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3. Deme D, Ragán M, Kalmár K, Kovács L, Varga E, Varga T, Rakonczai E: [Metastatic prostate cancer complicated with chronic disseminated intravascular coagulopathy causing acute renal failure, mimicking thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and hemolytic uremic syndrome: pathomechanism, differential diagnosis and therapy related to a case]. Magy Onkol; 2010 Dec;54(4):351-7
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  • [Title] [Metastatic prostate cancer complicated with chronic disseminated intravascular coagulopathy causing acute renal failure, mimicking thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and hemolytic uremic syndrome: pathomechanism, differential diagnosis and therapy related to a case].
  • Basically two types of DIC are distinguished:.
  • Chronic DIC related to metastatic neoplasia is caused by pancreatic, gastric or prostatic carcinoma in most of the cases.
  • In other words, chronic DIC is developed in one of eight patients with prostate cancer.
  • A 71 years old male patient with known chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, benign prostatic hyperplasia, significant carotid artery stenosis, gastric ulcer and alcoholic liver disease was admitted to another hospital with melena.
  • Physical examination revealed dyspnoe, petechiae, hemoptoe, oliguria, chest-wall pain and aggressive behavior.
  • Clotting analysis revealed elevated D-dimer (>5 μg/mL), normal fibrinogen (3.2 g/L), a slightly raised INR (1.36) and activated partial prothrombin time (APTT) (45.8 sec), normal reticulocyte (57 G/L) and a slightly low platelet count (123 G/L), which proved to be chronic DIC.
  • Therapeutic dose of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) was started.
  • Thrombocytopenia of uncertain origin with normal or raised INR, APTT, elevated D-dimer, normal fibrinogen and reticulocyte count prove the diagnosis of chronic DIC.
  • This process warrants searching for metastatic neoplasia.
  • Due to the relatively low serum levels of circulating procoagulant factors (e.g. tissue factor), therapeutic dose of LMWH can be used with good efficiency in chronic DIC with low risk of bleeding.
  • Severe DIC as a complication of metastatic prostate cancer can be treated by androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) or CAB in combination with ketokonazole and concomitant use of supportive treatment.
  • Metastatic prostate cancer complicated with chronic disseminated intravascular coagulopathy causing acute renal failure mimicking thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and hemolytic uremic syndrome: pathomechanism, differential diagnosis and therapy related to a case.
  • [MeSH-major] Acute Kidney Injury / etiology. Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation / diagnosis. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation / therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Chronic Disease. Diagnosis, Differential. Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome / diagnosis. Humans. Male. Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic / diagnosis


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4. Azad NS, Annunziata CM, Steinberg SM, Minasian L, Premkumar A, Chow C, Kotz HL, Kohn EC: Lack of reliability of CA125 response criteria with anti-VEGF molecularly targeted therapy. Cancer; 2008 Apr 15;112(8):1726-32
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  • [Title] Lack of reliability of CA125 response criteria with anti-VEGF molecularly targeted therapy.
  • BACKGROUND: CA125 is an accepted indicator of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) response and is used to monitor patients treated with cytotoxic chemotherapy.
  • It is uncertain how CA125 is affected by molecularly targeted drugs.
  • In this pilot study, the authors analyzed the utility of CA125 to predict disease behavior in patients who were receiving sorafenib, a Raf-kinase/VEGFR2 inhibitor, and bevacizumab, an anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody.
  • Computed tomography (CT) scans were performed every 2 cycles for restaging, and CA125 was measured monthly.
  • CA125 concentrations were retrospectively analyzed as a function of clinical behavior.
  • Three patients with objective partial response by imaging lasting >20, >22, and >24 cycles would have terminated treatment prematurely if CA125 had been used.
  • [MeSH-major] CA-125 Antigen / analysis. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor / antagonists & inhibitors. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / antagonists & inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Angiogenesis Inhibitors / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Benzenesulfonates / administration & dosage. Bevacizumab. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Niacinamide / analogs & derivatives. Phenylurea Compounds. Pilot Projects. Pyridines / administration & dosage. Remission Induction. Reproducibility of Results. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. raf Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • [CommentIn] Cancer. 2008 Nov 15;113(10):2832-3; author reply 2833-4 [18846540.001]
  • (PMID = 18300236.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzenesulfonates; 0 / CA-125 Antigen; 0 / Phenylurea Compounds; 0 / Pyridines; 0 / VEGFA protein, human; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 25X51I8RD4 / Niacinamide; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab; 9ZOQ3TZI87 / sorafenib; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor; EC 2.7.11.1 / raf Kinases
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5. Kerrigan SA, Turnnir RT, Clement PB, Young RH, Churg A: Diffuse malignant epithelial mesotheliomas of the peritoneum in women: a clinicopathologic study of 25 patients. Cancer; 2002 Jan 15;94(2):378-85
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  • [Title] Diffuse malignant epithelial mesotheliomas of the peritoneum in women: a clinicopathologic study of 25 patients.
  • BACKGROUND: The behavior of diffuse peritoneal mesotheliomas in women and the possible relation between tumor morphology and outcome are uncertain.
  • The authors examined the behavior of diffuse epithelial peritoneal mesotheliomas in women and the possible relation between pathologic features and outcome.
  • METHODS: Twenty-five female patients with diffuse peritoneal epithelial malignant mesotheliomas were divided into two groups: those who survived for < 4 years (60%) and those who survived for > 4 years (40%).
