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1. Okuda Y, Mori Y, Katoh Y, Iguchi M, Katoh M, Yamazaki D: [Case of small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder effectively treated with adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy following TUR]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2009 May;55(5):267-9
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  • [Title] [Case of small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder effectively treated with adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy following TUR].
  • We suspected carcinoma in situ but two months after cystoscopy showed a non-papillary and sessile tumor with calcification.
  • We performed transurethral resection of the bladder tumor, muscle layer and adipose tissue.
  • Histopathological findings revealed small cell carcinoma of the bladder infiltrating the externaladipose tissue.
  • As postoperative adjuvant therapy, chemotherapy (cisplatin total 150 mg) was performed with 40 Gy of extra beam radiotherapy to the bladder.
  • After chemotherapy and radiotherapy,urinary cytology was negative and cystoscopy showed the scar.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cystectomy / methods. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Treatment Outcome. Urethra / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19507545.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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2. Miyake H, Eto H, Hara S, Okada H, Kamidono S, Hara I: Clinical outcome of bacillus Calmette-Guérin perfusion therapy for carcinoma in situ of the upper urinary tract. Int J Urol; 2002 Dec;9(12):677-80
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  • [Title] Clinical outcome of bacillus Calmette-Guérin perfusion therapy for carcinoma in situ of the upper urinary tract.
  • BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of intrarenal bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) instillation for the treatment of carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the upper urinary tract.
  • METHODS: Sixteen patients who were diagnosed as having CIS of the upper urinary tract were treated with intrarenal BCG instillation.
  • BCG (80 mg) in normal saline was administered once weekly, 6 times in total as one course through a percutaneous nephrostomy tube in 5 patients, and a retrograde ureteric catheterization using a Single-J or Double-J stent in 2 and 9 patients, respectively.
  • RESULTS: During the median follow-up period of 30 months (range: 9-90 months), no patients died, and 13 patients remained cytologically negative in urine collected from the upper urinary tract after BCG treatment was completed.
  • However, one of these 13 patients had CIS in the bladder and prostatic urethra 34 months after the BCG therapy and had to undergo radical cystectomy.
  • The remaining 3 patients experienced recurrence in the upper urinary tract 4, 8, and 11 months after treatment, despite a favorable response to the initial BCG instillation.
  • Of these 3 patients, one patient received an additional course of BCG therapy, while the remaining 2 underwent nephroureterectomy.
  • Bladder irritability or a fever higher than 38 degrees C was observed in 12 or 9 patients, respectively; however, such side-effects were not clinically significant, and no patient received antitubercular treatment.
  • CONCLUSION: Intrarenal instillation of BCG appears to be effective and safe for treatment of CIS of the upper urinary tract; however, further experience and longer follow-up studies of this treatment are required.
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Immunologic / adverse effects. BCG Vaccine / adverse effects. Carcinoma in Situ / drug therapy. Kidney Neoplasms / drug therapy. Urethral Neoplasms / drug therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 12492951.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / BCG Vaccine
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3. Ito Y, Nishiyama H, Higashi S, Kinoshita H, Ito N, Yamamoto S, Kamoto T, Ogawa O: [Transitional cell carcinoma in prostate after intravesical instillation of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2004 May;50(5):335-8
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  • [Title] [Transitional cell carcinoma in prostate after intravesical instillation of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin].
  • All cases presented positive urinary cytology after intravesical instillation of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) and then random biopsy of bladder and transurethral resection (TUR)-biopsy of prostatic urethra were performed.
  • TUR-biopsy of prostatic urethra should be perfomed when patients present positive urinary cytology after BCG instillation therapy, because prostatic involvement of TCC associated with bladder carcinoma in situ is not rare.
  • [MeSH-major] BCG Vaccine / administration & dosage. Carcinoma in Situ / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / etiology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / etiology. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 15237488.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BCG Vaccine
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4. Ruoppolo M, Gozo M, Milesi R, Spina R, Fragapane G: [Urethral recurrence of invasive carcinoma following BCG treatment for bladder Ca in situ]. Urologia; 2010 Oct-Dec;77 Suppl 17:72-7
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  • [Title] [Urethral recurrence of invasive carcinoma following BCG treatment for bladder Ca in situ].
  • [Transliterated title] Recidiva uretrale di Ca infiltrante dopo trattamento con BCG per Ca in situ vescicale.
  • CIS is a flat, high-grade, non-invasive microscopic urothelial carcinoma.
  • It is considered a precursor of invasive bladder cancer.
