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1. Schrama JG, Holtkamp MJ, Baars JW, Schornagel JH, Rodenhuis S: Toxicity of the high-dose chemotherapy CTC regimen (cyclophosphamide, thiotepa, carboplatin): the Netherlands Cancer Institute experience. Br J Cancer; 2003 Jun 16;88(12):1831-8
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. THIO-TEPA .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Toxicity of the high-dose chemotherapy CTC regimen (cyclophosphamide, thiotepa, carboplatin): the Netherlands Cancer Institute experience.
  • High-dose chemotherapy (HD-CT) has a role in the potentially curative treatment of several tumours.
  • Most patients had high-risk (n=86) or metastatic (n=4) breast cancer, or a germ cell tumour (n=8).
  • Two patients (with a medulloblastoma and an aesthesioneuroblastoma, respectively) received CTC as off-protocol salvage regimen.
  • Most patients had PBPC-Tx with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), and the median time to neutrophil count 500 x 10(6) l(-1) and platelet count >20 x 10(9) l(-1) without transfusion independence was 10 (range 8-25) and 13 (8-60) days, respectively.
  • Other frequent toxicities were neutropenic fever requiring antibiotics (n=65), central catheter-related infection (n=12) or a bleeding episode (n=48), mostly epistaxis (n=26).
  • In conclusion, the CTC regimen is associated with a moderate, mainly reversible, toxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / toxicity. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carboplatin / toxicity. Cyclophosphamide / toxicity. Germinoma / drug therapy. Thiotepa / toxicity
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bone Marrow / drug effects. Drug Administration Schedule. Follow-Up Studies. Hemorrhage / complications. Humans. Infection / complications. Male. Middle Aged. Netherlands

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  • (PMID = 12799623.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; 905Z5W3GKH / Thiotepa; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; CTCb regimen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2741114
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2. Shaw DM, Connolly NB, Patel PM, Kilany S, Hedlund G, Nordle O, Forsberg G, Zweit J, Stern PL, Hawkins RE: A phase II study of a 5T4 oncofoetal antigen tumour-targeted superantigen (ABR-214936) therapy in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma. Br J Cancer; 2007 Feb 26;96(4):567-74
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A phase II study of a 5T4 oncofoetal antigen tumour-targeted superantigen (ABR-214936) therapy in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma.
  • Drug was given intravenously on 4 consecutive days, treatment was repeated 1 month later.
  • Treatment was associated with moderate fever and nausea, but well tolerated.
  • Patients receiving higher drug exposure had greater disease control and lived almost twice as long as expected, whereas the low-exposure patients survived as expected.
  • Sustained interleukin-2 (IL-2) production after a repeated injection appears to be a biomarker for clinical effect, as the induced-IL-2 level on the day 2 of treatment correlated with survival.
  • The high degree of disease control and the prolonged survival suggest that this treatment can be effective.
  • These findings will be used in the trial design for the next generation of drug, with reduced antigenicity and toxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / immunology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / drug therapy. Enterotoxins / administration & dosage. Enterotoxins / immunology. Kidney Neoplasms / drug therapy. Membrane Glycoproteins / administration & dosage. Membrane Glycoproteins / immunology. Recombinant Fusion Proteins / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Disease Progression. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Injections, Intravenous. Interleukin-2 / biosynthesis. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17285137.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ABR-214936; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Enterotoxins; 0 / Interleukin-2; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Recombinant Fusion Proteins; 0 / oncofetal antigens; 0 / trophoblastic glycoprotein 5T4, human; 37337-57-8 / enterotoxin A, Staphylococcal
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2360042
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3. O'Byrne KJ, Thomas AL, Sharma RA, DeCatris M, Shields F, Beare S, Steward WP: A phase I dose-escalating study of DaunoXome, liposomal daunorubicin, in metastatic breast cancer. Br J Cancer; 2002 Jul 1;87(1):15-20
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. DAUNORUBICIN .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The aims of this phase I study were to establish the maximum tolerated dose, safety profile and activity of liposomal daunorubicin, DaunoXome (NeXstar Pharmaceuticals), in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer.
  • Asymptomatic cardiotoxicity was observed in three patients: grade 1 in one treated with a cumulative dose of 800 mg m(2) and grade 2 in two, one who received a cumulative dose of 960 mg m(2) and the other a cumulative dose of 600 mg m(2) with a previous neoadjuvant doxorubicin chemotherapy of 300 mg m(2).
  • Tumour response was evaluable in 15 patients, of whom two had objective responses, six had stable disease and seven had progressive disease.
  • In conclusion, DaunoXome is associated with mild, manageable toxicities and has anti-tumour activity in metastatic breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / adverse effects. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Daunorubicin / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Fever / chemically induced. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Liposomes. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neutropenia / chemically induced. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002 Cancer Research UK
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  • (PMID = 12085249.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Liposomes; ZS7284E0ZP / Daunorubicin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2364277
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4. Carter S, Martin Ii RC: Drug-eluting bead therapy in primary and metastatic disease of the liver. HPB (Oxford); 2009 Nov;11(7):541-50

