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1. López-Jiménez J, Martín-Ballesteros E, Sureda A, Uralburu C, Lorenzo I, del Campo R, Fernández C, Calbacho M, García-Belmonte D, Fernández G: Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in acute leukemia and stem cell transplant patients: results of a multicenter, observational study. Haematologica; 2006 Jan;91(1):84-91
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  • [Title] Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in acute leukemia and stem cell transplant patients: results of a multicenter, observational study.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and severity of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in oncohematology in routine clinical practice, its impact on quality of life, and caregivers' perception of the extent of the problem.
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a multicenter, prospective, observational follow-up study including: (i) acute myeloid leukemia patients treated with moderately to highly emetogenic chemotherapy and (ii) hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients, without reduced intensity conditioning.
  • RESULTS: One hundred consecutive transplant and 77 acute myeloid leukemia patients were studied.
  • Transplant conditioning was the most important risk factor for CINV: complete response occurred in only 20% of transplant patients (vs. 47% for leukemia patients).
  • Among patients with emesis, the mean percentage of days with emesis and the mean (+/-SD) total number of emetic episodes were 61% and 9.4+/-8.9 (transplant recipients), and 53.6% and 6.2+/-7.3 (leukemia patients), respectively.
  • CINV control was lower in the delayed than in the acute phase.
  • Antiemetic rescue therapy was ineffective.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation / adverse effects. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation / methods. Humans. Leukemia / complications. Leukemia / therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Serotonin Antagonists / therapeutic use. Transplantation Conditioning / adverse effects. Transplantation Conditioning / methods

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  • (PMID = 16434375.001).
  • [ISSN] 1592-8721
  • [Journal-full-title] Haematologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Haematologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Serotonin Antagonists
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2. Carter BZ, Mak DH, Cortes J, Andreeff M: The elusive chronic myeloid leukemia stem cell: does it matter and how do we eliminate it? Semin Hematol; 2010 Oct;47(4):362-70
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  • [Title] The elusive chronic myeloid leukemia stem cell: does it matter and how do we eliminate it?
  • Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a clonal multistep myeloproliferative disease originating from and ultimately sustained by a rare population of BCR-ABL(+) cells with multilineage stem cell properties.
  • Imatinib, the most successful of molecular targeted therapies, has revolutionized treatment of patients with CML.
  • Despite this achievement, CML is often not curable, largely due to the innate insensitivity of CML stem cells, particularly when in a quiescent state.
  • This failure of not only imatinib but also the second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) frequently leads to relapse upon drug discontinuation.
  • Thus, any curative therapy must eliminate CML stem cells.
  • A comprehensive understanding of the biological properties of CML stem cells and an elucidation of the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways enabling these CML stem cells to self-renew, combined with insight into the regulation of apoptosis signaling and the mechanisms governing the interaction of CML stem cells with their bone marrow microenvironment, will facilitate the development of therapies for targeting these cells.
  • Here, we discuss the biological properties of CML stem cells and potential strategies to eliminate them.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 20875553.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8686
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Hematol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA049639; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA16672; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA49639
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyrimidines; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS219537; NLM/ PMC2948413
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3. Paolucci G, Vecchi V, Favre C, Miniero R, Madon E, Pession A, Rondelli R, De Rossi G, Lo Nigro L, Porta F, Santoro N, Indolfi P, Basso G, Conter V, Aricò M, Associazione Italiana Ematologia Oncologia Pediatrica (AIEOP): Treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Long-term results of the AIEOP-ALL 87 study. Haematologica; 2001 May;86(5):478-84
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  • [Title] Treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Long-term results of the AIEOP-ALL 87 study.
  • The aim of this new study was to evaluate, for all risk groups: a) the efficacy of treatment intensification achieved by adding a fourth drug (daunomycin) in the induction phase and a 3-drug reinduction phase for all risk groups;.
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: From 1987 to 1991, a total of 632 eligible and evaluable children (age 1 to < or =16 years) with non-B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), were enrolled and stratified as follows: standard risk (SR, 79 patients, 12.5%) had WBC <10,000/mm3, age > or = 3 and <7 years, and FAB L1 morphology.
  • The high risk (HR, 175 patients, 27.7%) group included patients with WBC > or =50,000/mm3 or FAB L3 morphology or T immunophenotype or acute undifferentiated leukemia (AUL) or leukemia-lymphoma syndrome.
  • All patients received a 4-drug induction therapy; intermediate-dose methotrexate was given to HR patients; cranial radiotherapy was given to IR and HR patients, while SR patients received extended intrathecal methotrexate; all patients received a 3-drug reinduction phase; high dose L-asparaginase (HD-L-ASP; E.Coli, Bayer) was given to HR patients; continuation therapy with 6-mercaptopurine, i.m. methotrexate, and monthly vincristine and prednisone pulses was given to all patients.
  • Treatment duration was 2 years.
  • The overall 10-year survival and event-free survival (EFS) rates (SE) are 74.7% (1.8) and 62.8% (2.0) respectively; EFS rates by risk group are 67.5% (5.5) in SR, 62.8% (2.6) in IR, and 61.9% (3.8) for HR.
  • INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: When compared to the results of the AIEOP-ALL-82 study, treatment intensification in the ALL-87 study has improved long-term survival and EFS from 66.4% and 53.6% to 74.7% and 62.8%, respectively.
  • Failures were mostly due to marrow or extramedullary relapses suggesting that further treatment intensification, as being used in current therapeutic strategies, is appropriate, although patients relapsing after less intensive treatment may have better chances of rescue.
  • These results, although obtained in a relatively large proportion of patients, in which infants were not included, indicate that the addition of high-dose L-asparaginase to a relatively non-intensive treatment may be of major benefit for HR patients and that the addition of intrathecal methotrexate during CRT, may improve the central nervous system-disease control with a marked reduction of nervous system relapses.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Asparaginase / administration & dosage. Child. Child, Preschool. Daunorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Infant. Longitudinal Studies. Male. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Prognosis. Remission Induction. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage


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4. Aikawa Y, Katsumoto T, Zhang P, Shima H, Shino M, Terui K, Ito E, Ohno H, Stanley ER, Singh H, Tenen DG, Kitabayashi I: PU.1-mediated upregulation of CSF1R is crucial for leukemia stem cell potential induced by MOZ-TIF2. Nat Med; 2010 May;16(5):580-5, 1p following 585
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  • [Title] PU.1-mediated upregulation of CSF1R is crucial for leukemia stem cell potential induced by MOZ-TIF2.
  • Leukemias and other cancers possess self-renewing stem cells that help to maintain the cancer.
  • Cancer stem cell eradication is thought to be crucial for successful anticancer therapy.
  • Using an acute myeloid leukemia (AML) model induced by the leukemia-associated monocytic leukemia zinc finger (MOZ)-TIF2 fusion protein, we show here that AML can be cured by the ablation of leukemia stem cells.
  • Studies using PU.1-deficient mice showed that PU.1 is essential for the ability of MOZ-TIF2 to establish and maintain AML stem cells.
  • Cells expressing high amounts of CSF1R (CSF1R(high) cells), but not those expressing low amounts of CSF1R (CSF1R(low) cells), showed potent leukemia-initiating activity.
  • Using transgenic mice expressing a drug-inducible suicide gene controlled by the CSF1R promoter, we cured AML by ablation of CSF1R(high) cells.
  • Moreover, induction of AML was suppressed in CSF1R-deficient mice and CSF1R inhibitors slowed the progression of MOZ-TIF2-induced leukemia.
  • Thus, in this subtype of AML, leukemia stem cells are contained within the CSF1R(high) cell population, and we suggest that targeting of PU.1-mediated upregulation of CSF1R expression might be a useful therapeutic approach.

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  • (PMID = 20418886.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-170X
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat. Med.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA041456-24; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA032551; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA066996; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5P30-CA13330; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA041456-24; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA41456; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA32551; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA041456; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA013330; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL112719
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Colony-Stimulating Factors; 0 / NCOA2 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Receptor Coactivator 2; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Colony-Stimulating Factor; 0 / Recombinant Fusion Proteins; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / proto-oncogene protein Spi-1; 81627-83-0 / Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS265702; NLM/ PMC3039870
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5. Webert KE, Cook RJ, Couban S, Carruthers J, Lee KA, Blajchman MA, Lipton JH, Brandwein JM, Heddle NM: A multicenter pilot-randomized controlled trial of the feasibility of an augmented red blood cell transfusion strategy for patients treated with induction chemotherapy for acute leukemia or stem cell transplantation. Transfusion; 2008 Jan;48(1):81-91
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  • [Title] A multicenter pilot-randomized controlled trial of the feasibility of an augmented red blood cell transfusion strategy for patients treated with induction chemotherapy for acute leukemia or stem cell transplantation.
  • Patients with acute leukemia receiving induction chemotherapy or those undergoing stem cell transplantation were assigned to one of two treatment groups: standard transfusion strategy (transfusion of 2 units of red blood cells [RBCs] when their Hb level was less than 80 g/L) or an augmented transfusion strategy (transfusion of 2 units of RBCs when their Hb level was less than 120 g/L).
  • The proportions of patients experiencing clinically significant bleeding and the time to first bleed were not significantly different between the control and experimental groups.
  • The proportion of patient-days with platelet (PLT) transfusions was not different between the experimental and control groups.
  • The mean number of donor exposures (PLT and RBC transfusions) was not different between experimental and control groups.
  • [MeSH-major] Erythrocyte Transfusion / methods. Hemorrhage / etiology. Leukemia / complications. Leukemia / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Feasibility Studies. Female. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Hemoglobins / analysis. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pilot Projects

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  • (PMID = 17894791.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-1132
  • [Journal-full-title] Transfusion
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Transfusion
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Hemoglobins
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6. Cui JW, Zhang XM, Wang GJ: [Progress in the studies of acute myelogenous leukemia stem cell]. Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi; 2003 Oct;11(5):549-52
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  • [Title] [Progress in the studies of acute myelogenous leukemia stem cell].
  • Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) cells are organized in a hierarchical fashion, with only the most primitive rare population (leukemia stem cell, LSC) of AML cells capable of maintaining the leukemic clone.
  • A broad range of studies has indicated that AML results from mutations at the level of the stem cells of AML cells.
  • The changes of cellular and molecular features in these malignant stem cells determine the features of leukemic clone and give rise to different subtypes of AML.
  • LSCs share some similar characteristics with normal hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) including the ability to self-renew, and also have the potential of limited differentiation.
  • LSCs, also have some features that are not found in normal HSC.
  • Tumor-suppressor protein-death associated protein kinase and interferon regulatory factor 1 were overexpressed in LSCs, but not in normal HSC.
  • Due to a predominantly G0 cell-cycle status, LSCs may not be responsive to conventional chemotherapeutic agents, compared with leukemia blasts.
  • Although LSC population is likely to be drug-resistant, quiescent LSCs are preferentially susceptible to apoptosis induction while sparing normal HSC, with the appropriate stimulus such as proteasome inhibitor MG-132.
  • This article reviewed the data emerging from the study of LSCs, and elucidated the distinct cellular and molecular characteristics of the LSC population, which may shed new light on AML therapy and leukemogenesis study.

