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3. Vaamonde P, Martín Martín C, del Río Valeiras M, Labella Caballero T: [A study of cervical metastases from unknown primary tumor]. Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp; 2002 Oct;53(8):601-6
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  • [Title] [A study of cervical metastases from unknown primary tumor].
  • Cervical metastases of cancer of an unknown primary tumour (CMUPT) are infrequent but they represent botha diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for ENT physicians.
  • 73% were squamous cell carcinoma and 27% were undifferentiated carcinoma.
  • The primary source was identified in 23% of the series.
  • All squamous cell carcinoma were treated with radical neck surgery plus radiotherapy and the undifferentiated carcinoma with chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Head and Neck Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 12530200.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6519
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta otorrinolaringológica española
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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4. Karavasilis V, Malamou-Mitsi V, Briasoulis E, Tsanou E, Kitsou E, Kalofonos H, Fountzilas G, Fotsis T, Pavlidis N: Angiogenesis in cancer of unknown primary: clinicopathological study of CD34, VEGF and TSP-1. BMC Cancer; 2005 Mar 3;5:25
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  • [Title] Angiogenesis in cancer of unknown primary: clinicopathological study of CD34, VEGF and TSP-1.
  • BACKGROUND: Cancer of unknown primary remains a mallignancy of elusive biology and grim prognosis that lacks effective therapeutic options.
  • We investigated angiogenesis in cancer of unknown primary to expand our knowledge on the biology of these tumors and identify potential therapeutic targets.
  • METHODS: Paraffin embedded archival material from 81 patients diagnosed with CUP was used.
  • Tumor histology was adenocarcinoma (77%), undifferentiated carcinoma (18%) and squamous cell carcinoma (5%).
  • The tissue expression of CD34, VEGF and TSP-1 was assessed immunohistochemically by use of specific monoclonal antibodies and was analyzed against clinicopathological data.
  • CONCLUSION: Angiogenesis is very active and expression of VEGF is almost universal in cancers of unknown primary.
  • These findings support the clinical investigation of VEGF targeted therapy in this clinical setting.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD34 / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain Neoplasms / chemistry. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / chemistry. Thrombospondin 1 / analysis. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / blood supply. Adenocarcinoma / chemistry. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma / blood supply. Carcinoma / chemistry. Carcinoma / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neovascularization, Pathologic

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  • (PMID = 15743540.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Thrombospondin 1; 0 / VEGFA protein, human; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC555600
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5. Swiatoniowski G, Bruzewicz S, Suder E, Warszylewicz-Szymanek M, Kłaniewski T, Prudlak E, Molenda W, Setta M: [Surprisingly positive effect of palliative CAP chemotherapy of bone-disseminated, undifferentiated carcinoma of unknown primary origin in patient with low performance status according to WHO]. Przegl Lek; 2006;63(3):166-8
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  • [Title] [Surprisingly positive effect of palliative CAP chemotherapy of bone-disseminated, undifferentiated carcinoma of unknown primary origin in patient with low performance status according to WHO].
  • The paper presents the case of a 58-year old male with low performance status (3 according to WHO) diagnosed with bone-disseminated, undifferentiated carcinoma of unknown primary origin in April 2001.
  • The patient was given reduced dosage CAP chemotherapy (cisplatin 40 mg/m2, doxorubicin 40 mg/m2, cyclophosphamide 40 mg/m2, every 21 days).
  • A total number of 12 treatment courses were administered, reaching summary admissible dosage of doxorubicin.
  • The patient's condition improved in the course of treatment - pain symptoms and levels of tumor biomarkers decreased significantly, while performance status increased.
  • Chemotherapy was completed in December 2001.
  • Presently the level of tumor biomarkers are increasing but it is not accompanied with metastasis or primary focus manifestation.