  • CIS is classified as primary, secondary or concurrent, when occurred as isolated CIS without cuncurrent papillary tumors, or detected during the follow-up of patients with a previous papillary tumor, or finally in the presence of bladder neoplasm.
  • BCG is widely established as the treatment of choice for CIS with a success rate of approximately 70%.
  • BCG reduces the risk of progression of CIS into invasive carcinoma in 30 to 50% of cases.
  • Direct and prolonged contact between the urothelium and BCG is a prerequisite for successful therapy.
  • Discovery of CIS in the prostatic or membranous urethra represents an ominous sign.
  • CIS may be present only in the epithelial lining of the prostatic urethra or in the ducts, or in the worst case it may be found in the prostatic tissue stroma.
  • Urethral involvement by CIS is at high risk of tumor progression and development of metastases due to reduced thickness of lamina propria and absence of muscolaris mucosa.
  • 83 patients, enrolled from 1/1996 to 12/2005 at our urological department with CIS: primary (focal and multifocal) in 25, secondary in 7 and cuncurrent in 51 (associated with T1bG3 cancer in 37 cases), and urethral CIS in 5 and conservatively treated by TUR and intravescical instillations of BCG, 4 developed afterwords only invasive cancer of the urethra in the absence of bladder involvement.
  • In 2 cases cancer arised from the prostatic fossa after TURP, in 1 from membranous urethra and in the last from prostatic ducts.
  • Among the 4 patients, 3 were treated by cystoprostatourethrectomy and Platinum-based chemotherapy, 1 refused surgical treatment.
  • In the last patient cancer relapsed at 36-month's follow-up.
  • We conclude that prostatic/urethral involvement during follow-up after successful intravesical treatment with BCG in CIS represents a high risk of developing invasive and incontrolled cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] BCG Vaccine / therapeutic use. Carcinoma in Situ / therapy. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / secondary. Urethral Neoplasms / secondary. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Cystectomy / methods. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunotherapy. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Organoplatinum Compounds / administration & dosage. Prostatectomy / methods. Prostatic Neoplasms / secondary. Risk. Treatment Outcome. Urethra / surgery

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  • (PMID = 21308679.001).
  • [ISSN] 1724-6075
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologia
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BCG Vaccine; 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds
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5. Tillou X, Raynal G, Limani K, Saint F, Petit J: [Carcinoma in situ in bladder and urethra among renal transplanted patient: failure of BCG therapy]. Prog Urol; 2008 Dec;18(13):1097-9
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  • [Title] [Carcinoma in situ in bladder and urethra among renal transplanted patient: failure of BCG therapy].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinome in situ vésical et urétral chez un patient transplanté rénal: échec de la BCG thérapie.
  • We report the case of a 67-year-old patient, renal transplanted for two years, taken care for carcinoma in situ in bladder and urethra, and treated by intravesical instillations with bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG).
  • After failure of a first treatment by Amétycine, a treatment by BCG is instituted during nine weeks.
  • Two months after the end of the treatment, the patient died after bone and liver metastatic invasion of urothelial carcinoma.
  • Despite successful treatments of few patients reported in literature, this failure called the question of the effectiveness of the BCG therapy in renal transplant patient and suggested an earlier attempt at diagnosis with systematic detection and aggressive therapeutic among these immunodepressed patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use. BCG Vaccine / therapeutic use. Carcinoma in Situ / drug therapy. Kidney Transplantation. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / drug therapy. Postoperative Complications / drug therapy. Urethral Neoplasms / drug therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 19041819.001).
  • [ISSN] 1166-7087
  • [Journal-full-title] Progrès en urologie : journal de l'Association française d'urologie et de la Société française d'urologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prog. Urol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / BCG Vaccine
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6. Varol C, Thalmann GN, Burkhard FC, Studer UE: Treatment of urethral recurrence following radical cystectomy and ileal bladder substitution. J Urol; 2004 Sep;172(3):937-42
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  • [Title] Treatment of urethral recurrence following radical cystectomy and ileal bladder substitution.
  • PURPOSE: With the introduction of orthotopic bladder substitution after radical cystectomy in patients with invasive bladder cancer urethral recurrences have become a therapeutic challenge.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated our patients with urethral recurrences treated with a urethra sparing approach after orthotopic bladder substitution.
  • Depending on the extension of recurrence and eventual concomitant metastases patients were treated with urethrectomy, no treatment, systemic chemotherapy or intraurethral bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG).