  • Both groups were compared in terms of age, presentation, treatment, survival, tumor architecture, mitotic rate, necrosis, nuclear grade, and immunohistochemical profile.
  • RESULTS: Patients in the two groups were similar in terms of age at diagnosis (median ages, 50.7 years and 49.9 years), presentation, initial tumor burden, and treatment.
  • Slightly less than 50% of patients in both groups received some form of chemotherapy or radiation therapy after undergoing tumor-reductive surgery or biopsy.
  • One patient was alive with disease 15 years after diagnosis.
  • However, because there do not appear to be morphologic features that reliably identify favorable tumors versus unfavorable tumors, aggressive therapy for all women with diffuse peritoneal mesotheliomas may be warranted.
  • [MeSH-major] Mesothelioma / pathology. Peritoneal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 11905410.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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6. Jedlicka P: Ewing Sarcoma, an enigmatic malignancy of likely progenitor cell origin, driven by transcription factor oncogenic fusions. Int J Clin Exp Pathol; 2010;3(4):338-47
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  • [Title] Ewing Sarcoma, an enigmatic malignancy of likely progenitor cell origin, driven by transcription factor oncogenic fusions.
  • Since its first description by James Ewing in 1921, Ewing Sarcoma has been a cryptic malignancy.
  • A poorly differentiated tumor of uncertain histogenesis and aggressive biologic behavior, it is the second most common malignancy of bone and soft tissue affecting adolescents and young adults.
  • Some two decades ago, the understanding of Ewing Sarcoma biology took a leap forward with the identification of recurrent EWS/Ets fusions, which drive onco-genesis in this disease.
  • A further leap forward occurred over the last half decade with the application of gene silencing, global expression profiling and primary cell culture technologies to the study of this disease.
  • Improved understanding of EWS/Ets biology and relevant oncogenic pathways has in turn led to the development of targeted therapies, including, recently, small molecules targeting key complexes involving the oncogenic fusion itself.
  • In many respects still remaining an enigma, Ewing Sarcoma is an important model for cancers originating in progenitor-type cells or manifesting progenitor-type cell features, and cancers containing recurrent oncogenic fusions, the latter a surprisingly expanding number.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bone Neoplasms / genetics. Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Gene Expression. Humans. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / drug therapy. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / genetics. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20490326.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-2625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical and experimental pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Clin Exp Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ets; 0 / RNA-Binding Protein EWS
  • [Number-of-references] 73
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2872742
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Ewing Sarcoma / fusion oncogene / progenitor cell / transcription factor
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7. Alvarez Kindelán J, López Beltrán A, Anglada Curado F, Moreno Arcas P, Carazo Carazo JL, Regueiro López JC, Leva Vallejo M, Prieto Castro R, Requena Tapia MJ: [Clinico-pathologic differences between bladder neoplasm with low malignant potential and low-grade carcinoma]. Actas Urol Esp; 2001 Oct;25(9):645-50
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  • [Title] [Clinico-pathologic differences between bladder neoplasm with low malignant potential and low-grade carcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Diferencias clínico-patológicas entre neoplasia vesical de bajo potencial maligno y carcinoma de bajo grado.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine if the morphologic subgrouping of grade I bladder tumors between papillary neoplasm of low malignant potential and low grade papillary carcinoma is of clinical and survival value.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: All 257 consecutive patients diagnosed of superficial bladder cancer between 1990 and 1995 in HU Reina Sofia of Cordoba were reviewed and further reclassified according to WHO/ISUP consensus classification of urothelial neoplasms of the bladder.
  • Of the tumors 12 were urothelial papilloma, 51 were papillary neoplasm of low malignant potential, 43 were low grade papillary carcinoma Ta, 65 were low grade papillary carcinoma T1 and 37 were high grade papillary carcinoma.
  • The differences in the multiplicity are not significant and only the mean size is higher in papillary low grade carcinoma.
  • About the risk factors for recurrence and progression of the disease, only is significative the tumor size.
  • Rarely, the use of chemotherapy seems to play a role in the recurrence.
  • There are no differences in recurrence and progression between the groups, although the percentages are always higher in the papillary low grade carcinoma group.
  • We think that the use of chemotherapy must be avoided in this low grade bladder tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 11765548.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-4806
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas urologicas espanolas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Urol Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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8. Yang F, Jin C, Long J, Yu XJ, Xu J, Di Y, Li J, Fu de L, Ni QX: Solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas: a case series of 26 consecutive patients. Am J Surg; 2009 Aug;198(2):210-5
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  • The aim of this study is to describe the clinicopathologic features and surgical management of this disease in our institution.
  • Clinicopathologic factors were compared between benign and malignant cases to determine what features of the tumor could suggest malignant potential.
  • The neoplasm was localized in the pancreatic head/neck in 14 patients and in the body/tail in 12 patients.
  • All of the tumors-including 8 pancreaticoduodenectomies, 10 distal pancreatectomies, 6 local resections, 1 total pancreatectomy, and 1 central pancreatectomy-were resected successfully.
  • No patient received chemotherapy or radiotherapy after surgery.
  • One of the 2 patients with malignant SPT, in whom Ki-67 immunoreactivity was >25%, developed local recurrence with liver metastasis 4 months and died 6 months after surgery.
