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1. Field EA, Allan RB: Review article: oral ulceration--aetiopathogenesis, clinical diagnosis and management in the gastrointestinal clinic. Aliment Pharmacol Ther; 2003 Nov 15;18(10):949-62
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  • [Title] Review article: oral ulceration--aetiopathogenesis, clinical diagnosis and management in the gastrointestinal clinic.
  • Oral ulceration is a common complaint of patients attending out-patient clinics.
  • The aim of this review is to provide the gastroenterologist with a differential diagnosis of oral ulceration, and a practical guide for the management of recurrent aphthous stomatitis, including topical and systemic therapy.
  • Recent evidence concerning the immunopathogenesis of Behçet's disease is reviewed, including renewed interest in the role of Streptococcus sanguis and possible infectious triggering of an inappropriate immunoinflammatory response, resulting in tissue damage.
  • The efficacy and limitations of conventional treatment for this mutisystem disorder are outlined together with the potential role of novel biological agents, such as anti-tumour necrosis factor-alpha therapy.
  • Oral ulceration, as a manifestation of inflammatory bowel disease and a complication of drug therapy, is described.
  • Guidance is given concerning indications for referral of patients with oral ulceration to an oral physician/surgeon for further investigations, including biopsy if appropriate.
  • [MeSH-minor] Behcet Syndrome / etiology. Behcet Syndrome / pathology. Behcet Syndrome / therapy. Gastrointestinal Diseases / complications. Humans. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases / etiology. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases / pathology. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases / therapy. Recurrence. Stomatitis, Aphthous / etiology. Stomatitis, Aphthous / pathology. Stomatitis, Aphthous / therapy. Stomatitis, Herpetic / etiology. Stomatitis, Herpetic / therapy

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  • (PMID = 14616160.001).
  • [ISSN] 0269-2813
  • [Journal-full-title] Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 84
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2. Travis SP, Czajkowski M, McGovern DP, Watson RG, Bell AL: Treatment of intestinal Behçet's syndrome with chimeric tumour necrosis factor alpha antibody. Gut; 2001 Nov;49(5):725-8
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  • [Title] Treatment of intestinal Behçet's syndrome with chimeric tumour necrosis factor alpha antibody.
  • Few patients with Behçet's syndrome have gastrointestinal ulceration.
  • Faced with refractory symptoms in two patients with intestinal Behçet's, we used the tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) monoclonal antibody infliximab to induce remission.
  • Both women (one aged 27 years, the other 30 years) presented with orogenital ulceration, pustular rash, abdominal pain, bloody diarrhoea due to colonic ulceration, weight loss, and synovitis.
  • Treatment with prednisolone, methyl prednisolone, and thalidomide in one and prednisolone, colchicine, and cyclosporin in the other was ineffective.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Behcet Syndrome / drug therapy. Gastrointestinal Agents / therapeutic use. Intestinal Diseases / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Infliximab. Remission Induction. Steroids. Thalidomide / therapeutic use. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11600479.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-5749
  • [Journal-full-title] Gut
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gut
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Gastrointestinal Agents; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / Steroids; 4Z8R6ORS6L / Thalidomide; B72HH48FLU / Infliximab
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1728519
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3. Leung PC, Wong MW, Wong WC: Limb salvage in extensive diabetic foot ulceration: an extended study using a herbal supplement. Hong Kong Med J; 2008 Feb;14(1):29-33
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  • [Title] Limb salvage in extensive diabetic foot ulceration: an extended study using a herbal supplement.
  • OBJECTIVE: To further study the clinical value of a herbal supplement in the treatment of chronic foot ulcers in diabetic patients.
  • INTERVENTIONS: Clinical measures included standard antidiabetic treatment, daily wound care including antiseptic bath, debridement, toe removal for gangrene when necessary, and the daily consumption of a herbal drink or placebo.
  • Secondary outcomes included: granulation maturation, local temperature and circulatory changes, tumour necrosis factor-alpha levels, and adverse events.
  • Among the early failures, three each came from the treatment and placebo groups.
  • After shifting to herbal treatment (without unblinding of the original treatment), all were rescued in those initially assigned to herbal concoction (6 out of 6) while only 50% (6 out of 12) were rescued from among those initially assigned to placebo.
  • The speed of granulation maturation, and decline in tumour necrosis factor-alpha levels indicating control of inflammation, were also more favourable with the herbal group.
  • CONCLUSION: The herbal adjuvant therapy was effective in helping the healing of chronic diabetic ulcers.

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  • (PMID = 18239240.001).
  • [ISSN] 1024-2708
  • [Journal-full-title] Hong Kong medical journal = Xianggang yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hong Kong Med J
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Drugs, Chinese Herbal
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4. Oguri H, Izumiya C, Maeda N, Fukaya T, Moriki T: A primary amelanotic melanoma of the vagina, diagnosed by immunohistochemical staining with HMB-45, which recurred as a pigmented melanoma. J Clin Pathol; 2004 Sep;57(9):986-8
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  • This report describes a case of amelanotic melanoma of the vagina, which was originally suspected to be a non-epithelial malignant tumour, but was subsequently correctly diagnosed by immunohistochemical staining with the HMB-45 antibody and for the S-100 protein.
  • A light grey tumour with superficial ulceration was located in the upper third of the vagina.
  • The patient was treated with irradiation followed by chemotherapy.
  • Subsequently, the tumour disappeared and cytology was negative; thus, she achieved complete remission.
  • However, 20 months after complete remission, the tumour recurred locally: the site had a grossly black appearance, which was pathognomonic for a malignant melanoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, Neoplasm. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins. S100 Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 15333663.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / S100 Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 9
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1770413
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5. Sim HL, Tan KY, Poon PL, Cheng A: Primary rectal signet ring cell carcinoma with peritoneal dissemination and gastric secondaries. World J Gastroenterol; 2008 Apr 7;14(13):2118-20
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  • Colonoscopy showed a stenosing rectal tumour at 7 cm to 8 cm from the anal verge.
  • Gastroscopy showed multiple nodules with ulceration over several areas of the stomach which were similar in appearance to the colonic lesions.
  • However, no primary tumour of the stomach was seen.
  • Computed tomography scan of the abdomen and pelvis revealed circumferential tumour at the rectosigmoid junction with possible invasion into the left ischiorectal fossa.
  • The patient was referred for palliative chemotherapy in view of the disseminated disease.
  • In the present report, we discuss this interesting pathological entity and review the role of various histolological techniques in helping to identify the primary tumor.

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  • (PMID = 18395918.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2701538
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6. Ramprasath VR, Shanthi P, Sachdanandam P: Immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of Semecarpus anacardium LINN. Nut milk extract in experimental inflammatory conditions. Biol Pharm Bull; 2006 Apr;29(4):693-700

