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1. Uekado Y, Kohjimoto Y, Iba A, Kikkawa K, Shintani Y, Shinka T: [Efficacy of intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin for carcinoma in situ of bladder]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2006 Jun;52(6):439-44
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  • [Title] [Efficacy of intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin for carcinoma in situ of bladder].
  • Three months after an initial 6-week course ofintravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) given between January 1990 and March 2005, 94 (90%) out of 104 patients with carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the bladder achieved a complete response (CR).
  • Only one patient who received a second course of BCG therapy showed disease progression.
  • Two of the 4 patients with BCG-refractory CIS of the bladder achieved CR after intravesical gemcitabine therapy and maintained a tumor-free status beyond 6 months.
  • Five of the 16 patients showing disease progression had upper urinary tract cancer, 4 had recurrent or muscle invasive bladder cancer, 6 had prostatic involvement of CIS, and one patient had urethral recurrence.
  • Bladder preservation was achieved in 97 of the 104 patients, although 7 patients ultimately underwent radical cystectomy and urinary diversion for aggressive disease.
  • In conclusion, some patients may be managed safely by repeated endoscopic resection and intravesical therapy with cystectomy postponed until objective evidence of progression exists.
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use. BCG Vaccine / therapeutic use. Carcinoma in Situ / drug therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Intravesical. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Remission Induction. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16848357.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / BCG Vaccine
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2. Miyake H, Eto H, Hara S, Okada H, Kamidono S, Hara I: Clinical outcome of bacillus Calmette-Guérin perfusion therapy for carcinoma in situ of the upper urinary tract. Int J Urol; 2002 Dec;9(12):677-80
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  • [Title] Clinical outcome of bacillus Calmette-Guérin perfusion therapy for carcinoma in situ of the upper urinary tract.
  • BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of intrarenal bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) instillation for the treatment of carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the upper urinary tract.
  • METHODS: Sixteen patients who were diagnosed as having CIS of the upper urinary tract were treated with intrarenal BCG instillation.
  • BCG (80 mg) in normal saline was administered once weekly, 6 times in total as one course through a percutaneous nephrostomy tube in 5 patients, and a retrograde ureteric catheterization using a Single-J or Double-J stent in 2 and 9 patients, respectively.
  • RESULTS: During the median follow-up period of 30 months (range: 9-90 months), no patients died, and 13 patients remained cytologically negative in urine collected from the upper urinary tract after BCG treatment was completed.
  • However, one of these 13 patients had CIS in the bladder and prostatic urethra 34 months after the BCG therapy and had to undergo radical cystectomy.
  • The remaining 3 patients experienced recurrence in the upper urinary tract 4, 8, and 11 months after treatment, despite a favorable response to the initial BCG instillation.
  • Of these 3 patients, one patient received an additional course of BCG therapy, while the remaining 2 underwent nephroureterectomy.
  • Bladder irritability or a fever higher than 38 degrees C was observed in 12 or 9 patients, respectively; however, such side-effects were not clinically significant, and no patient received antitubercular treatment.
  • CONCLUSION: Intrarenal instillation of BCG appears to be effective and safe for treatment of CIS of the upper urinary tract; however, further experience and longer follow-up studies of this treatment are required.
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Immunologic / adverse effects. BCG Vaccine / adverse effects. Carcinoma in Situ / drug therapy. Kidney Neoplasms / drug therapy. Urethral Neoplasms / drug therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 12492951.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / BCG Vaccine
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3. Inoue K, Karashima T, Fukata S, Nomura A, Kawada C, Kurabayashi A, Furihata M, Ohtsuki Y, Shuin T: Effect of combination therapy with a novel bisphosphonate, minodronate (YM529), and docetaxel on a model of bone metastasis by human transitional cell carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res; 2005 Sep 15;11(18):6669-77
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  • [Title] Effect of combination therapy with a novel bisphosphonate, minodronate (YM529), and docetaxel on a model of bone metastasis by human transitional cell carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary tract is a chemosensitive tumor.
  • Most deaths from TCC of the urinary tract are caused by metastasis, which is resistant to conventional chemotherapy.
  • Frequent sites of metastases from TCC of the urinary tract are regional lymph nodes, liver, lung, and bone.
  • Of these distant metastases, bone metastasis is consistently resistant to cisplatin-based conventional chemotherapy.
  • Therefore, in this study, we investigated whether or not a newly developed minodronate, YM529, could prevent osteolytic bone metastasis of human TCC and also enhance the effect of docetaxel in a bone tumor model of athymic nude mice.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: In the present study, we evaluated the effect of in vitro treatment with minodronate and/or docetaxel on the proliferation by cell count, the induction of apoptosis by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, and the biological activity of osteoclast by pit formation assay in human bladder cancer cell line, UMUC-14, and mouse osteoclast cells.
  • RESULTS: In vitro: In vitro treatment with docetaxel inhibited proliferation and resorption pit-forming activity and induced apoptosis of mouse osteoclast cells and UMUC-14 cells.
  • In vitro treatment with minodronate inhibited proliferation and activity and induced apoptosis of mouse osteoclast cells but not UMUC-14 cells.
  • The treatment with minodronate enhanced the inhibition of proliferation and activity by docetaxel in osteoclasts.
  • In vivo: In vivo combination therapy with docetaxel and minodronate significantly reduced the tumor incidence compared with the control (P < 0.05) and also growth of intraossal TCC in athymic nude mice compared with the control (P < 0.001), single therapy with docetaxel (P < 0.01), and minodronate (P < 0.05).
  • Drug-induced body weight loss was not significantly different in any treatment group.
  • Therapy with minodronate significantly enhanced inhibition of proliferation by docetaxel in osteoclasts of bone tumors compared with the control (P < 0.01), single therapy with docetaxel (P < 0.01), and minodronate (P < 0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: These studies indicate that combination therapy with minodronate and docetaxel may be beneficial in patients with bone metastasis of human TCC in the urinary tract.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / prevention & control. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / drug therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
  • [MeSH-minor] Acid Phosphatase / analysis. Animals. Apoptosis / drug effects. Bone Resorption / prevention & control. Cell Line. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Diphosphonates / administration & dosage. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Humans. Imidazoles / administration & dosage. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Nick-End Labeling. Isoenzymes / analysis. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Mice, Nude. Osteoblasts / chemistry. Osteoblasts / cytology. Osteoblasts / drug effects. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / analysis. Taxoids / administration & dosage. Tibia / drug effects. Tibia / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16166446.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / Imidazoles; 0 / Isoenzymes; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / Taxoids; 127657-42-5 / YM 529; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; EC 3.1.3.- / tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase; EC 3.1.3.2 / Acid Phosphatase
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4. Chung D, Hersey K, Fleshner N: Differences between urologists in United States and Canada in approach to bladder cancer. Urology; 2005 May;65(5):919-25
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  • OBJECTIVES: To determine the Canada-United States differences with respect to the detection, diagnosis, surveillance, and treatment of bladder cancer.
  • METHODS: A multiple-choice questionnaire was developed and mailed to 760 American and 516 Canadian urologists between November and December 2002.
  • The areas assessed by the questionnaire included demographics, screening, superficial disease and recurrence, surveillance, muscle-invasive disease, advanced disease, and adjuvant systemic chemotherapy.
  • With respect to bladder cancer detection, U.S. urologists were more likely to use intravenous urography and cystoscopy than were Canadian urologists (P <0.0001).
  • For patients with superficial disease, a significant proportion of urologists in both countries did not routinely use adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • For surveillance, Canadian urologists performed cystoscopy (P <0.0001) and upper tract imaging (P <0.0001) less frequently than U.S. urologists.
  • With respect to the type of urinary diversion, Canadian urologists tended to favor conduits (P <0.0001, male and P = 0.002, female).
  • Canadian urologists were also less likely to use adjuvant chemotherapy among patients with advanced disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study have shown that the trend of urologists in the United States is toward more aggressive screening, closer surveillance, an earlier trigger for cystectomy, and more common indications for intravenous chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / therapy. Practice Patterns, Physicians'. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / therapy. Urology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Attitude of Health Personnel. Canada. Carcinoma in Situ. Female. Health Care Surveys. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Surveys and Questionnaires. United States