  • There were no significant associations between clinicopathologic factors and malignancy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: SPT is a rare neoplasm with low malignant potential.
  • Characteristic computed axial tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans combined with age and sex profile should be sufficient for the decision to operate.
  • Patients with malignant SPT should have careful follow-up.
  • The high proliferative index assessed by immunohistochemical staining for Ki-67 may predict poor outcome of malignant SPT.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19268906.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1883
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Cheng L, Foster SR, MacLennan GT, Lopez-Beltran A, Zhang S, Montironi R: Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors of the genitourinary tract--single entity or continuum? J Urol; 2008 Oct;180(4):1235-40
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  • PURPOSE: Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the genitourinary tract is a spindled soft tissue lesion that is often mistaken for sarcoma.
  • We investigated whether inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors in adults and children are the same entity, and whether inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor is part of a biological spectrum that includes benign and malignant entities at opposite ends.
  • RESULTS: The literature suggests that with evidence of anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearrangement and expression, the lesion is neoplastic rather than reactive, differentiating it from previously described lesions.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the genitourinary tract should be considered a neoplasm of uncertain malignant potential, and routine surveillance and close clinical followup are recommended.
  • Aggressive therapy (radical cystectomy, radiation or chemotherapy) is unwarranted given the indolent and often benign clinical course for the majority of cases.
  • To understand the diagnostic and prognostic implications future emphasis should be placed on the link between genetic abnormalities, and clinical course, therapeutic response and ultimate outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Granuloma, Plasma Cell / pathology. Sarcoma / pathology. Urogenital Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Incidence. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Risk Assessment. Ureteral Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ureteral Neoplasms / pathology. Urethral Neoplasms / diagnosis. Urethral Neoplasms / pathology. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18707729.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-3792
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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10. Leydon GM: 'Yours is potentially serious but most of these are cured': optimistic communication in UK outpatient oncology consultations. Psychooncology; 2008 Nov;17(11):1081-8
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  • OBJECTIVE: To describe how experienced doctors discuss radiotherapy and chemotherapy with cancer patients about to undergo such treatment.
  • Participants included three experienced consultant oncologists and 27 patients diagnosed with cancer attending outpatient oncology consultations to discuss radiotherapy or chemotherapy.
  • RESULTS: Doctors repeatedly invoked optimism when discussing bad and uncertain information about radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • This was achieved by following relatively bad or uncertain information with some good information.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Doctors talked optimistically while sharing information about chemotherapy and radiotherapy with patients about to undergo such treatment.
  • Research indicates that patients want their doctors to openly share bad and uncertain information, but to do so sensitively.
  • Following uncertain or bad tidings with relatively better news was one way in which doctors delivered information honestly without diminishing opportunities for hope in the consultation room or optimism about the future.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Patient Education as Topic. Physician-Patient Relations. Truth Disclosure. Uncertainty
  • [MeSH-minor] Adaptation, Psychological. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Comprehension. Emotions. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Referral and Consultation. Semantics. Verbal Behavior

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 18711703.001).
  • [ISSN] 1099-1611
  • [Journal-full-title] Psycho-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Psychooncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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11. Torres Lobatón A, Cruz Ortiz H, Rojo Herrera G, Avila Medrano L: [Sarcomas of the vulva. Report of 2 cases]. Ginecol Obstet Mex; 2000 Oct;68:429-34
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  • [Transliterated title] Sarcomas de la vulva. Informe de dos casos.
  • The first case was a teenager of 14 years-old with a low grade leiomyosarcoma surgically treated.
  • Along a 22 years follow-up the disease has had four local recurrences of more than 5 cm each one: two after surgery and two after surgery plus chemotherapy and surgery plus radiotherapy respectively.
  • She is alive disease evidence after two years from the last combined treatment.
  • The second one, was a 26 years-old patient with a malignant schwannoma of 12 cm in diameter treated with combined radical surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy.
  • She is alive and without disease evidence 52 months after surgery.
  • Treatment of vulvar sarcomas is radical local excision followed mainly by radiotherapy with infiltrating margins.
  • The value of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy is uncertain.
  • According to the natural history and behavior of vulvar sarcomas, we conclude that the elective treatment of these tumors should be carry out in institutions of high level.
  • [MeSH-major] Leiomyosarcoma. Neurilemmoma. Vulvar Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Abdominal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Abdominal Neoplasms / secondary. Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bartholin's Glands. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Cystectomy. Cysts / diagnosis. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Dacarbazine / therapeutic use. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease-Free Survival. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Pelvic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pelvic Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Pelvic Neoplasms / secondary. Radioisotope Teletherapy. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / secondary. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 11138405.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9041
  • [Journal-full-title] Ginecología y obstetricia de México
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ginecol Obstet Mex
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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12. Theodoropoulos G, Wise WE, Padmanabhan A, Kerner BA, Taylor CW, Aguilar PS, Khanduja KS: T-level downstaging and complete pathologic response after preoperative chemoradiation for advanced rectal cancer result in decreased recurrence and improved disease-free survival. Dis Colon Rectum; 2002 Jul;45(7):895-903
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  • [Title] T-level downstaging and complete pathologic response after preoperative chemoradiation for advanced rectal cancer result in decreased recurrence and improved disease-free survival.
  • PURPOSE: Preoperative chemoradiation therapy is used widely in the treatment of rectal cancer.
  • The predictive value of response to neoadjuvant remains uncertain.