  • Three times the common dose of BCG (ImmuCyst, Aventis, Paris, France or OncoTICE, Organon, West Orange, New Jersey) in 150 ml NaCl 0.9% was used for intraurethral BCG perfusion therapy according to an institutional protocol using a modified Foley catheter.
  • RESULTS: Between 1985 and 2001, 15 of 371 patients (4%) who received an orthotopic bladder substitute had urethral recurrence.
  • Two patients were treated with systemic chemotherapy (methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin and cisplatin) alone due to metastatic disease and 10 received intraurethral BCG therapy.
  • Five of 6 patients (83%) with carcinoma in situ remained free of recurrence following treatment with BCG, while in 4 with papillary or invasive disease treatment failed.
  • Three patients underwent urethrectomy, including 2 following failed BCG therapy for papillary disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Carcinoma in situ urethral recurrence following orthotopic bladder substitution can be treated successfully with intraurethral BCG perfusion therapy in approximately 80% of patients.
  • However, papillary and invasive transitional cell urethral recurrence should be treated with urethrectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / therapy. Cystectomy. Urethral Neoplasms / secondary. Urethral Neoplasms / therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / surgery. Urinary Reservoirs, Continent
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. BCG Vaccine / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Urethra / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15311003.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / BCG Vaccine
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7. Tsukamoto T, Yonese J, Kin T, Samejima T, Hasegawa Y, Fukui I, Ishikawa Y: [Carcinoma in situ of the penis rapidly progressing after carbon dioxide laser treatment]. Nihon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi; 2002 Mar;93(3):483-6

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  • [Title] [Carcinoma in situ of the penis rapidly progressing after carbon dioxide laser treatment].
  • Laser treatment is considered to be effective in treating carcinoma in situ of the penis.
  • We, however, report a case with carcinoma in situ of the penis which developed invasive carcinoma and inguinal lymphnode metastases only 6 months after the laser treatment.
  • A physical examination revealed thick erythema, 12 millimeters in diameter, around the external urethral meatus.
  • Histologically, biopsy revealed squamous cell carcinoma in situ.
  • Although the lesion appeared to slightly extend into the urethra, it was primarily treated with the CO2 laser.
  • Six months after the treatment, however, local recurrence was confirmed by the touch smear cytology, resulting in the partial amputation of the penis.
  • The histopathological examination revealed subepithelial and marked lymphatic invasion of the tumor and positive margin in the urethral stump (squamous cell carcinoma in situ).
  • The patient received adjuvant chemotherapy and has been alive and well without evidence of disease 40 months after the initial treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Lasers / adverse effects. Penile Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 11968805.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5287
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Hinyōkika Gakkai zasshi. The japanese journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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8. Koizumi T, Nakanishi R, Taue R, Yamaguchi K, Nakatuji H, Kishimoto T, Izaki H, Oka N, Takahashi M, Fukumori T, Kanayama HO: [Case of tuberculous epididymitis caused by intravesical BCG therapy]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2008 Sep;54(9):625-7

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  • [Title] [Case of tuberculous epididymitis caused by intravesical BCG therapy].
  • Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) therapy is commonly used against superficial urothelial carcinoma, especially carcinoma in situ (CIS).
  • We report a case of tuberculous epididymitis that occurred during a course of intravesical BCG therapy.
  • A 76-year-old man had received intravesical BCG therapy for multiple superficial bladder cancer and CIS in prostatic urethra after transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TUR-Bt).
  • He recognized hard nodules in the left scrotum after 4 times intravesical BCG therapy.
  • Histological diagnosis was tuberculous epididymitis.
  • Postoperatively, he was administered chemotherapy consisting of isoniazid, refampin and ethambutol.
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Intravesical. Aged. Antitubercular Agents / administration & dosage. Carcinoma in Situ / therapy. Cystectomy. Humans. Male. Orchiectomy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18975579.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antitubercular Agents; 0 / BCG Vaccine
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9. Irani J: [Management of Ta, T1, and in situ bladder carcinoma: what is new?]. Prog Urol; 2008 May;18 Suppl 5:S94-8
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  • [Title] [Management of Ta, T1, and in situ bladder carcinoma: what is new?].
  • [Transliterated title] Prise en charge des carcinomes Ta, T1, et in situ de vessie: quoi de neuf ?
  • Since a recent time, some changes were made in the management of nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer.
  • New prognosis markers appear such as lamina propria invasion microstaging and prostatic urethra involvement.
  • Immediate postoperative instillation of chemotherapy decreases the risk of recurrence in patients with stage Ta T1 bladder cancer.
  • Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) appears to be the treatment of choice for the management of carcinoma in situ, and is superior to Mitomycin C in reducing tumor recurrence in high-risk nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer.
  • In addition, intravesical BCG significantly reduces the risk of progression after transurethral resection in patients with nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer who receive maintenance treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma in Situ / therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adjuvants, Immunologic / administration & dosage. Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use. Age Factors. Aged. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. BCG Vaccine / administration & dosage. BCG Vaccine / therapeutic use. Cystoscopy. Female. Humans. Male. Meta-Analysis as Topic. Mitomycin / administration & dosage. Mitomycin / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Postoperative Care. Prognosis. Reoperation. Risk Factors. Sex Factors. Urinary Bladder / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18585634.001).
  • [ISSN] 1166-7087
  • [Journal-full-title] Progrès en urologie : journal de l'Association française d'urologie et de la Société française d'urologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prog. Urol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / BCG Vaccine; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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10. Pieras E, Palou J, Salvador J, Rosales A, Marcuello E, Villavicencio H: Management and prognosis of transitional cell carcinoma superficial recurrence in muscle-invasive bladder cancer after bladder preservation. Eur Urol; 2003 Aug;44(2):222-5; discussoion 225
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  • [Title] Management and prognosis of transitional cell carcinoma superficial recurrence in muscle-invasive bladder cancer after bladder preservation.
  • PURPOSE: To assess the bladder preservation rate and cancer-specific survival after conservative treatment of superficial relapses in invasive tumors after bladder preservation.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty-one patients with invasive bladder tumor (T2) were treated using transurethral resection (TUR) followed by three cycles of systemic chemotherapy (carboplatin-vinblastine).
  • Two cystectomies were made due to carcinoma in situ (Cis) persistence and high grade superficial recurrence.
  • Eighty-three percent of the patients who had superficial recurrence retained their bladders, with 94% cancer-specific survival.
  • Cis is the most frequent type of superficial recurrence.
  • Superficial recurrences in bladder preservation may be treated with TUR and BCG instillations when they are high grade and and/or associated with Cis.
  • Superficial recurrences do not imply a worse prognosis for bladder preservation or cancer-specific survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Transurethral Resection of Prostate. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] BCG Vaccine / administration & dosage. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Carcinoma in Situ / therapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Cystectomy. Disease Progression. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Muscle, Smooth / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care). Prognosis. Survival Analysis. Urethra / surgery. Vinblastine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 12875942.001).
  • [ISSN] 0302-2838
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BCG Vaccine; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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11. Nese N, Gupta R, Bui MH, Amin MB: Carcinoma in situ of the urinary bladder: review of clinicopathologic characteristics with an emphasis on aspects related to molecular diagnostic techniques and prognosis. J Natl Compr Canc Netw; 2009 Jan;7(1):48-57
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  • [Title] Carcinoma in situ of the urinary bladder: review of clinicopathologic characteristics with an emphasis on aspects related to molecular diagnostic techniques and prognosis.
  • Carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the urinary bladder is defined as a flat lesion comprising of cytologically malignant cells which may involve either full or partial thickness of the urothelium.
  • De novo CIS constitutes less than 3% of all urothelial neoplasms; however, CIS detected concurrently or secondarily during follow-up of urothelial carcinoma constitutes 45% and 90%, respectively, of bladder cancer.
  • CIS is noted predominantly in male smokers in the sixth or seventh decade.
  • Cellular anaplasia, loss of polarity, discohesion, nuclear enlargement, hyperchromasia, pleomorphism, and atypical mitoses are the histopathologic hallmarks of CIS.
  • Extensive denudation of the urothelium, monomorphic appearance of the neoplastic cells, inflammatory atypia, radiation induced nuclear smudging, multinucleation, and pagetoid spread of CIS may cause diagnostic difficulties.
  • Together with clinical and morphologic correlation, immunostaining with CK 20, p53 (full thickness), and CD44 (absence of staining) may help accurately diagnose CIS.
  • Fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis of voided urine for amplification of chromosomes 3, 7, and 17 and deletion of 9p has high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing CIS in surveillance cases.
  • Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) instillation is considered the preferred treatment, with radical cystectomy being offered to refractory cases.
  • Chemotherapy, alpha-interferon, and photodynamic therapy are other modalities that can be considered in BCG-refractory cases.
  • Multifocality, involvement of prostatic urethra, and response to BCG remain the most important prognostic factors, although newer molecular markers are being evaluated for this entity.