  • Although the described patient undoubtedly belonged to the group with poor prognosis, the treatment applied resulted with surprisingly positive effect.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Carcinoma / secondary. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary. Palliative Care
  • [MeSH-minor] Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Health Status. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16969902.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-2240
  • [Journal-full-title] Przegla̧d lekarski
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prz. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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6. Schuette K, Folprecht G, Kretzschmar A, Link H, Koehne CH, Gruenwald V, Stahl M, Huebner G: Phase II trial of capecitabine and oxaliplatin in patients with adeno- and undifferentiated carcinoma of unknown primary. Onkologie; 2009 Apr;32(4):162-6
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  • [Title] Phase II trial of capecitabine and oxaliplatin in patients with adeno- and undifferentiated carcinoma of unknown primary.
  • BACKGROUND: Carcinomas of unknown primary (CUP) account for approximately 2-5% of all cancer diagnoses.
  • Except for some subsets with favorable prognosis, for most of these patients treatment options are limited, and no standard first-line regimen has been identified.
  • We performed a phase II study with oxaliplatin (OX) and capecitabine (CAP) as first-line treatment for patients with histo-or cytologically proven adeno- or undifferentiated CUP.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Protocol treatment in this multicenter trial consisted of CAP 1,000 mg/m(2) twice daily orally (days 1-14) and OX 130 mg/m(2) intravenously (day 1), repeated every 21 days at a maximum of 6 cycles.
  • The primary endpoint was the response rate (RR).
  • RESULTS: 51 patients with CUP (71% with poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma; 41% ECOG performance status (PS) 0, 39% PS 1, 10% PS 2, 55% with elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and 39% with liver metastases) were enrolled in this study.
  • CONCLUSION: CAP/OX did not reach higher RR compared to a standard regimen with paclitaxel/carboplatin, which discourages further investigation of this schedule in CUP.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Fluorouracil / analogs & derivatives. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / drug therapy. Organoplatinum Compounds / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Capecitabine. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • [CommentIn] Onkologie. 2009 Apr;32(4):159-60 [19372709.001]
  • (PMID = 19372710.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0240
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 04ZR38536J / oxaliplatin; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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7. Droz JP, Flechon A, Lombard-Bohas C: [Chemotherapy of neuroendocrine tumors]. Rev Prat; 2002 Feb 1;52(3):285-9
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  • [Title] [Chemotherapy of neuroendocrine tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Chimiothérapie des tumeurs neuro-endocrines.
  • Chemotherapy has few impact on neuroendocrine tumour patients outcome: it may decrease functional secretory symptoms and increase slightly median survival time.
  • In islet-cell carcinoma of the pancreas the standard chemotherapy regimen is the combination of streptozotocin and doxorubicin.
  • In enterochromaffin-cell tumours chemotherapy has modest impact and the combination of 5-fluorouracile and streptozotocin is the standard regimen.
  • In undifferentiated enterochromaffin-cell tumours of unknown primary the standard chemotherapy regimen is the combination of etoposide and cisplatin which induces 50% response rate with probably no impact on overall survival.
  • Chemotherapy must be indicated within the frame of a multidisciplinary approach and only in patients who have refractory and progressive disease.
  • Indication of chemotherapy must be balanced with indications of biotherapies and embolization.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Neuroendocrine Tumors / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Disease Progression. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Embolization, Therapeutic. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Humans. Prognosis. Streptozocin / administration & dosage. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 11925719.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-2640
  • [Journal-full-title] La Revue du praticien
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Prat
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 5W494URQ81 / Streptozocin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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8. Cheng JC, Esparza SD, Knez VM, Sakamoto KM, Moore TB: Severe lactic acidosis in a 14-year-old female with metastatic undifferentiated carcinoma of unknown primary. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2004 Nov;26(11):780-2
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  • [Title] Severe lactic acidosis in a 14-year-old female with metastatic undifferentiated carcinoma of unknown primary.
  • The diagnosis of an undifferentiated carcinoma of unknown primary was made after open breast biopsy of the mass with negative immunohistochemical studies for breast malignancies.
  • Despite 2 months of chemotherapy and intensive supportive care, the patient died of severe lactic acidosis and disseminated intravascular coagulation after exaggerated menstrual bleeding.
  • The association of severe lactic acidosis and undifferentiated carcinoma of unknown primary in an adolescent has not been previously described.