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Drug-eluting bead therapy in primary and metastatic disease of the liver.
  • BACKGROUND: Drug-eluting bead transarterial chemoembolization (DEB-TACE) is a novel therapy for the treatment of hypervascuarized tumours.
  • Through the intra-arterial delivery of microspheres, DEB-TACE allows for embolization as well as local release of chemotherapy in the treatment of hepatic malignancy, providing an alternative therapeutic option in unresectable tumours.
  • The purpose of this review is to summarize recent studies investigating DEB-TACE in order to better define safety, efficacy and outcomes associated with its use.
  • These were reviewed for tumour histology, stage of treatment, delivery technique, outcome at follow-up, complications and mortality rates.
  • RESULTS: Publications involved treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), metastatic colorectal carcinoma (MCRC), metastatic neuroendocrine (MNE) disease and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA).
  • The most common procedure-associated complications included fever (46-72%), nausea and vomiting (42-47%), abdominal pain (44-80%) and liver abscess (2-3%).
  • Rather than reporting individual symptoms, two studies reported rates of post-embolic syndrome (PES), consisting of fever, abdominal pain, and nausea and vomiting, at 82% (75/91).
  • Six of eight studies reported length of hospital stay, which averaged 2.3 days per procedure.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Drug-eluting bead TACE is becoming more widely utilized in primary and liver-dominant metastatic disease of the liver.

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  • (PMID = 20495705.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-2574
  • [Journal-full-title] HPB : the official journal of the International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HPB (Oxford)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2785948
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5. Scharplatz M, Puhan M, Steurer J, Bachmann LM: [Pharmacogenetics. Tailored therapy in medicine -- opportunities and challenges]. Praxis (Bern 1994); 2004 Mar 3;93(10):359-65
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Trastuzumab .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Pharmacogenetics. Tailored therapy in medicine -- opportunities and challenges].
  • [Transliterated title] Pharmakogenetik--Wege zu einer individualisierten Therapie?
  • Pharmacogenetic research explores genetic variability between patients to explain observed differences in effectiveness of a drug therapy or adverse event profiles.
  • Sometimes drug therapy is unfavourable: Patients may respond only partially to a drug therapy, do not respond at all, or suffer from serious adverse events.
  • The reasons for the varying effectiveness of a drug therapy are due to factors like absorption; metabolism, elimination and target interaction.
  • Numerous new polymorphisms have been described, for example for the beta 2-adrenergic receptor or the cytochrome which can either improve or reduce the response to drug therapy.
  • Two polymorphisms for the tumour necrosis factor alpha have shown to be associated with an increased risk of serious adverse events (hypersensibility: fever, rash, gastrointestinal symptoms) if treated with abacavir (HIV-treatment).
  • Pharmacogenetic tests provide information about certain polymorphisms and raise the hope for an individualized pharmacotherapy.
  • Yet, not only genetic but also environmental factors influence the effectiveness of a therapy.
  • Even though results from research implies that pharmacogenetics has a great potential to maximize the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy and to reduce the incidence of drug-related adverse events, extensive clinical research both on effectiveness and costs is required to assess the true benefits of these exciting new technologies.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Dideoxynucleosides / therapeutic use. Drug Therapy / trends. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Pharmacogenetics. Polymorphism, Genetic. Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Cohort Studies. Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions. Female. Humans. Male. Mutation. Prognosis. Research. Trastuzumab

