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1. Prat R, Galeano I, Conde FJ, Febles P, Cortés S: [Cerebral neuroblastomas: diagnosis and treatment]. Rev Neurol; 2002 Oct 1-15;35(7):688-90
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  • [Title] [Cerebral neuroblastomas: diagnosis and treatment].
  • [Transliterated title] Neuroblastoma cerebral: diagnóstico y tratamiento.
  • AIMS: To review the literature on cerebral neuroblastomas (CN), including their anatomopathological filiation, clinical characteristics together with those they display in imaging studies, and the different therapeutic options with their prognosis.
  • Microscopically they are made up of undifferentiated or poorly differentiated neuroepithelial cells.
  • First choice treatment is surgery performed as radically as possible associated with chemotherapy or whole brain radiotherapy.
  • Treatment must involve radical excision associated with chemotherapy or radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms. Neuroblastoma

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  • (PMID = 12389158.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-0010
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista de neurologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Neurol
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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2. Yu JH, Nakajima A, Nakajima H, Diller LR, Bloch KD, Bloch DB: Restoration of promyelocytic leukemia protein-nuclear bodies in neuroblastoma cells enhances retinoic acid responsiveness. Cancer Res; 2004 Feb 1;64(3):928-33
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  • [Title] Restoration of promyelocytic leukemia protein-nuclear bodies in neuroblastoma cells enhances retinoic acid responsiveness.
  • Neuroblastoma is the most common solid tumor of infancy and is believed to result from impaired differentiation of neuronal crest embryonal cells.
  • During the course of studies to examine the composition and function of PML-nuclear bodies, we observed that the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y lacked these structures and that the absence of PML-nuclear bodies was a feature of N- and I-type, but not S-type, neuroblastoma cell lines.
  • Induction of neuroblastoma cell differentiation with 5-bromo-2'deoxyuridine, all-trans-retinoic acid, or IFN-gamma induced PML-nuclear body formation.
  • PML-nuclear bodies were not detected in tissue sections prepared from undifferentiated neuroblastomas but were present in neuroblasts in differentiating tumors.
  • Expression of PML in neuroblastoma cells restored PML-nuclear bodies, enhanced responsiveness to all-trans-retinoic acid, and induced cellular differentiation.
  • Pharmacological therapies that increase PML expression may prove to be important components of combined modalities for the treatment of neuroblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Cell Nucleus Structures / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. Neuroblastoma / drug therapy. Neuroblastoma / metabolism. Nuclear Proteins. Transcription Factors / biosynthesis. Tretinoin / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Differentiation / drug effects. Cell Differentiation / physiology. Cell Line, Tumor. HL-60 Cells. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Tumor Suppressor Proteins

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  • (PMID = 14871822.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK-051179; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK-40561; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL-57172
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 143220-95-5 / PML protein, human; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin
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3. Ishola TA, Kang J, Qiao J, Evers BM, Chung DH: Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulation of gastrin-releasing peptide-induced cell cycle progression in neuroblastoma cells. Biochim Biophys Acta; 2007 Jun;1770(6):927-32
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  • [Title] Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulation of gastrin-releasing peptide-induced cell cycle progression in neuroblastoma cells.
  • Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), the mammalian equivalent of bombesin (BBS), is an autocrine growth factor for neuroblastoma; its receptor is up-regulated in undifferentiated neuroblastomas.
  • Moreover, overexpression of the GRP receptor, a member of the G-protein coupled receptor family, down-regulates PTEN expression, resulting in increased neuroblastoma cell growth.
  • Therefore, we sought to determine whether GRP or BBS activates PI3K in neuroblastoma cells (BE(2)-C, LAN-1, SK-N-SH).
  • GRP or BBS treatment rapidly increased phosphorylation of Akt and GSK-3beta in neuroblastoma cells.
  • Our findings identify PI3K as an important signaling pathway for GRP-mediated neuroblastoma cell growth.
  • A novel therapy targeted at GRP/GRP receptor may prove to be an effective treatment option to inhibit PI3K in neuroblastomas.