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  • (PMID = 15882724.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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5. Andius P, Damm O, Holmäng S: Prognostic factors in patients with carcinoma in situ treated with intravesical bacille Calmette-Guérin. Scand J Urol Nephrol; 2004;38(4):285-90
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  • [Title] Prognostic factors in patients with carcinoma in situ treated with intravesical bacille Calmette-Guérin.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report prognostic factors and follow-up data for an unselected group of patients with carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the urinary bladder treated with bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG).
  • The impact of 18 variables on the times to recurrence and progression was studied using multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression and Kaplan-Meier analyses.
  • RESULTS: No pre-treatment variables, including type of CIS and T1G3 tumour, had prognostic value in terms of time to progression.
  • Fourteen patients (8%) were diagnosed with an upper urinary tract tumour but no variable had prognostic significance.
  • The diagnoses of the upper urinary tract tumours were evenly distributed during follow-up.
  • The accumulated incidence of patients with bladder CIS and a subsequent upper urinary tract tumour is rather high but it is questionable whether the prognosis will improve if routine follow-up urographies are performed.
  • [MeSH-major] BCG Vaccine / therapeutic use. Carcinoma in Situ / drug therapy. Carcinoma in Situ / mortality. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Intravesical. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Needle. Confidence Intervals. Cystoscopy. Disease-Free Survival. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Sweden. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15669587.001).
  • [ISSN] 0036-5599
  • [Journal-full-title] Scandinavian journal of urology and nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Scand. J. Urol. Nephrol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BCG Vaccine
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6. Koga H, Naito S: [Recent progress in the treatment for urothelial cancer]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2006 Feb;33(2):164-70
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  • [Title] [Recent progress in the treatment for urothelial cancer].
  • Recent progress in the treatment for urothelial cancer is reviewed, especially concerning systemic chemotherapy and surgical techniques.
  • A guideline for chemotherapy of urothelial cancer according to clinical stage is shown on the basis of evidence level in Japan.
  • MVAC chemotherapy is regarded as the gold standard for advanced metastatic urothelial cancer.
  • Randomized controlled trial revealed that gemcitabine in combination with cisplatin (GC therapy) has an efficacy similar to MVAC and is less toxic.
  • Thus, GC therapy will become the standard treatment for advanced metastatic urothelial cancer instead of MVAC.
  • It was not yet clarified whether neoadjuvant chemotherapy provides survival benefits.
  • Recent metaanalysis, however, revealed that neoadjuvant chemotherapy, especially cisplatin-based chemotherapy, has a survival advantage compared with total cystectomy alone.
  • Intravesical BCG instillation is the standard treatment for carcinoma in situ and prophylaxis of recurrence for high-risk superficial bladder cancer.
  • For higher efficacy and lower adverse effect, maintenance instillation and low-dose therapy are proposed, respectively, but further investigation is needed.
  • Laparoscopic nephroureterectomy for patients with upper urinary tract cancer is reported to show the same efficacy at point of cancer control in comparison with traditional open surgery.
  • Endoscopic treatment for upper tract urothelial cancer using laser can be safe and effective for a properly selected patient with a normal contralateral kidney.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Urologic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Urologic Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Intravesical. BCG Vaccine / therapeutic use. Bridged Compounds / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal. Evidence-Based Medicine. Humans. Laparoscopy. Laser Therapy. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Taxoids / administration & dosage. Vinblastine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 16484850.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BCG Vaccine; 0 / Bridged Compounds; 0 / Taxoids; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 1605-68-1 / taxane; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; M-VAC protocol
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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7. Inoue K, Kamada M, Slaton JW, Fukata S, Yoshikawa C, Tamboli P, Dinney CP, Shuin T: The prognostic value of angiogenesis and metastasis-related genes for progression of transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis and ureter. Clin Cancer Res; 2002 Jun;8(6):1863-70
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  • [Title] The prognostic value of angiogenesis and metastasis-related genes for progression of transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis and ureter.
  • PURPOSE: We reported previously that angiogenesis evaluated by intratumor microvessel density (MVD), expression of such angiogenic factors as vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and the matrix metalloproteinase-9:E-cadherin ratio (M:E ratio) could identify patients with advanced transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder for whom chemotherapy and cystectomy will be unsuccessful.
  • In the present study, we evaluated the significance of the M:E ratio as a predictor for prognosis for patients with TCC in the upper urinary tract (TCC-UUT).
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We evaluated MVD by immunohistochemistry and the expression of angiogenic and metastasis-related factors by in situ hybridization in 55 nephroureterectomy specimens from patients who received no neoadjuvant therapy.
  • The expression level of matrix metalloproteinase type 9 (MMP-9) and type 2 (MMP-2) and the M:E ratio correlated with MVD.
  • Moreover, lower expression levels of E-cadherin were associated with fewer recurrences in the urinary bladder.
  • CONCLUSION: We suggest that the M:E ratio and E-cadherin expression may be targets for novel therapeutic strategies.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / blood supply. Kidney Neoplasms / blood supply. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Neovascularization, Pathologic / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cadherins / genetics. Cadherins / metabolism. Disease Progression. Endothelial Growth Factors / genetics. Endothelial Growth Factors / metabolism. Female. Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 / genetics. Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 / metabolism. Humans. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism. Interleukin-8 / metabolism. Kidney Pelvis / metabolism. Lymphokines / genetics. Lymphokines / metabolism. Male. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / genetics. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / metabolism. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / genetics. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / metabolism. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Survival Rate. Ureter / metabolism. Urinary Bladder / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors

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  • (PMID = 12060629.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / Endothelial Growth Factors; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Interleukin-8; 0 / Lymphokines; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors; 103107-01-3 / Fibroblast Growth Factor 2; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2; EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
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8. Shishido T, Itou T, Ono Y, Arai Y, Miki M: [Adenocarcinoma of the renal pelvis and transitional cell carcinoma of the ureter occurring 11 years after radical cystectomy for bladder cancer: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2001 Mar;47(3):187-90
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  • [Title] [Adenocarcinoma of the renal pelvis and transitional cell carcinoma of the ureter occurring 11 years after radical cystectomy for bladder cancer: a case report].
  • We report a case of upper urinary tract carcinoma which recurred 11 years after total cystectomy.
  • Urinary cytology, cystoscopic examination and intravenous pyelography revealed normal findings.
  • Twenty months later, because class V urinary cytologic findings were detected, transurethral biopsy was performed.
  • Carcinoma in situ was diagnosed pathologically.
  • Therefore, total cystectomy and ileal conduit urinary diversion were performed.
  • The pathological diagnosis was transitional cell carcinoma, grade 3, pTis.
  • The right kidney was not visualized on IVP and computed tomography revealed a right renal irregular mass.
  • The pathologic diagnosis was renal pelvic adenocarcinoma and ureteral transitional cell carcinoma.
  • The patient was treated postoperatively with 3 cycles of systemic chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / etiology. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / etiology. Cystectomy. Kidney Neoplasms / etiology. Kidney Pelvis. Neoplasms, Second Primary / etiology. Postoperative Complications. Ureteral Neoplasms / etiology. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Time Factors


9. Amling CL: Diagnosis and management of superficial bladder cancer. Curr Probl Cancer; 2001 Jul-Aug;25(4):219-78
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  • Initial radiologic evaluation usually includes the excretory urography (intravenous pyelography), although further evaluation of the renal parenchyma with ultrasound or computed tomography scanning has been advocated by some.
  • Superficial tumors consist of papillary tumors that are mucosally confined (Ta), papillary or sessile tumors extending into the lamina propria (T1), and carcinoma in situ, which occurs as "flat" mucosal dysplasia, which can be focal, diffuse, or associated with a papillary or sessile tumor.
  • It is important to identify those tumors at risk for recurrence or progression so that adjuvant intravesical therapies can be instituted.
  • Most are given intravesically on a weekly basis, although many studies suggest that a single instillation immediately after transurethral resection may be as good as a longer course of therapy.
  • Although all of these drugs have toxicity, they usually are well tolerated.
  • Intravesical bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is an immunotherapeutic agent that when given intravesically is very effective in the treatment of superficial transitional cell carcinoma.
  • Compared with controls, BCG has a 43% advantage in preventing tumor recurrence, a significantly better rate than the 16% to 21% advantage of intravesical chemotherapy.
  • In addition, BCG is particularly effective in the treatment of carcinoma in situ, eradicating it in more than 80% of cases.
  • In contrast to intravesical chemotherapy, BCG has also been shown to decrease the risk of tumor progression.
  • Unfortunately, adverse effects associated with this prolonged therapy may limit its widespread applicability.
  • In those patients at high risk in whom BCG therapy fails, intravesical interferon-alpha with or without BCG may be beneficial in some.
  • Photodynamic therapy has also been used but is limited by its toxicity.
  • In patients who progress or do not respond to intravesical therapies, cystectomy should be considered.
  • With the development of orthotopic lower urinary tract reconstruction to the native urethra, the quality of life impact of radical cystectomy has been lessened.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / therapy. Immunotherapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 11514784.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-0272
  • [Journal-full-title] Current problems in cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Probl Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ABO Blood-Group System; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 179
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10. Lemy A, Wissing KM, Rorive S, Zlotta A, Roumeguere T, Muniz Martinez MC, Decaestecker C, Salmon I, Abramowicz D, Vanherweghem JL, Nortier J: Late onset of bladder urothelial carcinoma after kidney transplantation for end-stage aristolochic acid nephropathy: a case series with 15-year follow-up. Am J Kidney Dis; 2008 Mar;51(3):471-7
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  • [Title] Late onset of bladder urothelial carcinoma after kidney transplantation for end-stage aristolochic acid nephropathy: a case series with 15-year follow-up.
  • BACKGROUND: Aristolochic acids are nephrotoxins and predispose to upper-tract urothelial carcinoma.
  • The risk of bladder urothelial carcinoma after kidney transplantation and its relationship to upper-tract urothelial carcinoma is not well defined.
  • OUTCOMES & MEASUREMENTS: The prevalence of upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma was determined by collecting pathological results of specimens obtained by means of bilateral ureteronephrectomy.
  • We also established the cumulative incidence of bladder urothelial carcinoma in biopsies performed during prospective screening cystoscopies during a 15-year follow-up.
  • RESULTS: Upper-tract urothelial carcinoma was found in 17 patients with aristolochic acid nephropathy (44.7%).
  • During follow-up, bladder urothelial carcinoma was diagnosed in 15 patients 68 to 169 months after cessation of aristolochic acid exposure (39.5%): 8 urothelial carcinoma in situ, 4 noninvasive low-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma, and 3 infiltrating urothelial carcinoma.
  • 12 of 17 patients (71%) with a history of upper-tract urothelial carcinoma developed bladder urothelial carcinoma during follow-up, whereas this occurred in only 3 of 21 patients (14%) without upper-tract urothelial carcinoma (P < 0.01).
  • Despite local and/or systemic chemotherapy, 3 patients died and 2 radical cystectomies were performed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Upper-tract and bladder urothelial carcinoma are dramatic complications in kidney transplant recipients with aristolochic acid nephropathy, confirming the carcinogenic properties of aristolochic acids.
  • We identified upper-tract urothelial carcinoma as a potent risk factor for the subsequent development of bladder urothelial carcinoma after kidney transplantation for aristolochic acid nephropathy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinogens. Drugs, Chinese Herbal / adverse effects. Kidney Failure, Chronic / chemically induced. Kidney Failure, Chronic / surgery. Kidney Transplantation. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / chemically induced
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Intravesical. Adult. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Aristolochic Acids / adverse effects. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Mitomycin / administration & dosage. Risk Assessment. Time Factors


