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1. Hanai T, Matsumoto S, Shouji S, Usui Y, Tang XY, Kato Y, Iguchi M, Uemura H, Terachi T: [The changes of prostate specific antigen (PSA) after treatment with alpha 1-adrenergic receptor antagonists in men with 4.0-9.9 ng/ml PSA level--a study for comparison of benign prostatic hyperplasia/lower urinary tract symptom (BPH/LUTS) and prostate cancer]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2009 Apr;55(4):187-91
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  • [Title] [The changes of prostate specific antigen (PSA) after treatment with alpha 1-adrenergic receptor antagonists in men with 4.0-9.9 ng/ml PSA level--a study for comparison of benign prostatic hyperplasia/lower urinary tract symptom (BPH/LUTS) and prostate cancer].
  • 4.0-9.9 ng/ml PSA level who had no notable clinical findings of urinary retention, urinary tract infections and prostate cancer (PC) received tamusulosin 0.2 mg once daily for 3 months, and then received prostate biopsy.
  • We divided the patients into two groups: PC and benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH)/lower urinary tract symptom (LUTS) group.
  • In total, the PSA level showed no significant change after treatment.
  • In the PC group, PSA significantly increased after treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists / pharmacology. Prostate-Specific Antigen / analysis. Prostatic Hyperplasia / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Sulfonamides / pharmacology. Urinary Retention / drug therapy


2. Konwar R, Manchanda PK, Chaudhary P, Nayak VL, Singh V, Bid HK: Glutathione S-transferase gene variants and risk of benign prostate hyperplasia in a North Indian population. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev; 2010;11(2):365-70
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  • [Title] Glutathione S-transferase gene variants and risk of benign prostate hyperplasia in a North Indian population.
  • Glutagthione S-transferase (GST) is over-expressed in benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) patients, but the significance of GST polymorphisms for susceptibility to diseases of the prostate is unclear.
  • The objectives of this study were to determine relationships between polymorphisms in the GSTM1, T1 and P1 genes with risk of symptomatic BPH and influence on standard therapy.
  • A gene polymorphism association study conducted with 160 symptomatic BPH patients with BPE (benign prostatic enlargement) and LUTS (lower urinary tract symptoms) and 200 age-matched controls.
  • Patients were treated with α-adrenergic blockers and 5α-reductase inhibitors for 6 months and subdivided based on their significant improvement in parameters between pre and post 6 month combined therapy to study associations with the GST polymorphisms.
  • Thus the GSTM1 deletion polymorphism is significantly associated with increased risk of symptomatic BPH, but none of the genes appeared to influence response to standard BPH therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Glutathione S-Transferase pi / genetics. Glutathione Transferase / genetics. Polymorphism, Genetic / genetics. Prostatic Hyperplasia / genetics. Prostatic Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20843117.001).
  • [ISSN] 2476-762X
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.5.1.- / glutathione S-transferase T1; EC 2.5.1.18 / GSTP1 protein, human; EC 2.5.1.18 / Glutathione S-Transferase pi; EC 2.5.1.18 / Glutathione Transferase; EC 2.5.1.18 / glutathione S-transferase M1
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3. Miller J, Tarter TH: Update on the use of dutasteride in the management of benign prostatic hypertrophy. Clin Interv Aging; 2007;2(1):99-104
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  • [Title] Update on the use of dutasteride in the management of benign prostatic hypertrophy.
  • Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a frequent cause of lower urinary symptoms, with a prevalence of 50% by the sixth decade of life.
  • Hyperplasia of stromal and epithelial prostatic elements that surround the urethra cause lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), urinary tract infection, and acute urinary retention.
  • Medical treatments of symptomatic BPH include;.
  • Clinical trials have shown that alpha1-adrenergic antagonists decrease LUTS and increase urinary flow rates in men with symptomatic BPH, but do not reduce the long-term risk of urinary retention or need for surgical intervention.
  • Inhibitors of 5alpha-reductase decrease production of dihydrotestosterone within the prostate resulting in decreased prostate volumes, increased peak urinary flow rates, improvement of symptoms, and decreased risk of acute urinary retention and need for surgical intervention.
  • The combination of a 5alpha-reductase inhibitor and a alpha1-adrenergic antagonist reduces the clinical progression of BPH over either class of drug alone.