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  • Immunomodulatory effects of Semecarpus anacardium LINN. nut milk extract (SA) were investigated in adjuvant induced arthritis by studying the alterations in humoral and cell mediated immune responses and also the anti-inflammatory effects by evaluating the changes in paw edema, tumour necrosis factor (TNF-alpha), nitric oxide and myeloperoxidase activities.
  • Pharmacological studies were also conducted with SA and indomethacin on experimental animals for evaluating the anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and ulcerogenic activities.
  • The alterations in the humoral and cell mediated immunity were significantly reverted back to near normal levels on treatment with SA.
  • The drug significantly reduced the elevation in the paw edema, TNF-alpha, nitric oxide and myeloperoxidase levels when compared with adjuvant induced arthritic animals, which shows the anti-inflammatory activity of the drug.
  • The drug also elicited antipyretic action in yeast-induced hyperemia in rats.
  • In addition, the extract did not produce any ulceration on gastric mucosa during ulcerogenic test and did not produce any serious adverse effects.
  • All these effects are nearly similar to the activities of indomethacin except the ulceration where indomethacin produced significant ulceration.
  • From this study, the protective immunological and pharmacological role of SA is demonstrated.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / pharmacology. Immunologic Factors / pharmacology. Inflammation / drug therapy. Semecarpus / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Analgesics / pharmacology. Analgesics, Non-Narcotic / pharmacology. Animals. Antibody Formation / drug effects. Arthritis, Experimental / drug therapy. Arthritis, Experimental / pathology. Edema / chemically induced. Edema / pathology. Edema / prevention & control. Immunity, Cellular / drug effects. Immunoglobulins / metabolism. Lymphoid Tissue / drug effects. Male. Mice. Nuts / chemistry. Organ Size / drug effects. Pain Measurement / drug effects. Peroxidase / metabolism. Plant Extracts / pharmacology. Plant Extracts / toxicity. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Stomach Ulcer / chemically induced. Stomach Ulcer / pathology. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16595901.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-6158
  • [Journal-full-title] Biological & pharmaceutical bulletin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biol. Pharm. Bull.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Analgesics; 0 / Analgesics, Non-Narcotic; 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Immunoglobulins; 0 / Immunologic Factors; 0 / Plant Extracts; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; EC 1.11.1.7 / Peroxidase
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7. Kirkwood JM, Tarhini AA: Adjuvant high-dose interferon-alpha therapy for high-risk melanoma. Forum (Genova); 2003;13(2):127-40; quiz 187-8
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  • [Title] Adjuvant high-dose interferon-alpha therapy for high-risk melanoma.
  • Survival in melanoma varies widely by stage, and is affected by a number of prognostic factors including tumour thickness, ulceration and lymph node involvement.
  • New AJCC staging criteria adopted in the 6(th) edition reflect the prognostic value of tumour ulceration, the number of positive lymph nodes as a better prognostic indicator than the size of nodal metastasis, and the similar prognostic value provided by nodal, in-transit and local recurrences.
  • The urgency to the effort to develop effective therapy for melanoma has led to a wide variety of approaches that have been tested over the years in the high-risk adjuvant setting.
  • Among the many therapeutic modalities tested, the only agent that has shown a significant and reproducible benefit in terms of survival and relapse-free interval has been high-dose interferon-alpha2b.
  • We also present selected ongoing trials testing potential future therapies that may prove effective for patients with high-risk resected melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Melanoma / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Clinical Trials as Topic. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 14732880.001).
  • [ISSN] 1121-8142
  • [Journal-full-title] Forum (Genoa, Italy)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Forum (Genova)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha
  • [Number-of-references] 84
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8. Penington A: Ulceration and antihypertensive use are risk factors for infection after skin lesion excision. ANZ J Surg; 2010 Sep;80(9):642-5
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  • [Title] Ulceration and antihypertensive use are risk factors for infection after skin lesion excision.
  • METHODS: For 924 consecutive skin lesion excisions performed by a single surgeon, information was collected on tumour size and site, closure method and on risk factors of age, known diabetes, use of steroids, antihypertensives or anticoagulants and ulceration of the lesion.
  • Ulceration (odds ratio (OR) 3.15, P= 0.008) and use of antihypertensives (OR 2.5, P= 0.006) were independent risk factors for infection along with site and closure method.
  • CONCLUSION: Ulceration of the skin lesion and use of antihypertensives are significant risk factors for wound infection.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Australia / epidemiology. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hypertension / complications. Hypertension / drug therapy. Incidence. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Risk Factors

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 The Author. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2010 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
  • (PMID = 20840409.001).
  • [ISSN] 1445-2197
  • [Journal-full-title] ANZ journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ANZ J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antihypertensive Agents
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9. Lévy A, Lebbe C: [Buschke-Löwenstein tumour: diagnosis and treatment]. Ann Urol (Paris); 2006 Jun;40(3):175-8
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  • [Title] [Buschke-Löwenstein tumour: diagnosis and treatment].
  • [Transliterated title] Prise en charge des tumeurs de Buschke-Löwenstein.
  • Buschke-Löwenstein tumour is classified as a verrucous carcinoma.
  • It presents like an exophytic tumour of the genital or peri-anal area, with ulceration and sometimes fistulae and sinuses.
  • Histological appearance is not far from condyloma acuminata, but with a tendency to compress and displace deeper tissues, without basement membrane disruption.
  • HPV types 6 or 11 are regularly found in association with this tumour.
  • Physical examination and precise imagery are useful to chose the right treatment regimen.
  • Other treatment modalities such as chemotherapy or imiquimod could be of interest to avoid mutilating surgical interventions.

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  • (PMID = 16869538.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4401
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'urologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Urol (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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10. Matsutani T, Onda M, Miyashita M, Hao K, Yokoyama S, Matsuda T, Futami R, Takubo K, Sasajima K: Liver abscesses associated with stromal tumour of the stomach in a young woman. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2001 Dec;13(12):1485-9
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  • [Title] Liver abscesses associated with stromal tumour of the stomach in a young woman.
  • She was found to have liver abscesses and a gastric submucosal mass by computed tomography and ultrasonography.
  • Gastroscopy and a barium swallow revealed a round submucosal mass with a giant ulceration in the body of the stomach.
  • The tumour was diagnosed as a stromal tumour of the stomach (leiomyosarcoma) in the final histological report.
  • The patient was discharged on postoperative day 17 without receiving adjuvant radio-chemotherapy.
  • This is a rare case of a liver abscess associated with a stromal tumour of the stomach in a young patient.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Candida / isolation & purification. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Micrococcus / isolation & purification. Neisseria / isolation & purification. Streptococcus pyogenes / isolation & purification. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11742198.001).
  • [ISSN] 0954-691X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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11. Eggermont AM, Suciu S, Santinami M, Testori A, Kruit WH, Marsden J, Punt CJ, Salès F, Gore M, Mackie R, Kusic Z, Dummer R, Hauschild A, Musat E, Spatz A, Keilholz U, EORTC Melanoma Group: Adjuvant therapy with pegylated interferon alfa-2b versus observation alone in resected stage III melanoma: final results of EORTC 18991, a randomised phase III trial. Lancet; 2008 Jul 12;372(9633):117-26
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  • [Title] Adjuvant therapy with pegylated interferon alfa-2b versus observation alone in resected stage III melanoma: final results of EORTC 18991, a randomised phase III trial.
  • BACKGROUND: Any benefit of adjuvant interferon alfa-2b for melanoma could depend on dose and duration of treatment.
  • Randomisation was stratified for microscopic (N1) versus macroscopic (N2) nodal involvement, number of positive nodes, ulceration and tumour thickness, sex, and centre.
  • The median length of treatment with pegylated interferon alfa-2b was 12 (IQR 3.8-33.4) months.
  • At 3.8 (3.2-4.2) years median follow-up, 328 recurrence events had occurred in the interferon group compared with 368 in the observation group (hazard ratio 0.82, 95% CI 0.71-0.96; p=0.01); the 4-year rate of recurrence-free survival was 45.6% (SE 2.2) in the interferon group and 38.9% (2.2) in the observation group.
  • Treatment with pegylated interferon alfa-2b was discontinued because of toxicity in 191 (31%) patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Melanoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Observation. Polyethylene Glycols. Proportional Hazards Models. Recombinant Proteins