11. Nonomura N, Ono Y, Nozawa M, Fukui T, Harada Y, Nishimura K, Takaha N, Takahara S, Okuyama A: Bacillus Calmette-Guérin perfusion therapy for the treatment of transitional cell carcinoma in situ of the upper urinary tract. Eur Urol; 2000 Dec;38(6):701-4;discussion 705
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  • [Title] Bacillus Calmette-Guérin perfusion therapy for the treatment of transitional cell carcinoma in situ of the upper urinary tract.
  • OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intrarenal bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) instillation as a treatment for transitional cell carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the upper urinary tract.
  • METHODS: Diagnostic criteria of upper urinary tract CIS were (1) positive urinary cytology, (2) negative multiple random biopsy of the bladder and prostatic urethra, (3) negative radiographic findings in the upper urinary tract and (4) two serial positive cytologies in selective ipsilateral urine sampling from the pyeloureteral system.
  • Eleven patients diagnosed as having upper urinary tract CIS were enrolled in this study.
  • After placing a 6-french Double-J stent, BCG (80 mg) in 40 ml saline was instilled into the bladder weekly, 6 times in total as one course.
  • RESULTS: At the end of one course, 9 cases showed negative urinary cytology.
  • Among these 9 cases, 2 showed recurrence in the upper urinary tract after 4 months and 8 months of disease-free interval, respectively.
  • These 2 cases have received an additional course of BCG instillation, but the urinary cytology did not normalize.
  • Mean recurrence-free time was 19.6 months.
  • The remaining patient died of rectal cancer with no evidence of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC).
  • Of the 2 cases who showed positive urinary cytology even after the first course, 1 underwent nephroureterectomy.
  • The other case was diagnosed as having malignant lymphoma 3 months after the end of this instillation therapy, and he died of malignant lymphoma.
  • However, no patient needed antitubercular treatment.
  • CONCLUSION: As for the short-term response, BCG instillation for the treatment of upper urinary tract CIS is considered to be effective and safe.
  • Longer follow-up and further experience with this treatment are required.
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use. BCG Vaccine / therapeutic use. Carcinoma in Situ / therapy. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / therapy. Kidney Neoplasms / therapy. Ureteral Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Intravesical. Aged. Disease-Free Survival. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Instillation, Drug. Male. Perfusion. Stents. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 11111187.001).
  • [ISSN] 0302-2838
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] SWITZERLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / BCG Vaccine
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12. Pinthus JH, Sheffer Y, Nagler A, Fridman E, Mor Y, Genina O, Pines M: Inhibition of Wilms tumor xenograft progression by halofuginone is accompanied by activation of WT-1 gene expression. J Urol; 2005 Oct;174(4 Pt 2):1527-31
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  • PURPOSE: Wilms tumor (WT) is the most common malignant neoplasm of the urinary tract in children.
  • Although it is curable with long-term survival, the combination of surgery, chemotherapy and often radiotherapy in some cases results in severe complications in adulthood.
  • Therefore, novel therapeutic strategies that would decrease treatment burden and improve outcome for high risk patients are required.
  • We evaluated the efficacy of halofuginone, an inhibitor of collagen type I synthesis and angiogenesis, to inhibit WT development in xenografts models.
  • In culture halofuginone increased the synthesis of WT1 in the human WT cell-line SK-NEP-1 and in other cancer cell lines such as hepatocellular carcinoma and prostate cancer.
  • Because of its unique mode of action, halofuginone may decrease the treatment burden when combined with chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / pharmacology. Kidney Neoplasms / drug therapy. Quinazolines / pharmacology. WT1 Proteins / biosynthesis. Wilms Tumor / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line. Child, Preschool. Collagen / biosynthesis. Disease Progression. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. In Situ Hybridization. Injections, Intraperitoneal. Mice. Mice, Nude. Neovascularization, Pathologic / prevention & control. Piperidines. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-met / biosynthesis. Quinazolinones. Receptor, ErbB-2 / biosynthesis. Transplantation, Heterologous

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  • (PMID = 16148645.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Piperidines; 0 / Quinazolines; 0 / Quinazolinones; 0 / WT1 Proteins; 9007-34-5 / Collagen; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-met; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2; L31MM1385E / halofuginone
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13. Thalmann GN, Markwalder R, Walter B, Studer UE: Long-term experience with bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy of upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma in patients not eligible for surgery. J Urol; 2002 Oct;168(4 Pt 1):1381-5
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  • [Title] Long-term experience with bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy of upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma in patients not eligible for surgery.
  • PURPOSE: Carcinoma in situ and urothelial tumors of the upper urinary tract become problematic in cases of bilateral occurrence or solitary kidney.
  • Perfusions with bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) have been reported beneficial, however, only long-term results will determine the validity of this treatment.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated the results of BCG therapy for upper urinary tract disease in 37 patients.
  • All 37 patients had undergone previous surgical treatment for urothelial cancer, had a positive cytology or biopsy for upper urinary tract cancer and were ineligible for radical nephroureterectomy with a bladder cuff.
  • After placement of a 10Fr nephrostomy tube with the patient under local anesthesia 6 weekly perfusions of BCG were administered after radiological documentation of unhindered flow from the renal pelvis to the bladder or urinary diversion.
  • A total of 25 renal units were treated with curative intent for carcinoma in situ and 16 renal units were treated for Ta or higher urothelial tumors in an adjuvant setting after endoscopic resection.
  • In 1 patient BCG inflammation and in 2 others severe septicemia developed after the first perfusion.
  • There was no tumor seeding along the nephrostomy tract in any patient.
  • BCG perfusion therapy did not alter renal function.
  • CONCLUSIONS: BCG perfusion therapy of the upper urinary tract for papillary tumors or carcinoma in situ is a valid treatment option with acceptable side effects for patients not amenable to conventional radical surgical therapy.
  • BCG therapy of upper urinary tract urothelial tumors may prevent patients from requiring dialysis and provides cure in those with carcinoma in situ of the upper urinary tract.
  • In this negatively selected patient population BCG buys time for some but does not provide cure except for carcinoma in situ.
  • [MeSH-major] BCG Vaccine / therapeutic use. Carcinoma in Situ / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / drug therapy. Kidney Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm Staging. Nephrectomy. Nephrostomy, Percutaneous. Perfusion. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Ureter / pathology. Ureter / surgery. Ureteral Neoplasms / drug therapy. Ureteral Neoplasms / mortality. Ureteral Neoplasms / pathology. Ureteral Neoplasms / surgery. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / mortality. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / surgery. Urinary Diversion