  • [MeSH-major] Azasteroids / therapeutic use. Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Prostatic Hyperplasia / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Dutasteride. Humans. Male. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / prevention & control. Quality of Life. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18044081.001).
  • [ISSN] 1176-9092
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical interventions in aging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Interv Aging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Azasteroids; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; O0J6XJN02I / Dutasteride
  • [Number-of-references] 20
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2684085
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4. Hostanska K, Suter A, Melzer J, Saller R: Evaluation of cell death caused by an ethanolic extract of Serenoae repentis fructus (Prostasan) on human carcinoma cell lines. Anticancer Res; 2007 Mar-Apr;27(2):873-81
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  • BACKGROUND: Phytotherapy is a third approach for treating lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effect of an ethanolic extract of S. repens (10-1000 microg/ml) was tested in hormone-sensitive LNCaP, MCF-7 and hormone-insensitive DU 145, MDA MB231 prostate, breast carcinoma cell lines, renal Caki-1, urinary bladder J82, colon HCT 116 and lung A 549 cancer cells.
  • RESULTS: The S. repens extract induced a dose-dependent antiproliferative effect on all human malignant cells tested, with GI50 values between 107 and 327 pmicro/ml.
  • CONCLUSION: This study showed that the antiproliferative effect exerted by the ethanolic extract of S. repens is at least triggered by induction of apoptosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis / drug effects. Fruit / chemistry. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Phytotherapy / methods. Plant Extracts / pharmacology. Serenoa / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Cell Line, Tumor. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor. Female. HCT116 Cells. Humans. Male. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy


5. Cheng L, Foster SR, MacLennan GT, Lopez-Beltran A, Zhang S, Montironi R: Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors of the genitourinary tract--single entity or continuum? J Urol; 2008 Oct;180(4):1235-40
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  • [Title] Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors of the genitourinary tract--single entity or continuum?
  • PURPOSE: Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the genitourinary tract is a spindled soft tissue lesion that is often mistaken for sarcoma.
  • The relationship between inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor and other morphologically similar entities has been a long-standing source of controversy.
  • We investigated whether inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors in adults and children are the same entity, and whether inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor is part of a biological spectrum that includes benign and malignant entities at opposite ends.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the genitourinary tract should be considered a neoplasm of uncertain malignant potential, and routine surveillance and close clinical followup are recommended.
  • Aggressive therapy (radical cystectomy, radiation or chemotherapy) is unwarranted given the indolent and often benign clinical course for the majority of cases.
  • To understand the diagnostic and prognostic implications future emphasis should be placed on the link between genetic abnormalities, and clinical course, therapeutic response and ultimate outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Granuloma, Plasma Cell / pathology. Sarcoma / pathology. Urogenital Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Incidence. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Risk Assessment. Ureteral Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ureteral Neoplasms / pathology. Urethral Neoplasms / diagnosis. Urethral Neoplasms / pathology. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18707729.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-3792
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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6. Howard DL, Taylor YJ, Ross LE: Differences in lower urinary tract symptoms, treatment and mortality among African-American and white elderly men. J Natl Med Assoc; 2008 Oct;100(10):1146-52
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  • [Title] Differences in lower urinary tract symptoms, treatment and mortality among African-American and white elderly men.
  • BACKGROUND: There are limited population-based studies of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in men, and most studies examined to date have been restricted to predominately white populations.
  • This study examines treatment and all-cause mortality among a cohort of African-American and white men aged > or =65 with BPH/LUTS symptoms over time.
  • RESULTS: From 1994-1998, there were no significant racial differences in treatment by catheter insertion, prostate surgery or drug therapy for BPH/LUTS.
  • However, overall use of the 3 treatments increased from 1994-1998, with drug therapy showing the largest increase.
  • Men with comorbid conditions were less likely to receive drug therapy, whereas those with poor self-reported health or cancer were more likely to receive prostate surgery.
  • Men who received drug therapy treatment or had regular rectal exams showed decreased risk of mortality.
  • Data also demon-strate the need for studies that focus on treatment modalities as well as important correlates of LUTS.
  • [MeSH-major] African Americans. Prostatic Hyperplasia / therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. European Continental Ancestry Group. Humans. Male. United States. Urologic Diseases / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18942275.001).
  • [ISSN] 1943-4693
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Natl Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / AHRQ HHS / HS / R24 HS013353
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. McNaughton-Collins M, Barry MJ: Managing patients with lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Am J Med; 2005 Dec;118(12):1331-9
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  • [Title] Managing patients with lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia.