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  • (PMID = 15052854.001).
  • [ISSN] 1661-8157
  • [Journal-full-title] Praxis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Praxis (Bern 1994)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Dideoxynucleosides; 0 / Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors; P188ANX8CK / Trastuzumab; WR2TIP26VS / abacavir
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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6. Drewe E, McDermott EM, Powell PT, Isaacs JD, Powell RJ: Prospective study of anti-tumour necrosis factor receptor superfamily 1B fusion protein, and case study of anti-tumour necrosis factor receptor superfamily 1A fusion protein, in tumour necrosis factor receptor associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS): clinical and laboratory findings in a series of seven patients. Rheumatology (Oxford); 2003 Feb;42(2):235-9
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Etanercept .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prospective study of anti-tumour necrosis factor receptor superfamily 1B fusion protein, and case study of anti-tumour necrosis factor receptor superfamily 1A fusion protein, in tumour necrosis factor receptor associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS): clinical and laboratory findings in a series of seven patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects prospectively of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily (TNFRSF) fusion proteins TNFRSF1B (etanercept) and TNFRSF1A (p55TNFr-Ig) in patients with TNF receptor associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS).
  • METHODS: Seven patients with a clinical and genetic diagnosis of TRAPS received subcutaneous etanercept for 24 weeks.
  • Therapeutic response was assessed by comparing corticosteroid requirement, acute-phase response and an established scoring system over 20 weeks, both on and off etanercept.
  • Etanercept may be clinically useful in replacing or reducing steroid requirements in the treatment of TRAPS.
  • [MeSH-major] Antirheumatic Agents / therapeutic use. Familial Mediterranean Fever / drug therapy. Immunoglobulin G / therapeutic use. Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antigens, CD / therapeutic use. C-Reactive Protein / metabolism. Child, Preschool. Drug Administration Schedule. Drug Therapy, Combination. Etanercept. Female. Glucocorticoids / therapeutic use. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I. Treatment Outcome