  • We retrospectively evaluated the impact of response to preoperative and, specifically, of T-level downstaging, nodal downstaging, and complete pathologic response after chemoradiation therapy on oncologic outcome of patients with locally advanced rectal cancer.
  • METHODS: There were 88 patients with ultrasound Stage T3/T4 midrectal (n = 37) and low rectal (n = 51) cancers (63 males; mean age 62.6 years).
  • All patients were treated by preoperative 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy and pelvic radiation followed by surgical resection in six weeks or longer (56 sphincter-preserving resections).
  • RESULTS: T-level downstaging after neoadjuvant treatment was demonstrated in 36 (41 percent) of 88 patients, and complete pathologic response was observed in 16 (18 percent) of the 88.
  • Patients with T-level downstaging and complete pathologic response were characterized by significantly better disease-free survival (P = 0.03, P = 0.04) and better overall survival (P = 0.07, P = 0.08), according to Wilcoxon's test comparing Kaplan-Meier survival curves.
  • None of the patients with complete pathologic response developed recurrence or died during the follow-up period.
  • CONCLUSION: T-level downstaging and complete pathologic response after preoperative chemoradiation therapy followed by definitive surgical resection for advanced rectal cancer resulted in decreased recurrence and improved disease-free survival.
  • Advanced rectal cancers that undergo T-level downstaging and complete pathologic response after chemoradiation therapy may represent subgroups that are characterized by better biologic behavior.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Rectal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Rectal Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Preoperative Care. Remission Induction. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12130878.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3706
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the colon and rectum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Colon Rectum
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Malpica A, Deavers MT, Gershenson D, Tortolero-Luna G, Silva EG: Serous tumors involving extra-abdominal/extra-pelvic sites after the diagnosis of an ovarian serous neoplasm of low malignant potential. Am J Surg Pathol; 2001 Aug;25(8):988-96
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  • [Title] Serous tumors involving extra-abdominal/extra-pelvic sites after the diagnosis of an ovarian serous neoplasm of low malignant potential.
  • The involvement of extra-abdominal/extra-pelvic sites by serous tumors after the diagnosis of an ovarian serous neoplasm of low malignant potential is extremely rare.
  • Ten patients also received adjuvant therapy (radiotherapy, 2; chemotherapy and radiotherapy, 4; chemotherapy, 3; intraperitoneal 32P, 1).
  • The interval between the diagnosis of the ovarian neoplasm and the subsequent tumor involving an extra-abdominal/extra-pelvic site ranged from 4 to 240 months (mean 124 months).
  • Eight patients were treated with chemotherapy, 1 with radiotherapy, 2 with chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and 1 with surgery alone.
  • Six patients died of disease and 5 patients were alive with no evidence of disease.
  • In this small series of cases, no definitive clinical or pathologic feature related to the occurrence of extra-abdominal/extra-pelvic serous tumors was found.
  • Based on the LN involvement and the endosalpingiosis seen in some cases, these tumors might develop from circulating neoplastic serous cells or from areas of endosalpingiosis involving extra-abdominal/extra-pelvic sites.
  • [MeSH-major] Cystadenocarcinoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 11474282.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. De Munnynck K, Van Gool S, Van Calenbergh F, Demaerel P, Uyttebroeck A, Buyse G, Sciot R: Desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma: a potentially malignant tumor? Am J Surg Pathol; 2002 Nov;26(11):1515-22
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  • [Title] Desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma: a potentially malignant tumor?
  • Desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma is a rare intracranial tumor of early childhood with a usually excellent prognosis despite malignant features both radiologically and histologically.
  • A combination of vincristine and carboplatinum was used according to the Low Grade Glioma Protocol of the International Society of Pediatric Oncology, with a temporary good response.
  • When histologically characterized by highly anaplastic features, it seems the biologic behavior of this tumor remains uncertain.
  • The aggressive behavior and the responsiveness to chemotherapy in this case may challenge the belief in the benign nature of these rare tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Ganglioglioma / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Brain / pathology. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Child, Preschool. Desmin. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Vincristine / administration & dosage


15. Celikel C, Yumuk PF, Basaran G, Yildizeli B, Kodalli N, Ahiskali R: Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma with multiple organ involvement. APMIS; 2007 Jul;115(7):881-8
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  • Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma is a rare vascular neoplasm of uncertain malignant potential.
  • The concurrent involvement of multiple sites at presentation may cause diagnostic problems because epithelioid hemangioendothelioma can mimic other neoplastic processes.
  • Although it is a chemo-resistant disease, chemotherapy is usually advised for patients with metastatic or concurrent involvement.
  • Here we document the presentation, treatment, and outcome of two cases with concurrent involvement of the lung and liver.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioendothelioma, Epithelioid / radiography. Liver Neoplasms / radiography. Lung Neoplasms / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17614859.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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16. Kommoss F, Kommoss S, Eichhorn J, Schmidt D: [Transitional cell carcinoma of the ovary. Morphological and clinical features]. Pathologe; 2007 May;28(3):209-14
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  • Transitional cell carcinoma of the ovary (TCC-O) is a less common type of malignant surface epithelial-stromal tumor of the ovary, still with uncertain incidence.
  • TCC-O may not be a bona fide urothelial neoplasm, however, but rather a lesion of the Müllerian type derived from the ovarian surface epithelium.
