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1. Melonakos EJ, Santucci RA: Treatment of low-grade bulbar transitional cell carcinoma with urethral instillation of mitomycin C. Adv Urol; 2008;:173694
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  • [Title] Treatment of low-grade bulbar transitional cell carcinoma with urethral instillation of mitomycin C.
  • A 63-year old man was referred to us after three rapid recurrences of low-grade urethral papillary transitional cell carcinoma of the bulbar urethra, after repeated primary excision.
  • Cystoscopy confirmed 3-4 low-grade urethral transitional cell carcinomas, which were subsequently fulgurated.
  • After urethral healing, a solution of Mitomycin C (40 mg/80 cc) was instilled into the urethra for fifteen minutes and held in place with a penile clamp.
  • Urethral instillations were repeated weekly for six weeks.
  • This case highlights the successful treatment of urethral carcinoma with topical chemotherapy, which is usually reserved for the bladder, using a slight modification of standard technique.

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  • [Cites] BJU Int. 2006 Sep;98(3):526-31 [16925747.001]
  • [Cites] J Urol. 2000 Oct;164(4):1305 [10992392.001]
  • [Cites] J Urol. 2000 Oct;164(4):1306 [10992393.001]
  • [Cites] Urology. 1999 Jun;53(6):1126-32 [10367840.001]
  • (PMID = 18989359.001).
  • [ISSN] 1687-6369
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2575232
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2. Osai WE, Ng CS, Pagliaro LC: Positive response to bevacizumab in a patient with metastatic, chemotherapy-refractory urothelial carcinoma. Anticancer Drugs; 2008 Apr;19(4):427-9
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  • [Title] Positive response to bevacizumab in a patient with metastatic, chemotherapy-refractory urothelial carcinoma.
  • We report the case of a 78-year-old man with metastatic transitional-cell carcinoma with squamous differentiation that responded dramatically to the monoclonal antibody agent, bevacizumab.
  • The tumor originated in the bulbar urethra, with histology of poorly differentiated urothelial carcinoma.
  • Metastasis to a right inguinal lymph node was biopsy-confirmed as transitional-cell carcinoma with areas of keratinization.
  • At last follow-up, he had received 24 months of bevacizumab treatment with minimal toxicity and a positive response.
  • Mediators of angiogenesis have been implicated in the clinical progression of bladder cancer, although the role of angiogenesis inhibitors as treatment has not yet been defined.
  • The striking benefit achieved in this heavily treated patient suggests that bevacizumab could have clinically useful antitumor activity in advanced urothelial carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / drug therapy. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Urethral Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18454053.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-4973
  • [Journal-full-title] Anti-cancer drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab
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3. Giannarini G, Kessler TM, Thoeny HC, Nguyen DP, Meissner C, Studer UE: Do patients benefit from routine follow-up to detect recurrences after radical cystectomy and ileal orthotopic bladder substitution? Eur Urol; 2010 Oct;58(4):486-94
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  • BACKGROUND: The need for and intensity of follow-up to detect disease recurrence after radical cystectomy (RC) for transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) remains a matter for debate.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine whether diagnosis of asymptomatic recurrence after RC by routine follow-up investigations confers a survival benefit versus symptomatic recurrence.
  • DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Retrospective analysis of 479 patients with nonmetastatic bladder TCC receiving no neoadjuvant chemotherapy/radiation therapy and prospectively followed with a standardised protocol for a median 4.3 yr (range: 0.3-20.9) after RC at an academic tertiary referral centre.
  • The effects of age, nerve-sparing surgery, pathologic tumour stage, lymph node status, adjuvant chemotherapy, mode of recurrence diagnosis, and recurrence site on survival were assessed with multivariable Cox regression models.
  • Routine follow-up mostly detected lung metastases and urethral recurrences, while symptoms were predominantly the result of bone metastases and concomitant pelvic/distant recurrences.