  • Patient outcome varies based on whether it is de novo development or diagnosed secondary to prior or concomitant papillary bladder cancer.
  • From a clinical perspective, the principal determinants of outcome are extent of disease, involvement of prostatic urethra, response to therapy, and time to recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Molecular Diagnostic Techniques. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19176205.001).
  • [ISSN] 1540-1405
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network : JNCCN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Natl Compr Canc Netw
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 63
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12. Amling CL: Diagnosis and management of superficial bladder cancer. Curr Probl Cancer; 2001 Jul-Aug;25(4):219-78
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  • [Title] Diagnosis and management of superficial bladder cancer.
  • Bladder cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer in American men, accounting for more than 12,000 deaths annually.
  • Currently, cigarette smoking is by far the most common cause of bladder cancer, although occupational exposure to arylamines has been implicated in the past.
  • Initial radiologic evaluation usually includes the excretory urography (intravenous pyelography), although further evaluation of the renal parenchyma with ultrasound or computed tomography scanning has been advocated by some.
  • These radiologic studies are unable to provide adequate bladder imaging, and thus cystoscopy is required for the diagnosis of bladder cancer.
  • Superficial tumors consist of papillary tumors that are mucosally confined (Ta), papillary or sessile tumors extending into the lamina propria (T1), and carcinoma in situ, which occurs as "flat" mucosal dysplasia, which can be focal, diffuse, or associated with a papillary or sessile tumor.
  • Most superficial tumors can be stratified into high- or low-risk groups depending on tumor stage, grade, size, number, and recurrence pattern.
  • It is important to identify those tumors at risk for recurrence or progression so that adjuvant intravesical therapies can be instituted.
  • Most are given intravesically on a weekly basis, although many studies suggest that a single instillation immediately after transurethral resection may be as good as a longer course of therapy.
  • Although all of these drugs have toxicity, they usually are well tolerated.
  • Intravesical bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is an immunotherapeutic agent that when given intravesically is very effective in the treatment of superficial transitional cell carcinoma.
  • Compared with controls, BCG has a 43% advantage in preventing tumor recurrence, a significantly better rate than the 16% to 21% advantage of intravesical chemotherapy.
  • In addition, BCG is particularly effective in the treatment of carcinoma in situ, eradicating it in more than 80% of cases.
  • In contrast to intravesical chemotherapy, BCG has also been shown to decrease the risk of tumor progression.
  • Unfortunately, adverse effects associated with this prolonged therapy may limit its widespread applicability.
  • In those patients at high risk in whom BCG therapy fails, intravesical interferon-alpha with or without BCG may be beneficial in some.
  • Photodynamic therapy has also been used but is limited by its toxicity.
  • In patients who progress or do not respond to intravesical therapies, cystectomy should be considered.
  • With the development of orthotopic lower urinary tract reconstruction to the native urethra, the quality of life impact of radical cystectomy has been lessened.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / therapy. Immunotherapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] ABO Blood-Group System. Administration, Intravesical. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Hematuria / etiology. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Photochemotherapy. Risk Factors. Surgical Procedures, Operative / methods. Urethra / surgery

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  • (PMID = 11514784.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-0272
  • [Journal-full-title] Current problems in cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Probl Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ABO Blood-Group System; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 179
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13. Nonomura N, Ono Y, Nozawa M, Fukui T, Harada Y, Nishimura K, Takaha N, Takahara S, Okuyama A: Bacillus Calmette-Guérin perfusion therapy for the treatment of transitional cell carcinoma in situ of the upper urinary tract. Eur Urol; 2000 Dec;38(6):701-4;discussion 705
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Bacillus Calmette-Guérin perfusion therapy for the treatment of transitional cell carcinoma in situ of the upper urinary tract.
  • OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intrarenal bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) instillation as a treatment for transitional cell carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the upper urinary tract.
  • METHODS: Diagnostic criteria of upper urinary tract CIS were (1) positive urinary cytology, (2) negative multiple random biopsy of the bladder and prostatic urethra, (3) negative radiographic findings in the upper urinary tract and (4) two serial positive cytologies in selective ipsilateral urine sampling from the pyeloureteral system.
  • Eleven patients diagnosed as having upper urinary tract CIS were enrolled in this study.
  • After placing a 6-french Double-J stent, BCG (80 mg) in 40 ml saline was instilled into the bladder weekly, 6 times in total as one course.
  • Mean recurrence-free time was 19.6 months.
  • The remaining patient died of rectal cancer with no evidence of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC).
  • The other case was diagnosed as having malignant lymphoma 3 months after the end of this instillation therapy, and he died of malignant lymphoma.