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  • (PMID = 14575558.001).
  • [ISSN] 1009-2137
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo shi yan xue ye xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] CHI
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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7. Batlle M, Vall-Llovera F, Bechini J, Camps I, Marcos P, Vives S, Oriol A, Ribera JM: [Neutropenic enterocolitis in adult patients with acute leukemia or stem cell transplant recipients: study of 7 cases]. Med Clin (Barc); 2007 Nov 10;129(17):660-3
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  • [Title] [Neutropenic enterocolitis in adult patients with acute leukemia or stem cell transplant recipients: study of 7 cases].
  • [Transliterated title] Enterocolitis neutropénica en adultos con leucemia aguda o receptores de un trasplante de progenitores hematopoyéticos: estudio de 7 casos.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Neutropenic enterocolitis (NE) is a complication arising in neutropenic patients with acute leukemia or solid tumours while treated with intensive chemotherapy.
  • The optimal therapeutic procedures have not been well established.
  • Their clinico-biological characteristics, therapeutic procedures and evolution were analysed retrospectively.
  • Acute myeloblastic leukemia was the most frequent diagnosis (5 cases).
  • Two other patients had received an stem cell transplantation.
  • Abnormal mural thickening of the caecum was observed in the 6 cases in which a computed tomography scan could be performed.
  • All patients first received medical treatment with wide spectrum antibiotics and intestinal rest, and abdominal surgery was indicated in 6 cases after a median time from first symptom of 4 days (range: 0-12).
  • CONCLUSIONS: NE is a severe complication of patients with hematologic malignancies submitted to intensive chemotherapy or receiving stem cell transplantation.
  • Abdominal computed tomography scan is the most valuable diagnostic tool.
  • [MeSH-major] Enterocolitis, Neutropenic / etiology. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / complications. Stem Cell Transplantation / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Pain / etiology. Adult. Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Intensive Care Units. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18005634.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-7753
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina clínica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Clin (Barc)
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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8. Feller N, Kelder A, Westra G, Ossenkoppele GJ, Schuurhuis GJ: Positive selection for CD90 as a purging option in acute myeloid leukemia stem cell transplants. Cytometry B Clin Cytom; 2008 Jan;74(1):9-16
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  • [Title] Positive selection for CD90 as a purging option in acute myeloid leukemia stem cell transplants.
  • BACKGROUND: Several studies showed the benefit of purging of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) stem cell transplants.
  • We reported previously that purging by positive selection of CD34+ and CD133+ cells resulted in a 3-4 log tumor cell reduction (TCR) in CD34- and/or CD133- AML, but has been shown to be potentially applicable in only about 50% of cases.
  • Similar to CD34 and CD133, CD90 marks the hematopoietic CD34 positive stem cells capable of full hematopoietic recovery after myeloablative chemotherapy, and therefore, in the present study, we explored whether a similar purging approach is possible using CD90.
  • METHODS: CD90 expression was established by flowcytometry in diagnosis AML on the clonogenic AML CD34+ blast population by flow cytometry.
  • For the calculation of the efficacy of TCR by positive selection, AML blasts were recognized by either prelabeling diagnosis blasts with CD45-FITC in spiking model experiments or using expression of leukemia associated marker combinations both in spiking experiments and in real transplants.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Thy-1 / immunology. Bone Marrow Purging / methods. Flow Cytometry. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy. Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD34 / immunology. Antigens, CD34 / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / immunology. Female. Hematopoietic Stem Cells / cytology. Hematopoietic Stem Cells / immunology. Hematopoietic Stem Cells / metabolism. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Male. Middle Aged

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Clinical Cytometry Society
  • (PMID = 18061946.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-4957
  • [Journal-full-title] Cytometry. Part B, Clinical cytometry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytometry B Clin Cytom
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Antigens, Thy-1; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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9. Miller DR: A tribute to Sidney Farber-- the father of modern chemotherapy. Br J Haematol; 2006 Jul;134(1):20-6

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  • [Title] A tribute to Sidney Farber-- the father of modern chemotherapy.
  • Sidney Farber, world-renowned paediatric pathologist, made major contributions to his field but is acknowledged as the father of the modern era of chemotherapy.
  • He recognised that folic acid stimulated leukaemic cell growth and enhanced disease progression.
  • His landmark study, published in 1948, demonstrated that a number of folic acid antagonists, including 4-aminopteroyl-glutamic acid (aminopterin) produced temporary remissions in children with acute undifferentiated leukaemia.
  • He introduced actinomycin D for the treatment of metastatic and localised Wilms tumour.
  • Under his guidance and leadership, both the 'Jimmy Fund', one of the first comprehensive paediatric oncology treatment centres, and the Children's Cancer Research Foundation, which later became the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, were founded.
  • [MeSH-minor] History, 20th Century. Humans. Leukemia / drug therapy. United States

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  • (PMID = 16803563.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1048
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Biography; Historical Article; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Personal-name-as-subject] Farber S
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10. Shouldice E, Fernandez C, McCully B, Schmidt M, Fraser R, Cook C: Voriconazole treatment of presumptive disseminated Aspergillus infection in a child with acute leukemia. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2003 Sep;25(9):732-4
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  • [Title] Voriconazole treatment of presumptive disseminated Aspergillus infection in a child with acute leukemia.
  • The authors describe a pediatric patient receiving chemotherapy for acute undifferentiated leukemia who developed presumptive Aspergillus species infection disseminated to lung, liver, spleen, and bone.
  • The authors report the successful treatment of this infection with the addition of voriconazole, a triazole antimycotic, to treatment with amphotericin and surgical debridement, in the setting of ongoing intensive chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antifungal Agents / therapeutic use. Aspergillosis / drug therapy. Leukemia / complications. Pyrimidines / therapeutic use. Triazoles / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Amphotericin B / administration & dosage. Amphotericin B / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Debridement. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Hepatitis / drug therapy. Hepatitis / microbiology. Humans. Lung Diseases, Fungal / drug therapy. Opportunistic Infections / drug therapy. Osteomyelitis / drug therapy. Osteomyelitis / microbiology. Osteomyelitis / surgery. Remission Induction. Sacroiliac Joint / microbiology. Sacroiliac Joint / surgery. Splenic Diseases / drug therapy. Splenic Diseases / microbiology. Voriconazole

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  • (PMID = 12972810.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antifungal Agents; 0 / Pyrimidines; 0 / Triazoles; 7XU7A7DROE / Amphotericin B; JFU09I87TR / Voriconazole
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11. Grigg A, Kannan K, Schwarer AP, Spencer A, Szer J: Chemotherapy and granulocyte colony stimulating factor-mobilized blood cell infusion followed by interferon-alpha for relapsed malignancy after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Intern Med J; 2001 Jan-Feb;31(1):15-22
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  • [Title] Chemotherapy and granulocyte colony stimulating factor-mobilized blood cell infusion followed by interferon-alpha for relapsed malignancy after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.
  • This property may also be used to enhance a graft-versus-leukaemia effect (GVL) after donor leucocyte infusion (DLI), a mode of therapy increasingly offered to patients relapsing after allo BMT.
  • AIM: The aims of the present study were to examine the efficacy and toxicity of IFN therapy administered after granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-stimulated blood cells given as DLI in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML), acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), acute undifferentiated leukaemia (AUL) and multiple myeloma relapsing after allo BMT.
  • METHODS: Between October 1996 and September 1999, 27 patients (16 AML, four ALL, three CML, three multiple myeloma, one AUL) who relapsed after allo BMT were treated with chemotherapy followed by DLI, collected after G-CSF stimulation in all but two cases.
  • RESULTS: Eighteen patients received IFN following DLI, 14 of whom developed significant GVHD (grade II-IV acute or extensive chronic); thereafter, GVHD resolved with cessation of IFN alone in four patients, but 10 required systemic immunosuppression.
  • Twenty-three patients were given chemotherapy and DLI as initial treatment of relapse; 10 achieved complete remission (CR), in four patients this was only after the onset of GVHD.
  • The other four patients received chemotherapy and DLI as a consolidation of a chemotherapy-induced remission.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with IFN induced GVHD in the majority of patients receiving DLI.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow Transplantation. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / therapeutic use. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Leukocyte Transfusion
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adult. Female. Graft vs Host Disease / etiology. Graft vs Leukemia Effect / drug effects. Humans. Leukemia / drug therapy. Leukemia / therapy. Leukemia, Myeloid / drug therapy. Leukemia, Myeloid / therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Multiple Myeloma / etiology. Remission Induction. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11478351.001).
  • [ISSN] 1444-0903
  • [Journal-full-title] Internal medicine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Intern Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interferon-alpha; 143011-72-7 / Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor
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12. Lu C, Hassan HT: Human stem cell factor-antibody [anti-SCF] enhances chemotherapy cytotoxicity in human CD34+ resistant myeloid leukaemia cells. Leuk Res; 2006 Mar;30(3):296-302
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  • [Title] Human stem cell factor-antibody [anti-SCF] enhances chemotherapy cytotoxicity in human CD34+ resistant myeloid leukaemia cells.
  • Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is a heterogenous malignant disease with diverse biological features in which disease progression at the level of CD34+ cells has a major impact on the resistance to chemotherapy and relapse.
  • The AML blast cells in these elderly patients are often characterised by several unfavourable covariates that predict the poor treatment outcome, including high stem cell marker CD34 expression, minimally or undifferentiated features, high P-glycoprotein expression, high bcl-2/bax ratio, unfavourable karyotype and more frequent internal tandem duplications (ITDs) and mutations of class III receptor-type tyrosine kinase for key haematopoietic cytokines: Flt-3 (receptor for Flt-ligand), c-kit (receptor for stem cell factor) and fms (receptor for M-CSF).
  • Testing the new and more specific molecular-targeted therapeutic approaches in CD34+ AML cells can provide the basis for a more effective combined molecular/chemotherapy regimen and may consequently improve the treatment outcome in elderly AML patients.
  • Therefore, the present study was performed to evaluate whether stem cell factor-antibody (anti-SCF) can enhance the efficacy of the two main chemotherapeutic drugs used in AML therapy: cytarabine and daunorubicin at low doses in human-resistant CD34+ AML cells, in an attempt to identify a novel effective regimen with tolerable side-effects for elderly AML patients.
  • The effect of anti-SCF on each of the two chemotherapeutic drugs-induced apoptosis and necrosis was investigated in KG1a human-resistant CD34+ AML cells expressing P-glycoprotein to determine its enhancing activity.
  • Anti-SCF has significantly enhanced the low dose cytarabine- and daunorubicin-induced apoptosis+necrosis in KG1a CD34+ AML cells from 12.0+/-1.7 to 40.9+/-5.9% and from 16.3+/-0.9 to 48.9+/-1.0%, respectively, p<0.01.
  • It has also exerted its significant enhancement activity on the low dose cytarabine- and daunorubicin-induced apoptosis+necrosis in KG1a CD34+ AML cells in the presence of SCF, p<0.05.
  • Anti-SCF has significantly enhanced the low dose cytarabine- and daunorubicin-induced bcl-2 reduction in KG1a CD34+ AML cells from 26.7+/-0.6 to 64.6+/-1.0% and from 59.8+/-3.1 to 80.1+/-7.9%, respectively, p<0.01.
  • The addition of SCF has not altered the low dose cytarabine- and daunorubicin-induced bcl-2 reduction in KG1a CD34+ AML cells (Table 4).
  • Anti-SCF has also significantly enhanced the low dose cytarabine- and daunorubicin-induced bcl-2 reduction in KG1a CD34+ AML cells in the presence of SCF, p<0.05.
  • The unique potent enhancing activity of anti-SCF on low dose chemotherapy-induced apoptosis and necrosis in extremely resistant AML cells suggest a novel promising role for the treatment of elderly AML patients.
  • In conclusion, the combination of anti-SCF and the low dose cytarabine provides a promising solution for the dilemma of therapy in elderly AML patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / pharmacology. Antigens, CD34. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Biomarkers, Tumor. Cytarabine / pharmacology. Daunorubicin / pharmacology. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy. Stem Cell Factor / antagonists & inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Apoptosis / drug effects. Blast Crisis / drug therapy. Blast Crisis / metabolism. Blast Crisis / pathology. Cell Line, Tumor. Chromosome Aberrations. Clinical Trials as Topic. Drug Evaluation, Preclinical. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / drug effects. Drug Synergism. Female. Humans. Male. P-Glycoprotein / biosynthesis. Pilot Projects. Receptors, Cytokine / metabolism. Treatment Outcome. bcl-2-Associated X Protein / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 16112192.001).
  • [ISSN] 0145-2126
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / P-Glycoprotein; 0 / Receptors, Cytokine; 0 / Stem Cell Factor; 0 / bcl-2-Associated X Protein; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; ZS7284E0ZP / Daunorubicin
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13. Nicholson E, Holyoake T: The chronic myeloid leukemia stem cell. Clin Lymphoma Myeloma; 2009;9 Suppl 4:S376-81
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  • [Title] The chronic myeloid leukemia stem cell.
  • Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a clonal stem cell disorder that is characterized by the acquired chromosomal translocation BCR-ABL.
  • This gives rise to a constitutively active tyrosine kinase deregulation of the normal mechanisms of cell cycle control.
  • In the normal hematopoietic system, hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) self-renew to form identical daughter cells but also differentiate to mature blood cells.
  • Leukemic stem cells (LSC) share these properties of self-renewal and also differentiate to mature leukemic cells.
  • LSC have been isolated from patients with CML: these cells give rise to leukemia following transplantation into NOD-SCID mice models.
  • Further characterization of CML stem cells has demonstrated that a small percentage of these cells are quiescent despite culture with growth factors.
  • The CML stem cell arises from a normal HSC that has acquired the Philadelphia chromosome.
  • Quiescent stem cells are resistant to treatment with imatinib in vitro and are thought also to show resistance in vivo.
  • The properties of the stem cells that lead to this drug resistance are still being characterized.
  • However, this drug insensitivity leads to disease persistence that may lead to disease relapse even despite an initial response to imatinib.
  • Newer molecular therapies are in development that act to specifically target and eradicate the stem cell pool.
  • [MeSH-major] Hematopoietic Stem Cells / pathology. Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive / diagnosis. Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive / therapy. Neoplastic Stem Cells / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Humans. Mice