  • Many men with lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia can be managed safely and effectively by primary care providers.
  • After a basic evaluation to exclude other diseases that may cause lower urinary tract symptoms, quantifying the degree of symptoms and bother, and perhaps making an assessment of prostate size, the primary care provider can determine which men require immediate evaluation by a urologist and which men may choose among various treatment options, including watchful waiting and various single agent or combination medication strategies.
  • Recent information about risk factors for disease progression has also helped to inform patient decisions on which treatment option is best for the individual patient.
  • The purpose of this review is to provide primary care providers with an approach to the management of men with lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Practice Guidelines as Topic. Prostatic Hyperplasia / complications. Prostatic Hyperplasia / drug therapy. Urination Disorders / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists / therapeutic use. Disease Progression. Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Humans. Incidence. Male. Patient Care Planning. Physical Examination. Prostate-Specific Antigen / analysis. Prostatic Neoplasms / complications. Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Risk Factors. Urinalysis. Urodynamics

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  • (PMID = 16378773.001).
  • [ISSN] 1555-7162
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
  • [Number-of-references] 60
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8. Bettuzzi S, Brausi M, Rizzi F, Castagnetti G, Peracchia G, Corti A: Chemoprevention of human prostate cancer by oral administration of green tea catechins in volunteers with high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia: a preliminary report from a one-year proof-of-principle study. Cancer Res; 2006 Jan 15;66(2):1234-40
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  • [Title] Chemoprevention of human prostate cancer by oral administration of green tea catechins in volunteers with high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia: a preliminary report from a one-year proof-of-principle study.
  • Recent studies showed that 30% of men with high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (HG-PIN) would develop prostate cancer (CaP) within 1 year after repeated biopsy.
  • Daily treatment consisted of three GTCs capsules, 200 mg each (total 600 mg/d).
  • After 1 year, only one tumor was diagnosed among the 30 GTCs-treated men (incidence, approximately 3%), whereas nine cancers were found among the 30 placebo-treated men (incidence, 30%).
  • International Prostate Symptom Score and quality of life scores of GTCs-treated men with coexistent benign prostate hyperplasia improved, reaching statistical significance in the case of International Prostate Symptom Scores.
  • As a secondary observation, administration of GTCs also reduced lower urinary tract symptoms, suggesting that these compounds might also be of help for treating the symptoms of benign prostate hyperplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Catechin / therapeutic use. Prostatic Hyperplasia / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / prevention & control. Tea


9. Waldkirch ES, Uckert S, Langnäse K, Richter K, Jonas U, Wolf G, Andersson KE, Stief CG, Hedlund P: Immunohistochemical distribution of cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase-1 in human prostate tissue. Eur Urol; 2007 Aug;52(2):495-501
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical distribution of cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase-1 in human prostate tissue.
  • OBJECTIVES: Phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors improve smooth muscle relaxation and therefore are considered for pharmacotherapy of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS).
  • METHODS: Cryostat sections of tissue segments excised from the transition zone of human prostates from 11 patients (aged 54-68 yr) were incubated with primary antibodies directed against smooth muscle alpha-actin, cGMP, cGKI, cGKIalpha, and cGKIbeta.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm the presence of cGKI isoforms alpha and beta in the transition zone of human prostate tissue.
  • In addition, the colocalization of alpha-actin, cGMP, and cGKI isoforms provides further evidence for a significant role of the nitric oxide/cGMP pathway in the regulation of smooth muscle contractility in human prostate tissue and therefore could provide additional targets for pharmacotherapy of BPH and LUTS.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases / metabolism. Prostate / enzymology. Prostatic Neoplasms / enzymology

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  • [CommentIn] Eur Urol. 2007 Aug;52(2):501-2 [17329017.001]
  • (PMID = 17329019.001).
  • [ISSN] 0302-2838
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; EC 2.7.11.12 / Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinases; H2D2X058MU / Cyclic GMP
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10. Lorente JA, Arango O, Bielsa O, Cortadellas R, Gelabert-Mas A: Effect of antibiotic treatment on serum PSA and percent free PSA levels in patients with biochemical criteria for prostate biopsy and previous lower urinary tract infections. Int J Biol Markers; 2002 Apr-Jun;17(2):84-9
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  • [Title] Effect of antibiotic treatment on serum PSA and percent free PSA levels in patients with biochemical criteria for prostate biopsy and previous lower urinary tract infections.