  • However, no patient needed antitubercular treatment.
  • CONCLUSION: As for the short-term response, BCG instillation for the treatment of upper urinary tract CIS is considered to be effective and safe.
  • Longer follow-up and further experience with this treatment are required.
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use. BCG Vaccine / therapeutic use. Carcinoma in Situ / therapy. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / therapy. Kidney Neoplasms / therapy. Ureteral Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Intravesical. Aged. Disease-Free Survival. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Instillation, Drug. Male. Perfusion. Stents. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 11111187.001).
  • [ISSN] 0302-2838
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] SWITZERLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / BCG Vaccine
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14. Giannarini G, Kessler TM, Thoeny HC, Nguyen DP, Meissner C, Studer UE: Do patients benefit from routine follow-up to detect recurrences after radical cystectomy and ileal orthotopic bladder substitution? Eur Urol; 2010 Oct;58(4):486-94
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: The need for and intensity of follow-up to detect disease recurrence after radical cystectomy (RC) for transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) remains a matter for debate.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine whether diagnosis of asymptomatic recurrence after RC by routine follow-up investigations confers a survival benefit versus symptomatic recurrence.
  • DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Retrospective analysis of 479 patients with nonmetastatic bladder TCC receiving no neoadjuvant chemotherapy/radiation therapy and prospectively followed with a standardised protocol for a median 4.3 yr (range: 0.3-20.9) after RC at an academic tertiary referral centre.
  • MEASUREMENTS: Cancer-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) probability for asymptomatic and symptomatic recurrent patients were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method.
  • The effects of age, nerve-sparing surgery, pathologic tumour stage, lymph node status, adjuvant chemotherapy, mode of recurrence diagnosis, and recurrence site on survival were assessed with multivariable Cox regression models.
  • Routine follow-up mostly detected lung metastases and urethral recurrences, while symptoms were predominantly the result of bone metastases and concomitant pelvic/distant recurrences.
  • Of 24 patients with urethral recurrences, 13 had carcinoma in situ (CIS).
  • Of these, 12 were successfully managed with urethra-sparing treatment, and 6 are still alive with no evidence of disease.
  • In multivariable analysis, mode of recurrence diagnosis and site of initial recurrence were the only independent predictors of CSS and OS.
  • Routine follow-up appears particularly effective in early detection of urethral CIS, which can be treated conservatively.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / surgery. Cystectomy. Ileum / transplantation. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / surgery. Urinary Reservoirs, Continent
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Early Detection of Cancer. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • [CommentIn] Eur Urol. 2010 Oct;58(4):495-7 [20609511.001]
  • (PMID = 20541311.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-7560
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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15. Ather MH, Aziz S, Sulaiman MN: Single instillation of mitomycin C reduces 1st year recurrence following transurethral resection of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad; 2007 Oct-Dec;19(4):18-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Single instillation of mitomycin C reduces 1st year recurrence following transurethral resection of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the impact of single instillation of 40 mg Mitomycin C (MMC-40) within first hour of transurethral resection (TUR), on first year recurrence of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer.
  • Patients' charts were reviewed for demographic profile, preoperative diagnosis and imaging used, cytological work up, tumour profile both during cystoscopy and imaging used, patients records were also reviewed for all subsequent check cystoscopies for recurrence.
  • Any adjuvant treatments like intravesical chemo/immunotherapy etc. were also noted.
  • The demographic profile in terms of age, gender distribution, tumour characteristics (size, site, multiplicity) and pathological evaluation including, tumour grade and presence of carcinoma in situ were similar (p < 0.4 and p < 0.5) respectively.
  • Most low grade, low volume tumours would not require any further treatment if MMC-40 is given immediately following TUR.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Cystoscopy. Mitomycin / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Intravesical. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Urethra

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  • (PMID = 18693589.001).
  • [ISSN] 1025-9589
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad : JAMC
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin
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16. Palou Redorta J, Schatteman P, Huguet Pérez J, Segarra Tomás J, Rosales Bordes A, Algaba F, Villavicencio Mavrich H: Intravesical instillations with bacillus calmette-guérin for the treatment of carcinoma in situ involving prostatic ducts. Eur Urol; 2006 May;49(5):834-8; discussion 838
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  • [Title] Intravesical instillations with bacillus calmette-guérin for the treatment of carcinoma in situ involving prostatic ducts.
  • OBJECTIVES: Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has proven its efficacy in the treatment of carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the prostatic urethra.