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  • [CommentIn] Nat Clin Pract Oncol. 2009 Feb;6(2):70-1 [19092800.001]
  • [CommentIn] Lancet. 2008 Jul 12;372(9633):89-90 [18620932.001]
  • (PMID = 18620949.001).
  • [ISSN] 1474-547X
  • [Journal-full-title] Lancet (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lancet
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00006249
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase III; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 0 / peginterferon alfa-2b; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols; 99210-65-8 / interferon alfa-2b
  • [Investigator] Salès F; Baurain JF; Vereecke P; Thomas J; Verschaeve V; Ollivaud L; Aubin F; Leccia MT; Avril MF; Robert C; Negrier S; Guillot B; Dereure O; Lipsker D; Delaunay M; Geoffrois L; Vilmer-Renaud C; Piette F; Lesimple T; Truchetet F; Cupissol D; Beylot-Barry M; Bedane C; Lacour JP; Machet L; Cambazar F; Perrot J; Saiag P; Vreugdenhil G; Groenewegen G; Van Den Eertwegh A; Osanto S; Ortiz-Romero PL; Castel Rodo T; Mayordomo Camara JI; Bieber T; Gollnick H; Kleeberg U; Scharffetter K; Schneider L; Schadendorf D; Neuber K; Eichhorn K; Neumann C; Emmert S; Becker J; Naher H; Siegel R; Tilgen W; Kaempgen E; Herbst R; Frosch P; Dummer R; Fey M; Ochsenbein A; Lejeune F; Lienard D; Ziobro M; Murawa P; Oliver RT; Shamash J; Mcaleer J; Rankin EM; Selby PJ; Ottensmeier C; Maraveya A; Hancock B; Lorigan P; Gore M; Eisen T; Harris A; Barber J; Corrie P; MacKie R; Steward WP; Marshall E; Kelly C; Price C; Farrugia D; Marsden J; Dalgleish A; Lamont A; Szlosare P; Houston S; Burrows L; Goodman A; Santinami M; Cognetti F; Maio M; Sertoli M; Queirolo P; Bernengo MG; Testori A; Ascierto P; Borgognoni L; Passos MJ; Machado Lopes JM; Niin M; Kusic Z; Ron IG; Schnirer I; Krajsova I; Ocvirk J; Trotter J; Mcarthur G; Byrne M; Davis I; Hersey P; Stoychkov K; Stoychkov Y
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12. Aoyama T, Saeki H, Samejima J, Fujii K, Ishikawa Y, Kawamoto M, Fujisawa J, Matsukawa H, Rino Y, Masuda M: [A case of recurrent gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the stomach with complete response to imatinib mesilate]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2009 Jun;36(6):975-8
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  • [Title] [A case of recurrent gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the stomach with complete response to imatinib mesilate].
  • We report a patient who long had a complete response by chemotherapy with imatinib mesilate(IM)for locally recurrent gastrointestinal stromal tumor(GIST)of the stomach.
  • Endoscopic examination revealed continuous bleeding from a submucosal tumor with ulceration on the posterior wall of the stomach.
  • After diagnosis, total gastrectomy, distal pancreatectomy, and splenectomy were performed.
  • On September 2003, a local recurrence was recognized, and then chemotherapy by 400 mg IM daily was started.
  • After beginning with a dose of IM 400 mg daily, the reduction of the tumor was monitored.
  • After reduction of IM, the adverse reactions resolved promptly, and a complete response of the primary tumor has been maintained for 4 years 3 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / drug therapy. Piperazines / therapeutic use. Pyrimidines / therapeutic use. Stomach Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19542718.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Pyrimidines; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate
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13. Sahgal A, Millar BA, Michaels H, Jaywant S, Chan HS, Heon E, Gallie B, Laperriere N: Focal stereotactic external beam radiotherapy as a vision-sparing method for the treatment of peripapillary and perimacular retinoblastoma: preliminary results. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol); 2006 Oct;18(8):628-34
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  • [Title] Focal stereotactic external beam radiotherapy as a vision-sparing method for the treatment of peripapillary and perimacular retinoblastoma: preliminary results.
  • AIMS: Chemotherapy with aggressive focal ablative therapy is now the mainstay of retinoblastoma therapy.
  • The prescribed dose was 40 Gy delivered in 20 fractions once daily using 6 MV photons.
  • The median age at the time of SRT was 18 months.
  • Four patients were treated for a posterior pole focal tumour by focal SRT, and one patient was treated for vitreous seeding with whole-eye SRT.
  • In patients treated with focal SRT, the median doses to the tumour, optic chiasm and brainstem were 41.92, 0.25 and 0.07 Gy, respectively, and to the ipsilateral optic nerve, globe and lens were 9.98, 19.11 and 3.74 Gy, respectively.
  • The median doses to the ipsilateral and contralateral orbital bone were 6.73 Gy (range 5.99-8.29 Gy) and 2.31 Gy (range 0.88-7.08 Gy), respectively.
  • A complete response (residual inactive scar tissue) was seen in four of the five focal tumours treated, with one tumour responding with a partial response (suspicious residual scar tissue).
  • Only the patient treated with whole-eye SRT developed late effects of cataract and corneal ulceration.
  • Control of this recurrence was successful using chemotherapy and focal therapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Vision-sparing focal SRT for localised tumour masses in critical locations can control tumours with minimal side-effects and a minimal dose to the surrounding critical normal tissue.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child, Preschool. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Computer-Assisted. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17051954.001).
  • [ISSN] 0936-6555
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical oncology (Royal College of Radiologists (Great Britain))
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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14. Macák J, Smardová J, Zavrelová I, Vránová V, Kuglík P: Malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the parotid gland. Cesk Patol; 2007 Oct;43(4):148-52
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  • During six months the tumour size became 10 cm in diameter with skin ulceration.
  • The tumour was examined morphologically, by immunohistochemistry and molecular biology methods - FASAY and CGH.
  • The histology revealed a storiform-pleomorphic type of MFH with high mitotic rate.
  • The chromosomal changes were identified by the CGH method and 6 cytogenetic changes were found in the tumour cells (deletions at 8p12-p22, 13q32-qter, 14q24-qter, and gains of chromosomal material at 5p, 8q12-q23, and Xq25-qter).
  • The patient died shortly after the beginning of chemotherapy.
  • No other tumour foci were proved.
  • In view of short course of disease we lack the data about the influence of the non-mutated p53 gene on the prognosis and therapy.

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  • (PMID = 18188922.001).
  • [ISSN] 1210-7875
  • [Journal-full-title] Československá patologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cesk Patol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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15. Avon SL, McComb J, Clokie C: Ameloblastic carcinoma: case report and literature review. J Can Dent Assoc; 2003 Oct;69(9):573-6
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  • It may present as a cystic lesion with benign clinical features or as a large tissue mass with ulceration, significant bone resorption and tooth mobility.
  • The tumour cells resemble the cells seen in ameloblastoma, but they show cytologic atypia.
  • Direct extension of the tumour, lymph node involvement and metastasis to various sites (frequently the lung) have been reported.
  • Wide local excision is the treatment of choice.
  • Radiotherapy and chemotherapy seem to be of limited value for the treatment of ameloblastic carcinomas.
  • At the moment, there are too few reported cases to make a definite recommendation regarding treatment.

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  • (PMID = 14653932.001).
  • [ISSN] 1488-2159
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal (Canadian Dental Association)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Can Dent Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Number-of-references] 22
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16. Winnepenninckx V, Van den Oord JJ: Gene expression profiling of primary cutaneous melanoma. Verh K Acad Geneeskd Belg; 2007;69(1):23-45
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  • Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma (CMM) is the most malignant skin tumour in humans, the incidence of which is rising rapidly in most fair-skinned populations, without apparent decline in mortality.
  • CMM arises from melanocytes in the epidermis, and proceeds through discrete steps of tumor-progression that consist histologically of the radial growth phase (RGP), vertical growth phase (VGP) and metastatic phase.
  • The prognosis of patients with VGP melanoma depends on several clinical and histological parameters; the latter include thickness, mitotic activity, presence or absence of ulceration and regression, and pattern of lymphocytic host response.
  • To obtain insight in the molecular mechanisms of tumor progression in CMM, and in search of new prognostic markers, we performed global gene-expression profiling using 44K oligonucleotide micro-arrays on a unique retrospective series of 83 frozen primary MM with VGP, 9 metastases and 23 benign nevi.
  • This signature was validated on a separate series of melanoma patients, and proved to have a predictive accuracy comparable to what can be obtained by tumour thickness and ulceration.
  • CMM is notorious for its resistance to chemotherapy, and disseminated CMM is a uniformly fatal disease.
  • As several of the progression-related genes, encode molecules that have been the target of established or xperimental cancer therapies, our results may hopefully contribute to the treatment of end-stage CMM-patients.