  • The objective was to analyze the biological variations of PSA and percent free PSA (%f-PSA) in patients with biochemical criteria for prostate biopsy (PSA higher than 4 ng/mL and normal rectal examination) and compare them with the variation induced by antibiotic treatment in a cohort of patients with a history of lower urinary tract infections and no clinical evidence of prostatitis.
  • METHODS: Ninety patients with a history of lower urinary tract infections, non-suspicious digital rectal examination and PSA between 4 and 20 ng/mL were analyzed.
  • RESULTS: Sixty-seven patients presented benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) (30 with prostatitic foci) and 23 cancer.
  • CONCLUSION: Biochemical criteria for prostate biopsy may be modified in patients with a history of lower urinary tract infections due to variations greater than those explained by intraindividual biological variations, and may be influenced by the antibiotic treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Prostate / pathology. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Prostatitis / blood. Urinary Tract Infections / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Humans. Male. Prospective Studies. Prostatic Hyperplasia / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / blood

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  • (PMID = 12113586.001).
  • [ISSN] 0393-6155
  • [Journal-full-title] The International journal of biological markers
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Biol. Markers
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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11. Fromont G, Barcat L, Gaudin J, Irani J: Revisiting the immunophenotype of nephrogenic adenoma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Nov;33(11):1654-8
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  • Nephrogenic adenoma (NA) is a rare benign lesion of the urinary tract.
  • Because all the previous studies have used an avidin-biotin (AB) detection procedure, and because cells with tubular renal differentiation are likely to contain a high level of endogenous biotin, we investigated in NA the expression of several markers including AMACR, using both AB and biotin-free detection systems.
  • We assessed the expression of p63, cytokeratins 7 and 20, CD10 (proximal tubule marker), MUC1 (distal tubule marker), PAX2, and AMACR on 14 NAs (from 6 patients) grouped on a tissue microarray.
  • The tissue microarray also included renal, urothelial, and prostate tissues.
  • Detection with the AB procedure leads to nonspecific staining in kidney samples and NA.
  • These findings provide supporting evidence that NA has the differentiation of distal renal tubules, and strongly suggest that AMACR, when detected with a biotin-free procedure, can be used as a reliable marker for distinguishing NA from prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / immunology. Immunophenotyping / methods. Urologic Neoplasms / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect. Humans. Kidney Tubules / enzymology. Male. Middle Aged. Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Racemases and Epimerases / metabolism. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 19730362.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 5.1.- / Racemases and Epimerases; EC 5.1.99.4 / alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase
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12. Lito P, Pantanowitz L, Marotti J, Aboulafia DM, Campbell V, Bower M, Dezube BJ: Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in patients with HIV infection: a trans-Atlantic series. Am J Med Sci; 2009 Jan;337(1):1-4
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  • The occurrence of neuroendocrine (NE) tumors in sites other than the lung and skin has not been well characterized in the setting of concurrent HIV infection.
  • METHODS: HIV-positive patients with biopsy-confirmed NE tumors localized to the gastrointestinal tract were identified based on the personal archives of the authors.
  • A retrospective chart review was performed, and data regarding demographics, HIV status, presenting symptoms and signs, diagnostic work-up, therapeutic interventions, and outcome were extracted.
  • RESULTS: We identified 4 adult patients, mean age 42 years (range: 37-47) infected with HIV, who developed NE tumors originating in their gastrointestinal tact.
  • A specialized diagnostic work-up was required, including serum chromogranin and urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels, colonoscopy, radioactive isotope scans, and the demonstration of NE differentiation in procured pathologic material.
  • The spectrum of tumors ranged from benign (typical carcinoid) to highly aggressive neoplasms (NE carcinoma).
  • Treatment with octreotide, surgical resection, or systemic chemotherapy provided effective symptomatic relief and was associated with a favorable outcome, despite metastases in 2 patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These cases serve to broaden the spectrum of neoplasms that may be encountered in the current HIV era, and illustrate the difficulty in establishing the diagnosis of NE tumors in the context of HIV infection.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / etiology. HIV Infections / complications. Neuroendocrine Tumors / etiology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19155751.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9629
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of the medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Thomas CA, Chuang YC, Giannantoni A, Chancellor MB: Botulinum A toxin for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia/lower urinary tract symptoms. Curr Urol Rep; 2006 Jul;7(4):266-71
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  • [Title] Botulinum A toxin for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia/lower urinary tract symptoms.