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  • [ErratumIn] Rheumatology (Oxford). 2003 May;42(5):711
  • (PMID = 12595616.001).
  • [ISSN] 1462-0324
  • [Journal-full-title] Rheumatology (Oxford, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rheumatology (Oxford)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antirheumatic Agents; 0 / Glucocorticoids; 0 / Immunoglobulin G; 0 / Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor; 0 / Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I; 9007-41-4 / C-Reactive Protein; OP401G7OJC / Etanercept
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7. Drewe E, Huggins ML, Morgan AG, Cassidy MJ, Powell RJ: Treatment of renal amyloidosis with etanercept in tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome. Rheumatology (Oxford); 2004 Nov;43(11):1405-8
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Etanercept .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment of renal amyloidosis with etanercept in tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the effect of Etanercept treatment in systemic AA amyloidosis in tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS).
  • METHODS: Etanercept therapy was given to a 27 year old woman, with systemic amyloidosis and nephrotic syndrome, and to her 51 year old father, also affected by TRAPS, who had previously undergone renal transplant for amyloidosis.
  • RESULTS: Etanercept treatment resulted in initial clinical resolution of nephrotic syndrome in the 27 year old female.
  • Treatment may however need to be continuous and life-long to prevent progression to end stage disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Amyloidosis / drug therapy. Familial Mediterranean Fever / drug therapy. Immunoglobulin G / therapeutic use. Nephrotic Syndrome / drug therapy. Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor / therapeutic use. Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cytokines / blood. Etanercept. Female. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Male. Middle Aged. Mutation. Serum Amyloid A Protein / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15316120.001).
  • [ISSN] 1462-0324
  • [Journal-full-title] Rheumatology (Oxford, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rheumatology (Oxford)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Immunoglobulin G; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor; 0 / Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I; 0 / Serum Amyloid A Protein; OP401G7OJC / Etanercept
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8. Aróstegui JI, Solís P, Aldea A, Cantero T, Rius J, Bahíllo P, Plaza S, Vives J, Gómez S, Yagüe J: Etanercept plus colchicine treatment in a child with tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome abolishes auto-inflammatory episodes without normalising the subclinical acute phase response. Eur J Pediatr; 2005 Jan;164(1):13-6
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  • [Title] Etanercept plus colchicine treatment in a child with tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome abolishes auto-inflammatory episodes without normalising the subclinical acute phase response.
  • We investigated the cause of hereditary periodic fever syndrome in a Spanish child with recurrent long episodes of fever, migratory skin rash, myalgia, arthralgia, conjunctivitis and abdominal pain.
  • Analysis of the tumour necrosis factor receptor superfamily 1A (TNFRSF1A) gene identified a missense mutation (G36E) on exon 3.
  • The absence of this variant in the patient's parents and in controls identified it as a de novo disease-associated mutation.
  • We believe that this patient gained some symptomatic relief with etanercept therapy, although not enough to completely avoid the risk of amyloidosis.
  • Thus it is debatable whether etanercept alone or combined with other drugs, is the treatment of choice for patients with tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome.
  • CONCLUSION: Since there is variability in treatment responses among different patients with tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome, we suggest that a systematic evaluation of acute-phase reactants, especially SAA-1, could be useful in maintaining or modifying a given therapeutic approach in these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Colchicine / therapeutic use. Familial Mediterranean Fever / drug therapy. Immunoglobulin G / therapeutic use. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Drug Therapy, Combination. Etanercept. Humans. Male. Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15549379.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-6199
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Pediatr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunoglobulin G; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor; 0 / Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Type I; OP401G7OJC / Etanercept; SML2Y3J35T / Colchicine
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9. Schüttrumpf S, Binder L, Hagemann T, Berkovic D, Trümper L, Binder C: Procalcitonin: a useful discriminator between febrile conditions of different origin in hemato-oncological patients? Ann Hematol; 2003 Feb;82(2):98-103
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  • A reliable marker to discriminate infectious inflammations from drug-related and tumor-associated fever is still lacking.
  • Infections could be identified in 40 of 95 patients: 38 of 95 had fever of unknown origin (FUO), 9 patients were suspected to suffer from drug-related fever, and 8 patients from tumor-associated fever.
  • In the noninfection group (drug-related and tumor-associated fever), PCT levels were significantly lower than in patients with infections (P<0.001) or FUO (P<0.001).
  • Differences were still highly significant comparing patients with suspected drug-related or tumor-associated fever alone with the infection or the FUO cohort.
  • All eight patients with tumor-associated fever as well as eight of the nine patients with drug-related fever had PCT levels within the normal range (<0.5 micro g/l).
  • Differences were significant between patients with drug-related fever and the infection (P=0.001) or FUO group (P=0.004).
  • However, as CRP levels were far above the normal range also in the patients with drug-related fever, the significance of individual values was rather limited.
  • PCT may facilitate the decision on when to initiate antimicrobial or cytotoxic therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcitonin / blood. Fever / etiology. Hematologic Neoplasms / complications. Protein Precursors / blood

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  • (PMID = 12601488.001).
  • [ISSN] 0939-5555
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Protein Precursors; 020IUV4N33 / Phosphocreatine; 56645-65-9 / procalcitonin; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin
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10. Semeraro M, Thomée C, Rolland E, Le Deley MC, Rosselini D, Troalen F, Amoroso L, Dubrel M, Hartmann O: A predictor of unfavourable outcome in neutropenic paediatric patients presenting with fever of unknown origin. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2010 Feb;54(2):284-90
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  • [Title] A predictor of unfavourable outcome in neutropenic paediatric patients presenting with fever of unknown origin.
  • BACKGROUND: No sensitive, specific marker able to discriminate favourable or unfavourable outcome of fever of unknown origin (FUO) at diagnosis has been identified.
  • METHODS: We conducted a prospective study examining the following variables: age 0.5-22 years; solid tumour diagnosis; chemotherapy-related grade-4 febrile neutropenia (FN).
  • FUO was considered to be of unfavourable outcome if the fever was persistent or re-appeared at day 3 (or later), or if secondary clinical or microbiological infection occurred.
  • PCT values were significantly higher in episodes of unfavourable outcome (P < 0.001).
  • In the validation set, the best PCT cut-off was 0.12 micro/L, which was associated with a sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 64%.
  • A protocol based on PCT-H0 measurement, integrating clinical and bacteriological evaluation, facilitates shorter hospital stays and less antibiotic treatment.
  • Patients with a PCT-H0 value <0.12 micro/L could benefit from an outpatient treatment starting at H48 thus reducing hospitalisation costs and improving quality of life.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcitonin / blood. Fever of Unknown Origin / diagnosis. Neoplasms. Neutropenia / diagnosis. Protein Precursors / blood