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  • (PMID = 17427873.001).
  • [ISSN] 0302-6469
  • [Journal-full-title] Verhandelingen - Koninklijke Academie voor Geneeskunde van België
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Verh. K. Acad. Geneeskd. Belg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
  • [Number-of-references] 54
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17. Micev M, Micev-Cosić M, Todorović V, Krsmanović M, Krivokapić Z, Popović M, Barisić G, Marković V, Jelić-Radosević L, Popov I: Histopathology of residual rectal carcinoma following preoperative radiochemotherapy. Acta Chir Iugosl; 2004;51(2):99-108
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  • Preoperative radiotherapy with (CRT) or without chemotherapy (RT) in the management of patients with locally advanced rectal carcinoma is increasingly accepted as therapeutic modality to reduce local recurrence and improve survival, decrease tumor size and/or stage, has less toxicity compared to postoperative therapy, improves sphincter preservation and the ability to perform a curative resection.
  • At present, predictive value of tumor response to neoadjuvant therapy remains uncertain, whether evaluated as five-point histological tumor regression grade (TRG) or recently proposed three-point rectal cancer regression grade (RCRG).
  • However, most reports emphasize reduced local reccurence rates and disease-free survival advantage in patients with complete tumour regression or tumour down-staging, occuring in up to 20% and 60% of cases, respectively.
  • Patients with advanced post-treatment tumour stage (ypT3/4), positive lymph nodes (ypN1/2), vascular invasion, positive circumferential resection margin, clearance < 2mm, or absence of tumor regression are shown to have poor clinical outcome.
  • Among CRT-induced morphological features, only "fibrotic-type" stromal response with minimal inflammatory infiltrates and absence of surface ulceration are correlated to recurrence-free survival.
  • In addition, 14 patients (63%) showed tumour downstaging and only 1 patient (4.5%) nodal down-staging after ypTNM restaging.
  • There was the predominance of fibrotic-type stroma (16 patients, 72.8%) versus fibro-inflammatory response (6 patients, 27.2%), frequent tumoral necrosis (13 patients, 59%) but infrequent surface ulceration (5 patients, 22.7%) and peritumoural eosinophylic infiltration as well as endocrine cell differentiation (4 patients, 18%).
  • The second aim of our study was to investigate determinants of radiosensitivity, i.e. the relationship between proliferative activity indices (Ki-67 and PCNA) as well as the induction of apoptosis (p53) and the tumour regression (RCRG) after neoadjuvant CRT.
  • In a conclusion, high percentage of Ki-67-positive tumor cells in the preoperative biopsy predicts an decreased treatment response after preoperative CRT of rectal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoadjuvant Therapy. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15771300.001).
  • [ISSN] 0354-950X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Iugoslavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir Iugosl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Yugoslavia
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18. Ram H, Mohammad S, Husain N, Gupta PN: Ameloblastic carcinoma. J Maxillofac Oral Surg; 2010 Dec;9(4):415-9

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  • Ameloblastic carcinoma (AC) is a rare aggressive malignant epithelial odontogenic tumor of the maxillofacial skeleton with a distinct predilection in the mandible.
  • It may appear de novo or originate from a pre-existing ameloblastoma or odontogenic cyst.
  • It may present as a cystic lesion with benign clinical features or as a large tissue mass with ulceration, significant bone resorption and tooth mobility.
  • Direct extension of the tumour, lymph node involvement and metastasis to various sites has been reported.
  • Wide local excision is the treatment of choice.
  • Radiotherapy and chemotherapy have limited role in the treatment of ameloblastic carcinomas.

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  • (PMID = 22190836.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-942X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of maxillofacial and oral surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Maxillofac Oral Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3177477
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Ameloblastic carcinoma / Ameloblastoma / Odontogenic tumor
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19. de Braud F, Khayat D, Kroon BB, Valdagni R, Bruzzi P, Cascinelli N: Malignant melanoma. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol; 2003 Jul;47(1):35-63
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  • The incidence rate is increasing faster than that of any other tumour.
  • The ABCDE scheme for early detection of melanoma is commonly accepted.
  • The clinical course of melanoma is determined by its dissemination and depends on thickness, ulceration, localisation, gender and histology of the primary tumour.
  • Tumour stage at diagnosis remains the major prognostic factor.
  • Surgery is the standard treatment option for operable local-regional disease.
  • Sentinel node biopsy represents a promising experimental approach in the clinical detection and early treatment of occult lymph node involvement.
  • For metastatic inoperable patients systemic chemotherapy can be attempted, while radiation therapy has to be considered as palliative treatment.

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  • (PMID = 12853098.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8428
  • [Journal-full-title] Critical reviews in oncology/hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Number-of-references] 147
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20. Kretschmer L, Neumann C, Preusser KP, Marsch WC: Superficial inguinal and radical ilioinguinal lymph node dissection in patients with palpable melanoma metastases to the groin--an analysis of survival and local recurrence. Acta Oncol; 2001;40(1):72-8
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  • The present study addresses the question whether an extended ilioinguinal dissection as compared to an only superficial inguinal dissection improves survival and/or local tumour control after the appearance of palpable melanoma metastases to the groin.
  • Tumour infiltration of the ilio-obturator compartment was found to be an independent factor of poor prognosis (p = 0.0009).
  • The extent of surgery, Breslow thickness, epidermal ulceration, sex, age and adjuvant chemotherapy neither significantly influenced survival nor local control rates.
  • After therapeutic groin dissection, local recurrence and survival depend rather on regional tumour burden than on the extent of surgery.

