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1. Charnley N, Choudhury A, Chesser P, Cooper RA, Sebag-Montefiore D: Effective treatment of anal cancer in the elderly with low-dose chemoradiotherapy. Br J Cancer; 2005 Apr 11;92(7):1221-5
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  • [Title] Effective treatment of anal cancer in the elderly with low-dose chemoradiotherapy.
  • Chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is accepted as the standard initial treatment for squamous cell anal cancer.
  • In all, 16 patients with biopsy-proven squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal or margin and performance status or co-morbidity precluding the use of full-dose CRT were included in this protocol.
  • Patients received a dose of 30 Gy to the gross tumour volume plus 3 cm margin in all directions.
  • Concurrent chemotherapy comprised 5-fluorouracil 600 mg m(-2) given over 24 h on days 1-4 of radiotherapy.
  • The treatment was well tolerated.
  • All 16 patients completed treatment as planned.
  • This is a well-tolerated regimen for elderly/poor performance patients with anal cancer, which can achieve high rates of local control and survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Anus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Frail Elderly
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Comorbidity. Female. Health Status. Humans. Male. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15798772.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2361984
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2. Handisurya A, Rieger A, Bago-Horvath Z, Schellenbacher C, Bankier A, Salat A, Stingl G, Kirnbauer R: Rapid progression of an anal Buschke-Lowenstein tumour into a metastasising squamous cell carcinoma in an HIV-infected patient. Sex Transm Infect; 2009 Aug;85(4):261-3
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  • [Title] Rapid progression of an anal Buschke-Lowenstein tumour into a metastasising squamous cell carcinoma in an HIV-infected patient.
  • BACKGROUND: Buschke-Löwenstein tumour (BLT) of the anogenitalia is a locally invasive, destructively growing verrucous carcinoma that does not metastasise.
  • Nevertheless, the tumour grows relentlessly and may rarely progress into squamous cell cancer (SCC).
  • RESULTS: A human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected immunosuppressed patient developed (peri)anal warts accompanied by recurrent abscesses and fistulae.
  • Histology revealed condylomata acuminata, and low-risk genital human papillomavirus (HPV) type 11b was detected.
  • Six months later, the tumour had progressed into an ulcerated SCC that destroyed the rectum and perineum, with metastases to the inguinal lymph nodes.
  • Whereas highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) effectively suppressed HIV replication, radiochemotherapy plus anti-EGFR antibody did not halt tumour progression, and the patient died from tumour-cachexia.
  • [MeSH-minor] Anal Canal / pathology. Anal Canal / virology. Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. Cachexia / etiology. Fatal Outcome. Groin. HIV Seropositivity / drug therapy. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness


3. Peiffert D, Giovannini M, Ducreux M, Michel P, François E, Lemanski C, Mirabel X, Cvitkovic F, Luporsi E, Conroy T, Gérard JP, Digestive Tumours Group of the French 'Fédération Nationale des Centres de Lutte Contre le Cancer': High-dose radiation therapy and neoadjuvant plus concomitant chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin in patients with locally advanced squamous-cell anal canal cancer: final results of a phase II study. Ann Oncol; 2001 Mar;12(3):397-404
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  • [Title] High-dose radiation therapy and neoadjuvant plus concomitant chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin in patients with locally advanced squamous-cell anal canal cancer: final results of a phase II study.
  • PURPOSE: To analyse toxicity and response to a new scheme of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (CT) and concomitant radiochemotherapy (RT-CT) for locally advanced anal canal squamous-cell carcinoma (ACC).
  • Pelvic (+/- inguinal) RT delivered 45 Gy in 25 fractions of 1.8 Gy.
  • Involved fields were boosted after a one to two month gap (15-20 Gy).
  • All patients received the entire treatment, with reduced 5-FU doses in 27% of the cases because of acute toxicity.
  • Complete response (CR) and partial response (PR) rates were, respectively, 10% and 51% after neoadjuvant CT, 67% and 28% after RT-CT and 93% and 5% after treatment completion (including 4 abdomino-perineal resections).
  • The three-year actuarial overall, tumour-specific, colostomy-free, relapse-free, disease-free and event-free survivals were 86%, 88%, 73%, 70%, 67% and 63%, respectively.
  • After treatment completion, all but five achieved CR.