  • This notion is supported by the existence of mixed tumors consisting of TCC-O and other histological types of ovarian carcinoma, as well as the observation that TCC-O has a Müllerian type but not a urothelial-like immunohistochemical profile.
  • Besides metastatic urothelial carcinoma of the urinary tract, the other types of ovarian carcinoma, as well as sex cord-stromal tumors such as adult granulosa cell tumors, have to be considered in the differential diagnosis of TCC-O.
  • A recent analysis of a large series of advanced ovarian carcinomas treated by radical surgery and postoperative chemotherapy confirms studies that had suggested that TCC-O has a better prognosis (with current treatment) than that of the other histological types of ovarian carcinoma.
  • Further studies applying standardized histopathological criteria are needed to clarify the true incidence and behavior of TCC-O.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • [Cites] Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1993 Apr;168(4):1178-85; discussion 1185-7 [8475964.001]
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  • (PMID = 17447068.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-8113
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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17. Ruoppolo M, Pezzica E, Milesi R, Corti D, Mercurio P, Fragapane G: [Neuroendocrine small-cell bladder cancer: our experience]. Urologia; 2010 Oct-Dec;77 Suppl 17:64-71
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  • Small-cell carcinoma is an epithelial tumor associated with a more aggressive behavior and poorer prognosis than transitional cell bladder carcinoma.
  • At the time of presentation 59% of patients have clinical stage >T2 and 56% show metastatic disease.
  • Local advanced disease was present in all the cases with stage >T2, metastatic disease in 1 case, lymph node involvement and ureteral bilateral obstruction in 2.
  • Platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy was proposed but only two patients received the treatment.
  • All of the three patients died of metastatic disease at 5, 7, and 13 months.
  • The most common site of relapse and spread of disease was the peritoneum and intestinal tract, and the reason of death was uncontrolled acute hemorrhage from gastro-intestinal district.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of a prospective study, and because of the rarity of the disease, the best treatment for small-cell bladder cancer remains uncertain.
  • Neoadjuvant chemotherapy with platinum regimen plus aggressive surgical approach will be the treatment of choice.
  • The association of chemotherapy and radiotherapy should also be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Cystectomy. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Disease Progression. Fatal Outcome. Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / etiology. Hematuria / etiology. Humans. Intestinal Neoplasms / complications. Intestinal Neoplasms / secondary. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Second Primary. Peritoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Prostatic Neoplasms. Stomach Neoplasms. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 21308678.001).
  • [ISSN] 1724-6075
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologia
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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18. Malpica A, Deavers MT, Lu K, Bodurka DC, Atkinson EN, Gershenson DM, Silva EG: Grading ovarian serous carcinoma using a two-tier system. Am J Surg Pathol; 2004 Apr;28(4):496-504
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  • The study included 50 cases of low-grade ovarian serous carcinoma and 50 cases of high-grade ovarian serous carcinoma retrieved from the files of the Department of Pathology at the University of Texas M. D.
  • Cases assigned to the low-grade category were characterized by the presence of mild to moderate nuclear atypia.
  • Patients in the low-grade ovarian serous carcinoma group ranged in age from 19 to 75 years (mean 41.7 years) while patients in the high-grade ovarian serous carcinoma group ranged in age from 27 to 76 years (mean 55 years).
  • Using the Shimizu/Silverberg system, the low-grade ovarian serous carcinoma cases were distributed as follows: grade 1, 47 cases; grade 2, 3 cases.
  • Most of the patients in both groups were treated with total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and also received cisplatinum-based chemotherapy.
  • On follow-up, 37 patients in the low-grade ovarian serous carcinoma group had died of disease at a median 4.2 years after diagnosis compared with 46 patients in the high-grade ovarian serous carcinoma group who died of disease at a median of 1.7 years.
  • Eight patients in the low-grade ovarian serous carcinoma group and 4 patients in the high-grade ovarian serous carcinoma group were alive with disease at median follow-ups of 4.3 and 3.85 years, respectively.
  • Four patients with low-grade serous carcinoma were alive without evidence of disease after a follow-up that ranged from 4.4 to 22.6 years (median 6.85 years), and one died of other causes 14 years after the diagnosis of her ovarian tumor.
  • Of interest, 60% of the low-grade ovarian serous carcinomas in this study were associated with a serous neoplasm of low malignant potential, whereas this association was present in only 2% of the high-grade ovarian serous carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15087669.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Zavadil M, Feyereisl J, Safár P, Pán M: [Undifferentiated choriocarcinoma--epithelioid trophoblastic tumors treated at the Center for Trophoblastic Diseases in the Czech Republic 1955-2003]. Ceska Gynekol; 2003 Nov;68(6):420-6
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  • OBJECTIVE: The clinical-pathological picture, pathogenesis, biological behavior and therapy of epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (ETT) alias undifferentiated choriocarcinoma (CH-Ned).
  • SETTING: Trophoblastic Disease Center in the Czech Republic (TDC-CZ), Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 3rd Medical Faculty, Charles University, Institute for the Care of Mother and Child, Prague.
  • METHODS: The identification of all tumors complying with histopathological criteria of ETT-CHNed among 372 malignant tumors of trophoblast (MTT), treated at TDC-CZ in the years 1955-2003.
  • Their morphological analysis was done from the standpoint of formal pathogenesis, correlation with clinical picture, laboratory and therapeutic results.
  • RESULTS: Among 372 malignant tumors of trophoblast (MTT) we detected 25 ETT-CHNed.