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  • (PMID = 11321665.001).
  • [ISSN] 0284-186X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Norway
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21. Murakami S, Terakado M, Misumi M, Tsuji Y, Okubo K, Hirayama R, Inoue K, Arai E: Situs inversus totalis with malignant lymphoma of the stomach: report of a case. Surg Today; 2003;33(7):533-6
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  • We report a case of situs inversus totalis with malignant lymphoma of the stomach, which was successfully treated by surgery followed by chemotherapy and irradiation.
  • Chest X-ray showed a right-sided heart, and ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen showed a situs inversus totalis with multiple gallstones in the gallbladder.
  • Tree-dimensional reconstructed CT of the abdomen showed no other malformations coexisting with situs inversus totalis, but a barium upper gastrointestinal series found an inverted stomach and an elevated tumor with ulceration in the center, localized in the antrum of the stomach.
  • Histopathological examination confirmed a diagnosis of malignant lymphoma of the stomach (diffuse large B-cell type) with metastasis to the regional lymph nodes.
  • Chemotherapy using the CHOP regimen was given three times, starting 1 month postoperatively.
  • At the time of writing, 10 months after surgery, the patient is well with no signs of recurrence and leading a normal life.
  • Careful preoperative assessment is very important for determining the most appropriate surgical procedure in patients with situs inversus totalis associated with a malignancy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Imaging, Three-Dimensional. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 14507000.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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22. Chakraborty S, Ghoshal S, Patil V, Oinam A, Suresh S: Acute toxicities experienced during simultaneous integrated boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy in head and neck cancers--experience from a north Indian regional cancer centre. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol); 2009 Nov;21(9):676-86
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  • Acute toxicities encountered during and immediately after treatment are reported.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Acute toxicity data prospectively collected during the treatment of the evaluable 28 patients with two SIB IMRT schedules were analysed.
  • Twenty-one patients were treated with the SIB72 schedule, delivering 72, 66 and 57 Gy in 33 fractions to the gross tumour volume, the high-risk clinical target volume and the low-risk clinical target volume, respectively, whereas seven patients were treated with the SIB66 schedule, delivering 66, 60 and 54 Gy in 30 fractions to the above volumes.
  • No chemotherapy was given during the course of treatment.
  • Atypical patterns of mucositis were encountered, including one patient with prolonged grade 4 mucosal ulceration in the SIB72 schedule.
  • Grade 3 pain was seen in 70% and grade 3 dysphagia in 10% during treatment.
  • [MeSH-minor] Actuarial Analysis. Adult. Aged. Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation. Female. Humans. Incidence. India. Karnofsky Performance Status. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted / adverse effects. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19748768.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-2981
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical oncology (Royal College of Radiologists (Great Britain))
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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23. Menon C, Bauer TW, Kelley ST, Raz DJ, Bleier JI, Patel K, Steele K, Prabakaran I, Shifrin A, Buerk DG, Sehgal CM, Fraker DL: Tumoricidal activity of high-dose tumor necrosis factor-alpha is mediated by macrophage-derived nitric oxide burst and permanent blood flow shutdown. Int J Cancer; 2008 Jul 15;123(2):464-475
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  • [Title] Tumoricidal activity of high-dose tumor necrosis factor-alpha is mediated by macrophage-derived nitric oxide burst and permanent blood flow shutdown.
  • This study investigates the role of tumor nitric oxide (NO) and vascular regulation in tumor ulceration following high-dose tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) treatment.
  • Using TNF-responsive (MethA) and nonresponsive (LL2) mouse tumors, tumor NO concentration was measured with an electrochemical sensor and tumor blood flow by Doppler ultrasound.
  • MethA tumor-bearing mice were depleted of macrophages.
  • Pre- and post-TNF tumor NO levels were measured continuously, and mice were followed for gross tumor response.
  • In MethA tumors, TNF caused a 96% response rate, and tumor NO concentration doubled.
  • Tumor blood flow decreased to 3% of baseline by 4 hr and was sustained at 24 hr and 10 days post-TNF.
  • MethA tumors showed tumor infiltration by macrophages post-TNF and the pattern of macrophage immunostaining overlapped with iNOS immunostaining.
  • Depletion of macrophages inhibited tumor NO increase and response to TNF.
  • We conclude that TNF causes tumor infiltrating, macrophage-derived iNOS-mediated tumor NO rise and sustained tumor blood flow shutdown, resulting in tumor ulceration in the responsive tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Fibrosarcoma / blood supply. Fibrosarcoma / drug therapy. Macrophages / metabolism. Nitric Oxide / metabolism. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Adhesion Molecules / metabolism. Cell Line, Tumor. Clodronic Acid / administration & dosage. Clodronic Acid / pharmacology. E-Selectin / metabolism. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. Immunohistochemistry. Liposomes. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II / metabolism. Regional Blood Flow. Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18449880.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / E-Selectin; 0 / Liposomes; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 0 / Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1; 0813BZ6866 / Clodronic Acid; 31C4KY9ESH / Nitric Oxide; EC 1.14.13.39 / Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II
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24. Dörr W, Spekl K, Farrell CL: The effect of keratinocyte growth factor on healing of manifest radiation ulcers in mouse tongue epithelium. Cell Prolif; 2002 Aug;35 Suppl 1:86-92
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  • In a first experiment, graded single doses were applied in order to define dose effect and time course of acute mucosal ulceration, as a clinically relevant endpoint.
  • A single dose of 18 Gy, i.e. a dose after which ulceration is expected in more than 99% of the animals, was applied in subsequent experiments.
  • In the study group of 20 animals, rHuKGF was applied at a daily dose of 5 mg/kg subcutaneously from the time of first diagnosis of ulcer for a maximum of 5 days.
  • The time course of ulceration, i.e. individual ulcer duration, was analysed in both the control group without rHuKGF and the study group.
  • Irradiation with graded single doses yielded an ED50 of 11.5 +/- 0.7 Gy (logit analysis).
  • In responding animals, the latent time to first diagnosis of ulceration and the individual ulcer duration were independent of dose.
  • Mean latency (+/- standard deviation) was 10.5 +/- 0.5 days, mean ulcer duration 3.9 +/- 0.6 days for doses 11, 13 and 16 Gy.
  • After a dose of 18 Gy, 39 animals developed ulceration after a mean latency of 9.3 +/- 0.3 days (control and KGF-treated).
  • We conclude that when rHuKGF treatment is delayed until radiation-induced ulcers are manifest, the therapeutic activity previously reported with other treatment schedules was not observed and there was a slight prolongation of duration of ulceration.
  • These data suggest that during tumour radiotherapy, effective rHuKGF therapy schedules should include administration before the onset of ulcerative mucositis.
  • [MeSH-major] Fibroblast Growth Factors / pharmacology. Oral Ulcer / drug therapy. Radiation Injuries, Experimental / drug therapy. Wound Healing / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 12139711.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-7722
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell proliferation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell Prolif.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fgf7 protein, mouse; 0 / Placebos; 126469-10-1 / Fibroblast Growth Factor 7; 62031-54-3 / Fibroblast Growth Factors
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25. Maksimović S: [Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the breast: rare form carcinoma]. Med Arh; 2009;63(2):114-6
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  • We report a case of a young woman, 37-year-old, with history of a lump in the upper outer quadrant of the left breast with ulceration of the skin surface.
  • Diagnosis of the tumour of the breast was made at the Department of surgery in General Hospital in Bijeljina in September 2007.
  • Ultrasonogram of the left breast tumor identified an irregularly shaped hypoechoic lesion.
  • After clinical staging of the disease, we performed incision biopsy of the skin and tumour of the left breast with histopathology examination (standard hematoxylin and eosin).
  • After histopathology, patient's case was presented to the working group for breast tumors which decided to start with the neoadjuvant chemotherapy using platinum.
  • After six cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, regression of breast tumor was confirmed.