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  • (PMID = 17379415.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-3002
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochimica et biophysica acta
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochim. Biophys. Acta
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P01 DK035608; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK48498; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA104748-03; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P01 DK35608; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK61470; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK061470; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK061470-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA104748-03; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P01 DK035608-200001; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA104748; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK061470-05; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK048498-11; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK035608-200001; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK048498-11; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK048498
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromones; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Morpholines; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / Receptors, Bombesin; 154447-36-6 / 2-(4-morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one; 80043-53-4 / Gastrin-Releasing Peptide; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 2.7.11.1 / glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta; EC 2.7.11.26 / Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase; PX9AZU7QPK / Bombesin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS22791; NLM/ PMC2708969
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4. Garcia I, Mayol G, Rodríguez E, Suñol M, Gershon TR, Ríos J, Cheung NK, Kieran MW, George RE, Perez-Atayde AR, Casala C, Galván P, de Torres C, Mora J, Lavarino C: Expression of the neuron-specific protein CHD5 is an independent marker of outcome in neuroblastoma. Mol Cancer; 2010;9:277
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  • [Title] Expression of the neuron-specific protein CHD5 is an independent marker of outcome in neuroblastoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The chromodomain, helicase DNA-binding protein 5 (CHD5) is a potential tumor suppressor gene located on chromosome 1p36, a region recurrently deleted in high risk neuroblastoma (NB).
  • Previous data have shown that CHD5 mRNA is present in normal neural tissues and in low risk NB, nevertheless, the distribution of CHD5 protein has not been explored.
  • With this purpose, CHD5 protein expression was analyzed in normal neural tissues and neuroblastic tumors (NTs).
  • CHD5 gene and protein expression was reexamined after induction chemotherapy in a subset of high risk tumors to identify potential changes reflecting tumor response.
  • RESULTS: We provide evidence that CHD5 is a neuron-specific protein, absent in glial cells, with diverse expression amongst neuron types.
  • Within NTs, CHD5 immunoreactivity was found restricted to differentiating neuroblasts and ganglion-like cells, and absent in undifferentiated neuroblasts and stromal Schwann cells.
  • The prognostic value of CHD5 was confirmed in an independent, blinded set of 32 NB tumors (P < 0.001).Reactivation of CHD5 expression after induction chemotherapy was observed mainly in those high risk tumors with induced tumor cell differentiation features.
  • Re-establishment of CHD5 expression induced by chemotherapy could be a surrogate marker of treatment response.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA Helicases / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism. Neuroblastoma / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20950435.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-4598
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; EC 3.6.4.- / DNA Helicases; EC 3.6.4.12 / CHD5 protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2992029
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5. Yang WP, Zou Y, Huang CS, Zhang SZ, Xiao Q, Dai KL, Zhong HS, Xiong XJ: [Clinicopathologic and prognostic study of pediatric immature teratoma]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2007 Oct;36(10):666-71
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  • Immature neuroepithelial features used in histologic grading included the presence of primitive neural tubules, immature rosettes, undifferentiated neuroblastoma cells and primitive neuroectodermal structures.
  • Sacrococcygeal immature teratoma occurring in patients younger than 1 year old and with low histologic grade do not require postoperative chemotherapy if the tumor is completely excised.
  • Similarly, for testicular immature teratoma occurring in patients below 1 year of age, regardless of tumor grading, need no adjunctive therapy.
  • On the other hand, ovarian immature teratoma with high histologic grade requires postoperative chemotherapy, regardless of age of the patients.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Cyclin D1 / metabolism. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / drug therapy. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / metabolism. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / surgery. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Mediastinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Mediastinal Neoplasms / metabolism. Mediastinal Neoplasms / pathology. Mediastinal Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / metabolism. Sacrococcygeal Region. Survival Rate. alpha-Fetoproteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18194599.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins; 0 / p27 antigen; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1
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6. Chen L, Malcolm AJ, Wood KM, Cole M, Variend S, Cullinane C, Pearson AD, Lunec J, Tweddle DA: p53 is nuclear and functional in both undifferentiated and differentiated neuroblastoma. Cell Cycle; 2007 Nov 1;6(21):2685-96
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  • [Title] p53 is nuclear and functional in both undifferentiated and differentiated neuroblastoma.
  • Aberrant cytoplasmic sequestration has been reported as an alternative mechanism of p53 inactivation to mutation in neuroblastoma.
  • We hypothesized that p53 localization and function in neuroblastoma is related to differentiation status.
  • Eighty-two untreated and 24 paired pre and post-chemotherapy neuroblastomas were studied by immunocytochemistry for p53, p21(WAF1), BAX, Bcl2 and Ki67.