  • BoNT application recently has been extended to prostate disorders, and this article reviews the literature on the mechanisms of action and clinical efficacy of BoNT treatment in the prostate.
  • BoNT has demonstrated promising preliminary results for male lower urinary tract symptoms, and translational research suggests novel mechanism of action of BoNT in the prostate.
  • [MeSH-major] Botulinum Toxins, Type A / therapeutic use. Prostatic Hyperplasia / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Male. Neurons / drug effects. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16930497.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-2737
  • [Journal-full-title] Current urology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Urol Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.24.69 / Botulinum Toxins, Type A
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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14. Fernández Jiménez I, de Diego García E, Sandoval González F: [Nephrogenic adenoma of the urethra. Report of a case]. Cir Pediatr; 2003 Oct;16(4):203-4

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Nephrogenic adenoma is a benign urothelial neoformation rare in children.
  • It can be present in the entire urinary tract, being more common in the bladder and very infrequent in urethra.
  • These metaplasic changes seem to be due to irritative stimulus to the epithelium, including lithiasis, previous surgery, permanent or repeated catheterization, infective diseases and chemotherapy and or radiotherapy.
  • The diagnosis is established after biopsy and in most of the cases the treatment of choice consists of transurethral resection of the lesion.
  • The patient was managed conservatively and oral antibiotic therapy was administered being the patient asymptomatic and free of recurrence during the follow up.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma. Urethral Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 14677362.001).
  • [ISSN] 0214-1221
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía pediátrica : organo oficial de la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Pediátrica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Pediatr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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15. Chuang YC, Chancellor MB: The application of botulinum toxin in the prostate. J Urol; 2006 Dec;176(6 Pt 1):2375-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the literature on the mechanisms of action and clinical efficacy of botulinum neurotoxin treatment of the prostate.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Botulinum toxin has demonstrated exciting and promising preliminary results for male lower urinary tract symptoms.
  • Translational research suggests novel mechanism of action of botulinum toxin in the prostate for benign prostatic hyperplasia and chronic nonbacterial prostatitis.
  • It may even be considered as adjuvant treatment for prostate cancer.
  • The use of botulinum neurotoxin in the prostate is currently Food and Drug Administration off label and in support of evidence based medicine practices caution should be applied until larger, randomized clinical studies are completed.
  • [MeSH-major] Botulinum Toxins / therapeutic use. Prostate / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Botulinum Toxins, Type A / administration & dosage. Botulinum Toxins, Type A / pharmacology. Botulinum Toxins, Type A / therapeutic use. Disease Models, Animal. Humans. Injections, Intralesional. Male. Neuromuscular Agents / administration & dosage. Neuromuscular Agents / pharmacology. Neuromuscular Agents / therapeutic use. Prostatic Diseases / drug therapy. Prostatic Hyperplasia / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prostatitis / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17085104.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD 39768
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neuromuscular Agents; EC 3.4.24.69 / Botulinum Toxins; EC 3.4.24.69 / Botulinum Toxins, Type A
  • [Number-of-references] 50
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16. Wilt TJ, MacDonald R, Hagerty K, Schellhammer P, Kramer BS: Five-alpha-reductase Inhibitors for prostate cancer prevention. Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2008;(2):CD007091
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  • BACKGROUND: Five-alpha-reductase inhibitors (5ARI) are frequently used to treat bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia and male androgenic alopecia.
  • [MeSH-major] 5-alpha Reductase Inhibitors. Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Prostatic Neoplasms / prevention & control
  • [MeSH-minor] Finasteride / therapeutic use. Humans. Male. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Prostatic Hyperplasia / drug therapy. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic

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  • (PMID = 18425978.001).
  • [ISSN] 1469-493X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Cochrane database of systematic reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cochrane Database Syst Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 5-alpha Reductase Inhibitors; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 57GNO57U7G / Finasteride; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
  • [Number-of-references] 22
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17. Montorsi F, Alcaraz A, Desgrandchamps F, Hammerer P, Schröder F, Castro R: A broader role for 5ARIs in prostate disease? Existing evidence and emerging benefits. Prostate; 2009 Jun 1;69(8):895-907
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • 5ARIs are recommended for men who have moderate-to-severe lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and benign prostatic enlargement (BPE) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia.