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  • (PMID = 12352398.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BCG Vaccine
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14. Chen AA, Grasso M: Is there a role for FISH in the management and surveillance of patients with upper tract transitional-cell carcinoma? J Endourol; 2008 Jun;22(6):1371-4
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  • [Title] Is there a role for FISH in the management and surveillance of patients with upper tract transitional-cell carcinoma?
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) assay has been approved by the U.S.
  • Food and Drug Administration for the detection of recurrent transitional-cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder and in the initial workup of hematuria.
  • In this study, we retrospectively reviewed our initial 94 FISH specimens taken from patients monitored for upper-tract TCC.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 2004 and 2007, 43 patients had one or more FISH assays performed as part of the workup and management of upper-tract TCC.
  • Of 94 specimens sent for FISH analysis, 25 voided specimens collected at an outpatient encounter and 40 specimens taken as a bladder wash or selective upper-tract washing under anesthesia were followed by upper-tract endoscopy.
  • RESULTS: Overall sensitivity of FISH in the detection of TCC in this population was 52%, compared with 26% for urinary cytology.
  • Selective upper-tract washings were more sensitive and specific for upper-tract TCC than bladder washings or voided specimens.
  • CONCLUSIONS: While the sensitivity of FISH for upper-tract TCC parallels its performance in bladder cancer, the preponderance of low-grade, recurrent disease in the population undergoing surveillance and minimally invasive therapy for upper-tract TCC may limit its usefulness in this setting.
  • Until a high-sensitivity marker for low-grade urothelial lesions is developed, the surveillance of upper-tract TCC will continue to require vigilant direct visual inspection.

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  • (PMID = 18578665.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-900X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endourology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endourol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Josephson DY, Pasin E, Stein JP: Superficial bladder cancer: part 1. Update on etiology, classification and natural history. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther; 2006 Dec;6(12):1723-34
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  • The goal in the treatment of superficial bladder cancer is twofold: reducing tumor recurrence and the subsequent need for additional therapies, such as cystoscopy, transurethral resections, intravesical therapy and the morbidity associated with these treatments; and preventing tumor progression and the subsequent need for more aggressive therapy, such as radical cystectomy.
  • The administration of intravesical chemotherapy and immunotherapy has become an important component in accomplishing these goals.
  • [MeSH-major] Urinary Bladder Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinogens, Environmental / adverse effects. Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / classification. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / etiology. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / therapy. Chromosome Aberrations. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Hematuria / etiology. Humans. Mucous Membrane / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Occupational Diseases / chemically induced. Papilloma / diagnosis. Papilloma / pathology. Risk Factors. Smoking / adverse effects. Urinary Tract Infections / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17181486.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8328
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of anticancer therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Anticancer Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinogens, Environmental
  • [Number-of-references] 124
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16. Abe T, Shinohara N, Harabayashi T, Sazawa A, Akino T, Ishikawa S, Kubota K, Matsuno Y, Osawa T, Shibata T, Toyoda Y, Shinno Y, Kamota S, Minami K, Sakashita S, Kumagai A, Takada N, Togashi M, Sano H, Mori T, Nonomura K: Pathological characteristics and clinical course of bladder tumour developing after nephroureterectomy. BJU Int; 2010 Apr;105(8):1102-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVES: To determine the pathological features and clinical course of intravesical recurrence after nephroureterectomy (NU) for upper urinary tract (UUT) cancer.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Among 325 patients undergoing NU with bladder cuff excision for UUT cancer, in this retrospective multi-institutional study we evaluated 113 who developed bladder tumour after NU.
  • Excluding patients with (i) perioperative systemic chemotherapy or radiotherapy for UUT cancer;.
  • (ii) a history of previous or synchronous bladder cancer at the time of NU;.
  • (iii) distant metastasis at the time of NU;.
  • RESULTS: The grade of the first bladder cancer recurrence strongly correlated with that of the UUT tumour (P < 0.001) and the carcinoma in situ (CIS) lesion with the first bladder cancer recurrence correlated with high grade (grade 3) UUT tumour (P < 0.001).
  • In all, 56 of the assessable 70 patients further developed intravesical recurrence at a median interval of 7 months after the first bladder cancer recurrence.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A large proportion of the patients who developed bladder tumour after NU had further intravesical recurrence, which indicated its refractory nature.
  • [MeSH-major] Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Nephrectomy / methods. Ureter / surgery. Ureteral Neoplasms / surgery. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Laparoscopy / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Postoperative Complications / pathology. Retrospective Studies

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  • [Copyright] © 2009 THE AUTHORS. JOURNAL COMPILATION © 2009 BJU INTERNATIONAL.
  • (PMID = 19725822.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-410X
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
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17. Palou J, Piovesan LF, Huguet J, Salvador J, Vicente J, Villavicencio H: Percutaneous nephroscopic management of upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma: recurrence and long-term followup. J Urol; 2004 Jul;172(1):66-9
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  • [Title] Percutaneous nephroscopic management of upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma: recurrence and long-term followup.
  • PURPOSE: We present long-term results of the percutaneous approach and resection of upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma, and we evaluate the prognostic factors related to recurrence.
  • Adjuvant topical chemotherapy or immunotherapy was administered.
  • Ureteroscopy and computerized tomography were obtained when clinically indicated.
  • RESULTS: With a mean followup of 51 months ipsilateral recurrence developed in 41.2%.
  • Median time to recurrence was 24 months.
  • There was a trend of recurrence in patients with multifocal tumors (OR 2.66, 95% CI 0.07-1.92), history of bladder carcinoma in situ (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.61-3.74), tumor in renal pelvis (OR 6.45, 95% CI 0.01-1.46) and multiple tumor locations (OR 6.53, 95% CI 0.01-1.54).
  • Recurrence is not uncommon and, as transitional cell carcinoma superficial bladder cancer it may be treated with endourological maneuvers or radical surgery, but with the obligation to a long lasting, strict surveillance.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / surgery. Urologic Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Endoscopy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mitomycin / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Ureteroscopy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15201739.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin
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18. Hayashida Y, Nomata K, Noguchi M, Eguchi J, Koga S, Yamashita S, Hayashi M, Kanatake H: Long-term effects of bacille Calmette-Guérin perfusion therapy for treatment of transitional cell carcinoma in situ of upper urinary tract. Urology; 2004 Jun;63(6):1084-8
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  • [Title] Long-term effects of bacille Calmette-Guérin perfusion therapy for treatment of transitional cell carcinoma in situ of upper urinary tract.
  • OBJECTIVES: To report our experience with bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) perfusion therapy for transitional cell carcinoma in situ of the upper urinary tract.
  • BCG perfusion therapy is widely used to treat transitional cell carcinoma in situ of the upper urinary tract.
  • However, it has not yet been established as a standard treatment.
  • METHODS: Ten patients diagnosed with transitional cell carcinoma in situ of the upper urinary tract were treated with BCG perfusion therapy from January 1990 to May 2002.
  • The initial response to therapy was excellent, and cytology became negative in all patients after one course of BCG perfusion.
  • Five patients developed recurrence after 5, 11, 24, 26, and 45 months, and all died after 46, 12, 41, 134, and 79 months, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: BCG perfusion therapy for carcinoma in situ of the upper urinary tract is safe, and the short-term response is excellent.
  • Therefore, this therapy should be considered experimental, although it may have potential benefits in delaying progression and possibly providing local control for patients in poor condition.
  • Long-term studies are required for additional evaluation of BCG therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] BCG Vaccine / therapeutic use. Carcinoma in Situ / drug therapy. Carcinoma in Situ / mortality. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / mortality. Urologic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Urologic Neoplasms / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Intravesical. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hydronephrosis / etiology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / mortality