  • Predominantly nuclear p53 was detected in undifferentiated neuroblastoma, and both nuclear and cytoplasmic p53 in differentiating neuroblastoma.
  • There was a significant reduction in p53, p21(WAF1) and Ki67 LI after chemotherapy (p < 0.01), an increase in BAX (p <0.05), but no change in Bcl2. p53 localization and function were examined in two p53 wild-type undifferentiated and 9-cis retinoic acid differentiated neuroblastoma cell lines.
  • Using immunocytochemistry, immunofluorescence and cell fractionation, p53 was found to be predominantly nuclear in both undifferentiated and differentiated cells.
  • Following irradiation, there was upregulation of p53, p21(WAF1) and MDM2, but less induced PARP and caspase 3 cleavage in differentiated cells, suggesting intact p53 transcriptional function, but resistance to apoptosis. p53 function in undifferentiated and differentiated cells was confirmed by upregulation of p21(WAF1) and MDM2 following Nutlin-3 treatment.
  • In conclusion, p53 is predominantly nuclear and functional in neuroblastoma regardless of differentiation status.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Differentiation / physiology. Cell Nucleus / physiology. Neuroblastoma / metabolism. Neuroblastoma / pathology. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17912039.001).
  • [ISSN] 1551-4005
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell Cycle
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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7. Kato K, Ishikawa K, Toyoda Y, Kigasawa H, Aida N, Nishi T, Kusafuka T, Hara J, Ijiri R, Tanaka Y: Late recurrence of neuroblastoma stage 4S with unusual clinicopathologic findings. J Pediatr Surg; 2001 Jun;36(6):953-5
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  • [Title] Late recurrence of neuroblastoma stage 4S with unusual clinicopathologic findings.
  • The authors present unusual clinicopathologic findings of a patient with neuroblastoma stage 4S that recurred 11 years after induction of complete remission with chemotherapy.
  • Histologic analysis of the recurrent tumor showed undifferentiated neuroblastoma intermingled with mature ganglioneuromatous lesions.
  • Although multimodal intensified treatments including autologous bone marrow transplantation were performed, the patient died of obstinate recurrent tumor at age 14 years.
  • The current case and the literature review may indicate that long-term follow-up would be necessary for neuroblastoma stage 4/4S cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology. Neuroblastoma / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Recurrence

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company.
  • (PMID = 11381437.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3468
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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8. Budziszewska B, Jaworska-Feil L, Tetich M, Basta-Kaim A, Kubera M, Leśkiewicz M, Lasoń W: Regulation of the human corticotropin-releasing-hormone gene promoter activity by antidepressant drugs in Neuro-2A and AtT-20 cells. Neuropsychopharmacology; 2004 Apr;29(4):785-94
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  • [Title] Regulation of the human corticotropin-releasing-hormone gene promoter activity by antidepressant drugs in Neuro-2A and AtT-20 cells.
  • Clinically effective therapy with antidepressant drugs normalizes the disturbed activity of HPA axis, in part, by decreasing corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) synthesis, but the mechanism of this action is poorly recognized.
  • In order to find out whether antidepressants directly affect CRH gene promoter activity, we studied their effect on undifferentiated and differentiated Neuro-2A cells, and for comparison the effect of the selected antidepressants on AtT-20 cells was also determined.
  • It was found that imipramine, amitryptyline, desipramine, fluoxetine, and mianserin, present in the culture medium for 5 days, in a concentration-dependent manner inhibited basal hCRH gene promoter activity in undifferentiated Neuro-2A cells, while other drugs under study (citalopram, tianeptine, moclobemide, venlafaxine, reboxetine, mirtazapine, and milnacipram) were inactive.
  • Moreover, in differentiated cells, the drugs acted stronger and were effective at lower concentrations.
  • Forskolin-induced CAT activity was attenuated by imipramine and fluoxetine and to a lesser degree by amitriptyline and desipramine in differentiated cells, whereas other drugs were inactive.
  • These results indicate that neuron-like differentiated Neuro-2A cells are a better model than pituitary and intact neuroblastoma to investigate the mechanism of psychotropic drug action.