26. Jiao LR, Szyszko T, Al-Nahhas A, Tait P, Canelo R, Stamp G, Wasan H, Lowdell C, Philips R, Thillainayagam A, Bansi D, Rubello D, Limongelli P, Woo K, Habib NA: Clinical and imaging experience with yttrium-90 microspheres in the management of unresectable liver tumours. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2007 Jun;33(5):597-602
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  • INTRODUCTION: Selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) is emerging as a new therapeutic modality in recent years for management of non-resectable hepatic malignancies.
  • Our experience in clinical application of this treatment is reported here.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: From June 2004, patients whose liver tumours were no longer amenable for any conventional treatment with either chemotherapy or surgery were considered for yttrium-90 microspheres treatment after discussion at our multidisciplinary meeting.
  • A pre-treatment planning was carried out with visceral angiography and technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin (MAA) for assessment of both tumour volume and extrahepatic shunting in addition to a baseline PET and CT scans, respectively.
  • Two weeks later, a second visceral angiogram was performed to deliver the calculated dosage of microspheres into the arterial system supplying the tumour.
  • Patients were then followed up with tumour markers, repeat PET and CT scans of abdomen at 6 weeks and 3 monthly thereafter.
  • One patient received 2 treatments.
  • The mean pre-treatment SUV was 12.2+/-3.7 and the mean post-treatment SUV was 9.3+/-3.7, indicating a significant improvement measured with PET activity.
  • Only 13% showed a reduction in the size of tumour on CT scan.
  • Complications were seen in 4 patients (19%) including radiation hepatitis (n=2), cholecystitis (n=1) and duodenal ulceration (n=1).
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Microspheres. Yttrium Radioisotopes / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17433608.001).
  • [ISSN] 0748-7983
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Yttrium Radioisotopes
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27. Dai DL, Martinka M, Bush JA, Li G: Reduced Apaf-1 expression in human cutaneous melanomas. Br J Cancer; 2004 Sep 13;91(6):1089-95
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  • Malignant melanoma is a life-threatening skin cancer due to its highly metastatic character and resistance to radio- and chemotherapy.
  • However, the exact mechanism for failure in the apoptotic pathway in melanoma cells is unclear. p53, the most frequently mutated tumour suppressor gene in human cancers, is a key apoptosis inducer.
  • To determine if loss of Apaf-1 expression is indeed involved in melanoma progression, we employed the tissue microarray technology and examined Apaf-1 expression in 70 human primary malignant melanoma biopsies by immunohistochemistry.
  • Our results also revealed that loss of Apaf-1 was not associated with the tumour thickness, ulceration or subtype, patient's gender, age and 5-year survival.
  • In addition, our in vitro apoptosis assay revealed that overexpression of Apaf-1 can sensitise melanoma cells to anticancer drug treatment.
  • Taken together, our data indicate that Apaf-1 expression is significantly reduced in human melanoma and that Apaf-1 may serve as a therapeutic target in melanoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis. Apoptotic Protease-Activating Factor 1. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Nevus / genetics. Nevus / pathology. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Survival Analysis. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 15305193.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / APAF1 protein, human; 0 / Apoptotic Protease-Activating Factor 1; 0 / Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2747705
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28. Kluger HM, DiVito K, Berger AJ, Halaban R, Ariyan S, Camp RL, Rimm DL: Her2/neu is not a commonly expressed therapeutic target in melanoma -- a large cohort tissue microarray study. Melanoma Res; 2004 Jun;14(3):207-10
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  • [Title] Her2/neu is not a commonly expressed therapeutic target in melanoma -- a large cohort tissue microarray study.
  • Melanoma is among the most chemotherapy-resistant malignancies.
  • Numerous new agents have been developed that target specific molecules on cancer cells, including the monoclonal antibody trastuzumab, which targets Her2/neu and has been very beneficial in the treatment of breast cancer.
  • We therefore examined Her2/neu expression in a very large cohort of melanoma specimens in order to determine the value of exploring trastuzumab therapy for melanoma patients.
  • Immunohistochemical staining was performed on two tissue microarrays, together containing 600 intact specimens.
  • Expression was evaluated semi-quantitatively and correlated with tumour stage and other clinicopathological data.
  • Among the primary lesions there was no significant correlation between Her2/neu expression, Clark level and ulceration; however, Her2/neu expression was associated with lesions with a Breslow depth of < 2 mm (P=0.05).
  • Our findings suggest that drugs that specifically target Her2/neu are not likely to be useful for the treatment of metastatic melanoma or as adjuvant therapy for melanoma patients at high risk for recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Melanoma / genetics. Melanoma / therapy. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Receptor, ErbB-2 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15179190.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-8931
  • [Journal-full-title] Melanoma research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Melanoma Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA44542; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM07205; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / K08 ES11571; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA100825-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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29. Rhemtula H, Grayson W, van Iddekinge B, Tiltman A: Large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the uterine cervix--a clinicopathological study of five cases. S Afr Med J; 2001 Jun;91(6):525-8
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  • None of the 5 patients in this series received chemotherapy or underwent surgery.
  • Treatment responses and long-term survival in our series proved to be disappointing as 3 of the 5 patients died in less than 6 months.
  • On histopathological examination, all 5 tumours showed features of a high-grade poorly differentiated malignant neoplasm with ulceration and extensive tumour necrosis including trabecular and organoid growth patterns.
  • The results of this study reaffirm the biologically aggressive nature of this uncommon tumour and its very unfavourable prognosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Parity. Prognosis. Survival Analysis. Synaptophysin. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11455720.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-9574
  • [Journal-full-title] South African medical journal = Suid-Afrikaanse tydskrif vir geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] S. Afr. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] South Africa
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Synaptophysin
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30. Churn M, Jones B, Myint AS: Radical radiotherapy incorporating a brachytherapy boost for the treatment of carcinoma of the thoracic oesophagus: results from a cohort of patients and review of the literature. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol); 2002 Apr;14(2):117-22
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  • [Title] Radical radiotherapy incorporating a brachytherapy boost for the treatment of carcinoma of the thoracic oesophagus: results from a cohort of patients and review of the literature.
  • The optimal treatment for potentially curable carcinoma of the oesophagus unsuitable for surgical resection is unresolved.
  • An intraluminal brachytherapy boost (ILBT) can be used following external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) with or without concurrent chemotherapy (CRT).
  • ILBT increases the dose to the tumour volume substantially while reducing the lung dose but the corresponding high dose to the oesophageal wall may cause increased complications.
  • A dose of 45-55 Gy in 20-25 fractions with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) followed by an ILBT boost.
  • Earlier in the series a low dose rate (LDR) brachytherapy technique using 125Iodine seeds delivering a dose of 20-22 Gy at 25-40 cGy/h was used.
  • This was later superseded by high dose rate (HDR) treatments delivering 8.5-10 Gy in one fraction at 1 cm from the catheter.
  • Patients of age below 76 years, of good performance status and with no other medical contraindication were considered for concurrent chemotherapy (CRT) using a planned regime of cisplatin (80 mg/m2 day 1) and 5-flurouracil (1 g/m2 days 1 to 4) in the first and last weeks of radiotherapy (13 patients).
  • The EBRT and ILBT were well tolerated but 8/13 (62%) patients had dose modifications of chemotherapy in one or both cycles due to advanced age, co-morbidity or toxicity.
  • Though symptom relief was good there were six cases of ulceration, six of stricture and two fistulae.
  • Biological equivalent for tumour response (BED Gy,10) and late radiation effects (BED Gy3) were calculated for the different radiotherapy regimens using equations derived from the linear quadratic model.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Dose Fractionation. Female. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Male. Middle Aged. Radiation Injuries. Radiotherapy Dosage. Relative Biological Effectiveness. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 12069118.001).
  • [ISSN] 0936-6555
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical oncology (Royal College of Radiologists (Great Britain))
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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31. Meguerditchian AN, Falardeau M, Martin G: Male breast carcinoma. Can J Surg; 2002 Aug;45(4):296-302
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  • OBJECTIVE: To review the epidemiology, presentation, diagnosis, molecular genetics, treatment and prognosis of male breast cancer.
  • DATA SOURCES: Articles, written in English or French, selected from the Medline database (1966 to January 2001), corresponding to the key words "male breast cancer," according to the following criteria: covering institutional experience or comparing diagnostic and treatment modalities, and epidemiologic or general reviews.
  • Advanced disease is characterized by pain, bloody discharge and skin ulceration.
  • There is no definitive diagnostic algorithm.
  • Treatment includes modified radical mastectomy, followed by cyclophosphamide-methotrexate-5-fluorouracil or 5-fluorouracil-Adriamycin-cyclophosphamide chemotherapy for disease of stage II or greater.
  • The most important prognostic factors are tumour size, lymphatic invasion and axillary node status.
  • The increased use of adjuvant chemotherapy combined with tamoxifen postoperatively may have a positive impact on survival.
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Male. Mastectomy, Modified Radical. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 12174988.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-428X
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Number-of-references] 50
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3684685
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32. Potter BK, Adams SC, Qadir R, Pitcher JD, Temple HT: Fungating soft-tissue sarcomas. Treatment implications and prognostic importance of malignant ulceration. J Bone Joint Surg Am; 2009 Mar 1;91(3):567-74
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  • [Title] Fungating soft-tissue sarcomas. Treatment implications and prognostic importance of malignant ulceration.
  • BACKGROUND: Several variables have been reported as being prognostic with regard to the outcomes of soft-tissue sarcomas.
  • Although the tumors are subjectively ominous, no prior study has been performed to evaluate the treatment or prognosis of fungating soft-tissue sarcomas.
  • METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of all soft-tissue sarcomas treated at our institution between 1989 and 2004 that had been followed for a minimum of two years or until the death of the patient.
  • Our study group consisted of twenty-four patients with a primary high-grade fungating tumor, and our control group consisted of 146 consecutive patients with a primary high-grade non-fungating tumor.
  • The study cohorts were compared with regard to disease presentation, treatment, and oncologic outcomes.
  • RESULTS: There were no significant differences in tumor size, tumor depth, or histopathologic diagnoses between the cohorts, although the patients with a fungating tumor tended to be older (mean, sixty-five years compared with fifty-five years in the control group; p = 0.004) and have shorter postoperative follow-up (mean, thirty-eight months compared with sixty-five months in the control group; p = 0.03).
  • The proportion of patients presenting with metastases was significantly greater in the group with a fungating tumor (33% compared with 9% in the control group; p = 0.003).
  • Significantly more patients with a fungating tumor underwent amputation (35% compared with 12% in the control group; p = 0.01), while a greater proportion of control patients received radiation therapy (68% compared with 39% in the group with a fungating tumor; p = 0.02).
  • There was no difference in the proportions of patients receiving chemotherapy or in the local recurrence rates between the two cohorts.
  • The Kaplan-Meier five-year overall survival estimates were 20% in the group with a fungating tumor compared with 63% (p < 0.0001) in the control group.
  • The Kaplan-Meier five-year disease-specific survival estimates for patients presenting with localized disease was 58% in the group with a fungating tumor and 74% in the control group (p = 0.05).
  • Multivariate analysis demonstrated that disease stage, fungation, and a tumor size of > or = 10 cm were significant independent negative prognostic factors for disease-specific survival.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Malignant tumor ulceration is an independent predictor of a poor prognosis for patients with a high-grade soft-tissue sarcoma.
  • Despite the discouraging overall prognosis, aggressive multidisciplinary treatment can lead to long-term survival in an important subgroup of patients with fungating lesions.