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  • (PMID = 11332154.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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4. Amano K, Kumamoto K, Ohsawa T, Okada N, Ishibashi K, Inokuma S, Nakada H, Yokoyama M, Haga N, Ishida H: [The prognosis and immunohistochemical evaluation of five perianal Paget's disease cases]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Nov;37(12):2653-5

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  • Perianal Paget's disease is categorized as Paget's disease, which is epidermotropic neoplasm arising from the apocrine glands of perianal region, or Pagetoid spread invaded from rectal or anal canal cancer.
  • We analyzed the clinical findings and the treatment of these patients and investigated the expression of GCDFP15 and CK20 by immunohistochemical staining.
  • All cases presented the redness around perianal regions, and 2 cases were recognized a tumor at the anal canal.
  • We preoperatively diagnosed these cases as Pagetoid spread and others without tumor regions as Paget's disease.
  • Surgical treatment was performed for all patients.
  • It was compatible with the preoperative diagnosis.
  • Only one of 3 Paget's disease cases was positive for GCDFP15 and negative for CK20 resulting in the diagnosis of perianal Paget's disease.
  • A treatment strategy including surgical operation and chemotherapy is different between patients with Paget's disease and those with Pagetoid spread.
  • Therefore, it is essential to investigate the expression pattern of GCDFP15 and CK20 using the tissue from the biopsy to identify the disease for appropriate treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carrier Proteins / analysis. Glycoproteins / analysis. Keratin-20 / analysis. Paget Disease, Extramammary / diagnosis. Paget Disease, Extramammary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21224669.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Keratin-20; 0 / PIP protein, human
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5. Gorez E, Staumont G: [Epidermoid anal carcinoma]. Rev Prat; 2008 Oct 31;58(16):1783-92
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  • [Title] [Epidermoid anal carcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinome epidermoïde anal.
  • Warning signs of anal cancer are often non-specific.
  • The evaluation assessment should include lung X-ray, abdominal CT scan, and often pelvis MNR or anal endosonography.
  • Key prognostic factors are infiltration of the initial tumour and presence of lymph node metastasis.
  • First-line treament of anal epidermoid carcinoma is radiotherapy, combined with chemotherapy for extensive forms.
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Aged. Anal Canal / pathology. Biopsy. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Homosexuality, Male. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Risk Factors. Sex Factors

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  • (PMID = 19143150.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-2640
  • [Journal-full-title] La Revue du praticien
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Prat
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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6. Coquard R, Cenni JC, Artru P, Chalabreysse P, Queneau PE, Taieb S, Alessio A, Lledo G: [Definitive treatment of anal canal carcinoma with radiotherapy: adverse impact of a pre-radiation resection. A retrospective study of 57 patients treated with curative intent]. Cancer Radiother; 2009 Dec;13(8):715-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Definitive treatment of anal canal carcinoma with radiotherapy: adverse impact of a pre-radiation resection. A retrospective study of 57 patients treated with curative intent].
  • [Transliterated title] Radiothérapie à visée curative du carcinome du canal anal : impact défavorable d'une résection préalable. Etude rétrospective de 57 patients traités en intention curative.
  • PURPOSE: To describe retrospectively the overall survival, the cancer specific survival and the tumor control in an homogeneous series of patients with epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal treated with definitive radiotherapy; to assess the impact of brachytherapy, chemotherapy and pre-radiotherapy resection on the risk of recurrence.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: From 1997 to 2007, 57 patients (pts) presenting with an epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal (T1: 14, T2: 33, T3-4: 10, N0: 31, N1: 19, N2: 3, N3: 4, M0: 57) were treated with definitive radiotherapy by the same radiation oncologist.
  • The treatment included an external beam irradiation (EBRT) given to the posterior pelvis (45Gy/25 fractions) and, six weeks later, a boost delivered with interstitial brachytherapy (37/57) or external beam irradiation (20/57).
  • Twelve pts had undergone a surgical resection of the tumour before radiotherapy.
  • A concurrent platinum based chemotherapy was done in 42 pts.
  • In univariate analysis, the risk of relapse was higher in patients who had undergone a pre-radiation excision (p=0.018), in those who did not receive chemotherapy (p=0.076) and in those who were irradiated on a belly board (p=0.049).
  • In multivariate analysis, a pre-radiotherapy resection (p=0.084) had an inverse impact on the tumour control reaching the level of statistical significance and the use of a belly board was of marginal influence (p=0.13).
  • CONCLUSION: Radiotherapy and chemoradiation with cisplatine-based chemotherapy cure a vast majority of patients with epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal.