  • Inhibition of CRH gene promoter activity by antidepressant drugs may be a molecular mechanism by which these drugs inhibit the activity of HPA axis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antidepressive Agents / pharmacology. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects. Promoter Regions, Genetic / drug effects. Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Differentiation / physiology. Cell Line. Cell Survival / drug effects. Chloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase / metabolism. Colforsin / pharmacology. Dexamethasone / pharmacology. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Interactions. Glucocorticoids / pharmacology. Humans. Mice. Molecular Biology / methods. Neuroblastoma. Pituitary Gland. Potassium Chloride / pharmacology. Transfection / methods

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  • (PMID = 14735130.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-133X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropsychopharmacology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antidepressive Agents; 0 / Glucocorticoids; 1F7A44V6OU / Colforsin; 57716-89-9 / 4-O-methyl-12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate; 660YQ98I10 / Potassium Chloride; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 9015-71-8 / Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone; EC 2.3.1.28 / Chloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase; NI40JAQ945 / Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate
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9. Drozyńska E, Izycka-Swieszewska E, Balcerska A, Bodalski J, Bohosiewicz J, Brozyna A, Bubała H, Chybicka A, Grajkowska W, Koltan S, Madziara W, Rybczyńska A, Słociak M, Sońta-Jakimczyk D, Stolarska M, Perek D, Wachowiak J, Wysocki M: [Analysis of microvascular density and the expression of vascular-endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its membrane receptor Flk-1 in neuroblastoma]. Med Wieku Rozwoj; 2006 Jul-Sep;10(3 Pt 1):745-55
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  • [Title] [Analysis of microvascular density and the expression of vascular-endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its membrane receptor Flk-1 in neuroblastoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Analiza gestości naczyniowej oraz ekspresji śródbłonowo-naczyniowego czynnika wzrostu (VEFG) i jego receptora błonowego (FLK-1) w neuroblastoma.
  • AIM: To assess selected angiogenic markers; microvascular density and the expression of VEGF and Flk-1 in relation to clinical features and morphologic types of neuroblastoma.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eighty-two children with neuroblastoma were studied.
  • Morphological assessment was performed in paraffin embedded tissues of the primary tumours.
  • Microvessels within tumour tissue were counted on immunohistochemically stained sections using anti CD34 antibody.
  • The correlation between angiogenic markers and morphological type of neuroblastoma was also evaluated.
  • There was no significant statistical difference between previously untreated and tumours assessed after chemotherapy.
  • Undifferentiated and poorly differentiated tumours presented a higher expression of VEGF and higher vascular density.
  • Neuroblastoma tumours arising in small children and poorly differentiated types of neuroblastoma indicate higher angiogenic activity.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Neuroblastoma / blood supply. Neuroblastoma / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17317905.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Medycyna wieku rozwojowego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Wieku Rozwoj
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2
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10. López-Aguilar E, Cerecedo-Díaz F, Rivera-Márquez H, Valdéz-Sánchez M, Sepúlveda-Vildósola AC, Delgado Huerta S, Vera-Hermosillo H, Vázquez-Langle JR, Wanzke del Angel V: [Neuroblastoma: prognostic factors and survival. Experience in Hospital de Pediatria del Centro Medico Nacional del Siglo XXI and review of the literature]. Gac Med Mex; 2003 May-Jun;139(3):209-14
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  • [Title] [Neuroblastoma: prognostic factors and survival. Experience in Hospital de Pediatria del Centro Medico Nacional del Siglo XXI and review of the literature].
  • [Transliterated title] Neuroblastoma: factores pronósticos y sobrevida. Experiencia en el Hospital de Pediatría del Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI y revisión de la literatura.
  • Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most frequent extracranial solid tumor in children according to the literature.
  • We included all patients admitted to our hospital during the previous five years and who had not received any treatment.
  • Patients with stages were III and IV received the same chemotherapy alternating with cisplatinum., ifosfamide and etoposide during 12 months as well as massive doses of 131-MIBG and surgical ablation of the remaining tumor when possible.
  • According to histology there was 91% survival for differentiated and 23% for undifferentiated tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Neuroblastoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Mexico. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 12872413.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-3813
  • [Journal-full-title] Gaceta médica de México
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gac Med Mex
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
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11. Cohen ZR, Marmor E, Fuller GN, DeMonte F: Misdiagnosis of olfactory neuroblastoma. Neurosurg Focus; 2002 May 15;12(5):e3
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  • [Title] Misdiagnosis of olfactory neuroblastoma.
  • OBJECT: Olfactory neuroblastoma (ON) is a rare neoplasm arising from the olfactory epithelium and found in the upper nasal cavity.