  • [MeSH-major] Acidosis, Lactic / etiology. Carcinoma / complications. Carcinoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15543020.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Pentheroudakis G, Briasoulis E, Karavassilis V, Fountzilas G, Xeros N, Samelis G, Samantas E, Pavlidis N: Chemotherapy for patients with two favourable subsets of unknown primary carcinoma: active, but how effective? Acta Oncol; 2005;44(2):155-60

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Chemotherapy for patients with two favourable subsets of unknown primary carcinoma: active, but how effective?
  • Carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) is characterized by dismal patient survival.
  • The outcome of patients with two favourable risk CUP subsets was studied.
  • The majority had poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma or undifferentiated carcinoma, treated with platinum-taxane based chemotherapy from 1996 till 2002.
  • Modern combination chemotherapy has satisfactory activity, with a minority of CUP patients enjoying long-term responses.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / drug therapy. Peritoneal Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Bridged Compounds / administration & dosage. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Greece. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Survival Analysis. Taxoids / administration & dosage. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15788295.001).
  • [ISSN] 0284-186X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Bridged Compounds; 0 / Taxoids; 1605-68-1 / taxane
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10. Adelstein DJ: The role of chemotherapy for skull base carcinomas and sarcomas. Neurosurg Clin N Am; 2000 Oct;11(4):681-91
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  • [Title] The role of chemotherapy for skull base carcinomas and sarcomas.
  • The rarity of most primary skull base carcinomas and sarcomas has prevented a careful examination of the role of chemotherapy in these diseases.
  • For advanced nasopharyngeal cancer, however, convincing data have now been generated supporting the role of systemic chemotherapy in conjunction with definitive locoregional treatment.
  • Chemotherapy also seems to have a role in the management of other squamous cell head and neck cancers, and its use concurrently with radiation may be appropriate when extension to the base of the skull is identified.
  • The role of chemotherapy in the management of the other skull base neoplasms remains less well established.
  • Existing evidence is little more than anecdotal, and the use of systemic chemotherapy should generally be restricted to the palliative treatment setting.
  • The ultimate role of this intervention in the aggressive sinonasal undifferentiated carcinomas and primary neuroendocrine carcinomas is unknown, but for these diseases, chemotherapy is a reasonable addition to locoregional treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Sarcoma / drug therapy. Skull Base Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic

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  • (PMID = 11082178.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-3680
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg. Clin. N. Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 94
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11. Pejcić I, Vrbić S, Filipović S, Radić S, Pejcić Lj: Chemotherapy in carcinomas of unknown primary site. J BUON; 2004 Jan-Mar;9(1):27-31
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  • [Title] Chemotherapy in carcinomas of unknown primary site.
  • PURPOSE: Carcinomas of unknown primary site (CUPS) are highly malignant diseases with a usually ominous prognosis.
  • We report on the efficacy of chemotherapy in the treatment and survival of patients with CUPS.
  • Following routine light microscopy, the histological findings were classified into 3 groups: squamous cell carcinoma - 8 patients; adenocarcinoma - 33 patients; and undifferentiated carcinoma - 22 patients.
  • Combination chemotherapy with doxorubicin 50 mg/m(2) (day 1), cisplatin 60 mg/m(2) (day 1), and etoposide 120 mg/m(2)/day (days 1-3) every 3 weeks was administered to 32 patients (20 females and 12 males), aged 29-70 years (median 54 years) who met the inclusion criteria.
  • All patients with stable disease (SD), partial response (PR) or complete response (CR) received 6 cycles of chemotherapy.
  • The overall survival (OS) of patients treated with chemotherapy (n=32; 50.8%) was better compared with the OS of those not receiving chemotherapy (n=31; 49.2%/; p <0.01).
  • Also the 2-year survival of patients with chemotherapy (40%) and without chemotherapy (0%) implies potential curability in a specific subset of these patients.
  • CONCLUSION: The usage of the aforementioned doses and chemotherapy scheme appears to improve the outcome of patients with carcinoma of unknown primary site.