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  • (PMID = 19255216.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-1386
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Bone Joint Surg Am
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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33. Négrier S, Fervers B, Bailly C, Beckendorf V, Cupissol D, Doré JF, Dorval T, Garbay JR, Vilmer C: [Standards, Options and Recommendations (SOR): clinical practice guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of cutaneous melanoma. Fédération Nationale des Centres de Lutte Contre le Cancer]. Bull Cancer; 2000 Feb;87(2):173-82
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  • [Title] [Standards, Options and Recommendations (SOR): clinical practice guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of cutaneous melanoma. Fédération Nationale des Centres de Lutte Contre le Cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Standards, Options et Recommandations (SOR) pour la prise en charge des patients atteints de mélanome cutané.
  • 3) The pathological report must include the diagnosis of primary malignant melanoma, the maximum thickness of the tumour in millimeters (Breslow), the clearance of surgical margins, the level of invasion (Clark), the presence and extension of regression and the presence of any ulceration (standard).
  • 4) The standard treatment of a primary melanoma without lymph node involvement is based on surgery that must ensure adequate margins depending on the thickness of the tumour (standard, level of evidence B).
  • 5) After surgery of a stage I melanoma, there is no indication for additional treatment outside a prospective therapeutic study (standard, level of evidence B, French Consensus Conference).
  • 6) For a local recurrence without node involvement, in the absence of other metastases, surgical excision is the standard treatment.
  • There is no indication for additional treatment outside a prospective therapeutic study (standard, level of evidence B).
  • 8) There is no standard therapeutic strategy for metastatic melanoma.
  • Conventional palliative treatment is chemotherapy with dacarbazine (level of evidence B).
  • Clinical surveillance and self-detection are indicated in all cases throughout life (standard).
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / pathology. Melanoma / therapy. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 10705288.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-4551
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin du cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull Cancer
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Guideline; Journal Article; Practice Guideline; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] FRANCE
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34. Bousvaros A, Mueller B: Thalidomide in gastrointestinal disorders. Drugs; 2001;61(6):777-87
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  • Subsequently, it has been shown to have therapeutic efficacy in a number of the gastrointestinal tract conditions characterised by immune dysregulation.
  • The exact mechanism of the immunosuppressive effects of thalidomide is unknown; proposed mechanisms include inhibition of tumour necrosis factor alpha release and inhibition of angiogenesis.
  • Thalidomide 200 mg/day helps eradicate ulcers in 50% of patients with HIV-associated oral aphthous ulceration.
  • Patients to be placed on thalidomide therapy must practice either abstinence or strict birth control; women must undergo regular pregnancy testing and utilise 2 forms of contraception.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrointestinal Diseases / drug therapy. Thalidomide / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Behcet Syndrome / drug therapy. Cell Adhesion / drug effects. Colitis, Ulcerative / drug therapy. Crohn Disease / drug therapy. Graft vs Host Disease / drug therapy. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Humans. Neovascularization, Physiologic / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 11398909.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-6667
  • [Journal-full-title] Drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4Z8R6ORS6L / Thalidomide
  • [Number-of-references] 67
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35. Machiels JP, Henry S, Zanetta S, Kaminsky MC, Michoux N, Rommel D, Schmitz S, Bompas E, Dillies AF, Faivre S, Moxhon A, Duprez T, Guigay J: Phase II study of sunitinib in recurrent or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck: GORTEC 2006-01. J Clin Oncol; 2010 Jan 1;28(1):21-8
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  • The primary end point was the rate of disease control, defined as stable disease (SD) or partial response (PR) at 6 to 8 weeks after treatment initiation (two-stage design, Simon).
  • Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) was performed in a subset of patients before and 6 to 8 weeks after treatment.
  • The volume transfer constant of the contrast agent (K(trans)) was used to measure changes in the microcirculation blood flow and endothelial permeability of the tumor.
  • Local complications, including the appearance or worsening of tumor skin ulceration or tumor fistula, were recorded in 15 patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / drug therapy. Indoles / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Pyrroles / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19917865.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Indoles; 0 / Pyrroles; 0 / sunitinib
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36. Sasaki S, Hirata I, Maemura K, Hamamoto N, Murano M, Toshina K, Katsu K: Prostaglandin E2 inhibits lesion formation in dextran sodium sulphate-induced colitis in rats and reduces the levels of mucosal inflammatory cytokines. Scand J Immunol; 2000 Jan;51(1):23-8
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  • Effects of rectally injected prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in rats with dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced colitis were investigated in terms of histopathology, local myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, local mRNA expression of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and growth-regulated gene produced/cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (GRO/CINC)-1, and secretion of TNF-alpha and GRO/CINC-1.
  • In animals with no PGE2 treatment, DSS-induced erosion and ulceration were particularly severe in the rectum and extended to the proximal colon.
  • As mRNA expression and secretion of cytokines in lesions of non-PGE2-treated animals was similar to that reported in human ulcerative colitis, rectal injection of PGE2 may prove to be an effective therapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Base Sequence. Chemokine CXCL1. Chemotactic Factors / genetics. Chemotactic Factors / metabolism. DNA Primers / genetics. Dextran Sulfate / toxicity. Gene Expression / drug effects. Growth Substances / genetics. Growth Substances / metabolism. Humans. Interleukin-1 / genetics. Intestinal Mucosa / drug effects. Intestinal Mucosa / immunology. Intestinal Mucosa / pathology. Male. Peroxidase / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / genetics. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 10632972.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9475
  • [Journal-full-title] Scandinavian journal of immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Scand. J. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CXCL1 protein, human; 0 / Chemokine CXCL1; 0 / Chemokines, CXC; 0 / Chemotactic Factors; 0 / Cxcl1 protein, rat; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Growth Substances; 0 / Inflammation Mediators; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Interleukin-1; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 9042-14-2 / Dextran Sulfate; EC 1.11.1.7 / Peroxidase; K7Q1JQR04M / Dinoprostone
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37. Chang JW, Hsieh JJ, Shen YC, Ho E, Chuang CK, Chen YR, Liao SK, Chen JS, Leong SP, Hou MM, Chang NJ, Wang CH: Immunotherapy with dendritic cells pulsed by autologous dactinomycin-induced melanoma apoptotic bodies for patients with malignant melanoma. Melanoma Res; 2009 Oct;19(5):309-15
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  • The autologous tumor cells were treated with dactinomycin to obtain MAB.
  • Treatment-related grade 3-4 toxicity, neutropenia, skin ulceration, tumor growth at the injection site, and sepsis were not observed in any of the patients.
  • Delayed-type hypersensitivity to KLH was observed in all patients, whereas no delayed-type hypersensitivity to autologous tumor antigens was observed.
  • One patient achieved partial response with reduction in lung metastatic tumor mass, and a presence of vesicles in the post-vaccination KLH response.
  • Two patients had stable disease for more than 24 months; one was still alive at the time of submission of this report, the other eventually developed multiple metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Dactinomycin / pharmacology. Dendritic Cells / immunology. Immunotherapy, Adoptive / methods. Melanoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Apoptosis / immunology. Female. Humans. Lymph Nodes / drug effects. Lymph Nodes / immunology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19750589.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5636
  • [Journal-full-title] Melanoma research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Melanoma Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 1CC1JFE158 / Dactinomycin
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38. Deprez PH, Claessens A, Borbath I, Gigot JF, Maiter D: Successful endoscopic ultrasound-guided ethanol ablation of a sporadic insulinoma. Acta Gastroenterol Belg; 2008 Jul-Sep;71(3):333-7
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  • Alternate minimally invasive therapies are seeked in elderly patients in whom extensive surgery might be life-threatening.
  • Laboratory and imaging work-up confirmed the diagnosis of an insulinoma presenting as a small tumour located deeply in the pancreas head, in close vicinity with the Wirsung's duct.
  • Endosonography using a linear-array endoscope allowed injection of 3.5 ml of 98% ethanol in the pancreatic tumour after endoprosthetic stenting of the biliary and pancreatic ducts.
  • RESULTS: There was no recurrence of hypoglycemia, and fasting tests performed 12 days and 3 months after the procedure showed complete remission of endogenous hyperinsulinism.
  • Complications included a mild and asymptomatic elevation of pancreatic enzymes for 2 days and the later occurrence of medically-controlled hematoma and ulceration of the duodenal wall.
  • Complete normalization of pancreatic head morphology was confirmed by imaging at 3 months and the patient remains currently asymptomatic and normoglycemic more than two years after the procedure.
  • CONCLUSIONS: EUS-guided ethanol ablation of sporadic insulinoma is a new feasible and efficient therapy to be considered for small and localized lesions in poor surgical candidates.
  • [MeSH-major] Ethanol / administration & dosage. Insulinoma / drug therapy. Pancreatic Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19198582.001).
  • [ISSN] 1784-3227
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta gastro-enterologica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Gastroenterol. Belg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3K9958V90M / Ethanol
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39. de Lange SM, van Groeningen CJ, Meijer OW, Cuesta MA, Langendijk JA, van Riel JM, Pinedo HM, Peters GJ, Meijer S, Slotman BJ, Giaccone G: Gemcitabine-radiotherapy in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer. Eur J Cancer; 2002 Jun;38(9):1212-7
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  • Gemcitabine was administered at a dose of 300 mg/m(2), concurrent with radiotherapy, three fractions of 8 Gy, on days 1, 8 and 15.
  • When compliance allowed, gemcitabine alone was continued thereafter, at 1000 mg/m(2), weekly times 3, every 4 weeks, depending on the response and toxicity.
  • Median time to progression was 7 months (range 2-37+months).
  • Non-haematological toxicity consisted of 87.5% nausea and vomiting grade I-II, diarrhoea 54%, ulceration in stomach and duodenum 37.5% (20.8% ulceration with bleeding); 1 patient developed a fistula between the duodenum and aorta, 5 months after treatment.
  • In 1 patient who underwent resection postchemoradiation, no viable tumour cells were found.
  • In addition, in the patient who suddenly died of a fistula between the duodenum and aorta, no viable tumour cells were detectable at autopsy.
  • Although the toxicity of this treatment was occasionally severe, the response and survival are encouraging and warrant further studies of this combination.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Pancreatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pancreatic Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiation-Sensitizing Agents / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Feasibility Studies. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12044508.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-8049
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase III; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Radiation-Sensitizing Agents; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine
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40. Sánchez-Hidalgo M, Martín AR, Villegas I, Alarcón De La Lastra C: Rosiglitazone, an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, reduces chronic colonic inflammation in rats. Biochem Pharmacol; 2005 Jun 15;69(12):1733-44
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  • Administration of rosiglitazone corrected the disorders in morphology associated to lesions, significantly reduced the ulceration index, the rise of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and the levels of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha).
  • In addition, rosiglitazone treatment increased prostaglandin (PG)E(2) production and returned PGD(2) to basal levels.
  • Furthermore, treatment of rats with rosiglitazone caused a significant increase of TNBS-induced apoptosis.
  • We conclude that rosiglitazone represents a novel approach to the treatment of ulcerative colitis.
  • [MeSH-major] Colitis / drug therapy. Colitis / pathology. PPAR gamma / agonists. Thiazolidinediones / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apoptosis / drug effects. Apoptosis / physiology. Chronic Disease. Cyclooxygenase 1. Cyclooxygenase 2. Female. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Membrane Proteins. Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases / metabolism. Rats. Rats, Wistar