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19927283.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Protein Precursors; 56645-65-9 / procalcitonin; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin
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11. Shelley MD, Wilt TJ, Court J, Coles B, Kynaston H, Mason MD: Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin is superior to mitomycin C in reducing tumour recurrence in high-risk superficial bladder cancer: a meta-analysis of randomized trials. BJU Int; 2004 Mar;93(4):485-90
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  • [Title] Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin is superior to mitomycin C in reducing tumour recurrence in high-risk superficial bladder cancer: a meta-analysis of randomized trials.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess, in a systematic review and meta-analysis, the relative effectiveness of intravesical mitomycin C and bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) for tumour recurrence, disease progression and overall survival in patients with medium- to high-risk Ta and T1 bladder cancer.
  • METHODS: The major medical databases were searched comprehensively up to June 2003, and relevant journals hand-searched for randomized controlled trials, in any language, that compared intravesical mitomycin C with BCG in medium- to high-risk patients with Ta or T1 bladder cancer.
  • There was no significant difference between mitomycin C and BCG for tumour recurrence in the six trials, with a weighted mean log hazard ratio, LHR, (variance) of -0.022 (0.005).
  • With mitomycin C used as the control in the meta-analysis, a negative ratio is in favour of BCG and, in this case, was highly significant (P < 0.001).
  • The seventh trial (in abstract form only) used BCG in low doses for two arms of the trial (27 mg and 13.5 mg) compared with a standard dose of mitomycin C (30 mg), and reported a significantly lower recurrence rate with BCG (27 mg) than for mitomycin C (P = 0.001).
  • There was no significant difference between mitomycin C and BCG for disease progression, with a LHR of 0.044 (0.04) (P = 0.16), or survival, at -0.112 (0.03) (P = 0.50).
  • Local toxicity (dysuria, cystitis, frequency and haematuria) were associated with both mitomycin C (30%) and BCG (44%).
  • Systemic toxicity, e.g. chills, fever and malaise, occurred with both agents (12% and 19%, respectively) although skin rash was more common with mitomycin C.
  • CONCLUSION: Tumour recurrence was significantly lower with intravesical BCG than with mitomycin C only in those patients at high risk of tumour recurrence.
  • However, there was no difference in disease progression or survival, and the decision to use either agent might be based on adverse events and cost.
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Immunologic / administration & dosage. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. BCG Vaccine / administration & dosage. Mitomycin / administration & dosage. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 15008714.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-4096
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / BCG Vaccine; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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12. Brueck M, Barton M, Rauber K, Zikova A, Kramer W: [Ileus of the small intestine in intestinal marginal-zone B-cell lymphoma of mucoid-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr; 2001 Dec 7;126(49):1391-5
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  • [Title] [Ileus of the small intestine in intestinal marginal-zone B-cell lymphoma of mucoid-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)].
  • [Transliterated title] Dünndarmileus bei intestinalem Marginalzonen-B-Zell-Lymphom des MALT.
  • On admission there was no evidence of weight loss, fever or nocturnal sweating.
  • An obstructing conglomerate tumour was present in the area of the ileum, ca.
  • DIAGNOSIS: Ileus of the small intestine with a low-malignant marginal zone B-cell (non-Hodgkin) lymphoma of MALT type (mucoid-associated lymphoid tissue).
  • TREATMENT AND COURSE: Postoperative staging indicated no further manifestation of the lymphoma.
  • As no radical operation in resecting the tumour had been performed, combined radio- and chemotherapy was undertaken.
  • A multimodal therapeutic approach is often employed, but there are no established treatment strategies.