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  • (PMID = 17385824.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J BUON
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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12. Tong CC, Luk MY, Chow SM, Ngan KC, Lau WH: Cervical nodal metastases from occult primary: undifferentiated carcinoma versus squamous cell carcinoma. Head Neck; 2002 Apr;24(4):361-9
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  • [Title] Cervical nodal metastases from occult primary: undifferentiated carcinoma versus squamous cell carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE: Controversy exists regarding the management of cervical lymph node metastases from occult primary.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed for all patients referred to our institution between 1988 and 1998 with cervical lymph node metastases from an unknown primary.
  • Case records of consecutive unselected patients with histologically confirmed carcinoma in cervical lymph nodes were reviewed.
  • Those with histologic findings other than squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) or undifferentiated carcinoma (UDC) and lymphadenopathies at the supraclavicular fossa alone or below the clavicles at the time of diagnosis were excluded.
  • Treatment modality included surgery (S) alone in 1 patient (2%), radiotherapy (RT) alone in 24 patients (53%), and combined modality in 20 patients (45%). (Twelve patients (27%) had combined S and RT, 8 patients (18%) had combined chemotherapy and RT.
  • For those patients treated by radical RT, the RT field covered both sides of the neck and the potential mucosal primary (PMP) sites, including the entire pharyngeal axis.
  • The median radiation doses to the lymph nodes and the PMP were 65 Gy (range, 60-70 Gy) and 60 Gy (range, 40-70 Gy), respectively.
  • RESULTS: At the time of analysis, ultimate control of disease above the clavicles according to N stage, treatment intent, and histologic type was as follows: N1s, 7 of 7 (100%); N2s, 15 of 26 (58%); N3s, 1 of 12 (8%); radical intent, 19 of 28 (68%); palliative intent, 3 of 17 (18%); UDC, 11 of 13 (85%); SCC,11 of 32 (34%).
  • The 5-year disease-specific survival (DSS) for the radical treatment group and the palliative treatment group were 67% and 18%, respectively (p =.0011).
  • No significant difference in the 5-year DSS was observed on the basis of treatment modality in the radically treated group: 63% for RT alone vs 75% for S + RT (p =.711).
  • Our results in local control, emergence of primary tumor, and DSS are comparable with other published data.
  • However, disease control of advanced nodal stage remains poor; more aggressive treatment approaches, like the use of concurrent chemoradiation or altered fractionation scheme, should be explored.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / secondary. Carcinoma / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Protocols. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymph Nodes / surgery. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / prevention & control. Lymphatic Metastasis / radiotherapy. Male. Middle Aged. Neck / pathology. Neck / surgery. Radiotherapy / methods. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 11933178.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-3074
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Nakagawa Y, Todoroki T, Morishita Y, Mori K, Nakahaashi C, Ohkohchi N, Matsumoto H: A long-term survivor after pancreaticoduodenectomy for metastatic undifferentiated carcinoma of an unknown primary. Hepatogastroenterology; 2008 Sep-Oct;55(86-87):1557-61

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  • [Title] A long-term survivor after pancreaticoduodenectomy for metastatic undifferentiated carcinoma of an unknown primary.
  • Undifferentiated carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) is a relatively rare disease and carries a dismal prognosis.
  • Histologically, the tumor showed solid or diffuse proliferation of pleomorphic cells, and the immunohistochemistry suggested a metastatic tumor originating from the epithelium, the primary site was not determined despite of full review of all metastatic lesions to pancreas handled surgically and non-surgically.
  • Adjuvant oral chemotherapy of UFT and cimetidine continued for 3 years and the patient alive and healthy 6 years after surgery.
  • Even for dismal prognostic undifferentiated CUP, radical surgery would be an effective component of multidisciplinary treatment, provided that the tumor is respectable without elevation of serum tumor markers and adjuvant chemotherapy is able to appropriately supplement.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / surgery. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / surgery. Pancreaticoduodenectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Survivors. Tegafur / therapeutic use. Uracil / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19102342.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 56HH86ZVCT / Uracil; 1-UFT protocol
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15. Miwa K, Fujioka S, Adachi Y, Haruki T, Taniguchi Y, Nakamura H: Mediastinal lymph node carcinoma of an unknown primary site: clinicopathological examination. Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2009 May;57(5):239-43
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  • [Title] Mediastinal lymph node carcinoma of an unknown primary site: clinicopathological examination.