  • Therapeutic factors that may interfere with the definition of the target volume and the patients' repositioning may decrease the efficacy of radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / surgery. Anus Neoplasms / mortality. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / mortality. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Brachytherapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Dose Fractionation. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Patient Positioning. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19854092.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6658
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer radiothérapie : journal de la Société française de radiothérapie oncologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Radiother
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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7. Fesneau M, Champeaux-Orange E, Hennequin C: [Anal cancer]. Cancer Radiother; 2010 Nov;14 Suppl 1:S120-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Anal cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Cancer du canal anal.
  • Anal canal epidermoid carcinomas represent 1.2% of digestive cancers and 6% of ano-rectal cancers.
  • For localized diseases, the treatment is based on radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy (5-FU and cisplatin or mitomycin), according to tumour and nodal extension.
  • The recommended treatment dose is 45 Gy in the anal canal, the mesorectum, pararectal lymph nodes, and inguinal lymph nodes.
  • An additional dose of 15 to 20 Gy is delivered in the initial tumour for good responders.
  • The objective of this work is to summarize the epidemiological and radio-anatomic and prognostic characteristics of this tumour.
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. France. Humans. Incidence. Prognosis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21129654.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6658
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer radiothérapie : journal de la Société française de radiothérapie oncologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Radiother
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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8. Sudoł-Szopińska I, Szczepkowski M, Jakubowski W: [Anal endosonography in the diagnosis of anal neoplasm]. Pol Merkur Lekarski; 2002 Oct;13(76):349-50
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  • [Title] [Anal endosonography in the diagnosis of anal neoplasm].
  • Anal endosonography is a highly accurate imaging method in the diagnosis of rectal carcinoma.
  • Its ability to visualise the layered structure of the anal canal enables local staging of the tumour of the anal canal.
  • Also, the assessment of the perirectal tissues by means of endosonography, is useful in visualisation of enlarged lymph nodes.
  • In patients after radiotherapy or chemotherapy, anal endosonography is used as the follow-up examination.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / ultrasonography. Anus Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Endosonography / methods

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  • (PMID = 12557448.001).
  • [ISSN] 1426-9686
  • [Journal-full-title] Polski merkuriusz lekarski : organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol. Merkur. Lekarski
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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9. Rullier E, Laurent C, Zerbib F, Belleannée G, Caudry M, Saric J: [Conservative treatment of adenocarcinomas of the anorectal junction by preoperative radiotherapy and intersphincteral resection]. Ann Chir; 2000 Sep;125(7):618-24
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Conservative treatment of adenocarcinomas of the anorectal junction by preoperative radiotherapy and intersphincteral resection].
  • [Transliterated title] Traitement conservateur des adénocarcinomes de la jonction anorectale par radiothérapie préopératoire et résection intersphinctérienne.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate oncologic and functional results following conservative radiosurgical treatment of cancers of the anorectal junction.
  • METHODS: From 1990 to 1999, among 395 patients with rectal carcinoma, 31 had sphincter-saving resection for a tumour located between 2 to 4.5 cm (mean 3.6) from the anal verge.
  • Preoperative radiotherapy was performed in 26 patients (dose: 46 Gy, range: 36-54), with concomitant chemotherapy in 14 cases.
  • Intersphincteric resection was performed six weeks after neoadjuvant treatment.
  • Three patients had a definitive stoma.
  • Distal margin was 2.2 cm (range: 1-3) and was microscopically safe in all cases.
  • CONCLUSION: Conservative treatment of carcinomas of the anorectal junction is possible without compromising pelvic control and patient survival.
  • Pelvic control was probably achieved by using preoperative radiotherapy with intersphincteric resection, ensuring safe distal and lateral margins.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Anal Canal / surgery. Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Rectal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anastomosis, Surgical. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Colon / pathology. Colon / surgery. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Postoperative Complications. Preoperative Care. Proctocolectomy, Restorative. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Rectum / pathology. Rectum / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11051690.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-3944
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Chir
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] FRANCE
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10. Efron JE, Pikarsky AJ, Gervaz P, Locker G, Weiss EG, Wexner SD, Nogueras JJ: The efficacy of chemoradiation therapy in HIV seropositive patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anus. Colorectal Dis; 2001 Nov;3(6):402-5

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  • [Title] The efficacy of chemoradiation therapy in HIV seropositive patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anus.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim was to assess the efficacy of chemoradiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal in HIV seropositive patients.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of all patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anus treated primarily with combined chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil and mitomycin) and radiotherapy or local excision was undertaken comparing HIV seropositive to HIV seronegative patients.