  • The authors studied the frequency with which ON is misdiagnosed with other tumors of the paranasal sinuses such as neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC), pituitary adenoma, melanoma, lymphoma, and sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma (SNUC).
  • Based on the belief that misdiagnosis commonly occurs, they emphasized the importance of establishing the correct diagnosis, because the treatment regimens and prognosis of these tumor types are often significantly different.
  • Demographic data were collected, physical findings and mode of treatments were documented, and neuroimaging studies were assessed.
  • Eight of 10 patients in whom lesions were misdiagnosed required significant alteration in the initially proposed treatment plan.
  • The correct diagnosis should be ensured before initiating treatment to provide the optimum therapy and spare the patients from needless and potentially toxic treatment.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Blindness / etiology. Case Management. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Diagnosis, Differential. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / adverse effects. Ethmoid Sinus / pathology. Humans. Hypopituitarism / etiology. Iatrogenic Disease. Male. Middle Aged. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / pathology. Radiation Injuries / etiology. Radiotherapy / adverse effects. Retrospective Studies. Sphenoid Sinus / pathology. Vincristine / administration & dosage. Vincristine / adverse effects


12. Lonergan GJ, Schwab CM, Suarez ES, Carlson CL: Neuroblastoma, ganglioneuroblastoma, and ganglioneuroma: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics; 2002 Jul-Aug;22(4):911-34
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  • [Title] Neuroblastoma, ganglioneuroblastoma, and ganglioneuroma: radiologic-pathologic correlation.
  • Neuroblastoma, ganglioneuroblastoma, and ganglioneuroma are tumors of the sympathetic nervous system that arise from primitive sympathogonia and are referred to collectively as neuroblastic tumors.
  • They arise wherever sympathetic tissue exists and may be seen in the neck, posterior mediastinum, adrenal gland, retroperitoneum, and pelvis.
  • Neuroblastoma is the most immature, undifferentiated, and malignant tumor of the three.
  • Neuroblastoma, however, may have a relatively benign course, even when metastatic.
  • Treatment consists of surgery and, usually, chemotherapy.
  • Despite recent advances in treatment, including bone marrow transplantation, neuroblastoma remains a relatively lethal tumor, accounting for 10% of pediatric cancers but 15% of cancer deaths in children.
  • [MeSH-major] Ganglioneuroma / pathology. Ganglioneuroma / radiography. Neuroblastoma / pathology. Neuroblastoma / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Ganglioneuroblastoma / pathology. Ganglioneuroblastoma / radiography. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Risk Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Copyright] Copyright RSNA, 2002
  • (PMID = 12110723.001).
  • [ISSN] 0271-5333
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiographics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 123
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13. Kumar A, Hovland AR, La Rosa FG, Cole WC, Prasad JE, Prasad KN: Relative sensitivity of undifferentiated and cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate-induced differentiated neuroblastoma cells to cyclosporin A: potential role of beta-amyloid and ubiquitin in neurotoxicity. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim; 2000 Feb;36(2):81-7
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  • [Title] Relative sensitivity of undifferentiated and cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate-induced differentiated neuroblastoma cells to cyclosporin A: potential role of beta-amyloid and ubiquitin in neurotoxicity.
  • Cyclosporin A is routinely used in transplant therapy following allogeneic or xenogeneic tissue transplantation to prevent rejection.
  • This immunosuppressive drug is also neurotoxic; however, its mechanisms of action for neurotoxicity are poorly understood.
  • Undifferentiated and cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP)-induced differentiated neuroblastoma (NB) cells were used as an experimental model to study the toxicity of cyclosporin A.
  • Results showed that cyclosporin A promoted the outgrowth of neurites and inhibited the growth of undifferentiated NB cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Amyloid beta-Peptides / metabolism. Cell Differentiation / drug effects. Cyclic AMP / pharmacology. Cyclosporine / toxicity. Immunosuppressive Agents / toxicity. Ubiquitins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] 4-(3-Butoxy-4-methoxybenzyl)-2-imidazolidinone / pharmacology. Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor / metabolism. Animals. Cell Division / drug effects. Mice. Neurites / drug effects. Neuroblastoma. Peptide Fragments / metabolism. Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors / pharmacology. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 10718363.001).