  • Of 24 patients with urethral recurrences, 13 had carcinoma in situ (CIS).
  • Of these, 12 were successfully managed with urethra-sparing treatment, and 6 are still alive with no evidence of disease.
  • In multivariable analysis, mode of recurrence diagnosis and site of initial recurrence were the only independent predictors of CSS and OS.
  • Patients with recurrences detected by routine follow-up investigations and with secondary urothelial tumours as site of recurrence had a slightly but significantly higher survival probability.
  • Routine follow-up appears particularly effective in early detection of urethral CIS, which can be treated conservatively.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / surgery. Cystectomy. Ileum / transplantation. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / surgery. Urinary Reservoirs, Continent
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Early Detection of Cancer. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors


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4. Liptak JM, Brutscher SP, Monnet E, Dernell WS, Twedt DC, Kazmierski KJ, Walter CU, Mullins MN, Larue SM, Withrow SJ: Transurethral resection in the management of urethral and prostatic neoplasia in 6 dogs. Vet Surg; 2004 Sep-Oct;33(5):505-16
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  • [Title] Transurethral resection in the management of urethral and prostatic neoplasia in 6 dogs.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess cystoscopic transurethral resection (TUR) for the palliative management of dogs with neoplastic infiltration of the urethra.
  • METHODS: Cystoscopic examination and electrosurgical TUR were performed in dogs with urination difficulties caused by prostatic or urethral neoplasia.
  • Cystoscopic examination was used to determine the extent of neoplastic involvement of the urethra.
  • TUR involved piecemeal removal of neoplastic tissue from the urethral lumen using an electrocautery cutting loop.
  • Hemorrhage was controlled with a cystoscopic cauterized roller-ball.
  • In 2 male dogs, intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) was used to treat both prostatic neoplasia and the sublumbar lymph node bed.
  • Surgical technique, complications, adjuvant treatment, and outcome were recorded.
  • RESULTS: TUR was performed in 3 male dogs with prostatic carcinoma and 2 female dogs with urethral transitional cell carcinoma (TCC).
  • Iatrogenic urethral perforation occurred during TUR in 3 dogs.
  • Treatment-related complications included urinary tract infection and tumor seeding.
  • CONCLUSIONS: TUR (in combination with chemotherapy+/-IORT) resulted in rapid palliation of urination difficulties in male dogs with prostatic carcinoma.
  • In female dogs with urethral TCC, however, electrosurgical TUR cannot be recommended because of a high intra- and postoperative complication rate with no improvement in postoperative management compared with historical reports of tube cystostomy.
  • CLINICAL RELEVANCE: TUR is a novel alternative for the palliation of male dogs with prostatic carcinoma.
  • In female dogs with urethral TCC, electrosurgical TUR does not provide any advantages compared with tube cystostomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / veterinary. Dog Diseases / surgery. Electrosurgery / veterinary. Prostatic Neoplasms / veterinary. Urethral Neoplasms / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 15362989.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-3499
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary surgery : VS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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5. Koizumi T, Nakanishi R, Taue R, Yamaguchi K, Nakatuji H, Kishimoto T, Izaki H, Oka N, Takahashi M, Fukumori T, Kanayama HO: [Case of tuberculous epididymitis caused by intravesical BCG therapy]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2008 Sep;54(9):625-7
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  • [Title] [Case of tuberculous epididymitis caused by intravesical BCG therapy].
  • Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) therapy is commonly used against superficial urothelial carcinoma, especially carcinoma in situ (CIS).
  • We report a case of tuberculous epididymitis that occurred during a course of intravesical BCG therapy.
  • A 76-year-old man had received intravesical BCG therapy for multiple superficial bladder cancer and CIS in prostatic urethra after transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TUR-Bt).
  • He recognized hard nodules in the left scrotum after 4 times intravesical BCG therapy.
  • Histological diagnosis was tuberculous epididymitis.