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  • (PMID = 15876425.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-2952
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemical pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochem. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / Thiazolidinediones; 05V02F2KDG / rosiglitazone; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 1; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 1.14.99.1 / Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases; EC 1.14.99.1 / Ptgs1 protein, rat
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41. Van Staveren HJ, Beek JF, Verlaan CW, Edixhoven A, De Reijke TM, Brutel De La RiviERe G, Star WM: Comparison of normal piglet bladder damage after PDT with oral or intravesical administration of ALA. Lasers Med Sci; 2002;17(4):238-45
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  • 5-Aminolaevulinic-acid (ALA) can be used as an alternative drug in photodynamic therapy of the bladder, since the selective formation of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in the tumour and the virtual absence of induced skin photosensitivity are theoretically advantageous for clinical use.
  • A preclinical study was performed, using an in vivo normal piglet bladder model, in order to determine the maximum drug and light doses for reversible tissue damage.
  • Bladder biopsies were taken at regular intervals and tissue damage was investigated histologically.
  • After oral ALA-administration the PpIX concentration was determined in plasma, erythrocytes and various tissues.
  • For an oral ALA dose of up to 150 mg/kg, the maximum PpIX concentration is reached at approximately 5 h following administration and in neither skin nor bladder tissue is PpIX present at 10-11 h after administration.
  • This ALA dose combined with a radiant exposure of 200 J/cm(2) produces irreversible bladder damage (extensive necrosis and ulceration).
  • In the case of intravesical instillation for 4-4.75 h, an ALA dose of 2.5 g in 50 ml phosphate buffered saline and a radiant exposure of 100 J/cm(2) are still too high to obtain reversible tissue damage; at this dose one of the 13 pigs developed a shrunken bladder with a fibrotic, thickened bladder wall.
  • These drug and light combinations reported above should be regarded as upper limits in pigs and can serve as an indication for the toxicity of the treatment in a clinical setting.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / administration & dosage. Photochemotherapy. Photosensitizing Agents / administration & dosage. Urinary Bladder / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Intravesical. Administration, Oral. Animals. Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation. Protoporphyrins / blood. Swine. Tissue Distribution

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  • (PMID = 12417977.001).
  • [ISSN] 0268-8921
  • [Journal-full-title] Lasers in medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lasers Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / Protoporphyrins; 553-12-8 / protoporphyrin IX; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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