14. Rao SR, Hassett M, Schwartz JH, Maloney B, Jacobson JO: Admissions for chemotherapy-related serious adverse effects (CR-SAEs) and rates of mortality among community cancer center patients. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):6571

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  • [Title] Admissions for chemotherapy-related serious adverse effects (CR-SAEs) and rates of mortality among community cancer center patients.
  • METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of adult cancer patients (excluding acute leukemia and stem cell transplant patients) admitted to a community hospital January 2003-December 2006.
  • A multidisciplinary panel of cancer providers determined which admissions were chemotherapy-related.
  • We identified the type of SAE, outcome of each admission, time form chemotherapy to admission and from admission to discharge/death, and the disease and treatment characteristics of each patient.
  • Most chemotherapy was palliative (53.5%).
  • On multivariable analysis, palliative therapy was a borderline-significant predictor of mortality (OR 2.8; 95% CI 0.9-8.4; p = 0.07).
  • The average time from chemotherapy to admission was shorter for fatal vs. non-fatal admissions (3.6 vs. 7.7 days; p<.01).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Fatalities during admissions for CR-SAE's in a community cancer center are relatively uncommon and are not associated with age or type of SAE/cancer.
  • Chemotherapy-related mortality in the palliative care setting may be a valid quality indicator.

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  • (PMID = 27963798.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Williams BA, Wang XH, Keating A: Clonogenic assays measure leukemia stem cell killing not detectable by chromium release and flow cytometric cytotoxicity assays. Cytotherapy; 2010 Nov;12(7):951-60
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  • [Title] Clonogenic assays measure leukemia stem cell killing not detectable by chromium release and flow cytometric cytotoxicity assays.
  • BACKGROUND AIMS: NK-92, a permanent natural killer (NK) cell line, shows cytotoxicity against a variety of tumors and has been tested in a phase I trial.
  • We tested the toxicity of NK-92 and chemotherapy drugs against the stem cell capacity of the acute leukemia cell line, KG1.
  • METHODS: KG1 was assessed for stem cell frequency by serial dilution, single-cell sorting and colony growth in methylcellulose.
  • RESULTS: The culture-initiating cell frequency of whole KG1 was between 1 in 100 to 1000 by serial dilution and single-cell sorting.
  • The cumulative flow cytotoxicity assay was more sensitive than the chromium-release assay in detecting target cell killing.
  • At a 10:1 ratio NK-92 eliminated the clonogenic capacity of KG1, which was not predicted by the chromium-release assay.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Clonogenic assays provide a more sensitive means of assessing the effect of a cytotoxic agent against putative cancer stem cells within cell lines, provided that they grow well in liquid culture medium or methylcellulose.
  • [MeSH-major] Flow Cytometry. Killer Cells, Natural / metabolism. Leukemia / immunology. Neoplastic Stem Cells / metabolism. Tumor Stem Cell Assay
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD34 / biosynthesis. Antigens, CD38 / biosynthesis. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cell Culture Techniques. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Separation. Chromium Isotopes / metabolism. Cytarabine / pharmacology. Cytarabine / therapeutic use. Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic / methods. Cytotoxicity, Immunologic. Daunorubicin / pharmacology. Daunorubicin / therapeutic use. Humans. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 20230219.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-2566
  • [Journal-full-title] Cytotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytotherapy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Chromium Isotopes; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; EC 3.2.2.5 / Antigens, CD38; ZS7284E0ZP / Daunorubicin
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16. Linker C: Thrombopoietin in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia and in stem-cell transplantation. Semin Hematol; 2000 Apr;37(2 Suppl 4):35-40
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  • [Title] Thrombopoietin in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia and in stem-cell transplantation.
  • Recent studies indicate that thrombopoietin (TPO) may be highly effective in mobilizing autologous peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) for transplantation in patients undergoing intensive chemotherapy.
  • However, the effect of TPO in patients with hematologic malignancies undergoing induction or postremission chemotherapy or in the stem-cell transplantation setting has not been demonstrated.
  • Further study is warranted for better definition of the role of TPO in the treatment of severe thrombocytopenia in these settings.
  • [MeSH-major] Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Leukemia, Myeloid / therapy. Thrombopoietin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Clinical Trials as Topic. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Mobilization. Humans. Polyethylene Glycols / therapeutic use. Recombinant Proteins / therapeutic use. Thrombocytopenia / chemically induced. Thrombocytopenia / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 10831287.001).
  • [ISSN] 0037-1963
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 0 / polyethylene glycol-recombinant human megakaryocyte growth and development factor; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols; 9014-42-0 / Thrombopoietin
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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17. Sahin F, Sercan Z, Ertan Y, Ocakci S, Ay E, Vural F, Yuksel E, Tombuloglu M, Saydam G: Rapid transformation of atypical myeloproliferative disorder with consistent t(8;13) to B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a case report. Hematology; 2007 Dec;12(6):489-92
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  • [Title] Rapid transformation of atypical myeloproliferative disorder with consistent t(8;13) to B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a case report.
  • 8p11 myeloproliferative syndrome (EMS; also known as the stem cell leukemia syndrome-SCLL) is a rare atypical myeloproliferative disorder associated with chromosomal abnormalities involving the 8p11 chromosomal band.
  • Disease phenotype associated with this translocation has some typical features such as poor prognosis, and transformation to mainly acute leukemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma; commonly with a T-cell phenotype in which obtaining and maintenance of remission is difficult by conventional chemotherapy.
  • We hereby present a case diagnosed as atypical chronic myeloproliferative disease with consistent t(8;13)(p12;q12) and transformed rapidly to pre-B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia which is a rare clinical presentation.
  • [MeSH-major] Burkitt Lymphoma / etiology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Myeloproliferative Disorders / pathology. Translocation, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 17852454.001).
  • [ISSN] 1607-8454
  • [Journal-full-title] Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hematology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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18. Oh SH, Park TS, Cho SY, Kim MJ, Huh J, Kim B, Song SA, Lee JY, Jun KR, Shin JH, Kim HR, Lee JN: Acute myeloid leukemia associated with t(10;17)(p13-15;q12-21) and phagocytic activity by leukemic blasts: a clinical study and review of the literature. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2010 Oct 1;202(1):43-6
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  • [Title] Acute myeloid leukemia associated with t(10;17)(p13-15;q12-21) and phagocytic activity by leukemic blasts: a clinical study and review of the literature.
  • Translocation (10;17)(p13-15;q12-21) in acute leukemia is rarely reported in the literature.
  • Here, we present both a novel t(10;17) case study and a review of relevant literature on t(10;17) in acute leukemia (10 cases).
  • In summary, we came to the following preliminary conclusions: t(10;17) is associated with poorly differentiated acute leukemia subtype [90%; eight cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML M0, M1) and one case of acute undifferentiated leukemia], phagocytic activity by blasts occurs (30%), and the survival time was short in three of the seven t(10;17) cases for whom follow-up data were available (median, 8 months).
  • More clinical studies concerning the prognosis, treatment response, and survival of patients with t(10;17) are necessary.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomes, Human, Pair 10. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17. Leukemia / drug therapy. Leukemia / genetics. Translocation, Genetic
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antigens, CD / metabolism. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Blast Crisis / pathology. Child. Chromosome Mapping. Cytarabine / therapeutic use. Daunorubicin / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Peroxidase / metabolism. Phagocytes / pathology