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  • (PMID = 15183955.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BCG Vaccine
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19. Tamas EF, Nielsen ME, Schoenberg MP, Epstein JI: Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the urinary tract: a clinicopathological study of 30 pure and mixed cases. Mod Pathol; 2007 Aug;20(8):828-34
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  • [Title] Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the urinary tract: a clinicopathological study of 30 pure and mixed cases.
  • We studied 28 cases of lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the bladder, one case in the renal pelvis, and one in the urethra.
  • Seventeen cases (56.7%) were pure with the remaining mixed with other patterns of carcinoma, including invasive urothelial carcinoma (n=10), invasive adenocarcinoma (n=3), and squamous cell carcinoma (n=2).
  • The surface demonstrated carcinoma in situ (CIS) in six cases, noninvasive high-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma in three cases, and in situ adenocarcinoma in one case.
  • None of the 26 cases labeled for EBV-encoded RNA by in situ hybridization.
  • Treatment consisted of radical cystectomy in 13/30 cases (43%); partial cystectomy in 4/30 cases (13%); nephrectomy in one case (3%), and transurethral resection often followed by radiation or chemotherapy in 12/30 (40%) cases.
  • Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma, whether in pure or mixed form, has a similar prognosis to ordinary urothelial carcinoma when treated by cystectomy.
  • Of the three pure cases treated by chemotherapy, two were free of disease at 4 and 65 months and the third had recurrent disease at 17 months.
  • Given the association of lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma with urothelial carcinoma in 47% of our cases and its propensity for multifocality, partial cystectomy would typically be ill advised for lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Urologic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Disease-Free Survival. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphocytes / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17541442.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Holmäng S, Thomsen J, Johansson SL: Micropapillary carcinoma of the renal pelvis and ureter. J Urol; 2006 Feb;175(2):463-6; discussion 466-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Micropapillary carcinoma of the renal pelvis and ureter.
  • PURPOSE: MPC located in the upper urinary tract is rare with only 2 cases reported to date.
  • Carcinoma in situ was identified in 64% of cases and vascular invasion was present in 81%.
  • Stage for stage the prognosis is not different from that in nonMPC urothelial cell carcinoma.
  • However, radiotherapy and systemic chemotherapy appear to be ineffective.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary. Kidney Neoplasms. Kidney Pelvis. Ureteral Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 16406972.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Jabbour ME, Smith AD: Primary percutaneous approach to upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma. Urol Clin North Am; 2000 Nov;27(4):739-50
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  • [Title] Primary percutaneous approach to upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma.
  • The optimal approach to upper tract TCC remains to be redefined.
  • A routine nephroureterectomy for every filling defect in the upper urinary system, even in the case of a normal contralateral kidney, constitutes an unnecessary mutilation in more than two thirds of the cases.
  • Ureteroscopy, rigid and flexible, provides a complete assessment of the upper urinary system.
  • The decision on the therapeutic approach is made only after the final pathologic report is reviewed.
  • The indications for endourologic treatment in these cases can be extended safely beyond a solitary kidney or a high surgical risk to include any healthy individual with a normal contralateral kidney who is willing to commit to a rigorous lifelong follow-up.
  • When criteria of good prognosis are found, such as absence of carcinoma in situ, presence of diploidy, low p53 expression and a single-tumor, endoscopic management can be offered [table: see text] with a closer follow-up and resorting always to immediate nephroureterectomy at the first evidence of upstaging.
  • Although the tissue removed may include deep layers, deep resection is precluded by the thin renal pelvic wall and the associated risk for perforation.
  • Patients with more extensive disease (T3, T4) have a bad prognosis regardless of the form of therapy.
  • Achieving local control percutaneously while preserving as many nephrons as possible for the future chemotherapy can be a reasonable option.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / surgery. Laparoscopy. Urologic Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 11098771.001).
  • [ISSN] 0094-0143
  • [Journal-full-title] The Urologic clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Number-of-references] 93
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22. Halling KC, Kipp BR: Bladder cancer detection using FISH (UroVysion assay). Adv Anat Pathol; 2008 Sep;15(5):279-86
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  • [Title] Bladder cancer detection using FISH (UroVysion assay).
  • UroVysion is a fluorescence in situ hybridization assay that was developed for the detection of bladder cancer in urine specimens.
  • The UroVysion assay works by detecting urinary cells that have chromosomal abnormalities consistent with a diagnosis of bladder cancer.
  • Studies have shown that UroVysion is more sensitive than urine cytology for the detection of all stages and grades of bladder cancer.
  • UroVysion is Food and Drug Administration-approved for the detection of recurrent bladder cancer in voided urine specimens from patients with a history of bladder cancer and for the detection of bladder cancer in voided urine specimens from patients with gross or microscopic hematuria, but no previous history of bladder cancer.
  • Recent studies also suggest that UroVysion may be useful for assessing superficial bladder cancer patients' response to bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy and in detecting upper tract urothelial carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / urine. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / urine
  • [MeSH-minor] BCG Vaccine / therapeutic use. BK Virus. Chromosome Aberrations. Device Approval. Hematuria / diagnosis. Humans. Polyomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Sensitivity and Specificity. Urine / cytology