  • In 18 cases (72%) the tumor displayed gynecological symptomatology, in 7 cases (28%) a non-gynecological one (pulmonary 3 times, thyroid once, CNS once, GIT once, mamma once).
  • In the case history there was delivery in 10 cases, abortion in eight, mola hydatiosa completa twice, anamnesis was uncertain once and extra-uterine pregnancy was suspected also once.
  • The interval between pregnancy and established diagnosis was in the range of one to 64 months.
  • The ETT-CHNed diagnosis was established 18 times from curettage of endometrium, six times from biopsies of organs considered as primary localization of the tumor and once during post mortem examination.
  • In the first period (1955-1963) before introduction of chemotherapy all five patients died (100%) in the range of 4 months to 3 years.
  • In the third period (1981-2003), hysterectomy with subsequent polychemotherapy resulted in complete remission from two to 18 years in 9 out of 11 women (82%), while in two cases with absent ETT-CHNed in uterus the intervention was limited to tumor extirpation in the lung or mamma with subsequent treatment with chemotherapy.
  • Their clinical-pathological analysis revealed that ETT-CHNed is a malignant tumor, which is not less aggressive than choriocarcinoma (CH-NST).
  • It represents a less differentiated form of MTT, becoming manifest in a low production of hCG.
  • There are differentiated transitions between ETT-CHNed and CH-NST, which are analogous to grading of other malignant epithelial tumors.
  • Hysterectomy with subsequent intensive chemotherapy decreased the original 100% mortality in the years 1955-1963 to 18.1% in the years 1980-2003.

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  • (PMID = 15042852.001).
  • [ISSN] 1210-7832
  • [Journal-full-title] Ceska gynekologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ceska Gynekol
  • [Language] CZE
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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20. Khoury JD, Jones D, Yared MA, Manning JT Jr, Abruzzo LV, Hagemeister FB, Medeiros LJ: Bone marrow involvement in patients with nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2004 Apr;28(4):489-95
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  • Of 275 patients diagnosed as lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma at our institution (1983-2003), we identified 7 patients with purely nodular disease in the diagnostic lymph node biopsy specimen who also had bone marrow involvement.
  • The latter was detected at the time of initial diagnosis in four patients, after one cycle of chemotherapy in one patient, and at relapse in two patients.
  • All patients had laboratory, radiologic, and/or morphologic evidence of aggressive disease at the time of detection of bone marrow involvement.
  • At last follow-up, four patients had died of their disease and three were alive following therapy.
  • Bone marrow involvement is associated with laboratory, radiologic, or morphologic evidence of aggressive disease and poor prognosis.
  • Although the best terminology for these bone marrow lymphomas is uncertain, the aggressive clinical behavior of these neoplasms supports the need for intensive therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow Neoplasms / pathology. Hodgkin Disease / pathology. Lymphocytes

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  • (PMID = 15087668.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Ferrari A, Casanova M, Bisogno G, Cecchetto G, Meazza C, Gandola L, Garaventa A, Mattke A, Treuner J, Carli M: Malignant vascular tumors in children and adolescents: a report from the Italian and German Soft Tissue Sarcoma Cooperative Group. Med Pediatr Oncol; 2002 Aug;39(2):109-14
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  • [Title] Malignant vascular tumors in children and adolescents: a report from the Italian and German Soft Tissue Sarcoma Cooperative Group.
  • BACKGROUND: Malignant vascular tumors are extremely rare in childhood and few data on their clinical management are available.
  • We report on a series of 18 children who had malignant vascular tumors, treated from 1980 to 2000 by the Italian and German Soft Tissue Sarcoma Cooperative Group.
  • PROCEDURE: Twelve patients had angiosarcoma, four had malignant hemangioendothelioma, and two had Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • Surgical resection was completed in six cases; radiotherapy was administered to 6 children, and chemotherapy to 14.
  • Response to chemotherapy was evaluable in nine cases and was: six no response, two partial remission, one complete remission.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Angiosarcoma and related malignant vascular tumors are aggressive neoplasms with a poor prognosis; their behavior in children seems no different from their adult counterparts.
  • Complete surgical resection remains the mainstay of treatment, but is probably sufficient in only a minority of cases.
  • The role of chemotherapy is uncertain, but the high rate of metastatic spread prompts investigation into new chemotherapeutic approaches.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Vascular Tissue / pathology. Sarcoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Clinical Trials as Topic. Germany. Hemangioendothelioma / pathology. Hemangiosarcoma / pathology. Humans. Infant. Italy. Prognosis. Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 12116058.001).
  • [ISSN] 0098-1532
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical and pediatric oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Pediatr. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Jeibmann A, Hasselblatt M, Pfister S, Sträter R, Brentrup A, Holling M, Niederstadt T, Paulus W, Frühwald MC: From glioblastoma to gangliocytoma: an unforeseen but welcome shift in biological behavior. J Neurosurg Pediatr; 2009 Nov;4(5):475-8
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  • [Title] From glioblastoma to gangliocytoma: an unforeseen but welcome shift in biological behavior.
  • Few GBMs in children, however, seem to respond quite well to adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • The biological basis for such chemotherapy sensitivity remains uncertain.