  • PURPOSE: We examined the clinicopathological features of four mediastinal lymph node carcinomas from an unknown primary site.
  • METHODS: Four patients with mediastinal lymph node carcinoma from an unknown primary site were treated at our hospital during the past 6 years.
  • Histologically, one lesion was poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, two were poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, and one was undifferentiated carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Radical resection of mediastinal lymph node carcinoma with an unknown primary site has the possibility of a good prognosis.
  • In nonradical cases, it is important to perform a biopsy to make an accurate diagnosis and then administer radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy postoperatively.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Mediastinal Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / blood. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Prognosis. Thoracoscopy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [Cites] Br Med J. 1979 Jun 9;1(6177):1530-3 [466103.001]
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  • (PMID = 19440819.001).
  • [ISSN] 1863-6705
  • [Journal-full-title] General thoracic and cardiovascular surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen
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16. Scherwitz P, Lindenfelser R, Krüger I: [Localization of primary small cell carcinoma with liver metastasis: a rare combination of colonic adenocarcinoma and undifferentiated small cell carcinoma]. Chirurg; 2002 Aug;73(8):859-61
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  • [Title] [Localization of primary small cell carcinoma with liver metastasis: a rare combination of colonic adenocarcinoma and undifferentiated small cell carcinoma].
  • Initially, the primary tumor was not found and the patient underwent chemotherapy.
  • Microscopic examination revealed that the adenocarcinoma was combined with an undifferentiated carcinomatous component.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Small Cell / secondary. Colonic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary. Paclitaxel / analogs & derivatives. Taxoids
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Colectomy. Colon / pathology. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Liver / pathology. Time Factors. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 12425166.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4722
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift für alle Gebiete der operativen Medizen
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurg
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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17. Pejcić I, Vrbić S, Filipović S, Sćekić M, Petković I, Pejcić L, Djenić N: [Significance of serum tumor markers monitoring metastases in carcinomas of unknown primary site]. Vojnosanit Pregl; 2010 Sep;67(9):723-31
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  • [Title] [Significance of serum tumor markers monitoring metastases in carcinomas of unknown primary site].
  • BACKGROUND/AIM: Unknown primary tumors represent a heterogeneous group of malignancies that are indicative of ominous prognosis.
  • Cancer of unknown primary site (CUP) is defined as the lack of any detectable primary site after full evaluation, and accounts for approximately 3-5% of all newly diagnosed patients with malignancies.
  • On histological examination, all the patients were presented with metastatic tumors whose primary site (origin) could not be detected with noninvasive diagnostic techniques.
  • Following the routine light microscopy, all histological findings were classified into one of the following three groups: plano-cellular carcinoma--8 patients; adenocarcinoma--33 patients; unclassifiable (undifferentiated) carcinoma--22 patients.
  • In all the cases we evaluated 8 serum tumor markers: alpha-fetoproteins (AFP), chronic gonadotrophin beta submit, human (beta-HCG), neuron specific enolase (NSE), marker of malignant ovarian tumors (CA 125), prostate-specific antigene (PSA), marker of malignant brest tumor (CA 15-3), marker of malignant pancreas tumor and gastrointestinal tumor (Ca 19-9), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) at the time of diagnosis.
  • The patients on chemotherapy had the markers determined after the third and sixth chemocycle, i.e. at the time of illness progression observation, if present.
  • The patients responding to chemotherapy with complete response (CR), partial response (PR) or stable disease (SD) had the markers determined after three-month periods until the time of relapse or progression.
  • Chemotherapy was applied in 32 patients (20 females and 12 males), aged 29-70 years, who met the inclusion criteria.
  • The following chemotherapy regimen was used: doxorubicin 50 mg/m2 (day 1), cisplatin 60 mg/m2 (day 1), and etoposide 120 mg/m2 (days 1-3).
  • The period between two chemotherapy cycles was three weeks, and maximum five weeks in the case of prolonged hematological toxicity.
  • Average survival time was 17.89 months (95% CI 12.96; 22.83).