  • Postoperatively, he was administered chemotherapy consisting of isoniazid, refampin and ethambutol.
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Intravesical. Aged. Antitubercular Agents / administration & dosage. Carcinoma in Situ / therapy. Cystectomy. Humans. Male. Orchiectomy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18975579.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antitubercular Agents; 0 / BCG Vaccine
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6. Cruz Guerra NA, del Valle Manteca A, Zamora Martínez T, Tarroc Blanco A: [Metacronous transitional cell carcinoma of the prostatic urethra in a patient with history of nephroureterectomy for upper urinary tract urothelial tumor]. Arch Esp Urol; 2004 Dec;57(10):1125-7
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  • [Title] [Metacronous transitional cell carcinoma of the prostatic urethra in a patient with history of nephroureterectomy for upper urinary tract urothelial tumor].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinoma transicional de uretra prostatica meta-crónico en paciente con antecedente de nefroureterectomía por tumor uroteual del tracto urinario superior.
  • OBJECTIVES: We report one case of Metacronous transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the prostatic urethra in a patient with history of left nephroureterectomy 22 years before for urothelial neoplasia of the upper urinary tract.
  • METHODS: We describe the case of a 56-year-old male patient who presents with oligosymptomatic hematuria for several months.
  • Cystourethroscopy showed irregular hyperemic lesions in the prostatic urethra, cold biopsy of which showed urothelial atypia.
  • Pathology report of fragments of a posterior transurethral resection (TUR) was compatible with high-grade superficial transitional cell neoplasia.
  • Chemotherapy did not achieve significant results.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We emphasize the notable metachronous character of the transitional cell carcinoma of the prostatic urethra with respect to the upper urinary tract TCC.
  • We also point out the metastasic capacity of these neoplasias, as well as the bad prognosis of those cases in which chemotherapy is not effective.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis. Urethral Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15714851.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0614
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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7. Hakenberg OW, Franke HJ, Froehner M, Wirth MP: The treatment of primary urethral carcinoma--the dilemmas of a rare condition: experience with partial urethrectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy. Onkologie; 2001 Feb;24(1):48-52
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  • [Title] The treatment of primary urethral carcinoma--the dilemmas of a rare condition: experience with partial urethrectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • BACKGROUND: Primary urethral carcinoma is a very rare condition, and no large-scale experience with such cases has been published.
  • Treatment will therefore have to follow rules established for the treatment of similar conditions.
  • PATIENTS: Six cases of primary urethral carcinoma (5 male, 1 female) who had been treated at our institution between 1995 and 1999 were retrospectively analyzed.
  • In 3 male cases, a primary urothelial carcinoma of the distal urethra was treated by distal urethrectomy only.
  • In 3 other cases with locally advanced tumors and/or lymph node metastases surgical treatment was followed by adjuvant cisplatinum-containing chemotherapy.
  • RESULTS: In the 3 cases with distal urethral carcinoma, partial urethrectomy with preservation of the penis resulted in cure, with a follow-up of 12-71 months.
  • In the cases with advanced disease, adjuvant chemotherapy after surgery has resulted in complete remissions in all 3 cases, with a follow-up of 4-47 months at present.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In localized, noninvasive carcinoma of the distal male urethra, partial urethrectomy seems adequate and the avoidance of penile amputation justified.
  • In advanced cases, after local excision and lymphadenectomy adjuvant chemotherapy which by necessity must follow the guidelines established for the treatment of other urothelial or squamous cell malignancies seems to be beneficial.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / surgery. Urethral Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Urethra / pathology. Urethra / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg
  • (PMID = 11441281.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-584X
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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8. Taylor JM, Spiess PE, Kassouf W, Munsell MF, Kamat AM, Dinney CP, Grossman HB, Pisters LL: Management of urethral recurrence after orthotopic urinary diversion. BJU Int; 2010 Jul;106(1):56-61
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  • [Title] Management of urethral recurrence after orthotopic urinary diversion.