  • [ISSN] 1071-2690
  • [Journal-full-title] In vitro cellular & developmental biology. Animal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Anim.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS29982; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS35348
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Amyloid beta-Peptides; 0 / Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors; 0 / Ubiquitins; 29925-17-5 / 4-(3-Butoxy-4-methoxybenzyl)-2-imidazolidinone; 83HN0GTJ6D / Cyclosporine; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP
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14. Bégaud-Grimaud G, Battu S, Lazcoz P, Castresana JS, Jauberteau MO, Cardot PJ: Study of the phenotypic relationship in the IMR-32 human neuroblastoma cell line by sedimentation field flow fractionation. Int J Oncol; 2007 Oct;31(4):883-92
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  • [Title] Study of the phenotypic relationship in the IMR-32 human neuroblastoma cell line by sedimentation field flow fractionation.
  • Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common childhood solid tumor.
  • Cell type heterogeneity is observed either in the morphological appearance of NB tumors or in cell lines isolated from tumor specimens.
  • NB consists of two principal neoplastic cell types: i) neuroblastic or N-type (undifferentiated cells); and ii) stromal or S-type (differentiated cells).
  • As NB cells seem to have the capacity to differentiate spontaneously in vivo and in vitro, their heterogeneity could affect treatment outcome, in particular the response to apoptosis induced by chemotherapy.
  • Therefore, it is important to understand the underlying process governing changes in differentiation in order to improve treatment response and NB patient outcome and the neoplastic population in IMR-32 represented a good model for such a study.
  • The first N-phenotype forms a pool of quiescent undifferentiated cells while the second one was able to proliferate (incorporation of BrdU) and also give rise to adherent S-type cells (PSA-N-CAM+ and N-CAM+).
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Differentiation. Cell Fractionation. Fractionation, Field Flow. Neuroblastoma / metabolism. Neuroblastoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17786321.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule L1; 0 / Sialic Acids; 0 / polysialyl neural cell adhesion molecule; G34N38R2N1 / Bromodeoxyuridine
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15. Buccoliero AM, Castiglione F, Maio V, Moncini D, Sardi I, Taddei A, Martin A, Messineo A, Taddei GL: Teratoid hepatoblastoma. Fetal Pediatr Pathol; 2008;27(6):274-81
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  • We present the case of a Middle Eastern child, diagnosed and treated at 8 months of age for a hepatic neuroblastoma.
  • The tumor was composed of fetal and embryonal hepatic tissue, undifferentiated tissue, and a teratoid background of loose mesenchymal tissue containing osteoid, squamous, and mucinous epithelium.
  • We speculate on the histogenesis of teratoid hepatoblastoma and discuss its association with chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Hepatoblastoma / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neuroblastoma / diagnosis. Teratoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Humans. Infant. Male

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  • (PMID = 19065325.001).
  • [ISSN] 1551-3823
  • [Journal-full-title] Fetal and pediatric pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fetal Pediatr Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Ozer E, Altungoz O, Unlu M, Aygun N, Tumer S, Olgun N: Association of MYCN amplification and 1p deletion in neuroblastomas with high tumor vascularity. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2007 Jun;15(2):181-6
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  • The biologic behavior of neuroblastoma (NB) is extremely variable; therefore, the clinical behavior may be reliably predicted based on the analysis of a panel of prognostic parameters.
  • High vascular density has been correlated with aggressive tumor progression in many types of cancers.
  • The study population consisted of 33 patients with histologically proven diagnosis of primary NB and no history of previous chemotherapy.
  • In addition, tumor vascularity was significantly increased in tumors with high mitosis-karyorrhexis index or of undifferentiated histology.

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  • (PMID = 17525631.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-2016
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / MYCN protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Oncogene Proteins
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17. Shitara T, Shimada A, Hanada R, Matsunaga T, Kawa K, Mugishima H, Sugimoto T, Mimaya J, Manabe A, Tsurusawa M, Tsuchida Y: Irinotecan for children with relapsed solid tumors. Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2006 Mar;23(2):103-10
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  • Irinotecan is expected to become a new drug for childhood solid tumors.
  • Their original tumors were neuroblastoma in 7, rhabdomyosarcoma in 3, nephroblastoma and undifferentiated sarcoma in 2 each, and primitive neuroectodermal tumor and leiomyosarcoma in 1 each.
  • Partial response was achieved in 5 (31.3%) (neuro-blastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, nephroblastoma, undifferentiated sarcoma, and leiomyosarcoma), and decrease in tumor marker in the other 2.