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20804920.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4456
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer genetics and cytogenetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; EC 1.11.1.7 / Peroxidase; ZS7284E0ZP / Daunorubicin
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19. Xavier L, Cunha M, Gonçalves C, Teixeira Mdos A, Coutinho J, Ribeiro AC, Lima M: Hematological remission and long term hematological control of acute myeloblastic leukemia induced and maintained by granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) therapy. Leuk Lymphoma; 2003 Dec;44(12):2137-42
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  • [Title] Hematological remission and long term hematological control of acute myeloblastic leukemia induced and maintained by granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) therapy.
  • We describe a case of a patient with CD34+, TdT+, CD13-, CD33-, MPO- undifferentiated acute leukemia who refused chemotherapy and who achieved complete hematological remission 14 months after the diagnosis, during a short course of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) for neutropenia and life threatening infection.
  • Five months after withdrawing the G-CSF therapy a second relapse was observed; G-CSF was tried again with success, resulting in a very good hematological response that was sustained by G-CSF maintenance therapy.
  • One year latter there was the need of increasing the doses of G-CSF in order to obtain the same hematological effect, at same time blast cells acquired a more mature CD34+, TdT-, CD13+, CD33-, MPO+ myeloid phenotype.
  • Finally, the patient developed progressive neutropenia, anemia, thrombocytopenia and acute leukemia in spite of G-CSF therapy, dying 64 months after initial diagnosis (50 months after starting G-CSF therapy) with overt G-CSF resistant acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML), after failure of conventional induction chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD / biosynthesis. Antigens, CD13 / biosynthesis. Antigens, CD34 / biosynthesis. Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic / biosynthesis. DNA Nucleotidylexotransferase / biosynthesis. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Peroxidase / metabolism. Phenotype. Remission Induction. Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 14959860.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / CD33 protein, human; 0 / Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3; 143011-72-7 / Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor; EC 1.11.1.7 / Peroxidase; EC 2.7.7.31 / DNA Nucleotidylexotransferase; EC 3.4.11.2 / Antigens, CD13
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20. Pituch-Noworolska A: [Biological properties and sensitivity to induction therapy of differentiated cells expressing atypical immunophenotype in acute leukemia of children]. Folia Med Cracov; 2001;42(3):5-80
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  • [Title] [Biological properties and sensitivity to induction therapy of differentiated cells expressing atypical immunophenotype in acute leukemia of children].
  • [Transliterated title] Właściwości biologiczne i wrazliwość na leczenie indukcyjne komórek rozrostowych o nietypowym immunofenotypie w ostrych białaczkach u dzieci.
  • The atypical immunophenotype (expression of determinant from the another cell lines than line of origin) of acute leukaemia blast cells are noted in a part of cases.
  • The characteristics and classification of atypical immunophenotypes are not unified and the clinical significance is not yet fully described.
  • The purpose of the study was: precise description of atypical immunophenotypes and analysis of their frequency in different types of acute leukaemia, analysis of association between expression of atypical immunophenotypes and the level of initial leukocytosis, percentage of blast cells in peripheral blood, expression of CD34, analysis of frequency of multidrug resistance molecule (MDR) expression and association between MDR and immunophenotypes of leukaemia cells, analysis of association between atypical immunophenotypes and proliferation, secretion of cytokines (IL-6, TNF) and spontaneous apoptosis of leukaemia cells, analysis of association between atypical immunophenotypes and sensitivity to induction therapy.
  • The bone marrow samples used for routine diagnosis were the basic source of leukaemia cells for the study.
  • The morphological examination and the immunophenotypes of leukaemia cells were done for classification of leukaemia.
  • The spontaneous proliferation of leukaemia cells was studied with 3H-Thymidine uptake after 3-days culture in vitro.
  • The type of proliferation (autocrine, paracrine) was defined based on comparison of shorter (3-days) and longer (6-days) culture of leukaemia cells.
  • The percentage of apoptotic leukaemia cells was analysed with flow cytometry after staining of leukaemia cells with propidium iodide in subdiploidal region of DNA profile.
  • The secretion of cytokines (IL-6 and TNF) was determined by ELISA technique in supernatants of leukaemia cells cultured for 24 hr in vitro.
  • The effect of induction therapy was estimated base on time of cytoreduction in peripheral blood and time of reaching the haematological remission in bone marrow.
  • The study included 230 children with acute leukaemia: lymphoblastic (ALL)--189 children (ALL-proB--19, common ALL--139, ALL-B--5 and ALL-T--26) and myeloid (AML)--34 children.
  • Moreover, into the study 2 cases of acute undifferentiated leukaemia (AUL) and 3--acute mixed lineage leukaemia (AMLL) and 2--biphenotypic leukaemia were included.
  • The all studies of leukaemia cells had been done before the therapy was installed.
  • Basing on the assay of immunophenotypes the following forms of atypical immunophenotypes were distinguished: immunophenotype incomplete, hyperexpression of determinants, asynchronic immunophenotype, coexpression of determinants from the other line than origin of leukaemia cells, balanced expression of determinants from two cells lines (biphenotypic leukaemia) and three cells lines (mixed lineage leukaemia).
  • The most common form of atypical immunophenotypes was coexpression of determinants from the other cell line.
  • The expression of CD34, recognised as the one of markers of poorer prognosis, was analysed regarding the leukaemia type and immunophenotype of leukaemia cells.
  • In ALL the atypical immunophenotype was associated with expression of MDR whereas in AML this association did not appear.
  • The common ALL + My leukaemia cells showed higher ability to proliferation in vitro compare with common ALL without atypical immunophenotype.
  • AML leukaemia cells with coexpression of lymphoid determinants (AML + Ly) showed lower proliferation in vitro than AML without atypical immunophenotype.
  • The autocrine type of proliferation was observed frequently in AML (35.3% of cases) than in ALL (14.2%).
  • This type of spontaneous proliferation was observed only when the leukaemia cells without changes in immunophenotype had been cultured.
  • AML leukaemia cells without changes in immunophenotype released significantly higher amount of these cytokines than AML cells with atypical immunophenotypes (AML + Ly).
  • The ALL + My leukaemia cells behaved similarly to myeloid leukaemia cells, while AML + Ly cells showed features of lymphoid leukaemia cells.
  • The common ALL and AML leukaemia cells with atypical immunophenotype showed higher percentage of apoptotic cells (16.1% and 16.9% respectively) comparing to common ALL and AML without changes in immunophenotype (9.0% and 9.2% respectively).
  • In common ALL and AML with typical immunophenotype of leukaemia cells and ALL-T the level of apoptosis was associated positively with the spontaneous proliferation, whereas this relation was negative in AML with atypical immunophenotype.
  • There were no differences of the time of cytoreduction of leukaemia cells in peripheral blood in B cell origin ALL and AML with or without changes in immunophenotype of blastic cells.
  • In ALL-T + My the time of cytoreduction was significantly longer.
  • However, the expression of CD10 in ALL-T had no effect on cytoreduction time.
  • The expression of MDR in ALL-T with typical immunophenotype was independent marker associated with elongation of cytoreduction time.
  • The time of reaching the complete haematological remission was analysed in 186 children with ALL (ALL-proB--18 children, common ALL--137 children, ALL-T--26) and only 19 children with AML.
  • The longest period of time for reaching the remission was observed in AML, shortest--in ALL-T.
  • In common ALL and ALL-T the expression of myeloid determinants was associated with significant elongation of time of reaching the remission.
  • The time needed for the reaching of remission was similar in AML with or without coexpression of lymphoid determinants.
  • The results of this study suggest that coexpression of determinants from the other cell line modify the biological properties of leukaemia cells into the cells from the line of origin of these additional determinants.
  • In ALL the combined expression of MDR and atypical immunophenotype of leukaemia cells were associated with poorer response to induction therapy.
  • In AML the combined expression of CD34 and atypical immunophenotype were associated with response to induction therapy by reaching the complete remission, but without any influence on the time of reaching this remission.
  • The results of analysis of cytoreduction time and time of reaching the remission improved the usefulness of these parameters for the estimation of response to the induction therapy.
  • The clinical importance of these observations consist in characterisation of leukaemia cells potentially resistant to the induction therapy what may suggest the modification and individualization of the induction therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / immunology. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / immunology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Animals. Antigens, CD34 / immunology. Apoptosis. Child. Child, Preschool. Cytokines / secretion. Drug Resistance, Multiple / immunology. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Infant. Mice. Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins / immunology. Remission Induction

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  • (PMID = 12353422.001).
  • [ISSN] 0015-5616
  • [Journal-full-title] Folia medica Cracoviensia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Folia Med Cracov
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 160
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21. Abrams SL, Steelman LS, Shelton JG, Chappell W, Bäsecke J, Stivala F, Donia M, Nicoletti F, Libra M, Martelli AM, McCubrey JA: Enhancing therapeutic efficacy by targeting non-oncogene addicted cells with combinations of signal transduction inhibitors and chemotherapy. Cell Cycle; 2010 May;9(9):1839-46
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  • [Title] Enhancing therapeutic efficacy by targeting non-oncogene addicted cells with combinations of signal transduction inhibitors and chemotherapy.
  • The effects of inhibition of the Raf/MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways and chemotherapeutic drugs on cell cycle progression and drug sensitivity were examined in cytokine-dependent FL5.12 hematopoietic cells.
  • We examined their effects, as these cells resemble normal hematopoietic precursor cells as they do not exhibit "oncogene-addicted" growth, while they do display "cytokine-addicted" proliferation as cytokine removal resulted in apoptosis in greater than 80% of the cells within 48 hrs.
  • When cytokine-dependent FL5.12 cells were cultured in the presence of IL-3, which stimulated multiple proliferation and anti-apoptotic cascades, MEK, PI3K and mTOR inhibitors transiently suppressed but did not totally inhibit cell cycle progression or induce apoptosis while chemotherapeutic drugs such as doxorubicin and paclitaxel were more effective in inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.
  • Doxorubicin was more effective in inducing cell death than paclitaxel.
  • Cytokine-dependent cells which proliferate in vitro and are not "oncogene-addicted" may represent a pre-malignant stage, more refractory to treatment with targeted therapy.
  • However, these cells are sensitive to chemotherapeutic drugs.
  • It is important to develop methods to inhibit the growth of such cytokine-dependent cells as they may resemble the leukemia stem cell and other cancer initiating cells.
  • These results demonstrate the enhanced effectiveness of targeting early hematopoietic progenitor cells with combinations of chemotherapeutic drugs and signal transduction inhibitors.

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  • (PMID = 20436269.001).
  • [ISSN] 1551-4005
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell Cycle
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098195; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA098195
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Butadienes; 0 / Chromones; 0 / Interleukin-3; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Morpholines; 0 / Nitriles; 0 / U 0126; 154447-36-6 / 2-(4-morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.1.1 / TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.1.1 / mTOR protein, mouse; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.12.2 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; W36ZG6FT64 / Sirolimus
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3781183
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22. Eguchi M, Eguchi-Ishimae M, Seto M, Morishita K, Suzuki K, Ueda R, Ueda K, Kamada N, Greaves M: GPHN, a novel partner gene fused to MLL in a leukemia with t(11;14)(q23;q24). Genes Chromosomes Cancer; 2001 Nov;32(3):212-21
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  • [Title] GPHN, a novel partner gene fused to MLL in a leukemia with t(11;14)(q23;q24).
  • We report a novel MLL-associated chromosome translocation t(11;14)(q23;q24) in a child who showed signs of acute undifferentiated leukemia 3 years after intensive chemotherapy that included the topoisomerase-II inhibitor VP 16.
  • [MeSH-major] Carrier Proteins / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 14 / genetics. DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. Leukemia, Monocytic, Acute / genetics. Membrane Proteins / genetics. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / genetics. Proto-Oncogenes. Transcription Factors. Translocation, Genetic
  • [MeSH-minor] Amino Acid Sequence. Base Sequence. Child, Preschool. Chromosome Breakage / genetics. Cloning, Molecular. Female. Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase. Humans. Molecular Sequence Data. Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 11579461.001).
  • [ISSN] 1045-2257
  • [Journal-full-title] Genes, chromosomes & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Genes Chromosomes Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / MLL protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / gephyrin; 149025-06-9 / Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein; EC 2.1.1.43 / Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase
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23. Hashmi KU, Khan B, Ahmed P, Raza S, Hussain I, Mahmood A, Iqbal H, Malik HS, Anwar M: FLAG-IDA in the treatment of refractory/relapsed acute leukaemias: single centre study. J Pak Med Assoc; 2005 Jun;55(6):234-8
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  • [Title] FLAG-IDA in the treatment of refractory/relapsed acute leukaemias: single centre study.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity profile of the combination of fludarabine, high dose cytarabine, idarubicin, and granulocyte colony stimulating factor in refractory relapsed cases of acute leukaemia, a study is being conducted at Armed Forces Bone Marrow Transplant Centre (AFBMTC) Rawalpindi since January 2003.
  • METHODS: Twelve Patients with refractory/relapsed (Ref/Rel) acute leukaemia (AL) were treated with fludarabine 30 mg/m2 and cytosine arabinoside (AraC) Arac 2 g/m2 for 5 days, idarubicin 10 mg/m2 for 3 days, and granulocyte colony stimulating factor G-CSF 5 micro g/kg from day 0 till neutrophil recovery (ANC > 1.0 x 10(9)/1).
  • Response was evaluated by bone marrow examination on day 20-post chemotherapy.
  • RESULTS: Patients included were refractory acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) (n=2), relapsed ALL (n = 3), refractory acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) (n = 3), secondary AML (n=2) relapsed AML (n = 1) and acute undifferentiated leukaemia (AUL) (n = 1).
  • Three (25%) patients died of post chemotherapy complications and one patient failed to achieve remission.
  • Out of 8 patients who achieved CR, 4 underwent allogeneic bone marrow transfusion (BMT), 1 is being evaluated for the same, 1 received idorubicin, AraC and etopuside (ICE) and high dose AraC, 1 did not receive further chemotherapy and 1 relapsed two months after remission.
  • CONCLUSION: In our experience, FLAG-IDA is well tolerated and effective regimen in relapsed/refractory acute leukaemias.
  • The toxicity is acceptable, enabling most patients to receive further treatment, including transplantation procedures.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive / drug therapy. Leukemia, Myeloid / drug therapy. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Vidarabine / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Adult. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Child. Cytarabine / therapeutic use. Female. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / therapeutic use. Humans. Idarubicin / therapeutic use. Male. Middle Aged. Recurrence

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  • (PMID = 16045091.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-9982
  • [Journal-full-title] JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pak Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 143011-72-7 / Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor; FA2DM6879K / Vidarabine; P2K93U8740 / fludarabine; ZRP63D75JW / Idarubicin
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24. Jordan CT: The potential of targeting malignant stem cells as a treatment for leukemia. Future Oncol; 2005 Apr;1(2):205-7
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  • [Title] The potential of targeting malignant stem cells as a treatment for leukemia.
  • Malignant stem cells have recently been described as the source of several types of human cancer.
  • These unique cell types are typically rare and possess properties that are distinct from most other tumor cells.
  • In leukemia, the natural properties of cancer stem cells indicate that current chemotherapy drugs will not be effective.
  • Consequently, new strategies are required that specifically and preferentially target the cancer stem cell population, whilst sparing normal stem cells.
  • This perspective article summarizes recent findings in the leukemia stem cell field and discusses new directions for therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Apoptosis / drug effects. Leukemia / drug therapy. Neoplastic Stem Cells / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 16555992.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6694
  • [Journal-full-title] Future oncology (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Future Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 22
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25. Konopleva M, Tabe Y, Zeng Z, Andreeff M: Therapeutic targeting of microenvironmental interactions in leukemia: mechanisms and approaches. Drug Resist Updat; 2009 Aug-Oct;12(4-5):103-13
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  • [Title] Therapeutic targeting of microenvironmental interactions in leukemia: mechanisms and approaches.
  • Specific niches within the bone marrow microenvironment provide a sanctuary for subpopulations of leukemic cells to evade chemotherapy-induced death and allow acquisition of a drug-resistant phenotype.
  • This review focuses on molecular and cellular biology of the normal hematopoietic stem cell and the leukemia stem cell niche, and of the molecular pathways critical for microenvironment/leukemia interactions.
  • The key emerging therapeutic targets include chemokine receptors (CXCR4), adhesion molecules (VLA4 and CD44), and hypoxia-related proteins HIF-1alpha and VEGF.
  • Finally, the genetic and epigenetic abnormalities of leukemia-associated stroma will be discussed.
  • This complex interplay provides a rationale for appropriately tailored molecular therapies targeting not only leukemic cells but also their microenvironment to ensure improved outcomes in leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Bone Marrow / drug effects. Leukemia / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis. Cell Communication. Hematopoiesis. Hematopoietic Stem Cells / metabolism. Hematopoietic Stem Cells / pathology. Humans. Neovascularization, Pathologic / metabolism. Neovascularization, Pathologic / prevention & control