  • STUDY TYPE: Therapy (case series) Level of Evidence 4 OBJECTIVE To evaluate our experience with urethral recurrences in patients treated by radical cystectomy(RC) and orthotopic neobladder urinary diversion for carcinoma of the bladder.
  • RESULTS: In all, 260 patients underwent RC with a Studer or Hautmann orthotopic urinary diversion; the median (range) follow-up was 5.1 (0-15.6) years.
  • Six patients (2.3%) developed local recurrence of urothelial cancer (UC) within the urethra after this treatment.
  • The median (range) time to presentation with recurrence after RC was 2.4 (0.7-3.6) years for pT1-4 UC.
  • Recurrences were treated with various methods, including transurethral resection, urethrectomy with conversion of neobladder to continent catheterizable diversion, and chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In our experience, local recurrences involving the urethra are infrequent.
  • Neoadjuvant chemotherapy should be considered for recurrences with adverse clinicopathological features.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / surgery. Cystectomy / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Urethral Neoplasms / secondary. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / surgery. Urinary Diversion / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Epidemiologic Methods. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome. Urinary Reservoirs, Continent

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  • (PMID = 20002676.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-410X
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA91846
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
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9. Hong JY, Choi MK, Uhm JE, Park MJ, Lee J, Park SH, Park JO, Kim WS, Kang WK, Lee HM, Choi HY, Lim H: Palliative chemotherapy for non-transitional cell carcinomas of the urothelial tract. Med Oncol; 2009;26(2):186-92
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  • [Title] Palliative chemotherapy for non-transitional cell carcinomas of the urothelial tract.
  • Non-transitional cell carcinomas of the urothelial tract comprise 5-10% of urothelial cancers.
  • Clinical information regarding the clinical behavior and chemotherapy outcome of non-transitional cell carcinomas of the urothelial tract are incomplete due to their rarity.
  • The object of this study was to evaluate the clinical features and the efficacy of palliative chemotherapy in advanced non-transitional cell carcinomas of the urothelial tract.
  • We analyzed the clinical records of 21 consecutive patients who received palliative chemotherapy for unresectable or metastatic non-transitional cell carcinomas of the urothelial tract between January 1995 and November 2007.
  • All the 21 patients received first-line chemotherapy with platinum-based regimens which are known to be effective in transitional cell urothelial carcinomas.
  • The primary sites of involvement were the bladder, urethra, urachus, and ureter in 43%, 29%, 19%, and 10% of the patients, respectively.
  • Adenocarcinoma was the most common histological type (67%); squamous cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma comprised 24 and 10% of the histologic types, respectively.
  • With a median duration of follow-up of 32 months (range, 12-71 months), the median overall survival for all 21 patients from the day of first-line chemotherapy was 13 months (95% CI, 6.8-19.2).
  • The median overall survival of patients who received platinum-based palliative chemotherapy for advanced non-transitional cell carcinomas was comparable to previous studies for patients with transitional cell carcinomas.
  • Adenocarcinomas appear to have a favorable prognosis for the survival of the patients who received platinum-based chemotherapy for advanced non-transitional cell carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / drug therapy. Palliative Care. Urologic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Urothelium
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18988001.001).
  • [ISSN] 1357-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical oncology (Northwood, London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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10. Tamas EF, Nielsen ME, Schoenberg MP, Epstein JI: Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the urinary tract: a clinicopathological study of 30 pure and mixed cases. Mod Pathol; 2007 Aug;20(8):828-34
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  • [Title] Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the urinary tract: a clinicopathological study of 30 pure and mixed cases.
  • We studied 28 cases of lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the bladder, one case in the renal pelvis, and one in the urethra.
  • Seventeen cases (56.7%) were pure with the remaining mixed with other patterns of carcinoma, including invasive urothelial carcinoma (n=10), invasive adenocarcinoma (n=3), and squamous cell carcinoma (n=2).