  • We performed a retrospective study to evaluate the use of intravesical instillations of BCG in patients with carcinoma in situ involving prostatic ducts after complete transurethral resection (TUR).
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eligibility for the study was CIS of the prostatic urethra involving prostatic ducts.
  • RESULTS: In this retrospective study of 11 patients, 8 (73%) presented with macroscopic tumor in the prostatic urethra.
  • Ten patients (91%) had a simultaneous superficial bladder carcinoma.
  • After a median follow-up of 27 mo (n=10 patients), the response in the prostatic urethra was 82%, and the response in the bladder due to superficial tumor recurrence was 64%.
  • Two patients with residual ductal disease in the prostatic urethra were subsequently treated with cystoprostatectomy and are currently free of disease.
  • Another patient developed distant metastatic disease and died a few months after diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSION: Intravesical BCG is a feasible treatment option for patients with CIS involving prostatic ducts.
  • Obviously, these patients need a careful follow-up with cystoscopy and cytology to detect either recurrence or progression and in those with persistent disease after the initial BCG induction therapy, prompt cystectomy is indicated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Immunologic / administration & dosage. BCG Vaccine / administration & dosage. Carcinoma in Situ / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Urethral Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Intravesical. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Cystectomy. Cystoscopy. Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Instillation, Drug. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Transurethral Resection of Prostate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16426729.001).
  • [ISSN] 0302-2838
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / BCG Vaccine
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17. Di Stasi SM, Giannantoni A, Stephen RL, Storti L, Attisani F, Sansalone S, Virgili G: Percutaneous sequential bacillus Calmette-Guèrin and mitomycin C for panurothelial carcinomatosis. Can J Urol; 2005 Dec;12(6):2895-8
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  • Exhaustive urological investigations revealed papillary tumors and carcinoma in situ extending from the prostatic urethra, throughout the bladder, up both ureters and into the renal pelves.
  • Follow up 1 month post treatment demonstrated a complete response which persisted for 2 years.
  • In conclusion, sequential BCG/MMC instillations were effective treatment for widespread panurothelial carcinomatosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Immunologic / administration & dosage. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. BCG Vaccine / administration & dosage. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Mitomycin / administration & dosage. Urologic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Drug Therapy, Combination. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Nephrostomy, Percutaneous

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  • (PMID = 16401376.001).
  • [ISSN] 1195-9479
  • [Journal-full-title] The Canadian journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / BCG Vaccine; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin
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18. Uchio EM, Linehan WM, Figg WD, Walther MM: A phase I study of intravesical suramin for the treatment of superficial transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. J Urol; 2003 Jan;169(1):357-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A phase I study of intravesical suramin for the treatment of superficial transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.
  • PURPOSE: Suramin is a polysulfonated naphthylurea that inhibits proliferation and DNA synthesis of transitional cell carcinoma cell lines.
  • Its large molecular size and negative charge inhibit bladder absorption, making suramin an excellent candidate for intravesical chemotherapy.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Intravesical suramin treatment was administered in 9 patients with histologically identified transitional cell carcinoma (Tcis, Ta or T1) in whom at least 1 course of standard intravesical chemotherapy (bacillus Calmette-Guerin, thiotepa or mitomycin C) had failed.
  • RESULTS: The 9 patients underwent 54 treatments with suramin.
  • Plasma suramin concentration after treatment was 1.9 to 38.0 microg.
  • /ml. and was not related to treatment dose.
  • Complications included self-limited bladder spasms (less than 24 hours) in 4 of 54 treatments (7%) and new or worsening vesicoureteral reflux in 3 ureters (17%).
  • Another patient who was treated after the Foley balloon was inflated in the urethra experienced bladder spasms, skin flushing and fever (39C).
  • Mean bladder capacity before and after treatment was 600 and 540 ml., respectively.
  • At followup 7 patients had stage Ta tumors and 2 had carcinoma in situ.
  • /ml was defined as a safe treatment parameter with acceptable plasma concentrations and minimal side effects.
  • Phase II studies are needed to assess the antitumor activity of suramin in patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / drug therapy. Suramin / administration & dosage. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 12478189.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 6032D45BEM / Suramin
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19. Tamas EF, Nielsen ME, Schoenberg MP, Epstein JI: Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the urinary tract: a clinicopathological study of 30 pure and mixed cases. Mod Pathol; 2007 Aug;20(8):828-34
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the urinary tract: a clinicopathological study of 30 pure and mixed cases.
  • We studied 28 cases of lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the bladder, one case in the renal pelvis, and one in the urethra.