  • The group of 32 patients treated with chemotherapy had 12 (37.5%) fatal outcomes in the observed period (72 months).
  • Average survival time was 26.6 months (95% CI 19.5; 33.7).
  • Average tumor marker values before and after the chemotherapy were significantly lower for NSE and CA 125.
  • CONCLUSION: Increased values of serum tumor markers are very often in CUP.
  • The NSE and CA 125 levels show good correlation with response to the given chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Carcinoma / secondary. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology


18. Issing WJ, Taleban B, Tauber S: Diagnosis and management of carcinoma of unknown primary in the head and neck. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol; 2003 Sep;260(8):436-43
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  • [Title] Diagnosis and management of carcinoma of unknown primary in the head and neck.
  • Carcinoma of unknown primary is defined as the histological diagnosis of metastasis without the detection of a primary tumor.
  • In the literature, the incidence of CUP in all patients with a malignant disease is said to be between 3% and 15%.
  • The most frequent histopathological results of CUP metastases are adenocarcinoma, followed by undifferentiated carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.
  • All patients had been admitted and treated for cervical CUP at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology of the Grosshadern Clinic from 1979 to 1998.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma (n=123) was the predominant histopathological finding of the cervical lymph nodes.
  • During the 10-year follow-up, a primary tumor was detected in 36 (21.5%) of the 167 initially diagnosed CUP patients.
  • Neck dissection and additional postoperative radiotherapy was performed in 118 (70.7%) of the 167 CUP patients.
  • Primary radiotherapy was the treatment of choice in 28 patients; eight patients received combined radio-chemotherapy as the primary treatment and seven patients were treated with chemotherapy alone.
  • Six patients had no treatment.
  • Comparison of different treatment protocols revealed a significant difference in patient survival: in comparison with primary radiotherapy alone or neck dissection and postoperative radiotherapy, the survival rate improved significantly in patients that received a bilateral tonsillectomy in addition to neck dissection and postoperative radiotherapy.
  • The treatment of choice in patients with cervical CUP should be a surgical procedure including (radical) neck dissection and diagnostic bilateral tonsillectomy followed by postoperative radiation of the cervical lymph drainage.
  • Bilateral tonsillectomy is especially important and is correlated with a significant improvement of the survival rate in CUP patients.
  • Additional postoperative radiation of the entire pharyngeal and laryngeal mucosa should also be considered in order to treat a possible small primary tumor in this region.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / secondary. Carcinoma / therapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / secondary. Head and Neck Neoplasms / therapy. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / therapy

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  • (PMID = 12684829.001).
  • [ISSN] 0937-4477
  • [Journal-full-title] European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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19. Briasoulis E, Kalofonos H, Bafaloukos D, Samantas E, Fountzilas G, Xiros N, Skarlos D, Christodoulou C, Kosmidis P, Pavlidis N: Carboplatin plus paclitaxel in unknown primary carcinoma: a phase II Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group Study. J Clin Oncol; 2000 Sep;18(17):3101-7
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  • [Title] Carboplatin plus paclitaxel in unknown primary carcinoma: a phase II Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group Study.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of the carboplatin/paclitaxel combination in patients with carcinoma of unknown primary site (CUP).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventy-seven consecutive CUP patients (45 women and 32 men; median age, 60 years) were treated with carboplatin at target area under the curve 6 mg/mL/min followed by paclitaxel 200 mg/m(2) as a 3-hour infusion and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor from days 5 to 12.
  • Treatment courses were repeated every 3 weeks to a maximum of eight cycles.
  • Forty-seven patients had adenocarcinomas, 27 had undifferentiated carcinomas, and three had squamous cell carcinomas.
  • There were no differences in response between adenocarcinomas and undifferentiated carcinomas, but efficacy varied among clinical subsets.
  • The response rates and median survival times in the three clinically defined subsets were 47.8% and 13 months, respectively, for patients with predominantly nodal/pleural disease, 68.4% and 15 months, respectively, in women with peritoneal carcinomatosis, and 15.1% and 10 months, respectively, in patients with visceral or disseminated metastases.