  • Irinotecan appears promising, and could become included in the first-line treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Neuroblastoma / drug therapy. Recurrence. Remission Induction. Rhabdomyosarcoma / drug therapy. Tumor Burden / drug effects. Wilms Tumor / drug therapy

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  • [CommentIn] Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2009 Jan;52(1):145 [18798559.001]
  • (PMID = 16651238.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-0669
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric hematology and oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 7673326042 / irinotecan; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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18. Kölsch H, Ludwig M, Lütjohann D, Rao ML: Neurotoxicity of 24-hydroxycholesterol, an important cholesterol elimination product of the brain, may be prevented by vitamin E and estradiol-17beta. J Neural Transm (Vienna); 2001;108(4):475-88
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  • This oxysterol behaves neurotoxic towards the human neuroblastoma cell line, SH-SY5Y.
  • Physiological concentrations of estradiol-17beta (1-100nM) elicited a protective effect in differentiated cells, which was not significant; however, in undifferentiated cells a significant protection was noted by this steroid hormone.
  • These in vitro data support the in vivo observed beneficial effects reported as circumstantial evidence of vitamin E and estradiol-17beta treatment in the prevention and therapy of neurodegenerative disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Antioxidants / pharmacology. Estradiol / pharmacology. Hydroxycholesterols / toxicity. Neurons / drug effects. Vitamin E / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Ascorbic Acid / pharmacology. Brain / metabolism. Caspase 3. Caspases / metabolism. Free Radicals / metabolism. Humans. Melatonin / pharmacology. Membrane Potentials / drug effects. Membrane Potentials / physiology. Mitochondria / metabolism. Necrosis. Neuroblastoma. Oxidative Stress / drug effects. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 11475014.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9564
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neural transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neural Transm (Vienna)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Free Radicals; 0 / Hydroxycholesterols; 1406-18-4 / Vitamin E; 47IMW63S3F / 24-hydroxycholesterol; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; EC 3.4.22.- / CASP3 protein, human; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 3; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspases; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin; PQ6CK8PD0R / Ascorbic Acid
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19. Das DK: Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology diagnosis of small round cell tumors: value and limitations. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2004 Jul;47(3):309-18

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  • Small round cell tumors (SRCTs) are a group of malignancies (non-Hodgkin lymphoma, neuroblastoma, retinoblastoma, hepatoblastoma, nephroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, small cell anaplastic carcinoma, Ewing sarcomal peripheral neuroectodermal tumor, and desmoplastic small round cell tumor), characterized both cytologically and histologically by a predominantly small round to oval, and relatively undifferentiated cells.
  • The patients may present in later (inoperable) stage with huge intrathoracic and intraabdominal mass, when chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy may be the first or only line of treatment.
  • As a less invasive procedure fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology has definite advantage over surgical excision biopsy to arrive at a tissue diagnosis before initiation of therapy.
  • Important cytomorphological features, which help in the identification of various SRCTs include completely dissociated cell population and lymphoglandular bodies (cytoplasmic fragments) in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), eosinophilicfibrillar material and Homer-Wright rosettes along with cellular processes in neuroblastoma, acinar formation in hepatoblastoma, blastema cells with tubular differentiation in nephroblastoma, tadpole shaped cells in embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, extreme nuclear molding and perinuclear blue inclusion in small cell anaplastic carcinoma (SCAC), irregular, punched out and large cytoplasmic vacuolations due to glycogen in Ewing sarcoma, and sheets of undifferentiated small round cells surrounded by collageneous stroma in desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT).
  • Some of these features such as nuclear molding, rosette, and acinar formation are noticed in more than one type of SRCTs.
  • It is suggested that cytomorphological features along with one or more of the parameters such as special stains (cytochemistry), immunocytochemistry (ICC), electron microscopy (EM), tissue culture, DNA ploidy, karyotype and molecular analysis can increase the diagnostic accuracy of SRCTs.
  • However, these facilities may not be available in all the laboratories, especially in the developing countries, and even if available in a limited form, a tissue diagnosis has to be offered often by FNA cytology based on morphological features, as a life saving measure in seriously ill patients before the results of ancillary studies are finalized.

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  • (PMID = 16295413.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Number-of-references] 67
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20. Murphy JJ, Tawfeeq M, Chang B, Nadel H: Early experience with PET/CT scan in the evaluation of pediatric abdominal neoplasms. J Pediatr Surg; 2008 Dec;43(12):2186-92
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - CT Scans.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • PURPOSE: Positron emission tomography/computerized tomography (PET/CT) scan provides both functional and anatomical information in a single diagnostic test.