  • The HIV positive group included a higher proportion of males and a significantly greater history of prior treatment for condyloma.
  • There was a trend towards higher local tumour recurrence in the HIV seropositive patients although this was not statistically significant (30% vs 66%).
  • The CD4 count of HIV positive patients did not correlate either with their ability to complete the prescribed treatment regimen or with subsequent recurrence.
  • Tolerance of this therapy in HIV seropositive patients or recurrence after therapy are not related to the patient's CD4 cell count.

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  • (PMID = 12790938.001).
  • [ISSN] 1462-8910
  • [Journal-full-title] Colorectal disease : the official journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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11. Orsenigo E, Di Palo S, Vignali A, Staudacher C: Laparoscopic intersphincteric resection for low rectal cancer. Surg Oncol; 2007 Dec;16 Suppl 1:S117-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Nevertheless, all progress in the development of oncologic therapy (i.e., radiation and chemotherapy), radical surgical removal of the tumour is the only chance for permanent cure of rectal cancer.
  • Information concerning the depth of tumour penetration through the rectal wall, lymph node involvement, and presence of distant metastatic disease is of crucial importance when planning a curative rectal cancer resection.
  • Preoperative staging is used to determine the indication for neoadjuvant therapy as well as the indication for local excision versus radical cancer resection.
  • Data from small, non-randomized studies evaluating laparoscopic ISR suggest that this procedure is feasible by experienced surgeons.
  • Laparoscope-assisted anal sphincter-preserving operation preceded by transanal procedure.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / surgery. Digestive System Surgical Procedures / methods. Laparoscopy. Rectal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18023571.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-7404
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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12. Licitra L, Spinazzé S, Doci R, Evans TR, Tanum G, Ducreux M: Cancer of the anal region. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol; 2002 Jul;43(1):77-92
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cancer of the anal region.
  • Cancer of the anal region represents 3-3.5% of all anorectal tumours.
  • The number of women diagnosed with anal canal cancer (7 per 1,000,000 person per years) is twice as much as that of men, while anal margins cancers are more frequent in men (4 per 1,000,000 person per years).
  • Tumour extension determines the different treatment strategies, aiming at definite cure, with a conservative approach.
  • Small tumours can be resected without mutilating surgery, while for larger tumours combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy is the standard treatment, even though a combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy has been recently introduced.
  • Long-term quality of life (QOL) scores are acceptable, with the exception of patients who experience severe anal dysfunction.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • (PMID = 12098609.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8428
  • [Journal-full-title] Critical reviews in oncology/hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Number-of-references] 87
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13. Conroy T, Ducreux M, Lemanski C, Francois E, Giovannini M, Cvitkovic F, Mirabel X, Bouché O, Montoto-Grillot C, Peiffert D: Treatment intensification by induction chemotherapy (ICT) and radiation dose escalation in locally advanced squamous cell anal canal carcinoma (LAAC): Definitive analysis of the intergroup ACCORD 03 trial. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):4033

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment intensification by induction chemotherapy (ICT) and radiation dose escalation in locally advanced squamous cell anal canal carcinoma (LAAC): Definitive analysis of the intergroup ACCORD 03 trial.
  • : 4033 Background: Concomitant radiochemotherapy (CRT) is the standard treatment of LAAC.
  • The addition of an ICT (2 cycles of 5 FU-Cisplatin) and of a higher dose of irradiation boost (HDRT) to CRT were evaluated in a factorial 2X2 arms trial (A= ICT; B=ICT+HDRT; C= Reference arm = Pelvic RT 45 Gy/25 fractions with 2 cycles of 5FU-Cisplatin and a boost of 15 Gy; D= HDRT).
  • The tumour complete response (+ partial response) at 2 months were: A=78% (+18%), B=86% (+13%), C=74% (+21%), D=74 % (+22%) (NS).

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  • (PMID = 27961547.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Swampillai A, Williams M, Osborne M, Mawdsley S, Hughes R, Harrison M, Glynne-Jones R: A single-center study of the utility of squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCAg) levels in epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal and margin (ECACM) treated with chemoradiation (CRT). J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):4117

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A single-center study of the utility of squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCAg) levels in epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal and margin (ECACM) treated with chemoradiation (CRT).