  • In this paper the authors report the case of a 2-month-old girl with a histologically confirmed GBM (WHO Grade IV) in whom chemotherapy was accompanied by differentiation of the malignant primary tumor into a typical gangliocytoma (WHO Grade I) showing ganglioid differentiation and expression of neuronal markers synaptophysin, neurofilament, and NeuN as well as a low Ki 67/MIB-1 proliferation index.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Ganglioneuroma / pathology. Ganglioneuroma / therapy. Glioblastoma / pathology. Glioblastoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, Nuclear / metabolism. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Cell Differentiation. Cell Proliferation. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Hydrocephalus / pathology. Infant. Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism. Neurofilament Proteins / metabolism. Neurosurgical Procedures. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Synaptophysin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19877783.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0715
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery. Pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosurg Pediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Nuclear; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Neurofilament Proteins; 0 / Synaptophysin; 0 / neuronal nuclear antigen NeuN, human; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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24. Zaino R, Whitney C, Brady MF, DeGeest K, Burger RA, Buller RE: Simultaneously detected endometrial and ovarian carcinomas--a prospective clinicopathologic study of 74 cases: a gynecologic oncology group study. Gynecol Oncol; 2001 Nov;83(2):355-62
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  • It is often unclear whether this represents synchronous primary tumors or metastasis from endometrium to ovary, or from ovary to endometrium; consequently, staging, therapy, and expected outcome are uncertain.
  • The Gynecologic Oncology Group sought to study patients with simultaneously detected adenocarcinomas in the endometrium and ovary with disease grossly confined to the pelvis to explore the possible correlation among discrete tumor subsets, natural history, and survival.
  • All were initially treated with total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and staging laparotomy, with radiation and chemotherapy left to the discretion of the treating physician and patient.
  • Fifteen pathologic variables were examined to identify differences in tumor behavior.
  • The histologic grades of ovarian and uterine tumors also distinguished groups of patients with different probabilities of recurrence at 5 years: 8.0% (95% CI: 2.8-21.3%) for those patients with no more than grade 1 disease at either site and 22.4% (95% CI: 11.8-38.4%) for those with a higher grade in either the ovary or the endometrium (hazard ratio = 3.1, P = 0.047).
  • CONCLUSION: The prognosis for women with simultaneously detected carcinomas in the uterus and ovary with gross disease confined to the pelvis is surprisingly good, particularly for those with disease microscopically limited to the uterus and ovary or of low histologic grade.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Prognosis. Prospective Studies

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
  • (PMID = 11606097.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 12482; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 12534; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 13630; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 15975; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 16386; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 16938; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 19502; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 21720; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 21946; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 23501; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 23765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 37535; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 37569; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 40296
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Silva EG, Gershenson DM, Malpica A, Deavers M: The recurrence and the overall survival rates of ovarian serous borderline neoplasms with noninvasive implants is time dependent. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Nov;30(11):1367-71
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  • [Title] The recurrence and the overall survival rates of ovarian serous borderline neoplasms with noninvasive implants is time dependent.
  • Ovarian serous borderline neoplasm with noninvasive implants traditionally have been considered to be nonaggressive tumors associated with an excellent prognosis.
  • Eighty cases of advanced-stage ovarian serous borderline tumor with noninvasive implants were identified; the minimum follow-up period for these cases was 5 years or until the death of the patient.
  • The following cases were excluded: patients treated by cystectomy, patients who died of other causes, patients who developed other tumors, and patients who had as the only positive material after resection of the primary borderline neoplasm a tumor detected on a second look or third look operation.
  • Slides of the recurrent tumor were available in all cases except for 2 in which the diagnosis was established clinically.
  • After surgery, 58 patients were treated with chemotherapy, 7 with radiotherapy, and 1 with hormonal therapy.
  • Thirty-five patients (44%) developed recurrences.
  • Only 10% of the patients had a recurrence in less than 5 years, 19% had their recurrences between 5 and 10 years, 10% between 10 and 15 years, and 5% more than 15 years after resection of the primary neoplasm.
  • Of the 35 patients who had a recurrence, 2 were diagnosed clinically, both are alive with progressive disease at 1 and 5 years after the diagnosis of the recurrence; 6 had recurrent serous borderline tumors, all are without evidence of disease with a follow-up ranging from 7 to 18 years after resection of the ovarian borderline tumor (median 14 y); and 27 patients subsequently developed low-grade serous carcinoma, 7 are alive with progressive disease with a follow-up ranging from 10 to 29 years (median 15 y) and 20 died of disease between 3 to 25 years after resection of the ovarian borderline tumor (median 16 y).
  • In summary, the true recurrence rate of ovarian serous borderline tumors with noninvasive implants can only be obtained through a long follow-up.
  • In this group of patients, 77% and 34% of the subsequent tumors developed 5 years and 10 years after diagnosis of the ovarian tumor, respectively.
  • Histologic examination of the recurrent tumor is important in determining further therapy and prognosis for these patients; all patients who recurred with borderline tumor are without evidence of disease, whereas 74% of the patients who recurred with low-grade serous carcinoma died of disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Ovarian Neoplasms / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures. Humans. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy. Survival Rate. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 17063075.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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26. Casper ES: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Curr Treat Options Oncol; 2000 Aug;1(3):267-73
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  • The nonepithelial, nonlymphoid tumors of the gastrointestinal tract are heterogeneous in terms of clinical presentation, behavior, pathology, and genetic features.
  • Many of these tumors have no muscle differentiation, and designations such as leiomyoma or leiomyosarcoma are inappropriate for many of these neoplasms.