26. Yamagami T, Porada CD, Pardini RS, Zanjani ED, Almeida-Porada G: Docosahexaenoic acid induces dose dependent cell death in an early undifferentiated subtype of acute myeloid leukemia cell line. Cancer Biol Ther; 2009 Feb;8(4):331-7
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  • [Title] Docosahexaenoic acid induces dose dependent cell death in an early undifferentiated subtype of acute myeloid leukemia cell line.
  • Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most frequently diagnosed adulthood leukemia, yet current therapies offer a cure rate of less than 30%.
  • This may be due in part to the fact that the leukemia-initiating cells in AML reside within the rare and highly primitive CD34(+)CD38(-) hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSC) population that are often resistant to chemotherapy.
  • Docosahexanoic acid (DHA), a major component of fish oil, has previously been shown to inhibit the induction and progression of breast, prostate and colon cancer, and increase the therapeutic effects of numerous chemotherapeutics, often by enhancing apoptosis.
  • In the present studies, we investigated DHA's effect on the primitive and undifferentiated AML cell line KG1a, to explore the potential of this fatty acid to serve as adjuvant therapy for AML.
  • Treatment of KG1a cells with DHA for 96 hours did not lead to maturation or cell cycle modification when compared to an untreated KG1a control (n = 4).
  • However, DHA treatment of KG1a cells resulted in a progressive loss of viability, DNA fragmentation, and an increase in Annexin V expression, demonstrating DHA-induced apoptosis (n = 4).
  • Since we also show that DHA does not have a detrimental effect on normal hematopoiesis our results suggest that DHA could potentially serve as an well-tolerated adjuvant in the treatment of AML patients.

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  • (PMID = 19197149.001).
  • [ISSN] 1555-8576
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer biology & therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Biol. Ther.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL070566; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL70566; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL073737; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL052955-14A1; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL052955; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL052955-14A1; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL73737
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Annexin A5; 0 / bcl-2-Associated X Protein; 25167-62-8 / Docosahexaenoic Acids; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 3
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS122907; NLM/ PMC3954154
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27. Abla O, Gassas A, Stevens R, Grant R, Abdelhaleem M: bcr-abl-positive T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia associated with parvovirus B19 infection. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2006 Feb;28(2):98-9
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  • [Title] bcr-abl-positive T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia associated with parvovirus B19 infection.
  • The authors report an unusual presentation of a Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia with two unusual features: a bcr-abl fusion mRNA coding for p210 protein and a T-cell immunophenotype.
  • The patient was a 16-year-old boy who presented with septic shock and pancytopenia, likely precipitated by an acute parvovirus B19 infection.
  • Management consisted of supportive therapy, followed by chemotherapy for T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and stem cell transplantation.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia-Lymphoma, Adult T-Cell / etiology. Parvoviridae Infections / complications. Parvovirus B19, Human / pathogenicity. Philadelphia Chromosome. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / etiology. Preleukemia / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Asparaginase / administration & dosage. Bone Marrow / virology. Cerebral Hemorrhage / etiology. Combined Modality Therapy. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation / etiology. Fatal Outcome. Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl / blood. Genes, abl. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Humans. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Multiple Organ Failure / etiology. Neoplasm Proteins / blood. Pancytopenia / etiology. Pneumonia / etiology. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Shock, Septic / etiology. Staphylococcal Infections / complications. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 16462583.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; EC 2.7.10.2 / Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl; EC 3.5.1.1 / Asparaginase; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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28. Schmid C, Weisser M, Ledderose G, Stötzer O, Schleuning M, Kolb HJ: [Dose-reduced conditioning before allogeneic stem cell transplantation: principles, clinical protocols and preliminary results]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr; 2002 Oct 18;127(42):2186-92
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  • [Title] [Dose-reduced conditioning before allogeneic stem cell transplantation: principles, clinical protocols and preliminary results].
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In the treatment of leukemia by stem cell transplantation, the immunological effects of allogeneic T-lymphocytes presumably play a greater part than high-dosage total-body irradiation (TBI) and chemotherapy.
  • Using this immunological effect, attempts are currently being made to reduce the dosage of pre-treatment that is toxic to stem cell, such as TBI, thereby making transplantation available for a larger group of patients at high risk for transplantation.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Elderly patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) have an increased transplantation risk.
  • Patients with advanced and refractory myeloid leukemia were treated with chemotherapy and dose-reduced TBI (FLAMSA protocol; n = 54).
  • In patients with multiple myeloma, autologous transplantation with high-dose chemotherapy preceded allogeneic transplantation possible after dose-reduced conditioning (Tandem protocol; n = 6).
  • RESULTS: All three protocols of TBI gave results that were not worse than those of previous studies.
  • Relapse ocurred not more frequently in patients with CML.
  • CONCLUSION: Allogeneic transplantation after dose-reduced conditioning opens up new possibilities with respect to widening indications for transplantation and improving results in hematological diseases with previously unsatisfactory treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive / therapy. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy. Multiple Myeloma / therapy. Stem Cell Transplantation. Transplantation Conditioning / methods. Whole-Body Irradiation / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy Dosage. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome


29. Buzzai M, Licht JD: New molecular concepts and targets in acute myeloid leukemia. Curr Opin Hematol; 2008 Mar;15(2):82-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] New molecular concepts and targets in acute myeloid leukemia.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Most patients with acute myeloid leukemia treated with chemotherapy relapse.
  • It is increasingly recognized that the cause of chemoresistance and relapse resides within the leukemia stem cell population.
  • Successful eradication of leukemia stem cells would require a comprehensive profile of both the acquired molecular lesions and intrinsic features of leukemia stem cells.
  • This review describes recent work identifying molecular markers that may lead to development of novel therapeutics, ultimately aiming to eradicate leukemia stem cells in acute myeloid leukemia.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: In recent years, novel specific cell surface antigens have allowed identification of leukemia stem cells and permitted their distinction from normal hematopoietic stem cells.
  • Novel concepts of leukemia stem cells and niche interaction have elucidated the mechanisms that control leukemia stem cell survival and chemoresistance.
  • Recent detection of genetic aberrations affecting regulators of HOX gene expression and chromatin modifying enzymes, such as CDX2 and hDOT1L, respectively, elucidates new key players in stem cell self-renewal and leukemic transformation.
  • SUMMARY: The discovery of novel markers and survival pathways for leukemia stem cells has increased our potential to specifically target and eliminate the leukemic stem cell compartment, which is likely to improve clinical outcomes in acute myeloid leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Hematopoietic Stem Cells / drug effects. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute
  • [MeSH-minor] Genes, Homeobox / genetics. Humans. Immunoconjugates / therapeutic use. Natural Cytotoxicity Triggering Receptor 2. Neoplasm, Residual. Receptors, Immunologic / drug effects. Receptors, Interleukin-3 / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 18300752.001).
  • [ISSN] 1065-6251
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Opin. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA59936
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Immunoconjugates; 0 / NCR2 protein, human; 0 / Natural Cytotoxicity Triggering Receptor 2; 0 / Receptors, Immunologic; 0 / Receptors, Interleukin-3
  • [Number-of-references] 51
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30. McCubrey JA, Steelman LS, Abrams SL, Bertrand FE, Ludwig DE, Bäsecke J, Libra M, Stivala F, Milella M, Tafuri A, Lunghi P, Bonati A, Martelli AM: Targeting survival cascades induced by activation of Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK, PI3K/PTEN/Akt/mTOR and Jak/STAT pathways for effective leukemia therapy. Leukemia; 2008 Apr;22(4):708-22
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  • [Title] Targeting survival cascades induced by activation of Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK, PI3K/PTEN/Akt/mTOR and Jak/STAT pathways for effective leukemia therapy.
  • The Raf/MEK/ERK, PI3K/PTEN/Akt/mTOR and Jak/STAT pathways are frequently activated in leukemia and other hematopoietic disorders by upstream mutations in cytokine receptors, aberrant chromosomal translocations as well as other genetic mechanisms.
  • Effective targeting of these pathways may result in suppression of cell growth and death of leukemic cells.
  • Furthermore it may be possible to combine various chemotherapeutic and antibody-based therapies with low molecular weight, cell membrane-permeable inhibitors which target the Raf/MEK/ERK, PI3K/PTEN/Akt/mTOR and Jak/STAT pathways to ultimately suppress the survival pathways, induce apoptosis and inhibit leukemic growth.
  • In this review, we summarize how suppression of these pathways may inhibit key survival networks important in leukemogenesis and leukemia therapy as well as the treatment of other hematopoietic disorders.
  • Targeting of these and additional cascades may also improve the therapy of chronic myelogenous leukemia, which are resistant to BCR-ABL inhibitors.
  • Furthermore, we discuss how targeting of the leukemia microenvironment and the leukemia stem cell are emerging fields and challenges in targeted therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis / drug effects. Drug Delivery Systems. Leukemia / drug therapy. Signal Transduction / drug effects


31. Zhou J, Zhang H, Gu P, Bai J, Margolick JB, Zhang Y: NF-kappaB pathway inhibitors preferentially inhibit breast cancer stem-like cells. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2008 Oct;111(3):419-27
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  • [Title] NF-kappaB pathway inhibitors preferentially inhibit breast cancer stem-like cells.
  • Accumulating evidence indicates that breast cancer is caused by cancer stem cells and cure of breast cancer requires eradication of breast cancer stem cells.
  • Previous studies with leukemia stem cells have shown that NF-kappaB pathway is important for leukemia stem cell survival.
  • In this study, by using MCF7 sphere cells as model of breast cancer stem-like cells, we evaluated the effect of NF-kappaB pathway specific inhibitors on human breast cancer MCF7 sphere cells.
  • Three inhibitors including parthenolide (PTL), pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (PDTC) and its analog diethyldithiocarbamate (DETC) were found to preferentially inhibit MCF7 sphere cell proliferation.
  • These compounds also showed preferential inhibition in term of proliferation and colony formation on MCF7 side population (SP) cells, a small fraction of MCF7 cells known to enrich in breast cancer stem-like cells.
  • This study suggests that breast cancer stem-like cells could be selectively inhibited by targeting signaling pathways important for breast cancer stem-like cells.

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  • (PMID = 17965935.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-6806
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / P30 AI042855-03; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI044063; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI44063
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Pyrrolidines; 0 / Sesquiterpenes; 0 / Thiocarbamates; 25769-03-3 / pyrrolidine dithiocarbamic acid; 2RDB26I5ZB / parthenolide; 99Z2744345 / Ditiocarb; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS365443; NLM/ PMC3320112
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32. Kouroukis CT, Chia S, Verma S, Robson D, Desbiens C, Cripps C, Mikhael J: Canadian supportive care recommendations for the management of neutropenia in patients with cancer. Curr Oncol; 2008 Jan;15(1):9-23

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Hematologic toxicities of cancer chemotherapy are common and often limit the ability to provide treatment in a timely and dose-intensive manner.
  • Colony-stimulating factors (csfs) such as filgrastim and pegfilgrastim can effectively attenuate most of the neutropenic consequences of chemotherapy, improve the ability to continue chemotherapy on the planned schedule, and minimize the risk of febrile neutropenia and infectious morbidity and mortality.
  • We review existing international guidelines, the indications for primary and secondary prophylaxis, the importance of maintaining dose intensity, and the use of csfs in leukemia, stem-cell transplantation, and radiotherapy.
  • Finally, csf dosing and schedules, duration of therapy, and associated acute and potential chronic toxicities are examined.