  • Studies have confirmed the utility of combining 5ARIs with alpha-blockers; the MTOPS study showed that risk of overall clinical progression was significantly reduced after 4.5 years with combination therapy (finasteride/doxazosin) in comparison with either monotherapy, while the ongoing CombAT trial (dutasteride/tamsulosin) has for the first time shown benefit in improving symptoms for combination therapy over monotherapies within 12 months of treatment.
  • Several studies indicate that treatment with a 5ARI improves the performance of PSA testing for identifying men with prostate cancer, while the PCPT showed a significant reduction in the risk of developing prostate cancer with finasteride.
  • 5ARI-containing regimens may have utility as less aggressive treatment options for patients who only have rising PSA after definitive local therapy, and in patients with disease resistant to androgen deprivation therapy who have PSA progression.
  • [MeSH-major] 3-Oxo-5-alpha-Steroid 4-Dehydrogenase / blood. Prostatic Hyperplasia / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / prevention & control. Testosterone / blood. Urinary Tract Infections / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] 5-alpha Reductase Inhibitors. Aged. Aging. Azasteroids / therapeutic use. Dihydrotestosterone / blood. Dutasteride. Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Finasteride / therapeutic use. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prostate / growth & development. Prostate / pathology. Sulfonamides / therapeutic use

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19267353.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0045
  • [Journal-full-title] The Prostate
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prostate
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 5-alpha Reductase Inhibitors; 0 / Azasteroids; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Sulfonamides; 08J2K08A3Y / Dihydrotestosterone; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 57GNO57U7G / Finasteride; EC 1.3.99.5 / 3-Oxo-5-alpha-Steroid 4-Dehydrogenase; G3P28OML5I / tamsulosin; O0J6XJN02I / Dutasteride
  • [Number-of-references] 75
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18. Michel MC, de la Rosette JJ: Efficacy and safety of tamsulosin in the treatment of urological diseases. Expert Opin Pharmacother; 2004 Jan;5(1):151-60
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Efficacy and safety of tamsulosin in the treatment of urological diseases.
  • Both placebo-controlled and comparative studies with other agents have demonstrated tamsulosin to be an effective treatment for patients with lower urinary symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia.
  • Tamsulosin may also effectively reduce lower urinary tract symptoms in other urological diseases.
  • Apart from adrenoceptor subtype-selectivity, a smooth pharmacokinetic profile of its modified-release formulation and a selective accumulation in target tissues may contribute to an excellent efficacy:tolerability ratio.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenergic alpha-1 Receptor Antagonists. Prostatic Hyperplasia / drug therapy. Sulfonamides / therapeutic use. Urologic Diseases / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Clinical Trials as Topic. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Evaluation, Preclinical. Humans. Male. Product Surveillance, Postmarketing. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 14680444.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-6566
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Opin Pharmacother
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenergic alpha-1 Receptor Antagonists; 0 / Sulfonamides; G3P28OML5I / tamsulosin
  • [Number-of-references] 83
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19. Pais P: Potency of a novel saw palmetto ethanol extract, SPET-085, for inhibition of 5alpha-reductase II. Adv Ther; 2010 Aug;27(8):555-63
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. FINASTERIDE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • In humans, two 5alpha-reductase isoenyzmes are expressed: type I and type II.
  • Type II is found primarily in prostate tissue.
  • Saw palmetto extract (SPE) has been widely used for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).
  • The mechanisms of the pharmacological effects of SPE include the inhibition of 5alpha-reductase, among other actions.
  • METHODS: The aim of the present study was to determine the in vitro potency of a novel saw palmetto ethanol extract (SPET-085), an inhibitor of the 5alpha-reductase isoenzyme type II, in a cell-free test system.
  • RESULTS: SPET-085 concentration-dependently inhibited 5alpha-reductase type II in vitro (IC(50)=2.88+/-0.45 microg/mL).
  • The approved 5alpha-reductase inhibitor, finasteride, tested as positive control, led to 61% inhibition of 5alpha-reductase type II.
  • This study confirmed that SPET-085 has prostate health-promoting bioactivity that also corresponds favorably to that reported for the established prescription drug standard of therapy, finasteride.
  • [MeSH-minor] Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Cell-Free System. Drug Evaluation, Preclinical. Finasteride / therapeutic use. HEK293 Cells. Humans. In Vitro Techniques. Male. Prostatic Hyperplasia / drug therapy. Prostatic Hyperplasia / enzymology. Prostatic Hyperplasia / physiopathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / enzymology. Prostatic Neoplasms / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 20623347.001).