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  • (PMID = 11740631.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-0472
  • [Journal-full-title] Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift (1946)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr.
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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13. Goyal A, Evans WD, Mansel RE: Isolated hyperthermic chemotherapy perfusion for limb melanoma is a safe procedure. J Clin Oncol; 2004 Jul 15;22(14_suppl):7538

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Isolated hyperthermic chemotherapy perfusion for limb melanoma is a safe procedure.
  • In this study, the tumour response, systemic toxicity and overall survival were studied in 56 patients who underwent single ILP using melphalan.
  • METHODS: 53 perfusions were performed using melphalan, 1.5-2mg/kg (13 prophylactic, 40 therapeutic) and 3 using melphalan in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents (all therapeutic).
  • Leakage from the isolated circuit to the systemic circulation was measured with <sup>125</sup>I-labelled human serum albumin and correlated with observed systemic bone marrow toxicity.
  • Other systemic side effects were: nausea and vomiting in 45 patients (82%), fever in 17 patients (31%) and scalp hair loss in 2 patients (4%).
  • Overall 5-year survival rate was 49% for therapeutic perfusion and 100% for prophylactic perfusion.
  • CONCLUSION: Therapeutic ILP is a suitable treatment for in-transit metastases not amenable to surgery and confined to a limb, since amputation provides no advantage in terms of survival.
  • Systemic leakage during ILP was associated with leucopenia, although the bone marrow depression was transient in all cases.

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  • (PMID = 28014919.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Zarogoulidis K, Kontakiotis T, Papagiannis A, Xafenias A, Kortsaris A: Management of resistant lung cancer malignant pleural effusion by intrapleural gene therapy. J Clin Oncol; 2004 Jul 15;22(14_suppl):3168

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of resistant lung cancer malignant pleural effusion by intrapleural gene therapy.
  • : 3168 Background: Cytosine deaminase, transferred into tumour cells by an adenovirus vector, can convert the antifungal drug flucytosine to the antimetabolite 5-fluorouracil, which kills not only the transfected tumour cells but also their neighbours by the so-called 'bystander' effect.
  • Two patients suffered from small cell lung cancer, which had relapsed after completion of initial chemotherapy, and four patients from adenocarcinoma of the lung that had progressed during chemotherapy procedure.
  • The pleural fluid was drained through intercostal tube, and the treatment procedure was performed when the daily fluid production was less than 200 ml.
  • A total amount of 10<sup>12</sup> pfu of adenovirus vector was instilled into the pleural cavity either in a single dose (in four patients) or in two fractions (in two patients, given on the 1<sup>st</sup> and 7<sup>th</sup> day).
  • All patients received flucytosine (Ancotil - Roche) 500 mg qds for 14 days Results: In two of the six patients reaccumulation of the fluid stopped within two weeks (one with an adenocarcinoma and the other with SCLC -treatment only by AdCD) and the drain was removed.
  • The main constitutional toxicity in all patients was fever due to the AdCD.
  • Three patients experienced grade 3 neutropenia due to the concurrently given chemotherapy Conclusions: Intrapleural gene therapy may be a useful adjunct to chemotherapy in the management of refractory pleural effusions associated with lung cancer.