  • The surface demonstrated carcinoma in situ (CIS) in six cases, noninvasive high-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma in three cases, and in situ adenocarcinoma in one case.
  • Treatment consisted of radical cystectomy in 13/30 cases (43%); partial cystectomy in 4/30 cases (13%); nephrectomy in one case (3%), and transurethral resection often followed by radiation or chemotherapy in 12/30 (40%) cases.
  • Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma, whether in pure or mixed form, has a similar prognosis to ordinary urothelial carcinoma when treated by cystectomy.
  • Of the three pure cases treated by chemotherapy, two were free of disease at 4 and 65 months and the third had recurrent disease at 17 months.
  • Given the association of lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma with urothelial carcinoma in 47% of our cases and its propensity for multifocality, partial cystectomy would typically be ill advised for lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Urologic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Disease-Free Survival. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphocytes / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17541442.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Gillitzer R, Hampel C, Wiesner C, Hadaschik B, Thüroff J: Single-institution experience with primary tumours of the male urethra. BJU Int; 2008 Apr;101(8):964-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Single-institution experience with primary tumours of the male urethra.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess primary tumours of the urethra in males.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed our database from 1986 to 2006 for primary tumours of the male urethra; nine patients with primary tumours of the urethra were analysed and follow-up information was obtained.
  • RESULTS: Three patients had tumours of the prostatic urethra, two of which had proliferating focal inflammation and one a low-grade, superficial urothelial cancer.
  • Six patients had carcinoma of the bulbar or penile urethra, including two with previous local percutaneous radiotherapy for prostate cancer.
  • One patient had adjuvant chemotherapy after surgery.
  • CONCLUSION: Primary carcinoma of the male urethra is a rare entity.
  • Multimodal therapy might be required to obtain an optimum oncological outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Urethral Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Epidemiologic Methods. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 18070169.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-410X
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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12. Palou J, Baniel J, Klotz L, Wood D, Cookson M, Lerner S, Horie S, Schoenberg M, Angulo J, Bassi P: Urothelial carcinoma of the prostate. Urology; 2007 Jan;69(1 Suppl):50-61
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  • [Title] Urothelial carcinoma of the prostate.
  • This study was conducted to explore the diagnosis and management of urothelial carcinoma of the prostate in superficial disease and carcinoma in situ, stromal invasion, primary urothelial carcinoma, and urethral recurrence after radical surgery.
  • A consensus conference convened by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Société Internationale d'Urologie (SIU) reviewed the diagnosis and management of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder.
  • English-language literature about urothelial carcinoma of the prostate was identified and reviewed.
  • Evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis and management of urothelial carcinoma were made.
  • Many recommendations were level 3 or 4 citations involving the diagnosis and management of superficial urothelial carcinoma; a few were level 2 citations.
  • Level 1 citations related only to chemotherapy and radiotherapy in patients with stromal invasion, although these were not related specifically to invasive prostatic involvement.
  • Published reports on the diagnosis and treatment of superficial urothelial disease of the prostate primarily consist of short case series from individual centers.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell. Prostatic Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Global Health. Humans. Incidence. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Prostatectomy

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  • (PMID = 17280908.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 65
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13. Hamasaki T, Kondo Y, Ogata Y, Yoshida K, Kimura G, Shimizu H, Nishimura T: Advanced carcinoma of the prostatic urethra in a patient with marked response to chemotherapy, leading to preservation of the bladder. Int J Clin Oncol; 2010 Feb;15(1):109-11
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  • [Title] Advanced carcinoma of the prostatic urethra in a patient with marked response to chemotherapy, leading to preservation of the bladder.
  • Pathological examination diagnosed poorly differentiated urothelial carcinoma of the urethra with broad prostatic permeation.
  • Random bladder biopsies showed no malignancy, but a second TUR-P revealed urothelial carcinoma in the prostate and bladder neck.