  • [ISSN] 1865-8652
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 5-alpha Reductase Inhibitors; 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Permixon; 0 / Plant Extracts; 0 / SPET 085; 57GNO57U7G / Finasteride; EC 1.3.99.5 / 3-Oxo-5-alpha-Steroid 4-Dehydrogenase
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20. Hwang TI, Lin YC: The relationship between hypogonadism and erectile dysfunction. Int J Impot Res; 2008 May-Jun;20(3):231-5
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. TESTOSTERONE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Clinically, reports of patients with erectile dysfunction (ED) combined with hypogonadism who receive testosterone therapy have inconsistent results.
  • Because of potential risks in clinical use, testosterone therapy should be individualized, carefully considered and closely monitored, especially, in patients with possible occult prostate cancer, and large benign prostatic hyperplasia.
  • Lower urinary tract symptoms might be worsened by this treatment, since the prostate is an androgen-dependent tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Erectile Dysfunction / drug therapy. Hormone Replacement Therapy. Hypogonadism / drug therapy. Testosterone / pharmacology. Testosterone / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] 3',5'-Cyclic-GMP Phosphodiesterases / antagonists & inhibitors. Animals. Autonomic Nervous System / drug effects. Autonomic Nervous System / physiology. Humans. Male. Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors / metabolism. Prostatic Hyperplasia / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. REM Sleep Parasomnias. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18305486.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5489
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of impotence research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Impot. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; EC 3.1.4.35 / 3',5'-Cyclic-GMP Phosphodiesterases
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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21. Kanda H, Ishii K, Ogura Y, Imamura T, Kanai M, Arima K, Sugimura Y: Naftopidil, a selective alpha-1 adrenoceptor antagonist, inhibits growth of human prostate cancer cells by G1 cell cycle arrest. Int J Cancer; 2008 Jan 15;122(2):444-51
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Alpha-1 adrenoceptor antagonists are generally prescribed for benign prostate hyperplasia with lower urinary tract symptoms.
  • Here we demonstrate for the first time that naftopidil has growth inhibitory effect in androgen-sensitive and -insensitive human prostate cancer cell lines.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenergic alpha-1 Receptor Antagonists. G1 Phase / drug effects. Naphthalenes / pharmacology. Piperazines / pharmacology. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists / pharmacology. Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation. Cell Separation. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 / metabolism. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism. Male. Mice. Mice, Nude. Neoplasm Transplantation. Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-1 / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17918159.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenergic alpha-1 Receptor Antagonists; 0 / Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists; 0 / CDKN1A protein, human; 0 / CDKN1B protein, human; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Naphthalenes; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-1; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27; R9PHW59SFN / naftopidil
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22. Longo JM, Jafri SZ, Bis KB: Adrenal lymphangioma: a case report. Clin Imaging; 2000 Mar-Apr;24(2):104-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Clinical and diagnostic work up revealed a urinary tract infection with focal pyelonephritis of the right kidney.
  • Ultrasound and computed tomography of the abdomen were included in the evaluation and revealed incidental finding of cystic structure at right suprarenal space.
  • Adrenal lymphangioma is a rare and benign lesion that is most often identified incidentally during radiological investigation or at autopsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lymphangioma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Pyelonephritis / complications. Pyelonephritis / drug therapy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 11124483.001).
  • [ISSN] 0899-7071
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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23. Aggarwal S, Thareja S, Verma A, Bhardwaj TR, Kumar M: An overview on 5alpha-reductase inhibitors. Steroids; 2010 Feb;75(2):109-53
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Prostate Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the noncancerous proliferation of the prostate gland associated with benign prostatic obstruction and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) such as frequency, hesitancy, urgency, etc.
  • High activity of 5alpha-reductase enzyme in humans results in excessive dihydrotestosterone levels in peripheral tissues and hence suppression of androgen action by 5alpha-reductase inhibitors is a logical treatment for BPH as they inhibit the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone.
  • Food and Drug Administration (USFDA).
  • Unlike Finasteride, Dutasteride is a competitive inhibitor of both 5alpha-reductase type I and type II isozymes, reduced DHT levels >90% following 1 year of oral administration.