  • These included Burkitt's lymphoma (8), neuroblastoma (7), rhabdomyosarcoma (6), ovarian tumor (3), Wilms' tumor (2), hepatocellular carcinoma (2), paraganglioma (1), germ cell tumor (1), undifferentiated sarcoma (1), renal primitive neuroectodermal tumor (1), gastrointestinal stromal tumor (1), adrenocortical carcinoma (1), inflammatory pseudotumor (1), and adrenal adenoma (1).
  • These include (1) preoperative staging, (2) selection of appropriate site for biopsy, (3) identification of occult metastatic disease, (4) follow-up for residual or recurrent disease, and (5) assessment of response to chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / radiography. Positron-Emission Tomography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Drug Monitoring. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 / pharmacokinetics. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Neoplasm, Residual. Postoperative Care / methods. Preoperative Care / methods. Radiopharmaceuticals / pharmacokinetics. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19040932.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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21. Thompson LD, Wieneke JA, Miettinen M: Sinonasal tract and nasopharyngeal melanomas: a clinicopathologic study of 115 cases with a proposed staging system. Am J Surg Pathol; 2003 May;27(5):594-611
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Nasal Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Histologically, the tumors were composed of a variety of cell types (epithelioid, spindled, undifferentiated), frequently arranged in a peritheliomatous distribution (n = 39).
  • Sinonasal tract mucosal malignant melanomas need to be considered in the differential diagnosis of most sinonasal malignancies, particularly carcinoma, lymphoma, sarcoma, and olfactory neuroblastoma.
  • Surgery accompanied by radiation and/or chemotherapy was generally used.
  • The majority of patients developed a recurrence (n = 79), with 75 patients dying with disseminated disease (mean 2.3 years), whereas 40 patients are either alive or had died of unrelated causes (mean 13.9 years).
  • A TNM-type classification separated by anatomic site of involvement and metastatic disease is proposed to predict biologic behavior.

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  • (PMID = 12717245.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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22. Hu WH, Xie FY, Fang SH, Jiao JJ, Yan C, Peng WJ, Fu XY, Zhang F: [Cancer of the nasal cavity]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2005 Feb;27(2):117-21
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Nasal Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The 5-year survival rate was 55.8% in squamous-cell carcinoma, 44.0% in adenocarcinoma, 59.7% in undifferentiated carcinoma, 76.3% in adenoid cystic carcinoma, 71.4% in mucoepidermoid carcinoma, 25.0% in rhabdomyosarcoma, 26.7% in malignant melanoma, 50.0% in neuroblastoma (P > 0.05).
  • The 5-year survival rate was 73.8% in patients whose cancer completely disappeared after treatment.
  • That with chemotherapy only was 25.0% whereas that of patients treated with combination treatment was 61.8% (P > 0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: Clinical stage, immediate therapeutic response and involvement of sphenoidal or maxillary sinus; but not the pathologic type, the presence of cervical metastasis nor the method of treatment, are the factors affecting the prognosis of patients with nasal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Nasal Cavity. Nose Neoplasms / mortality. Nose Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Prognosis. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 15946555.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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23. Tannuri AC, Tannuri U, Gibelli NE, Romão RL: Surgical treatment of hepatic tumors in children: lessons learned from liver transplantation. J Pediatr Surg; 2009 Nov;44(11):2083-7
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Liver Transplantation.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgical treatment of hepatic tumors in children: lessons learned from liver transplantation.
  • After neoadjuvant chemotherapy, tumor resectability was evaluated by another CT scan.
  • RESULTS: Fifty-three children with hepatic tumors underwent surgical treatment, 47 patients underwent liver resections, and in 6 cases, liver transplantation was performed because the tumor was considered unresectable.
  • Ten children presented with other malignant tumors-3 undifferentiated sarcomas, 2 hepatocellular carcinomas, 2 fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinomas, a rhabdomyosarcoma, an immature ovarian teratoma, and a single neuroblastoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Blood Loss, Surgical. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / mortality. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / surgery. Follow-Up Studies. Hepatectomy / methods. Hepatoblastoma / mortality. Hepatoblastoma / surgery. Humans. Infant. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Survival Rate. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Liver Cancer.
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  • (PMID = 19944212.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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