  • Computed tomography (CT) showed lymph node metastases from para-aortic to right/left external iliac and left obturator nodes, so clinical stage T3N2M0 carcinoma of the prostatic urethra was diagnosed.
  • Given the presence of lymph node metastases, neoadjuvant chemotherapy using cisplatin 70 mg/m(2), ifosfamide 1.2 g/m(2) and docetaxel 70 mg/m(2) (PIT) was considered.
  • After chemotherapy, CT showed complete response (CR) of all lymph nodes.
  • Pathological findings of surgical specimens showed no residual carcinoma in the prostatic urethra or lymph nodes, although prostatic adenocarcinoma was recognized.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Prostatic Neoplasms / secondary. Urethral Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Prostatectomy. Prostatic Hyperplasia / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20087614.001).
  • [ISSN] 1437-7772
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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14. Ruoppolo M, Gozo M, Milesi R, Spina R, Fragapane G: [Urethral recurrence of invasive carcinoma following BCG treatment for bladder Ca in situ]. Urologia; 2010 Oct-Dec;77 Suppl 17:72-7
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  • [Title] [Urethral recurrence of invasive carcinoma following BCG treatment for bladder Ca in situ].
  • [Transliterated title] Recidiva uretrale di Ca infiltrante dopo trattamento con BCG per Ca in situ vescicale.
  • CIS is a flat, high-grade, non-invasive microscopic urothelial carcinoma.
  • CIS is classified as primary, secondary or concurrent, when occurred as isolated CIS without cuncurrent papillary tumors, or detected during the follow-up of patients with a previous papillary tumor, or finally in the presence of bladder neoplasm.
  • BCG is widely established as the treatment of choice for CIS with a success rate of approximately 70%.
  • BCG reduces the risk of progression of CIS into invasive carcinoma in 30 to 50% of cases.
  • Direct and prolonged contact between the urothelium and BCG is a prerequisite for successful therapy.
  • Discovery of CIS in the prostatic or membranous urethra represents an ominous sign.
  • CIS may be present only in the epithelial lining of the prostatic urethra or in the ducts, or in the worst case it may be found in the prostatic tissue stroma.
  • Urethral involvement by CIS is at high risk of tumor progression and development of metastases due to reduced thickness of lamina propria and absence of muscolaris mucosa.
  • 83 patients, enrolled from 1/1996 to 12/2005 at our urological department with CIS: primary (focal and multifocal) in 25, secondary in 7 and cuncurrent in 51 (associated with T1bG3 cancer in 37 cases), and urethral CIS in 5 and conservatively treated by TUR and intravescical instillations of BCG, 4 developed afterwords only invasive cancer of the urethra in the absence of bladder involvement.
  • In 2 cases cancer arised from the prostatic fossa after TURP, in 1 from membranous urethra and in the last from prostatic ducts.
  • Among the 4 patients, 3 were treated by cystoprostatourethrectomy and Platinum-based chemotherapy, 1 refused surgical treatment.
  • We conclude that prostatic/urethral involvement during follow-up after successful intravesical treatment with BCG in CIS represents a high risk of developing invasive and incontrolled cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] BCG Vaccine / therapeutic use. Carcinoma in Situ / therapy. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / secondary. Urethral Neoplasms / secondary. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Cystectomy / methods. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunotherapy. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Organoplatinum Compounds / administration & dosage. Prostatectomy / methods. Prostatic Neoplasms / secondary. Risk. Treatment Outcome. Urethra / surgery

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  • (PMID = 21308679.001).
  • [ISSN] 1724-6075
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologia
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BCG Vaccine; 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds
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15. Kato S, Ito Y, Nishino Y, Ban Y, Deguchi T: [Urethral recurrence and distant metastases of bladder cancer 9 years after cystectomy and neobladder]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2005 Mar;51(3):195-7
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  • [Title] [Urethral recurrence and distant metastases of bladder cancer 9 years after cystectomy and neobladder].
  • We report a 79-year-old female with urethral recurrence and distant metastases of urothelial bladder cancer.