  • [MeSH-major] 5-alpha Reductase Inhibitors. Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Prostatic Hyperplasia / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19879888.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-5867
  • [Journal-full-title] Steroids
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Steroids
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 5-alpha Reductase Inhibitors; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; EC 1.3.99.5 / 3-Oxo-5-alpha-Steroid 4-Dehydrogenase
  • [Number-of-references] 224
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24. Gacci M, Ierardi A, Rose AD, Tazzioli S, Scapaticci E, Filippi S, Maggi M, Nicita G, Carini M, Montorsi F: Vardenafil can improve continence recovery after bilateral nerve sparing prostatectomy: results of a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. J Sex Med; 2010 Jan;7(1 Pt 1):234-43
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. VARDENAFIL .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • INTRODUCTION: Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5-I) have acquired an established role in the treatment of post-prostatectomy erectile dysfunction (ED).
  • Several trials in men with ED and lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia suggest that PDE5-I could improve both erectile function and urinary symptoms.
  • MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: Urinary function (UF) and urinary bother (UB) of University of California-Los Angeles Prostate Cancer Index questionnaire were assessed preoperatively and at 1, 3, 6, 9, 10, and 12 months.
  • The differences in UF and UB (at 3, 6, 9, 10, and 12 months) between the three treatment arms were calculated by an analysis of variance.
  • With ALLFIT we estimated half-maximal recovery times (ER50) and maximal recovery (R(max)) in three groups.
  • [MeSH-major] Imidazoles / therapeutic use. Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors. Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Piperazines / therapeutic use. Postoperative Complications / drug therapy. Prostatectomy. Prostatic Neoplasms / surgery. Urinary Incontinence / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Double-Blind Method. Drug Administration Schedule. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pilot Projects. Sulfones / adverse effects. Sulfones / therapeutic use. Triazines / adverse effects. Triazines / therapeutic use. Urodynamics / drug effects. Vardenafil Dihydrochloride

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  • [CommentIn] J Urol. 2010 Nov;184(5):2035-7 [22520005.001]
  • (PMID = 19732303.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-6109
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of sexual medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Sex Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Imidazoles; 0 / Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors; 0 / Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Sulfones; 0 / Triazines; 5O8R96XMH7 / Vardenafil Dihydrochloride
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25. Scelzi S, Giubilei G, Bartoletti R, Di Loro F, Mondaini N, Crisci A: Nephrogenic adenoma of bladder after ibuprofen abuse. Urology; 2004 Nov;64(5):1030
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. IBUPROFEN .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Nephrogenic adenoma is an infrequent benign lesion of the urinary system that occurs in patients with a history of genitourinary surgery, stone disease, trauma, chronic urinary tract infection, or renal transplantation.
  • We stress the importance of investigating the analgesic abuser for nephrogenic adenoma if microhematuria and/or irritative lower urinary tract symptoms are present.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / chemically induced. Ibuprofen / poisoning. Substance-Related Disorders. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / chemically induced
  • [MeSH-minor] Arthritis / drug therapy. Arthritis / urine. Follow-Up Studies. Hematuria. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Self Administration

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  • (PMID = 15533502.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WK2XYI10QM / Ibuprofen
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26. Brisinda G, Vanella S, Maria G: Re: Athanassios Oeconomou, Helmut Madersbacher, Gustav Kiss, Thomas J. Berger, Michael Melekos and Peter Rehder. Is botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT-A) a novel therapy for lower urinary tract symptoms due to benign prostatic enlargement? a review of the literature. Eur Urol 2008;54:765-77. Eur Urol; 2009 Jul;56(1):e10-1; author reply e12-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Re: Athanassios Oeconomou, Helmut Madersbacher, Gustav Kiss, Thomas J. Berger, Michael Melekos and Peter Rehder. Is botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT-A) a novel therapy for lower urinary tract symptoms due to benign prostatic enlargement? a review of the literature. Eur Urol 2008;54:765-77.
  • [MeSH-major] Botulinum Toxins, Type A / therapeutic use. Neuromuscular Agents / therapeutic use. Prostatic Hyperplasia / complications. Prostatism / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Male. Prostatic Neoplasms / etiology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / prevention & control. Urodynamics / drug effects

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  • [CommentOn] Eur Urol. 2008 Oct;54(4):765-75 [18571306.001]
  • (PMID = 19375845.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-7560
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neuromuscular Agents; EC 3.4.24.69 / Botulinum Toxins, Type A
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