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  • (PMID = 18317581.001).
  • [ISSN] 1198-0052
  • [Journal-full-title] Current oncology (Toronto, Ont.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2259432
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Canadian recommendations / chemotherapy-induced neutropenia / colony-stimulating factors / febrile neutropenia / neutropenia / safety / supportive care
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33. Xia ZB, Popovic R, Chen J, Theisler C, Stuart T, Santillan DA, Erfurth F, Diaz MO, Zeleznik-Le NJ: The MLL fusion gene, MLL-AF4, regulates cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor CDKN1B (p27kip1) expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2005 Sep 27;102(39):14028-33
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  • MLL, involved in many chromosomal translocations associated with acute myeloid and lymphoid leukemia, has >50 known partner genes with which it is able to form in-frame fusions.
  • Characterizing important downstream target genes of MLL and of MLL fusion proteins may provide rational therapeutic strategies for the treatment of MLL-associated leukemia.
  • To this end, we developed inducible MLL-AF4 fusion cell lines in different backgrounds.
  • Overexpression of MLL-AF4 does not lead to increased proliferation in either cell line, but rather, cell growth was slowed compared with similar cell lines inducibly expressing truncated MLL.
  • We found that in the MLL-AF4-induced cell lines, the expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor gene CDKN1B was dramatically changed at both the RNA and protein (p27kip1) levels.
  • Further, we confirmed CDKN1B promoter binding by ChIP in MLL-AF4 as well as in MLL-AF9 leukemia cell lines.
  • Our results suggest that CDKN1B is a downstream target of MLL and of MLL-AF4, and that, depending on the background cell type, MLL-AF4 inhibits or activates CDKN1B expression.
  • This finding may have implications in terms of leukemia stem cell resistance to chemotherapy in MLL-AF4 leukemias.

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  • (PMID = 16169901.001).
  • [ISSN] 0027-8424
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA40046; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA104300; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA040046; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA78438; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA104300; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA81269
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDKN1B protein, human; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / MLL-AF4 fusion protein, human; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27; 149025-06-9 / Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1236570
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34. Chen YC, Sheen JM, Huang LT, Wu KS, Hsiao CC: Disseminated tuberculous myositis in a child with acute myelogenous leukemia. Pediatr Neonatol; 2009 Apr;50(2):74-7
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  • [Title] Disseminated tuberculous myositis in a child with acute myelogenous leukemia.
  • We present a case of disseminated tuberculous myositis in a girl with secondary acute myelogenous Leukemia following successful chemotherapy for undifferentiated sarcoma of the maxillary sinus.
  • The diagnosis was established by direct visualization of acid-fast bacilli in the biopsied nodule and by typical pathologic findings.
  • Three weeks after initiation of antituberculosis treatment, the patient experienced both clinical and radiologic improvement.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / complications. Myositis / complications. Tuberculosis / complications


35. Elliott MA, Dewald GW, Tefferi A, Hanson CA: Chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL): a clinical, pathologic and cytogenetic study. Leukemia; 2001 Jan;15(1):35-40
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  • [Title] Chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL): a clinical, pathologic and cytogenetic study.
  • This report describes a single institution's recent experience with six patients fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of chronic neutrophilic leukemia.
  • All responded initially to therapy with hydroxyurea with control of leukocytosis and reduction in splenomegaly.
  • Aggressive chemotherapy to control progressive leukocytosis resulted in death due to cytopenias in two of these patients.
  • The third patient received less intensive chemotherapy and died of progressive disease.
  • One patient died after transformation of the disease into undifferentiated acute myeloid leukemia.
  • Two patients remain alive with stable disease on hydroxyurea therapy, 12 and 54 months after initial diagnosis.
  • Chronic neutrophilic leukemia is a rare clinicopathologic entity that can be distinguished from chronic myelogenous leukemia, the recently described neutrophilic-chronic myelogenous leukemia, and myelodysplastic syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Neutrophilic, Chronic

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  • (PMID = 11243396.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-6924
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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36. Yagyu S, Morimoto A, Kakazu N, Tamura S, Fujiki A, Nakase Y, Iehara T, Hosoi H, Kuroda H: Late appearance of a Philadelphia chromosome in a patient with therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia and high expression of EVI1. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2008 Jan 15;180(2):115-20
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  • [Title] Late appearance of a Philadelphia chromosome in a patient with therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia and high expression of EVI1.
  • A 17-year-old boy developed therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia (t-AML) 3 years after the cessation of chemo- and radiotherapy for undifferentiated sarcoma of the liver.
  • At the onset of the t-AML, his white blood cell count was 900/microL with a 46,XY,t(2;3)(p21;q26),del(5)(q?
  • ) karyotype. Despite intensive chemotherapy and two hematopoietic stem cell transplants, he died of the leukemia.
  • At the terminal phase, his white blood cell count surpassed 30,000/microL and the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome appeared.
  • Expression of EVI1 in bone marrow cells was remarkably high at the onset of t-AML, although it was not detected at the end of therapy for the sarcoma.
  • These results suggest that EVI1 overexpression was the major factor contributing to leukemogenesis, and the late appearance of the Ph chromosome is closely associated with the progression to an aggressive form of leukemia.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl / genetics. Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Leukemic. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / etiology. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Male. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Sarcoma / therapy. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 18206536.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-4608
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer genetics and cytogenetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / MECOM protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Transcription Factors; EC 2.7.10.2 / Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl
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37. McIlwain L, Sokol L, Moscinski LC, Saba HI: Acute myeloid leukemia mimicking primary testicular neoplasm. Presentation of a case with review of literature. Eur J Haematol; 2003 Apr;70(4):242-5
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  • [Title] Acute myeloid leukemia mimicking primary testicular neoplasm. Presentation of a case with review of literature.
  • We describe a new unique case of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in a 21-yr-old male presenting with abdominal pain, bilateral testicular masses and gynecomastia.
  • Further work-up with computed tomography of the chest, abdomen and pelvis revealed massive retroperitoneal, peripancreatic and mediastinal lymphadenopathy, suggesting primary testicular neoplasm.
  • The patient was subjected to right orchiectomy that showed infiltration of testicular tissue with malignant cells, originally misinterpreted as undifferentiated carcinoma.
  • Immunohistochemistry studies, however, showed these cells to be strongly positive for myeloperoxidase and CD45, indicating a myeloid cell origin.
  • Both the morphology and immunophenotype of the blast cells were consistent with AML type M4 (acute myelo-monocytic leukemia), using French-American-British (FAB) classification.
  • The patient received standard induction chemotherapy with cytosine arabinoside (ARA-C) and daunorubicin followed with two cycles of consolidation therapy with high dose ARA-C, which resulted in remission of BM disease and resolution of lymphadenopathy and left testicular masses.
  • After the second cycle of consolidation therapy, the patient developed sepsis that was complicated by refractory disseminated intravascular coagulopathy.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Acute / diagnosis. Leukemic Infiltration / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis. Testis / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Pain / etiology. Adult. Antigens, CD / analysis. Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Daunorubicin / administration & dosage. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Errors. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation / etiology. Estradiol / blood. Fatal Outcome. Gynecomastia / etiology. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Karyotyping. Male. Multiple Organ Failure / etiology. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neoplastic Stem Cells / chemistry. Neoplastic Stem Cells / pathology. Peroxidase / analysis

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  • (PMID = 12656749.001).
  • [ISSN] 0902-4441
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; EC 1.11.1.7 / Peroxidase; ZS7284E0ZP / Daunorubicin
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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38. Graf M, Hecht K, Reif S, Pelka-Fleischer R, Pfister K, Schmetzer H: Expression and prognostic value of hemopoietic cytokine receptors in acute myeloid leukemia (AML): implications for future therapeutical strategies. Eur J Haematol; 2004 Feb;72(2):89-106
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  • [Title] Expression and prognostic value of hemopoietic cytokine receptors in acute myeloid leukemia (AML): implications for future therapeutical strategies.
  • OBJECTIVES: Hemopoietic cytokines regulate hemopoietic cell functions via specific cell surface receptors.
  • There is evidence to suggest, that those receptors (R) could play a role in leukemia with respect to cell differentiations and its regulation, prognosis, and pathobiology.
  • Knowledge of individual cytokine receptor (CKR) profiles could provide new discoveries about CKR-supported therapeutic considerations.
  • METHODS: We have studied the expression of CKR on mononuclear bone marrow (BM) cells of 89 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) at first diagnosis, three patients at relapse or with persisting AML and eight healthy probands by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis using directly fluorescein-conjugated antibodies: CD114 (hG-CSF-R), CD116 (hGM-CSF-R), CD117 (hSCF-R), CD123 (hIL-3-R), CD130 (gp130subunit), CD135 (hFL-R).
  • Within the French-American-British (FAB) types we observed a maturation- and lineage (granulocytic/monocytic)-committed expression profile.
  • Monocytic subtypes (FAB-type M4/M5) showed significantly more GM-CSF-R(+) (P = 0.001) and FL-R(+) (P = 0.001) and significantly less stem cell factor-R (SCF-R(+)) (P = 0.02) cases.
  • Highest proportions of G-CSF-R(+) blasts were observed in FAB-type M3.
  • In undifferentiated leukemias (FAB-type M1, M2) high amounts of SCF-R(+), IL-3-R(+), and FL-R(+) blasts could be detected.
  • FL-R was the only CKR, which was positive in FAB-type M0 (n = 2).
  • Separating our patient cohorts in cytogenetic risk groups we could detect a significant higher proportion of G-CSF-R(+) blasts in the cytogenetic good risk group than in the bad risk group (P = 0.027), but G-CSF-R-expression did not correlate with remission-rate or relapse-free survival probability of the patients.
  • With respect to the individual CKR status the benefit of cytokines as priming agents, as agents to treat neutropenia or to influence the metabolism of chemotherapy can be discussed under new points of view.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / immunology. Receptors, Cytokine / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Bone Marrow Cells / immunology. Bone Marrow Cells / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Recurrence. Time Factors