  • She had undergone urethra-sparing cystectomy and orthotopic ileal neobladder at 70 years of age.
  • Chemotherapy was not performed and the patient died 5 months later.
  • We concluded that long-term follow-up for urethral recurrence in women with neobladders was necessary.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / surgery. Cystectomy. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Urethral Neoplasms / secondary. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / surgery. Urinary Diversion

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  • (PMID = 15852676.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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16. Divrik RT, Sahin AF, Yildirim U, Altok M, Zorlu F: Impact of routine second transurethral resection on the long-term outcome of patients with newly diagnosed pT1 urothelial carcinoma with respect to recurrence, progression rate, and disease-specific survival: a prospective randomised clinical trial. Eur Urol; 2010 Aug;58(2):185-90
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  • [Title] Impact of routine second transurethral resection on the long-term outcome of patients with newly diagnosed pT1 urothelial carcinoma with respect to recurrence, progression rate, and disease-specific survival: a prospective randomised clinical trial.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of routine second TUR on the long-term outcome of patients with newly diagnosed pT1 urothelial carcinoma.
  • All patients (groups 1 and 2) received the first instillation of intravesical chemotherapy within 24h after the initial resection.
  • Urine cytology and follow-up cystoscopy were performed at 3-mo intervals for the first year, biannually for the second year, and annually thereafter.
  • All patients were followed until death or a minimum of 54 mo.
  • RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: The mean follow-up period was 66.1 mo without a significant difference between the groups.
  • Median recurrence-free survival was 47 mo for group 1 compared with 12 mo for group 2.
  • Median progress-free survival was 73 mo for group 1 compared to 53.5 mo for group 2.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cystectomy / methods. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Reoperation. Survival Rate. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. Urethra


17. VanderMolen LA, Sheehy PF, Dillman RO: Successful treatment of transitional cell carcinoma of the urethra with chemotherapy. Cancer Invest; 2002;20(2):206-7
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  • [Title] Successful treatment of transitional cell carcinoma of the urethra with chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / drug therapy. Urethral Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 11901541.001).
  • [ISSN] 0735-7907
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; M-VAC protocol
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18. Parada D, Páez A, Acosta M, Caricote L, Trujillo E, Luigi JC, Farías RM: [Primary urothelial carcinoma of the bulbomembranous urethra. Histologic and immunohistochemical study of a case]. Arch Esp Urol; 2003 Dec;56(10):1144-7
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  • [Title] [Primary urothelial carcinoma of the bulbomembranous urethra. Histologic and immunohistochemical study of a case].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinoma urotelial primario de uretra bulbomembranosa. Estudio histológico e inmunohistoquímico de un caso.
  • OBJECTIVE: We report a case of a primary urothelial carcinoma of the bulbomembranous urethra, with special emphasis on histopathological and immunohistochemical findings.
  • METHODS/RESULTS: A 63-year-old man presented urethral obstruction symptoms.
  • A radical phalectomy was performed and a 4.5 x 4 cm bulbomembranous urethral tumor was observed.
  • Histopathological analysis disclosed an urothelial carcinoma, that showed positive immunostaining for cytokeratin AE1/AE3, cytokeratin 7, carcinoembrionic antigen and epithelial membrane antigen.
  • The patient received radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy and is currently free of disease.
  • CONCLUSION: Posterior male urothelial carcinoma of the urethra is a rare neoplasm that usually is mistaken clinically for a benign lesion.
  • The diagnostic is generally made in advanced stages with a poor therapeutical response.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Urethral Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 14763421.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0614
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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19. Tamada S, Omachi T, Ito T, Kawashima H, Nakatani T: [Primary urothelial carcinoma with sarcomatous transformation of the prostate]. Nihon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi; 2010 Jul;101(5):698-702
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  • [Title] [Primary urothelial carcinoma with sarcomatous transformation of the prostate].