  • : 4117 Background: SCCAg is a tumour marker expressed by ECACM, measured by microparticle enzyme immunoassay; normal range 0-150ng/dl.
  • All 195 were treated with CRT- (50.4Gy in 28 fractions of 1.8 Gy with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) + mitomycin (MMC).
  • Radiotherapy comprised the schedule of the UK Anal cancer Trial (ACT II).
  • 30 had neo-adjuvant chemotherapy followed by CRT and 3 pts had planned surgery followed by CRT.
  • Clinical stage at diagnosis- Tx (6) T1 (28), T2 (80), T3 (65), T4 (16), N0 (126), N+ (66) Nx (3).

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  • (PMID = 27961219.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Myint AS: The role of radiotherapy in the palliative treatment of gastrointestinal cancer. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2000 Apr;12(4):381-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The role of radiotherapy in the palliative treatment of gastrointestinal cancer.
  • Although definitive surgery could be offered for most tumour sites in the gastrointestinal tract, the majority of patients will still develop incurable recurrent or metastatic disease.
  • Planning and delivery of radiation techniques have improved over the years and it is now possible to offer high-dose radiation to the tumour with acceptable side-effects.
  • The addition of chemotherapy to radiation has been used in most tumour sites in the gastrointestinal tract and has been shown to improve the therapeutic ratio; however, one should be aware of the increased toxicity and careful selection of patients is necessary.
  • This approach has led to improved local control in certain tumour sites, e.g. anal canal and oesophagus.
  • However, with increasing use of multi-modality therapy, increases in toxicity to the patient and in cost to healthcare providers must be taken into account.
  • [MeSH-minor] Anus Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Anus Neoplasms / therapy. Biliary Tract Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Biliary Tract Neoplasms / therapy. Brachytherapy. Colorectal Neoplasms / physiopathology. Colorectal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Esophageal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Esophageal Neoplasms / therapy. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Pancreatic Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Pancreatic Neoplasms / therapy. Radiotherapy, High-Energy. Stomach Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 10783989.001).
  • [ISSN] 0954-691X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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16. Widder J, Kastenberger R, Fercher E, Schmid R, Langendijk JA, Dobrowsky W, Pötter R: Radiation dose associated with local control in advanced anal cancer: retrospective analysis of 129 patients. Radiother Oncol; 2008 Jun;87(3):367-75
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Radiation dose associated with local control in advanced anal cancer: retrospective analysis of 129 patients.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To retrospectively analyse a large consecutive cohort of patients with anal cancer for treatment-related factors influencing local control and survival.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients referred for primary radiotherapy at Medical University of Vienna in 1990-2002 with anal canal carcinoma without distant metastases were analysed.
  • Treatment consisted of external radiotherapy with or without brachytherapy and with or without chemotherapy.
  • Patient-, tumour-, and treatment-factors were tested for influence on survival and local control using Cox multivariate analysis.
  • Shorter overall treatment time favoured local control in stage T1-2 (p=.015), higher total radiation dose and female gender were associated with improved local control in T3-4 tumours (p=.021).
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results support potential improvement of anal cancer treatment by studying advanced technology such as IMRT, making it possible to tailor high-dose regions.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Radiotherapy Dosage. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 18501453.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-8140
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiother Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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17. Saarilahti K, Arponen P, Vaalavirta L, Tenhunen M: The effect of intensity-modulated radiotherapy and high dose rate brachytherapy on acute and late radiotherapy-related adverse events following chemoradiotherapy of anal cancer. Radiother Oncol; 2008 Jun;87(3):383-90
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Anal Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The effect of intensity-modulated radiotherapy and high dose rate brachytherapy on acute and late radiotherapy-related adverse events following chemoradiotherapy of anal cancer.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To investigate acute and late radiotherapy-related adverse events following intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy of anal cancer.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-nine consecutive patients treated by chemoradiotherapy for anal squamous cell cancer were evaluated for acute and late radiotherapy-related adverse events.
  • In 29 patients, the boost dose to the primary tumour was given by HDR brachytherapy: 30 patients were treated only by external radiotherapy.
  • A correlation between the equivalent dose in 2Gy fractions (EQD2) at the wall of anal canal opposite to the tumour and radiation proctitis was observed.
  • In patients that received the final boost dose to the primary tumour by HDR brachytherapy, a trend towards lower incidence of radiation proctitis was observed (P=0.065).