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  • (PMID = 18724101.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4031
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BCG Vaccine
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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23. Minei S, Irie A, Chen W, Kurosaka S, Tabata K, Koh H, Ishii D, Iwamura M, Uchida T, Shimura S, Baba S: [Arthritis following intravesical instillation of BCG for urothelial cancers]. Nihon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi; 2004 May;95(4):657-62
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  • BACKGROUND: Intravesical instillation of bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is efficient for prophylaxis of superficial bladder cancer and treatment for carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the upper urethelial cancer.
  • We retrospectively evaluated the incidence and the outcome of reactive arthritis following intravesical BCG therapy for urothelial cancers.
  • BCG was instilled for prophylaxis of superficial bladder cancer recurrence in 170 (195 courses), treatment for CIS in 7 (8 course), and treatment for CIS in 7 (8 courses), and treatment for CIS in upper urinary tract in 15 (15 courses).
  • RESULTS: Arthritis was recognized in 8 cases (3.7%, 8/218 courses), and 7 of them were identical to reactive arthritis following BCG therapy.
  • Mean number of BCG instillation was 5.6 (3-8 times).
  • All reactive arthritis were occurred within 4 weeks after the last BCG instillation, i.e., BCG induced urinary tract infection, and 6 of them were polyarthritis.
  • A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) was used in all 8 patients, anti-tuberculous agents were used in 3, and prednisolone was added in 3, Arthritis was improved within 2 months in patients received prednisolone, however, it persisted longer than 3 months in patients without prednisolone.
  • Administration of steroidal drug was thought to improve arthritis in shorter duration.
  • [MeSH-major] Arthritis / etiology. BCG Vaccine / adverse effects. Carcinoma in Situ / drug therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 15197999.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5287
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Hinyōkika Gakkai zasshi. The japanese journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BCG Vaccine
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24. Mitsuhashi M, Iwata H, Kiyota A, Kamizuru M, Nakatani T: [A case of anaphylactic shock induced by pirarubicin hydrochloride]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2004 Apr;50(4):257-9
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  • A 75-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for treatment of superficial bladder tumor.
  • Transurethral resection (TUR) was performed and histopathological examination revealed a transitional cell carcinoma (G2).
  • Despite one course of post-TUR bladder instillation therapy using pirarubicin hydrochloride, carcinoma in situ (CIS) was found 4 months later.
  • CIS disappeared after another course of bladder instillation therapy using BCG; but, it recurred a month later.
  • BCG bladder instillation therapy was performed again, and no malignant cells were detected in the urinary tract thereafter.
  • However, anaphylactic shock was induced by intravenous injection of pirarubicin hydrochloride, so this therapy was stopped in the middle of the second course.
  • Even though the lung metastasis disappeared once after the same MVAC treatment, it recurred the following year.
  • At that time, 3 courses of a cisplatin-methotrexate-vinblastin regimen were administered, and a complete response was achieved.
  • [MeSH-major] Anaphylaxis / etiology. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / drug therapy. Doxorubicin / adverse effects. Doxorubicin / analogs & derivatives. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Intravesical. Aged. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Drug Administration Schedule. Humans. Injections, Intravenous. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Methotrexate / adverse effects. Vinblastine / administration & dosage. Vinblastine / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 15188619.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; D58G680W0G / pirarubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; M-VAC protocol
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25. Lee LS, Thong PS, Olivo M, Chin WW, Ramaswamy B, Kho KW, Lim PL, Lau WK: Chlorin e6-polyvinylpyrrolidone mediated photodynamic therapy--A potential bladder sparing option for high risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther; 2010 Dec;7(4):213-20
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  • [Title] Chlorin e6-polyvinylpyrrolidone mediated photodynamic therapy--A potential bladder sparing option for high risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Bladder sparing treatment options for high risk non-muscle invasive blader cancer (NMIBC) after intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) failure are limited.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate photodynamic therapy (PDT) using chlorin e6-polyvinylpyrrolidone (Ce6-PVP) as a bladder sparing therapy for NMIBC refractory to intravesical BCG therapy.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between July 2004 and June 2009, patients with recurrent NMIBC after induction intravesical BCG therapy were treated with PDT performed with a 665nm laser and light dosimetry of 10-24J/cm(2).
  • Post treatment lower urinary tract symptoms and bladder capacity were also monitored.
  • RESULTS: Five patients underwent PDT, with a total of seven treatments performed.
  • At a median follow-up of 29 months (mean 25 months, range 6-36 months), two patients were disease free, two patients developed recurrence and one patient progressed to muscle invasive disease.
  • The patient receiving intravenous Ce6-PVP developed an enterovesical fistula 16 months post PDT.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Despite being a small pilot study, intravesical Ce6-PVP mediated PDT is a feasible bladder sparing treatment option for recurrent high risk non-muscle invasive bladder carcinoma in selected individuals.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma in Situ / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy. Povidone / therapeutic use. Protoporphyrins / therapeutic use. Radiation-Sensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Intravesical. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. BCG Vaccine / therapeutic use. Feasibility Studies. Female. Humans. Injections, Intravenous. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Treatment Failure

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • [CommentIn] Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther. 2010 Dec;7(4):221 [21112543.001]
  • (PMID = 21112542.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-1597
  • [Journal-full-title] Photodiagnosis and photodynamic therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BCG Vaccine; 0 / Photolon; 0 / Protoporphyrins; 0 / Radiation-Sensitizing Agents; 9003-39-8 / Povidone
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26. Andius P, Holmäng S: Bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy in stage Ta/T1 bladder cancer: prognostic factors for time to recurrence and progression. BJU Int; 2004 May;93(7):980-4
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  • [Title] Bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy in stage Ta/T1 bladder cancer: prognostic factors for time to recurrence and progression.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report prognostic factors for time to recurrence and progression after bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) prophylaxis in patients with stage Ta/T1 papillary bladder cancer.
  • Patients with known carcinoma in situ were excluded.
  • The effect of 13 variables on the time to recurrence and progression was evaluated using multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression and Kaplan-Meier analyses.
  • Patients with a negative first cystoscopy and maintenance BCG had a significantly longer time to recurrence than those treated with an induction course alone (P < 0.001).
  • The result of the first cystoscopy (P < 0.001), tumour grade (P = 0.003) and six or fewer initial instillations (P = 0.002) had prognostic importance for the time to progression.
  • Twenty-eight patients (12%) had a history of an upper tract tumour, which was 3-10 times the expected rate.
  • Age, number of tumours, number of positive cystoscopies, length of tumour history before BCG, BCG strain and treatment year had no influence on time to recurrence and progression.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Maintenance treatment does not seem to be necessary among patients with TaG1-G2 disease after a negative first cystoscopy, as the progression rate was very low.
  • One new finding was that BCG seemed to be equally effective among patients with or with no history of an upper tract tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use. BCG Vaccine / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Intravesical. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cystectomy / methods. Disease Progression. Epidemiologic Methods. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 15142147.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-4096
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / BCG Vaccine
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27. Razack AH: Bacillus Calmette-Guerin and bladder cancer. Asian J Surg; 2007 Oct;30(4):302-9
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  • Bladder cancer is the second most common cancer of the urinary tract, and overall it is among the top 10 cancers in men.
  • Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is the most common type, with the majority being superficial disease, i.e. the tumour has not gone beyond the lamina propria.
  • Various forms of treatment methods have been attempted to reduce the recurrence rate, with intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) being the most successful to date.
  • In fact, intravesical BCG is one of the most successful forms of immunotherapy in the treatment of any form of cancer.