  • Both benign and malignant types are recognized.
  • Complete en bloc surgical resection, when possible, is the cornerstone of therapy.
  • Incomplete surgical resection and metastatic disease indicate a dismal prognosis in the majority of patients.
  • Recurrent or metastatic disease is often resected, but this has an uncertain impact on outcome.
  • For patients with unresectable disease, the results with systemic chemotherapy have been dismal.
  • Treatment with doxorubicin/ifosfamide combinations is of dubious value.
  • Hepatic arterial embolization, with and without intra-arterial chemotherapy, results in regression of liver metastases in selected patients.
  • The impact of such treatment on outcome, however, is poorly studied.
  • Aggressive surgical resection of peritoneal metastases with intraperitoneal chemotherapy has been advocated, but requires formal study in large trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Clinical Trials as Topic. Humans. Radiotherapy. Stromal Cells / pathology. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 12057170.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-2729
  • [Journal-full-title] Current treatment options in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Treat Options Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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27. Bergmann F, Breinig M, Höpfner M, Rieker RJ, Fischer L, Köhler C, Esposito I, Kleeff J, Herpel E, Ehemann V, Friess H, Schirmacher P, Kern MA: Expression pattern and functional relevance of epidermal growth factor receptor and cyclooxygenase-2: novel chemotherapeutic targets in pancreatic endocrine tumors? Am J Gastroenterol; 2009 Jan;104(1):171-81
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  • OBJECTIVES: Pancreatic endocrine tumors represent morphologically and biologically heterogeneous neoplasms.
  • Well-differentiated endocrine tumors (benign or of uncertain behavior) can be distinguished from well-differentiated and poorly differentiated endocrine carcinomas.
  • Although many well-differentiated endocrine carcinomas show rather low rates of tumor growth, more than two-thirds of pancreatic endocrine carcinomas display distant metastases at the time of diagnosis.
  • As the currently applied therapies beyond surgery only achieve partial or complete response rates of approximately 15%, additional chemotherapeutic targets are needed, especially in the therapy of inoperable and progressive pancreatic endocrine carcinomas.
  • RESULTS: The expression of EGFR correlated significantly with the grade of malignancy, increasing from low rates of expression in benign tumors and tumors of uncertain behavior to high rates of expression in well- and poorly differentiated endocrine carcinomas.
  • The expression of COX-2 was independent of the malignant potential, but was more frequently expressed in primary tumors than in metastases.
  • The treatment of the human pancreas carcinoid cell line BON and the mouse insulinoma cell line beta-TC-3 with EGFR and COX-2 inhibitors (monotherapy and combined therapy) resulted in a significant, dose-dependent reduction of cell viability coupled with increased apoptosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclooxygenase 2 / metabolism. Pancreatic Neoplasms / metabolism. Pyrazoles / therapeutic use. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism. Sulfonamides / therapeutic use. Tyrphostins / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Animals. Apoptosis / drug effects. Blotting, Western. Carcinoid Tumor / metabolism. Celecoxib. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival / drug effects. Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Insulinoma / metabolism. Male. Mice. Mice, Transgenic. Middle Aged. Quinazolines. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19098866.001).
  • [ISSN] 1572-0241
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors; 0 / Pyrazoles; 0 / Quinazolines; 0 / Sulfonamides; 0 / Tyrphostins; 170449-18-0 / tyrphostin AG 1478; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; JCX84Q7J1L / Celecoxib
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28. Carretta A, Ceresoli GL, Arrigoni G, Canneto B, Reni M, Cigala C, Zannini P: Diagnostic and therapeutic management of neuroendocrine lung tumors: a clinical study of 44 cases. Lung Cancer; 2000 Sep;29(3):217-25
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  • [Title] Diagnostic and therapeutic management of neuroendocrine lung tumors: a clinical study of 44 cases.
  • Neuroendocrine tumors of the lung (NTL) are a distinct subset of tumors with a wide range of histological patterns and clinical behavior.
  • Controversy still exists as to the ideal diagnostic and therapeutic approach to these neoplasms.
  • A series of 44 consecutive NTL patients operated on at our Institution was retrospectively reviewed in order to critically analyze the diagnostic and therapeutic management.
  • A preoperative diagnosis was obtained in 11 patients (25%).
  • Pathological diagnosis was typical carcinoid (TC) tumor in 36 cases, atypical carcinoid (AC) in three and large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) in five.
  • One patient had preoperative chemotherapy.
  • Median follow-up time was 40 months for TC and 51.5 months for AC/LCNEC.
  • Recurrence of disease was observed in three patients with TC and in two with AC/LCNEC.
  • In conclusion, our study confirms findings in the literature showing that TC and AC/LCNEC are clinically different, and that a differential preoperative diagnosis and treatment is necessary.
  • Surgery, with anatomical resection and lymphoadenectomy, remains the treatment of choice in all these tumors.
  • Laser treatment should be considered only as a palliative procedure or as a complementary technique to surgery.
  • The role of adjuvant treatments in AC and LCNEC is uncertain and should be evaluated in larger trials.
  • The prognostic role of biological factors such as cytometry and genetic markers requires further investigation before any definitive conclusions can be drawn.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Neuroendocrine Tumors / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 10996424.001).
  • [ISSN] 0169-5002
  • [Journal-full-title] Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] IRELAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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