  • CONCLUSIONS: IMRT significantly reduces acute radiotherapy-associated adverse events in patients treated by chemoradiotherapy for anal cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / radiotherapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Radiation Injuries. Radiotherapy Dosage

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  • (PMID = 18501454.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-8140
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiother Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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18. Pirenne Y, Bouckaert W, Vangertruyden G: Rectal melanoma--a rare tumour. Acta Chir Belg; 2008 Nov-Dec;108(6):756-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Rectal melanoma--a rare tumour.
  • Malignant rectal melanoma is a rare tumour.
  • A semicircular rectal tumour was seen, just above the dentate line.
  • An abdominoperineal resection was performed as a substantial part of the internal anal sphincter was invaded.
  • The patient recovered well from the operation, and received no adjuvant therapy.
  • Wide local excision is the preferred procedure when technically feasible, but abdominoperineal resection has to be done if the tumour invades a substantial portion of the anal sphincter or is circumferential.
  • The role of radiotherapy, chemotherapy or immunotherapy looks promising, but further investigations are needed.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Anal Canal / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19241934.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5458
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir. Belg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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19. Martí-Carvajal AJ, Cardona AF, Rodríguez ML: Interventions for treating AIDS-associated Hodgkin s lymphoma in treatment-naive adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2007;(2):CD006149
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Interventions for treating AIDS-associated Hodgkin s lymphoma in treatment-naive adults.
  • Its unusually aggressive tumour behaviour includes a higher frequency of unfavourable histologic subtypes, high-stage and extranodal involvement by the time of presentation (anal canal, stomach), and poor therapeutic outcome, in comparison with HD outside the HIV setting.
  • The optimal therapeutic strategy is still controversial, and median overall survival is short, ranging from 12 to 18 months.
  • Thus, there is a need to identify the efficacy and safety of different interventions for AIDS-associated HD on overall survival and disease-free survival in treatment-naive adults with AIDS.
  • OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of different interventions for treating AIDS-associated Hodgkin's disease including chemotherapy, bone marrow transplantation (BMT), and gene therapy on overall survival and disease-free survival in treatment-naive adults with AIDS.
  • MAIN RESULTS: We were unable to find any randomised controlled trials of interventions for treating AIDS-associated HD in treatment-naive adults with AIDS.
  • AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Randomised controlled trials are needed to establish the efficacy and safety of interventions for treating AIDS-associated HD in treatment-naive adults with AIDS.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17443616.001).
  • [ISSN] 1469-493X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Cochrane database of systematic reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cochrane Database Syst Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 75
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20. Shaikh S, Nabi G, O'Kelly T, Swami SK: Endoscopic trans-anal resection of rectal tumours: critical appraisal of an interdisciplinary approach. Colorectal Dis; 2007 Mar;9(3):235-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Endoscopic trans-anal resection of rectal tumours: critical appraisal of an interdisciplinary approach.
  • OBJECTIVE: Endoscopic trans-anal resection (ETAR) is an accepted technique for treating benign rectal adenomas that relies on technical expertise with the urological resectoscope.
  • We present our experience with ETAR in an interdisciplinary setting combining the decision-making of the colorectal surgeon with the technical skill of the urologist.
  • There were four cases of postoperative haemorrhage, two of which required a repeat procedure to secure haemostasis.
  • Mean tumour distance from the anal verge was 7 cm (range 2-12 cm); the mean tumour area was 8 cm(2) (range 3-20 cm(2)); the mean operating time was 34 min (range 15-60 min) and the mean hospital stay was 32 h (range 24-120 h).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anal Canal. Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Blood Loss, Surgical / statistics & numerical data. Female. Fever / drug therapy. Humans. Intraoperative Complications / therapy. Length of Stay. Male. Middle Aged. Postoperative Complications / therapy. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17298621.001).
  • [ISSN] 1462-8910
  • [Journal-full-title] Colorectal disease : the official journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents
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21. Papaconstantinou HT, Bullard KM, Rothenberger DA, Madoff RD: Salvage abdominoperineal resection after failed Nigro protocol: modest success, major morbidity. Colorectal Dis; 2006 Feb;8(2):124-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: Chemotherapy and radiation (C-XRT) is the first-line therapy for epidermoid carcinomas of the anal canal (ECAC).
  • Treatment failure occurs in up to 33% of patients.
  • Salvage-abdominoperineal resection (APR) is the treatment of choice for locoregional failure but pre-operative radiation may increase wound complications.