  • A small papillary tumor at the prostatic urethra was found by cystourethroscopy.
  • Then, we performed transurethral resection of the tumor and trans-perineal needle biopsy of the prostate, and diagnosed him as primary urothelial carcinoma of the prostate.
  • Following neo-adjuvant chemotherapy(MVAC), the patient was treated with radical cystoprostatectomy.
  • The histopathological examination showed urothelial carcinoma with concomitant sarcomatous transformation.
  • He was treated with the second-line chemotherapy using paclitaxel and gemcitabin combined with the radiation therapy, resulting in the disappearance of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / therapy. Sarcoma / pathology. Sarcoma / therapy. Urethral Neoplasms / pathology. Urethral Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Cystectomy. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Prostatectomy. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20715503.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5287
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Hinyōkika Gakkai zasshi. The japanese journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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20. Nese N, Gupta R, Bui MH, Amin MB: Carcinoma in situ of the urinary bladder: review of clinicopathologic characteristics with an emphasis on aspects related to molecular diagnostic techniques and prognosis. J Natl Compr Canc Netw; 2009 Jan;7(1):48-57
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  • [Title] Carcinoma in situ of the urinary bladder: review of clinicopathologic characteristics with an emphasis on aspects related to molecular diagnostic techniques and prognosis.
  • Carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the urinary bladder is defined as a flat lesion comprising of cytologically malignant cells which may involve either full or partial thickness of the urothelium.
  • De novo CIS constitutes less than 3% of all urothelial neoplasms; however, CIS detected concurrently or secondarily during follow-up of urothelial carcinoma constitutes 45% and 90%, respectively, of bladder cancer.
  • Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) instillation is considered the preferred treatment, with radical cystectomy being offered to refractory cases.
  • Chemotherapy, alpha-interferon, and photodynamic therapy are other modalities that can be considered in BCG-refractory cases.
  • Multifocality, involvement of prostatic urethra, and response to BCG remain the most important prognostic factors, although newer molecular markers are being evaluated for this entity.
  • Patient outcome varies based on whether it is de novo development or diagnosed secondary to prior or concomitant papillary bladder cancer.
  • From a clinical perspective, the principal determinants of outcome are extent of disease, involvement of prostatic urethra, response to therapy, and time to recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Molecular Diagnostic Techniques. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology


21. Arya M, Brown RS, Hayne D, Patel HR, Harland SJ: Primary anterior urethral transitional cell carcinoma: a rare tumour. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2001 Sep;27(6):607-8
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  • [Title] Primary anterior urethral transitional cell carcinoma: a rare tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Urethral Neoplasms / pathology. Urethral Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Needle. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Endoscopy / methods. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Instillation, Drug. Male. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11520099.001).
  • [ISSN] 0748-7983
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
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22. Murphy DR, Morris NJ: Transitional cell carcinoma of the urethra [correction of ureter] in a patient with buttock pain: a case report. Arch Phys Med Rehabil; 2008 Jan;89(1):150-2
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  • [Title] Transitional cell carcinoma of the urethra [correction of ureter] in a patient with buttock pain: a case report.
  • This case reports on a patient with an unusual presentation of a rare tumor: urethral transitional cell carcinoma (TCC).
  • Urethral TCC occurs in approximately 0.7% to 4.0% of patients who have had primary bladder cancer.
  • The patient was initially suspected to have piriformis syndrome, but when he did not respond as expected to treatment, and because of his history of primary bladder cancer, further evaluation was undertaken and the diagnosis was made.
  • The patient responded well to radiation and chemotherapy.
  • Musculoskeletal physicians should be particularly suspicious of the presence of urethral TCC in a patient with a history of primary bladder cancer who reports low back or buttock pain, particularly if the patient does not respond quickly to treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / complications. Low Back Pain / etiology. Urethral Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Buttocks. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Prostatic Neoplasms. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 18164345.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-821X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Phys Med Rehabil
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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