39. Morerio C, Russo I, Rosanda C, Rapella A, Leszl A, Basso G, Maserati E, Pasquali F, Panarello C: 17q21-qter trisomy is an indicator of poor prognosis in acute myelogenous leukemia. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2001 Jan 1;124(1):12-5
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  • [Title] 17q21-qter trisomy is an indicator of poor prognosis in acute myelogenous leukemia.
  • A reciprocal translocation (9;11) is often found in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), mostly of the M5a type.
  • We report a case of a child with AML, in whom t(9;11) was observed at diagnosis as the sole structural abnormality, together with trisomies 19 and 21.
  • The diagnosis was AML evolving from a myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and the blast morphology was undifferentiated.
  • Chemotherapy failed to induce morphological remission and the patient's condition soon worsened.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 21 / genetics. Leukemia, Myeloid / genetics. Trisomy / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts / genetics. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child, Preschool. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9 / genetics. Disease Progression. Fatal Outcome. Genetic Markers. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Karyotyping. Male. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 11165316.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-4608
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer genetics and cytogenetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Genetic Markers
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40. Yamaguchi K, Koga Y, Suminoe A, Saito Y, Matsuzaki A, Kanno S, Takimoto T, Suda M, Oda Y, Muto T, Takatsuki H, Hara T: [Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of unknown origin mimicking acute leukemia at the initial presentation]. Rinsho Ketsueki; 2007 Apr;48(4):315-20
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  • [Title] [Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of unknown origin mimicking acute leukemia at the initial presentation].
  • Laboratory examination of the peripheral blood revealed white blood cells 11,300/microl, hemoglobin 10.4 g/dl, platelets 45,000/microl, fibrinogen < 50 mg/dl, fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products 536 microg/ml and lactate dehydrogenase 1,684 U/l.
  • A bone marrow aspirate contained 89.6% of undifferentiated tumor cells.
  • Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction demonstrated PAX3/FKHR fusion transcripts, confirming the diagnosis of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • After three courses of chemotherapy containing etoposide, cyclophosphamide, pirarubicin, cisplatin and vincristine, tumor cells were eradicated from the bone marrow.
  • The patient received an allogeneic bone marrow transplantation eight months after diagnosis, although he died of hepatic veno-occlusive disease on day 21.
  • Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma often develops in older children and younger adults, and its bone marrow infiltration may mimic acute leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Antigens, CD56 / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Bone Marrow / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation / etiology. Fatal Outcome. Forkhead Transcription Factors / genetics. Humans. Leukemia. Male. Paired Box Transcription Factors / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Transcription, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 17515123.001).
  • [ISSN] 0485-1439
  • [Journal-full-title] [Rinshō ketsueki] The Japanese journal of clinical hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rinsho Ketsueki
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD56; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / FOXO1 protein, human; 0 / Forkhead Transcription Factors; 0 / PAX3 protein, human; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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41. Attar EC, De Angelo DJ, Supko JG, D'Amato F, Zahrieh D, Sirulnik A, Wadleigh M, Ballen KK, McAfee S, Miller KB, Levine J, Galinsky I, Trehu EG, Schenkein D, Neuberg D, Stone RM, Amrein PC: Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of bortezomib in combination with idarubicin and cytarabine in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia. Clin Cancer Res; 2008 Mar 1;14(5):1446-54
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  • [Title] Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of bortezomib in combination with idarubicin and cytarabine in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia.
  • PURPOSE: Proteasome inhibition results in cytotoxicity to the leukemia stem cell in vitro.
  • We conducted this phase I study to determine if the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib could be safely added to induction chemotherapy in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML).
  • There were 22 patients of > or = 60 years with previously untreated AML (eight with prior myelodysplasia/myeloproliferative disorder or cytotoxic therapy).
  • Pharmacokinetic studies revealed that the total body clearance of bortezomib decreased significantly (P < 0.01, N = 26) between the first (mean +/- SD, 41.9 +/- 17.1 L/h/m(2)) and third (18.4 +/- 7.0 L/h/m(2)) doses.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / pharmacokinetics. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor. Boronic Acids / administration & dosage. Bortezomib. Cohort Studies. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Idarubicin / administration & dosage. Male. Maximum Tolerated Dose. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Pyrazines / administration & dosage. Tissue Distribution. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18316568.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA066996
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Boronic Acids; 0 / Pyrazines; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 69G8BD63PP / Bortezomib; ZRP63D75JW / Idarubicin
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42. Atallah E, Cortes J: Optimal initial therapy for patients with newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase. Curr Opin Hematol; 2007 Mar;14(2):138-44
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  • [Title] Optimal initial therapy for patients with newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Imatinib mesylate, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has revolutionized the therapy of newly diagnosed patients with chronic myeloid leukemia.
  • Prior to imatinib, treatment algorithms for chronic myeloid leukemia patients recommended stem cell transplantation for patients less than 50 years old who had a donor and could undergo stem cell transplantation.
  • Other than stem cell transplantation, interferon was the only drug that could induce cytogenetic remissions in minority of patients.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: After 5 years of follow-up, the rate of relapse with imatinib therapy continues to decrease, and the numbers of patients achieving a complete molecular response continue to increase.
  • The use of imatinib before stem cell transplant did not have an effect on mortality or morbidity posttransplant.
  • SUMMARY: Currently, imatinib is considered first line therapy in all patients with early chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia with stem cell transplant reserved for patients who have disease resistant to imatinib therapy.
  • Our aim is to review current recommendations for initial therapy of patients with early chronic phasechronic myeloid leukemia, current areas of controversy and future directions.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Chronic-Phase / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Benzamides. Disease Management. Humans. Imatinib Mesylate. Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive / therapy. Piperazines / therapeutic use. Pyrimidines / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17255791.001).
  • [ISSN] 1065-6251
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Opin. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Pyrimidines; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate
  • [Number-of-references] 53
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43. Marra CA, Frighetto L, Quaia CB, de Lemos ML, Warkentin DI, Marra F, Jewesson PJ: A new ciprofloxacin stepdown program in the treatment of high-risk febrile neutropenia: a clinical and economic analysis. Pharmacotherapy; 2000 Aug;20(8):931-40
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  • [Title] A new ciprofloxacin stepdown program in the treatment of high-risk febrile neutropenia: a clinical and economic analysis.
  • STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine treatment outcomes and economic impact of a ciprofloxacin stepdown program for high-risk febrile neutropenic adults from the hospital's perspective.
  • SETTING: Adult leukemia and stem cell transplant unit.
  • MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Forty-six sequential treatment courses were compared with 42 treatment course from 6-month periods in preintervention (P1) and postintervention (P2) phases.
  • Assessed parameters were clinical and microbiologic outcomes, adverse drug reactions (ADRs), and direct medical resource use and costs (1998 $Canadian) for the episode of febrile neutropenia.
  • A decision analytic model was used to map probabilities and costs and to conduct sensitivity analyses.
  • -p.o. stepdown, and duration of therapy were similar between phases.
  • Clinical success (83% P1, 81% P2), microbiologic eradication (15% P1, 24% P2), and possible ADRs (6% P1, 9% P2) did not differ.
  • Intravenous-to-intravenous dose stepdown occurred in 33% of P2 and no P1 treatment courses (p<0.001).
  • Resource use and costs were similar between phases, although a reduction was seen in the drug's mean total cost/day ($58 P1, $52 P2, p=0.04).
  • There was also a trend toward a decrease in mean total treatment costs ($4,843 P1, $3,493 P2, p=0.08).
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Infective Agents / economics. Anti-Infective Agents / therapeutic use. Ciprofloxacin / economics. Ciprofloxacin / therapeutic use. Fever / drug therapy. Fever / economics. Neutropenia / drug therapy. Neutropenia / economics
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adult. Costs and Cost Analysis. Female. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Leukemia / therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 10939554.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-0008
  • [Journal-full-title] Pharmacotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pharmacotherapy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Infective Agents; 5E8K9I0O4U / Ciprofloxacin
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44. Poleck-Dehlin B, Duell T, Bartl R, Lohse P, Rhein A, Diebold J, Kohl P, Mittermueller J, Schmetzer H: Genetic analyses permit the differentiation between reactive malfunctions ('promyelocyte arrest') and arising promyelocyte leukemia in a pregnant patient with a history of a medulloblastoma. Leuk Lymphoma; 2004 Sep;45(9):1905-11
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  • [Title] Genetic analyses permit the differentiation between reactive malfunctions ('promyelocyte arrest') and arising promyelocyte leukemia in a pregnant patient with a history of a medulloblastoma.
  • We report the case of a 24-year-old woman with a history of radiotherapy for a cerebellar medulloblastoma 2 years prior to detection of a lymph node metastasis of the former disease and a pancytopenia in the peripheral blood.
  • On bone marrow (BM) examination promyelocyte leukemia vs. a reactive 'promyelocyte arrest' were discussed.
  • All these results led to the diagnosis of a relapse of the medulloblastoma and of a beginning promyelocyte leukemia.
  • As the patient was pregnant, she had to be parted with the baby to facilitate intensive chemotherapy.
  • She did not respond to a therapeutic regimen specific for promyelocytic leukemia but achieved complete remission of the medulloblastoma as well as the leukemia after the administration of polychemotherapy specific for medulloblastoma.
  • One year later, she suffered from a relapse of her leukemia.
  • Immunophenotype analyses showed a shift to a more undifferentiated blast phenotype that was, however, still HLA-DR negative.
  • The patient again received chemotherapy for leukemia but developed a sepsis 3 months later and died of pancytopenia ensuing her leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / complications. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / genetics. Medulloblastoma / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bone Marrow / metabolism. Female. Humans. Karyotyping. Pregnancy. RNA / analysis. RNA / genetics. Recurrence. Time Factors

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2004 Taylor and Francis Ltd
  • (PMID = 15223653.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 63231-63-0 / RNA
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45. Spisek R, Chevallier P, Morineau N, Milpied N, Avet-Loiseau H, Harousseau JL, Meflah K, Gregoire M: Induction of leukemia-specific cytotoxic response by cross-presentation of late-apoptotic leukemic blasts by autologous dendritic cells of nonleukemic origin. Cancer Res; 2002 May 15;62(10):2861-8

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  • [Title] Induction of leukemia-specific cytotoxic response by cross-presentation of late-apoptotic leukemic blasts by autologous dendritic cells of nonleukemic origin.
  • Acute myeloid leukemias (AMLs) are monoclonal proliferations of undifferentiated myeloid progenitors in blood and bone marrow.
  • Long-term remissions are achieved in <50% of patients.
  • There is hope that activation of specific antileukemic immune responses could efficiently eliminate minimal residual disease at the end of chemotherapy and decrease the frequency of relapses.
  • The alternative approach for the induction of leukemia-specific cytotoxicity we explored in this study consisted of using DCs of nonleukemic origin, pulsed with autologous apoptotic leukemic blasts.
  • Mature pulsed DCs were used as antigen-presenting cells for leukemia-specific CTL induction.
  • These findings demonstrate the induction of leukemia-specific cytotoxic response by nonleukemic mature DCs cross-presenting apoptotic leukemic blasts and offer a complementary approach to the use of leukemic DCs.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigen Presentation / immunology. Apoptosis / immunology. Dendritic Cells / immunology. Immunotherapy, Adoptive / methods. Leukemia, Myeloid / immunology. T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Lymphocyte Culture Test, Mixed. Male. Middle Aged. Remission Induction

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  • (PMID = 12019165.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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46. Kahng J, Shin SY, Han K: [Proportions of cells expressing CD38-/CD34+, CD38+/CD34+, CD19+/CD34+, or CD13,33+/CD34+ in the regenerating bone marrows during complete remission of acute leukemia or after bone marrow transplantation]. Korean J Lab Med; 2007 Dec;27(6):406-13
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  • [Title] [Proportions of cells expressing CD38-/CD34+, CD38+/CD34+, CD19+/CD34+, or CD13,33+/CD34+ in the regenerating bone marrows during complete remission of acute leukemia or after bone marrow transplantation].
  • BACKGROUND: The hemopoietic stem cells increase in number during the regeneration after chemotherapy or bone marrow transplantation (BMT).
  • Although the proportion of hemopoietic stem cells and their differentiation have been studied by immunophenotyping using the flow cytometry, no substantial research efforts have been directed toward the regenerating marrow.
  • We attempted to discover the proportions of undifferentiated stem cells, committed stem cells, B cell precursors, and myeloid precursors in the regenerating bone marrows during complete remission (CR) and after engraftment of BMT.
  • METHODS: Bone marrow samples from 82 patients with acute leukemia in CR and from 25 patients after BMT engraftment, along with 22 control samples, were used to find the numbers of CD38-/CD34+, CD38+/CD34+, CD19+/CD34+, and CD13,33+/CD34+ cells in the large lymphocyte gate by flow cytometry.
  • We cross-analyzed our results in terms of groups: CR, BMT, and initial diagnosis groups.
  • RESULTS: The proportions of CD38-/CD34+, CD38+/CD34+, CD19+/CD34+, and CD13,33+/CD34+ cells are more highly distributed in acute B-lymphoblastic leukemia than the normal group and also in the CR than the BMT group.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD19 / metabolism. Antigens, CD34 / metabolism. Antigens, CD38 / metabolism. Bone Marrow Transplantation. Leukemia / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Bone Marrow / physiology. Flow Cytometry. Follow-Up Studies. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / therapeutic use. Hematopoietic Stem Cells / immunology. Hematopoietic Stem Cells / metabolism. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Regeneration. Remission Induction

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  • (PMID = 18160830.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-6535
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Lab Med
  • [Language] kor
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD19; 0 / Antigens, CD34; 143011-72-7 / Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor; EC 3.2.2.5 / Antigens, CD38
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47. Yu JH, Nakajima A, Nakajima H, Diller LR, Bloch KD, Bloch DB: Restoration of promyelocytic leukemia protein-nuclear bodies in neuroblastoma cells enhances retinoic acid responsiveness. Cancer Res; 2004 Feb 1;64(3):928-33
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  • [Title] Restoration of promyelocytic leukemia protein-nuclear bodies in neuroblastoma cells enhances retinoic acid responsiveness.
  • The promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML)-nuclear body is a cellular structure that is disrupted during the pathogenesis of acute promyelocytic leukemia, a disease characterized by impaired myeloid cell differentiation.
  • During the course of studies to examine the composition and function of PML-nuclear bodies, we observed that the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y lacked these structures and that the absence of PML-nuclear bodies was a feature of N- and I-type, but not S-type, neuroblastoma cell lines.
  • Induction of neuroblastoma cell differentiation with 5-bromo-2'deoxyuridine, all-trans-retinoic acid, or IFN-gamma induced PML-nuclear body formation.
  • PML-nuclear bodies were not detected in tissue sections prepared from undifferentiated neuroblastomas but were present in neuroblasts in differentiating tumors.
  • Pharmacological therapies that increase PML expression may prove to be important components of combined modalities for the treatment of neuroblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Cell Nucleus Structures / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. Neuroblastoma / drug therapy. Neuroblastoma / metabolism. Nuclear Proteins. Transcription Factors / biosynthesis. Tretinoin / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Differentiation / drug effects. Cell Differentiation / physiology. Cell Line, Tumor. HL-60 Cells. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Tumor Suppressor Proteins