  • We evaluated patient demographics, treatment, tumour characteristics, survival and postoperative complications.
  • The mean age at diagnosis was 55 years.
  • Eight (42%) patients had persistent disease; 11 (58%) had tumour recurrence.
  • Primary flap reconstruction at time of APR was performed in 5 (33%) patients; 2 experienced major wound complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Salvage Therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Morbidity. Surgical Flaps. Survival Analysis. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 16412072.001).
  • [ISSN] 1462-8910
  • [Journal-full-title] Colorectal disease : the official journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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22. Kim DW, Lim SB, Kim DY, Kim TH, Jung KH, Kim DH, Chang HJ, Sohn DK, Hong CW, Choi HS, Jeong SY, Park JG: Pre-operative chemo-radiotherapy improves the sphincter preservation rate in patients with rectal cancer located within 3 cm of the anal verge. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2006 Mar;32(2):162-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pre-operative chemo-radiotherapy improves the sphincter preservation rate in patients with rectal cancer located within 3 cm of the anal verge.
  • AIMS: To evaluate whether pre-operative chemo-radiotherapy (CRT) improves the sphincter preservation rate for distal rectal cancers within 3 cm of the anal verge.
  • METHODS: Between January 2001 and December 2004, 49 patients underwent surgery with or without pre-operative CRT for primary rectal adenocarcinoma within 3 cm of the anal verge.
  • RESULTS: Of 49 patients with rectal tumours within 3 cm of the anal verge, 31 underwent pre-operative CRT followed by surgery (CRT group), and 18 underwent surgery alone (non-CRT group).
  • The factors most influencing sphincter preservation were reduction in tumour size (p=0.005) and downstaging (p=0.001) following pre-operative CRT.
  • CONCLUSION: We could observe that sphincter preservation was improved in CRT group with statistical significance when compared to non-CRT group in our study patients with rectal cancer within 3 cm of the anal verge.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Anal Canal / drug effects. Anal Canal / radiation effects. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology. Rectal Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Capecitabine. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Confounding Factors (Epidemiology). Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Deoxycytidine / therapeutic use. Digestive System Surgical Procedures. Female. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16289718.001).
  • [ISSN] 0748-7983
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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23. Bujko K, Nowacki MP, Nasierowska-Guttmejer A, Michalski W, Bebenek M, Pudełko M, Kryj M, Oledzki J, Szmeja J, Słuszniak J, Serkies K, Kładny J, Pamucka M, Kukołowicz P: Sphincter preservation following preoperative radiotherapy for rectal cancer: report of a randomised trial comparing short-term radiotherapy vs. conventionally fractionated radiochemotherapy. Radiother Oncol; 2004 Jul;72(1):15-24
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Surgeons were obliged to base the type of operation on the tumour status at the time of surgery.
  • The tumour was on average 1.9 cm smaller (P < 0.001) among patients treated with chemoradiation compared with short-term schedule.
  • For patients who underwent sphincter-preserving procedure, the surgeons generally followed the rule of tailoring the resection according to tumour downsizing; the median distal bowel margin was identical (2 cm) for both randomised groups.
  • The surgeons' decisions were subjective and based on pre-treatment tumour volume at least in clinical complete responders.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / surgery. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Rectal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Rectal Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Dose Fractionation. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Leucovorin / administration & dosage. Male. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15236870.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-8140
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiother Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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24. Wanebo HJ, Belliveau J, Begossi G, Levy A: Isolated chemotherapeutic perfusion of the pelvis for advanced rectal cancer. Colorectal Dis; 2003 Sep;5(5):508-14
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: Isolated pelvic perfusion exposes tissue to high doses of drug without the toxicity of high-dose systemic therapy and may benefit patients with advanced malignancy.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: There were 32 patients with locally advanced, previously irradiated cancer of the rectum and 5 patients with anal canal cancer.
  • Pre-operative perfusion in 16 rectal cancer patients achieved a complete response (no tumour in pelvis) in 1 patient and significant tumour regression in 8 patients rendering them potentially resectable.
  • Three patients with recurrent epidermoid cancer had significant tumour regression and were resected with clear margins.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Rectal Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Catheterization. Chemotherapy, Cancer, Regional Perfusion. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mitomycins / administration & dosage. Palliative Care. Pelvis. Preoperative Care. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12925091.001).
  • [ISSN] 1462-8910
  • [Journal-full-title] Colorectal disease : the official journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Colorectal Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Mitomycins; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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