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  • (PMID = 17962138.001).
  • [ISSN] 1015-9584
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian J Surg
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BCG Vaccine
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28. Bono AV, Lovisolo JA, Saredi G: Transurethral resection and sequential chemo-immunoprophylaxis in primary T1G3 bladder cancer. Eur Urol; 2000 Apr;37(4):478-83
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  • Other authors and personal experience suggest that conservative treatment, such as TURBT followed by intravesical prophylaxis, may be adequate in the majority of cases.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: 81 patients with primary T1G3 superficial bladder cancer, without evidence of Tis or upper tract tumor, underwent TURBT and intravesical prophylaxis with weekly epirubicin 50 mg for 8 weeks followed by weekly BCG Connaught 120 mg for 6 weeks.
  • Then patients were followed-up with 3-month urinary cytology and cystoscopy.
  • The recurrence progression and disease-specific mortality rates were acceptable so that this study seems to confirm previous data which show that TURBT and intravesical prophylaxis are appropriate treatment for the majority T1G3 tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. BCG Vaccine / administration & dosage. Carcinoma in Situ / therapy. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / therapy. Epirubicin / administration & dosage. Immunotherapy / methods. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Intravesical. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Cystectomy / methods. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 10765080.001).
  • [ISSN] 0302-2838
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] SWITZERLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / BCG Vaccine; 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin
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29. Di Stasi SM, Giannantoni A, Stephen RL, Storti L, Attisani F, Sansalone S, Virgili G: Percutaneous sequential bacillus Calmette-Guèrin and mitomycin C for panurothelial carcinomatosis. Can J Urol; 2005 Dec;12(6):2895-8
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  • A 59 year old male presented with a 4 month history of lower urinary tract symptoms.
  • Exhaustive urological investigations revealed papillary tumors and carcinoma in situ extending from the prostatic urethra, throughout the bladder, up both ureters and into the renal pelves.
  • Follow up 1 month post treatment demonstrated a complete response which persisted for 2 years.
  • In conclusion, sequential BCG/MMC instillations were effective treatment for widespread panurothelial carcinomatosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Immunologic / administration & dosage. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. BCG Vaccine / administration & dosage. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Mitomycin / administration & dosage. Urologic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Drug Therapy, Combination. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Nephrostomy, Percutaneous

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  • (PMID = 16401376.001).
  • [ISSN] 1195-9479
  • [Journal-full-title] The Canadian journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / BCG Vaccine; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin
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30. Davis JW, Sheth SI, Doviak MJ, Schellhammer PF: Superficial bladder carcinoma treated with bacillus Calmette-Guerin: progression-free and disease specific survival with minimum 10-year followup. J Urol; 2002 Feb;167(2 Pt 1):494-500; discussion 501
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  • [Title] Superficial bladder carcinoma treated with bacillus Calmette-Guerin: progression-free and disease specific survival with minimum 10-year followup.
  • PURPOSE: Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) treatment of high risk superficial bladder cancer has reduced recurrence and progression, and lengthened disease specific survival.
  • However, documentation of treatment durability is limited.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 1981 and 1989, 98 patients with high risk or recurrent transitional cell carcinoma were treated with complete transurethral resection followed by 1 or more 6-week induction courses of BCG, and were followed through 2000.
  • A total of 44 cases were carcinoma in situ plus or minus papillary and 35 were stage T1, which was assigned only if muscularis propria free of tumor was present on the biopsy specimen.
  • RESULTS: Of 98 patients with minimum followup greater than 10 years disease progressed to stage T2 or greater in 27 at a median of 30.7 months (range 1.2 to 143.7), of whom cystectomy was performed in 16, cystectomy for recurrent high risk Ta/T1 disease was required in 10, death from transitional cell carcinoma occurred in 13 at a median of 69.7 months (range 11 to 135), upper tract tumor developed in 13 at a median of 49 months (range 9 to 146) and there was evidence of prostatic urethral involvement in 21.
  • CONCLUSIONS: After complete tumor resection and careful pathological staging intravesical BCG for high risk and/or recurrent superficial bladder carcinoma resulted in overall progression-free and disease specific survival rates that support this bladder sparing strategy.
  • Patients must be followed closely and cystectomy recommended for those with an initial incomplete response after initial therapy or recurrent high risk disease.
  • [MeSH-major] BCG Vaccine / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / drug therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 11792905.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BCG Vaccine
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31. Zhang X, Zhao C, Jie B: Various dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids modulate acrylamide-induced preneoplatic urothelial proliferation and apoptosis in mice. Exp Toxicol Pathol; 2010 Jan;62(1):9-16
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  • To investigate whether various dietary fats affected preneoplatic lesions of urinary tract in acrylamide (ACR)-treated mice.
  • The frequency of simple urothelial hyperplasia (H) and dysplasia/carcinoma in situ (D/CIS) was significantly higher in ACR mice with corn oil or olein compared to ACR mice with commercial chow.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis / drug effects. Dietary Fats, Unsaturated / therapeutic use. Fatty Acids, Unsaturated / pharmacology. Precancerous Conditions / drug therapy. Urologic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Acrylamide / pharmacology. Animals. Blotting, Western. Caspase 3 / biosynthesis. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Male. Mice. Mitotic Index. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / biosynthesis. Urothelium / drug effects

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2008 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19186039.001).
  • [ISSN] 1618-1433
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and toxicologic pathology : official journal of the Gesellschaft für Toxikologische Pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Toxicol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dietary Fats, Unsaturated; 0 / Fatty Acids, Unsaturated; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 20R035KLCI / Acrylamide; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 3
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32. Tavolini IM, Gardiman M, Benedetto G, Bassi P: Unmanageable fever and granulomatous renal mass after intracavitary upper urinary tract bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy. J Urol; 2002 Jan;167(1):244-5
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  • [Title] Unmanageable fever and granulomatous renal mass after intracavitary upper urinary tract bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] BCG Vaccine / adverse effects. Carcinoma in Situ / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / drug therapy. Fever / etiology. Granuloma / etiology. Kidney Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 11743318.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BCG Vaccine
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33. Kawakami M: Intrarenal bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy for carcinoma in situ of the upper urinary tract: long-term follow-up and natural course in cases of failure. BJU Int; 2002 Apr;89(6):640; author reply 640

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  • [Title] Intrarenal bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy for carcinoma in situ of the upper urinary tract: long-term follow-up and natural course in cases of failure.
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Immunologic / administration & dosage. BCG Vaccine / administration & dosage. Carcinoma in Situ / drug therapy. Urologic Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • [CommentOn] BJU Int. 2001 Sep;88(4):343-7 [11564018.001]
  • (PMID = 11942993.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-4096
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / BCG Vaccine
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