  • Chemotherapy was well-tolerated.
  • CONCLUSION: Carboplatin plus paclitaxel combination chemotherapy is effective in patients with predominantly nodal/pleural metastases of unknown primary carcinoma and in women with peritoneal carcinomatosis.
  • The investigation of novel treatment approaches is highly warranted for this group of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / blood. Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Carboplatin / adverse effects. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / blood. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Drug Administration Routes. Female. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Paclitaxel / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 10963638.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 143011-72-7 / Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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20. Porcaro AB, D'Amico A, Martignoni G, Brunelli M, Curti P, Novella G, Ficarra V, Antoniolli SZ, Malossini G: [Small cell carcinoma of the bladder. Report of 3 cases and review of the literature]. Arch Ital Urol Androl; 2002 Sep;74(3):142-5
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  • [Title] [Small cell carcinoma of the bladder. Report of 3 cases and review of the literature].
  • [Transliterated title] Il carcinoma a piccole cellule della vescica. Descrizione di tre casi e revisione della letteratura.
  • Primary small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is a highly aggressive disease and accounts for less than 0.5% of all primary bladder tumors.
  • Histogenesis is still unknown, but investigators consider the tumor originating from a multipotent undifferentiated stem cell of the bladder urothelium.
  • The primary local tumor is treated by radical surgery or radiation therapy, while systemic involvement requires polychemotherapy according to the M-VAC protocol.
  • Prognosis is worse and related to the pathological stage of the disease and to chemotherapy reply.
  • Herein we report on 3 cases of primary small cell carcinoma of the urinary biadder.

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  • (PMID = 12416009.001).
  • [ISSN] 1124-3562
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivio italiano di urologia, andrologia : organo ufficiale [di] Societa italiana di ecografia urologica e nefrologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Ital Urol Androl
  • [Language] ITA
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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21. Lazaridis G, Pentheroudakis G, Fountzilas G, Pavlidis N: Liver metastases from cancer of unknown primary (CUPL): a retrospective analysis of presentation, management and prognosis in 49 patients and systematic review of the literature. Cancer Treat Rev; 2008 Dec;34(8):693-700
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  • [Title] Liver metastases from cancer of unknown primary (CUPL): a retrospective analysis of presentation, management and prognosis in 49 patients and systematic review of the literature.
  • AIM: Patients with liver metastases from cancer of unknown primary (CUPL) have a dismal prognosis.
  • RESULTS: All our patients (males: 31, females: 18; median age: 65) underwent a computed tomography scan (CT) of the abdomen, 71% a thoracic CT, 53% gastroscopy and 47% colonoscopy.
  • The commonest histologic subtypes encountered were adenocarcinoma (N=34) or undifferentiated carcinoma (N=12).
  • Forty-seven patients received first-line chemotherapy (42 platinum based) and 16 second-line.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with liver metastases from CUP are resistant to conventional types of treatment and carry a poor prognosis.
  • Understanding the molecular biology of CUP is essential for the development of new, targeted effective therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Carcinoma / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Analysis of Variance. Biopsy, Needle. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Logistic Models. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Probability. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18584969.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1967
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer treatment reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Treat. Rev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 22
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22. Milović M, Popov I, Jelić S: Tumor markers in metastatic disease from cancer of unknown primary origin. Med Sci Monit; 2002 Feb;8(2):MT25-30
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  • [Title] Tumor markers in metastatic disease from cancer of unknown primary origin.
  • BACKGROUND: About 5-10% of cancer patients suffer from cancer of unknown primary (CUP).
  • The aim of our analysis was to evaluate serum levels of four tumor markers and to relate them to the histology, number, and sites of metastases, the response to chemotherapy, and survival.
  • MATERIAL/METHODS: Blood samples from 46 patients with CUP were assayed for CEA, CA 19-9, CA 15-3 and CA 125.
  • RESULTS: No significant differences were detected between the mean levels of all markers for the two histological types (adenocarcinoma vs. undifferentiated carcinoma).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that patients with CUP have a nonspecific overexpression of serum tumor markers and that routine use of these markers does not offer diagnostic assistance.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 11859288.001).
