID = 15047244.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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19. Albores-Saavedra J, Martinez-Benitez B, Luevano E: Small cell carcinomas and large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas of the endometrium and cervix: polypoid tumors and those arising in polyps may have a favorable prognosis. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2008 Jul;27(3):333-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The 2 small cell carcinomas of the endometrium arose from and were confined to endometrial polyps, one of which also showed foci of endometrioid adenocarcinoma.
  • Four patients presented with vaginal bleeding.
  • All 5 patients were treated by radical hysterectomy and 4 received adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • All patients are alive and disease-free from 9 months to 7 years after treatment (mean survival, 47 months).

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  • (PMID = 18580310.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Veras E, Deavers MT, Silva EG, Malpica A: Ovarian nonsmall cell neuroendocrine carcinoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 11 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 May;31(5):774-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The most common presentation was abdominal/pelvic pain (6 cases), followed by ascites (2 cases), pelvic mass, vaginal bleeding, and abdominal bloating (1 case each).
  • In 8 cases, NSCNEC was associated with other epithelial neoplasms, including mucinous neoplasms of low malignant potential, mucinous carcinoma, endometrioid carcinoma, mixed endometrioid and mucinous carcinoma, and a high-grade carcinoma, not otherwise specified.
  • In 2 cases, the tumor was associated with a mature cystic teratoma; one of them also containing an invasive moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma.
  • Seven patients were treated with total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy followed by chemotherapy.
  • One patient had a bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with omentectomy and appendectomy followed by chemotherapy; 1 patient had a total abdominal hysterectomy with right salpingo-oophorectomy followed by chemotherapy; one had a bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy followed by chemotherapy, and one had a right salpingo-oophorectomy with appendectomy followed by chemotherapy.
  • In summary, ovarian NSCNEC is an aggressive tumor with a tendency to present at advanced stage and cause death within a mean of 17 months after diagnosis; however, some patients, particularly those with stage I disease and/or those who have received platinum-based therapy, may have a more favorable prognosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Remission Induction. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17460463.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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