  • Seventeen cases (56.7%) were pure with the remaining mixed with other patterns of carcinoma, including invasive urothelial carcinoma (n=10), invasive adenocarcinoma (n=3), and squamous cell carcinoma (n=2).
  • The surface demonstrated carcinoma in situ (CIS) in six cases, noninvasive high-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma in three cases, and in situ adenocarcinoma in one case.
  • None of the 26 cases labeled for EBV-encoded RNA by in situ hybridization.
  • Treatment consisted of radical cystectomy in 13/30 cases (43%); partial cystectomy in 4/30 cases (13%); nephrectomy in one case (3%), and transurethral resection often followed by radiation or chemotherapy in 12/30 (40%) cases.
  • Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma, whether in pure or mixed form, has a similar prognosis to ordinary urothelial carcinoma when treated by cystectomy.
  • Of the three pure cases treated by chemotherapy, two were free of disease at 4 and 65 months and the third had recurrent disease at 17 months.
  • Given the association of lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma with urothelial carcinoma in 47% of our cases and its propensity for multifocality, partial cystectomy would typically be ill advised for lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Urologic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Disease-Free Survival. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphocytes / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17541442.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Metwalli AR, Kamat AM: Controversial issues and optimal management of stage T1G3 bladder cancer. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther; 2006 Aug;6(8):1283-94
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Controversial issues and optimal management of stage T1G3 bladder cancer.
  • The management of T1G3 bladder cancer is controversial.
  • Bacillus Calmette-Guérin intravesical therapy with a maintenance regimen is recommended for solitary T1G3 tumors.
  • The timing of radical cystectomy for these patients is controversial, but early recurrence during intravesical therapy is an indication for radical cystectomy.
  • Multifocal disease, concomitant carcinoma in situ and disease in the prostatic urethra and bladder neck also suggest aggressive disease and cystectomy should be considered in these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] BCG Vaccine / therapeutic use. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16925494.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8328
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of anticancer therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Anticancer Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BCG Vaccine
  • [Number-of-references] 117
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21. Martínez-Piñeiro JA, Martínez-Piñeiro L, Solsona E, Rodríguez RH, Gómez JM, Martín MG, Molina JR, Collado AG, Flores N, Isorna S, Pertusa C, Rabadán M, Astobieta A, Camacho JE, Arribas S, Madero R, Club Urológico Español de Tratamiento Oncológico (CUETO): Has a 3-fold decreased dose of bacillus Calmette-Guerin the same efficacy against recurrences and progression of T1G3 and Tis bladder tumors than the standard dose? Results of a prospective randomized trial. J Urol; 2005 Oct;174(4 Pt 1):1242-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • PURPOSE: We determined if a third of the dose of intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) has the same efficacy than a standard dose for decreasing the risk of recurrence and progression after transurethral resection in patients with superficial high risk (stages T1G3 and carcinoma in situ) bladder cancer.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 155 patients with a mean age +/- SD of 67 +/- 10.1 years with superficial bladder cancer, including stages T1G3 in 90, a Tis primary tumor in 23 and associated Tis disease in 42, were enrolled and randomly assigned to be treated after transurethral resection of all visible lesions with intravesical BCG, Connaught strain (weekly x 6 and fortnightly x 6 thereafter) with the standard dose of 81 mg or with the decreased dose of 27 mg.
  • Median time to recurrence was not attained in the standard dose arm and it was 63 months in the decreased dose arm.
  • Kaplan-Meier estimates for time to recurrence did not reveal differences between the 2 doses (p = 0.405).
  • Four patients (6.1%) with Tis had local extension into the prostatic urethra and ducts, including 3 (8.3%) treated with the standard dose and 1 (3.4%) treated with the decreased dose.
  • Median time to progression was not attained in either arm.
  • Kaplan-Meier estimates for time to progression did not differ significantly (p = 0.7997).
  • Subgroup analysis by patient age, tumor status, number, size and T stage (T1G3 vs Tis) did not differ significantly.
  • Mean disease specific survival +/- SE was 86.96 +/- 4.14 and 83.73 +/- 4.73 months, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that a 3-fold decreased dose of intravesical BCG is as effective as the standard dose against progression in patients with high risk stages T1G3 and Tis superficial bladder carcinoma but with significantly less toxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Immunologic / administration & dosage. BCG Vaccine / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • [CommentIn] J Urol. 2006 May;175(5):1960; author reply 1960-1 [16600806.001]
  • (PMID = 16145378.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / BCG Vaccine
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