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  • (PMID = 14871822.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK-051179; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK-40561; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL-57172
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 143220-95-5 / PML protein, human; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin
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48. Bierings M, Szczepański T, van Wering ER, Willemse MJ, Langerak AW, Révész T, van Dongen JJ: Two consecutive immunophenotypic switches in a child with immunogenotypically stable acute leukaemia. Br J Haematol; 2001 Jun;113(3):757-62

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Two consecutive immunophenotypic switches in a child with immunogenotypically stable acute leukaemia.
  • A 12-year-old girl presented with a CD33+ precursor B-acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and seemed to respond well to ALL treatment.
  • However, 2 weeks after diagnosis her leucocyte count rose rapidly with a predominance of myeloid blasts with M5b morphology and CD19+ myeloid immunophenotype.
  • Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) treatment was started and remission was achieved after one course of chemotherapy; the AML treatment was continued for 6 months.
  • Two months after cessation of chemotherapy, the patient developed a bone marrow relapse, this time with an undifferentiated blast morphology and a precursor B immunophenotype.
  • Molecular analysis of the immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor genes showed several clonal gene rearrangements at diagnosis: two IGH, two IGK and two TCRD gene rearrangements.
  • All rearrangements were also detected during the AML phase of the disease, suggesting a phenotypic shift of the same leukaemia.
  • The first phenotypic shift in the genotypically stable leukaemia was remarkably fast.
  • The most probable explanation for our observations is an oncogenic event in an undifferentiated haematopoietic progenitor clone, with a highly versatile phenotype.
  • [MeSH-major] Burkitt Lymphoma / genetics. Gene Rearrangement. Leukemia, Myeloid / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Antigens, CD. Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic. Blotting, Southern. Child. Female. Gene Rearrangement, B-Lymphocyte, Heavy Chain. Gene Rearrangement, B-Lymphocyte, Light Chain. Gene Rearrangement, delta-Chain T-Cell Antigen Receptor. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3

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  • (PMID = 11380467.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1048
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / CD33 protein, human; 0 / Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3
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49. Ferry JA: Burkitt's lymphoma: clinicopathologic features and differential diagnosis. Oncologist; 2006 Apr;11(4):375-83
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  • [Title] Burkitt's lymphoma: clinicopathologic features and differential diagnosis.
  • Since its initial designation as Burkitt's lymphoma, this type of lymphoma and lymphomas closely resembling it have received a variety of names in different classifications of lymphomas and leukemias: undifferentiated lymphoma, Burkitt's and non-Burkitt's type in the modified Rappaport Classification, malignant lymphoma, small non-cleaved cell, Burkitt's type in the Working Formulation, Burkitt's lymphoma and high-grade B-cell lymphoma, Burkitt-like in the REAL Classification, and acute lymphoblastic leukemia, L3 type in the FAB Classification.
  • In recent years, efforts have focused on improving therapy for this rapidly proliferating neoplasm while minimizing, to the extent possible, treatment-associated toxicity.
  • These efforts have led to the development of high-intensity, short-duration combination chemotherapy that has proven extremely effective for a high proportion of Burkitt's lymphoma patients.
  • The differential diagnosis of Burkitt's lymphoma is broad, and precise diagnosis based on histologic, immunophenotypic, and genetic features remains the critical first step in planning appropriate therapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Neoplasm Staging


50. van Dalen EC, Raphaël MF, Caron HN, Kremer LC: Treatment including anthracyclines versus treatment not including anthracyclines for childhood cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2009;(1):CD006647
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  • [Title] Treatment including anthracyclines versus treatment not including anthracyclines for childhood cancer.
  • A well-informed decision on the use of anthracyclines in the treatment of different types of childhood cancer should be based on the available evidence on both antitumour efficacy and cardiotoxicity.
  • OBJECTIVES: To compare antitumour efficacy of treatment including or not including anthracyclines in children with childhood cancer.
  • SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing treatment of any type of childhood cancer with and without anthracyclines and reporting outcomes concerning antitumour efficacy.
  • MAIN RESULTS: We identified RCTs for 5 types of tumour: acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) (n=3; 912 children), Wilms' tumour (n=1; 316 children), rhabdomyosarcoma/undifferentiated sarcoma (n=1; 413 children), Ewing's sarcoma (n=1; 94 children), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n=1; 284 children).
  • For both Wilms' tumour and Ewing's sarcoma a significant difference in survival in favour of treatment with anthracyclines was identified.
  • For both rhabdomyosarcoma/undifferentiated sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma no difference in antitumour efficacy between the treatment groups was identified.
  • No significant difference between both treatment groups was identified, but in all individual studies there was a suggestion of a lower rate of clinical cardiotoxicity in patients who did not receive anthracyclines.
  • However, it should be noted that "no evidence of effect", as identified in this review, is not the same as "evidence of no effect".
  • For Wilms' tumour, rhabdomyosarcoma/undifferentiated sarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma only 1 RCT was available and therefore, no definitive conclusions can be made about the antitumour efficacy of treatment with or without anthracyclines in these tumours.
  • For other childhood cancers no RCTs were identified and therefore, no conclusions can be made about the antitumour efficacy of treatment with or without anthracyclines in these tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Anthracyclines / therapeutic use. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Child. Heart Diseases / chemically induced. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Sarcoma / drug therapy. Wilms Tumor / drug therapy

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  • [UpdateIn] Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;(1):CD006647 [21249679.001]
  • (PMID = 19160293.001).
  • [ISSN] 1469-493X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Cochrane database of systematic reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cochrane Database Syst Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anthracyclines; 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic
  • [Number-of-references] 172
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51. Rossi S, Canal F, Licci S, Zanatta L, Laurino L, Gottardi M, Gherlinzoni F, Dei Tos AP: Cytogenetic evidence of metastatic myxoid liposarcoma and therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome in a bone marrow biopsy. Hum Pathol; 2009 Jul;40(7):1040-4
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  • [Title] Cytogenetic evidence of metastatic myxoid liposarcoma and therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome in a bone marrow biopsy.
  • Myxoid liposarcoma exhibits a peculiar clinical behavior, with a tendency to spread to serosal membranes, distant soft tissues, and bones, even in the absence of lung metastases.
  • Therapy-related hematological neoplasms are well-known side effects of cytotoxic chemotherapy.
  • We describe an exceptional case of metastatic myxoid liposarcoma of the spine associated with therapy-related refractory anemia with excess of blasts in a 37-year-old woman who underwent multi-agent chemotherapy for a myxoid liposarcoma of the left thigh.
  • Microscopic examination of the bone marrow biopsy revealed dysplastic features, with abnormal localization of immature precursors and micromegakaryocytes, and islands of undifferentiated oval small/medium-size cells, suggestive of acute myeloid leukemia arising in the setting of a myelodysplastic syndrome.
  • Immunohistochemistry was not discriminant.
  • Cytogenetic analyses of bone marrow aspirate disclosed the presence of 2 different rearrangements, subsequently confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization and was crucial in making the correct diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anemia, Refractory / pathology. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Bone Marrow Cells / pathology. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11. Combined Modality Therapy / adverse effects. Female. Humans. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology. Thigh / pathology


52. Wong GC, Tan BH: Use of antibiotics in a haematology ward--an audit. Ann Acad Med Singapore; 2008 Jan;37(1):21-6
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  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: An antibiotic escalation pathway was developed by haematologists and infectious disease physicians.
  • Patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) or acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL) who had febrile neutropenia after chemotherapy were reviewed.
  • Thirty-two had AML, 7 had ALL and 1 had undifferentiated leukaemia.
  • In 76% of episodes, fever developed within the first 14 days of neutropenia.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Given the complex nature of the cases, compliance was reasonable, as there were valid reasons in all cases where the guidelines were not adhered to.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Hematology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Drug Resistance, Microbial. Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions. Female. Hospitals. Humans. Leukemia, Myeloid / drug therapy. Male. Medical Audit. Middle Aged. Neutropenia / drug therapy. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Retrospective Studies. Singapore

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  • (PMID = 18265893.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-4602
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Acad. Med. Singap.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents
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53. Romeike BF, Kim YJ, Steudel WI, Graf N: Diffuse high-grade gliomas as second malignant neoplasms after radio-chemotherapy for pediatric malignancies. Childs Nerv Syst; 2007 Feb;23(2):185-93
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  • [Title] Diffuse high-grade gliomas as second malignant neoplasms after radio-chemotherapy for pediatric malignancies.
  • METHODS: Nine children received cranial irradiation and chemotherapy for medulloblastoma (n=2) or acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n=7).
  • They developed a high-grade glioma 7-14 years thereafter.
  • They are composed mainly of small undifferentiated cells, which are mainly negative for glial fibrillary acidic protein and positive for microtubule associated proteins 2 (MAP2).
  • Epidermal growth factor receptor labeling could not be detected in any of them.
  • The median survival was only 12 months despite intensive treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Glioma / radiotherapy. Neoplasms, Second Primary / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / physiology. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / metabolism. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / metabolism. Pediatrics. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17021727.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / MAP2 protein, human; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins
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54. Funke I, Wiesneth M, Platow S, Kubanek B: Palliative cytoreduction in refractory acute leukemia: a retrospective study of 57 adult patients. Ann Hematol; 2000 Mar;79(3):132-7
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  • [Title] Palliative cytoreduction in refractory acute leukemia: a retrospective study of 57 adult patients.
  • The efficiency and toxicity of treatment regimens for nonintensive cytoreduction in 57 outpatients with refractory acute leukemia (mean age 56 years, 51 AML, six ALL/AUL) were retrospectively studied.
  • Seventeen patients received one treatment regimen, 19 patients two treatment regimens, and 21 patients three or more treatment regimens.
  • The treatment regimens analyzed were 6-thioguanine p.o. (daily) (T), 6-thioguanine p.o. (4-7 days/week) + cytarabine s.c.
  • The median leukocyte count was higher for M (73 x 10(9)/l) than for the other treatment regimens (T: 27 x 10(9)/l, T+ C: 37 x 10(9)/l, MP: 24 x 10(9)/l, MP + MTX: 30 x 10(9)/l, E: 31 x 10(9)/l).
  • The mean survival time after start of palliative cytoreduction was 16 weeks (2-65).
  • Palliative cytoreductive therapy does not reduce the quality of life and can prevent complications of significant leukocytosis in refractory acute leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Leukemia / drug therapy. Palliative Care
  • [MeSH-minor] 6-Mercaptopurine / administration & dosage. 6-Mercaptopurine / adverse effects. Acute Disease. Administration, Oral. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Cytarabine / toxicity. Diarrhea / chemically induced. Female. Humans. Injections, Intravenous. Injections, Subcutaneous. Leukocyte Count / drug effects. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Methotrexate / adverse effects. Middle Aged. Nausea / chemically induced. Retrospective Studies. Stomatitis / chemically induced. Thioguanine / administration & dosage. Thioguanine / toxicity

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  • (PMID = 10803935.001).
  • [ISSN] 0939-5555
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] GERMANY
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; E7WED276I5 / 6-Mercaptopurine; FTK8U1GZNX / Thioguanine; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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55. Ran D, Taubert I, Schubert M, Eckstein V, Bellos F, Ho AD: Leukemia stem cell candidates in acute myeloid leukemia predict refractoriness to conventional chemotherapy and adverse clinical outcome. J Stem Cells Regen Med; 2010;6(2):135-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Leukemia stem cell candidates in acute myeloid leukemia predict refractoriness to conventional chemotherapy and adverse clinical outcome.

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  • (PMID = 24693144.001).
  • [ISSN] 0973-7154
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of stem cells & regenerative medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Stem Cells Regen Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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