  • [ISSN] 1234-1010
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Sci. Monit.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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23. Hisamori S, Okabe H, Yoshizawa A, Sakai Y: A case of long-term recurrence-free poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma of lymph nodes treated by surgical resection without any chemotherapy. Int J Clin Oncol; 2010 Oct;15(5):493-6

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  • [Title] A case of long-term recurrence-free poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma of lymph nodes treated by surgical resection without any chemotherapy.
  • Diagnostic excisional biopsy of the inguinal lymph node proved it to be a poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma by histological and immunohistological analyses.
  • We diagnosed a poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma by histological examination and immunohistological analysis of the resected inguinal lymph node.
  • We performed computed tomographic examination and positron emission tomography, which identified lymph node involvement without any signs of other tumors.
  • Pathologically, the resected specimen was diagnosed as a neuroendocrine carcinoma with a negative surgical margin and it was similar to the histology of the inguinal lymph node previously resected.
  • The patient had no recurrence for 3 years without receiving any adjuvant treatment.
  • There have been no reports describing a case of poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma, of unknown origin, which metastasized to other lymph nodes.
  • Although further studies are required, complete resection of the involved lymph nodes should be considered as a choice for localized, expanding growth-pattern disease even if it is undifferentiated type.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / surgery. Cell Differentiation. Lymph Node Excision. Lymph Nodes / surgery. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Positron-Emission Tomography. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20224882.001).
  • [ISSN] 1437-7772
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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24. Kubota T, Kamiyama J, Itoi H, Oyamada Y, Hirose M, Goto S, Hatanaka N, Sakurai K, Taiyoh H, Matsumura A, Okamoto K, Otsuji E: [A case of primary unknown cancer responding to CDGP/S-1]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2008 Nov;35(11):1985-7

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  • [Title] [A case of primary unknown cancer responding to CDGP/S-1].
  • Needle biopsy revealed metastatic, epithelial, undifferentiated carcinoma.
  • However, the primary tumor remained unknown despite further thorough examinations, FDG-PET showed abnormal FDG accumulation at the lymph nodes of para-aortic and left external iliac artery area in addition to left supraclavicular lymph node.
  • Nedaplatin (CDGP) combined with S-1 therapy was carried out for this primary unknown cancer with lymph node metastases.
  • Three months after CDGP/S-1 therapy was begun, the swollen left supraclavicular lymph node was obviously reduced by 42.5%.
  • Standard treatment for primary unknown cancer was not established, because it includes various carcinomas.
  • Here we report a case of primary unknown cancer successfully treated with CDGP/S-1.
  • This combined therapy was considered to be one of the promising strategies for a primary unknown cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology. Organoplatinum Compounds / therapeutic use. Oxonic Acid / therapeutic use. Tegafur / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy. Drug Combinations. Female. Humans. Positron-Emission Tomography

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  • (PMID = 19011358.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drug Combinations; 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 150863-82-4 / S 1 (combination); 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 5VT6420TIG / Oxonic Acid; 8UQ3W6JXAN / nedaplatin
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25. Clements A, Euscher E, Lacour R, Merritt W, Klopp A, Ramondetta L: The presence of human papillomavirus or p16 in six cases of retroperitoneal carcinoma. Obstet Gynecol; 2010 Nov;116(5):1042-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The presence of human papillomavirus or p16 in six cases of retroperitoneal carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe six cases of unknown primary carcinoma of the retroperitoneum that were positive for human papillomavirus (HPV), a surrogate molecular marker for high-risk HPV (p16), or both.
  • METHODS: Using the MD Anderson pathology database, females with confirmed HPV or p16 expression within retroperitoneal carcinomas of unknown primary were identified.
  • Individuals with known primary were excluded.
  • Three malignancies (50%) were squamous and three (50%) were undifferentiated.
  • All individuals underwent treatment with chemotherapy, radiation, or both.
  • CONCLUSION: Pelvic masses of unknown primary may be HPV-related despite normal cervical examinations.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / analysis. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / chemistry. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20966687.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-233X
  • [Journal-full-title] Obstetrics and gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16
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