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  • (PMID = 28014951.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Kneitz C, Suerbaum S, Beer M, Müller J, Jahns R, Tony HP: Exacerbation of Whipple's disease associated with infliximab treatment. Scand J Rheumatol; 2005 Mar-Apr;34(2):148-51
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  • [Title] Exacerbation of Whipple's disease associated with infliximab treatment.
  • A 34-year-old man with chronic inflammatory joint disease and recurrent fever over 6 years was diagnosed as having Still's disease.
  • Treatment with corticosteroids and azathioprine was ineffective.
  • The patient subsequently developed a wasting disease with rapid weight loss, erythema nodosum, diarrhoea, progressive lymph node enlargement, and a sigmoido-vesical fistula.
  • The presence of Tropheryma whipplei (Tw) DNA in the tissues was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
  • Careful re-evaluation of biopsies taken from the ileum and the liver 2 years earlier, which at that time was not judged to be diagnostic for WD, retrospectively showed subtle histological signs of WD and were positive for Tw DNA.
  • In summary, infliximab treatment seems to increase the risk of exacerbation of WD.
  • WD should be carefully ruled out prior to application of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) blockade.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anti-Bacterial Agents. DNA, Bacterial / analysis. Drug Combinations. Drug Therapy, Combination / therapeutic use. Gram-Positive Bacteria / genetics. Gram-Positive Bacteria / isolation & purification. Gram-Positive Bacteria / ultrastructure. Humans. Ileum / microbiology. Ileum / pathology. Immunocompromised Host. Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects. Infliximab. Liver / microbiology. Liver / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Male. Methotrexate / adverse effects. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sulfamethizole / therapeutic use. Treatment Outcome. Trimethoprim / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16095013.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9742
  • [Journal-full-title] Scandinavian journal of rheumatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Scand. J. Rheumatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antirheumatic Agents; 0 / DNA, Bacterial; 0 / Drug Combinations; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 25W8454H16 / Sulfamethizole; 79735-35-6 / trimethoprim sulfamethizole; AN164J8Y0X / Trimethoprim; B72HH48FLU / Infliximab; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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16. Yeh YM, Chang KC, Chen YP, Kao LY, Tsai HP, Ho CL, Wang JR, Jones D, Chen TY: Large B cell lymphoma presenting initially in bone marrow, liver and spleen: an aggressive entity associated frequently with haemophagocytic syndrome. Histopathology; 2010 Dec;57(6):785-95

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Large B cell lymphoma presenting initially in bone marrow, liver and spleen: an aggressive entity associated frequently with haemophagocytic syndrome.
  • AIMS: To describe diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) presenting initially in bone marrow, liver and spleen (BLS-type) without lymphadenopathy.
  • Usually presenting with fever and haemophagocytic syndrome suggesting infection and complicating timely diagnosis, bone marrow examination showed patchy and interstitial infiltration of large tumour cells without sinusoidal involvement.
  • Clinical behaviour was very aggressive, with a 2-year survival rate of 18% (45% of patients died within 3 weeks).
  • High-dose chemotherapy with haematopoietic stem cell transplantation prolonged survival in one patient.

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Limited.
  • (PMID = 21166693.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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17. Dale DC: Colony-stimulating factors for the management of neutropenia in cancer patients. Drugs; 2002;62 Suppl 1:1-15
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  • Neutropenia and its subsequent infectious complications represent the most common dose-limiting toxicity of cancer chemotherapy.
  • Febrile neutropenia (FN) occurs with common chemotherapy regimens in 25 to 40% of treatment-naive patients, and its severity depends on the dose intensity of the chemotherapy regimen, the patient's prior history of either radiation therapy or use of cytotoxic treatment, and comorbidities.
  • The occurrence of FN often causes subsequent chemotherapy delays or dose reductions.
  • It may also lengthen hospital stay, increase monitoring, diagnostic and treatment costs, and reduce patient quality of life.
  • A decade after their introduction, colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) such as granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) are now an integral part of the prevention of potentially life-threatening FN; however, only G-CSF has US Food and Drug Administration approval for use in chemotherapy-induced neutropenia.
  • Important uses of CSFs in oncology are prevention of FN after chemotherapy, treatment of febrile neutropenic episodes and support following bone marrow transplantation, and collection of CSF-mobilised peripheral blood progenitor cells.
  • G-CSF is used more frequently than GM-CSF for all of these indications because of fewer associated adverse effects.
  • However, they have demonstrated clinical utility in allowing the delivery of planned chemotherapy dose on schedule, an important clinical goal especially in curative tumour settings.
  • These risk factors may include decreased immune function in patients who are already at an increased risk of infection and pre-existing neutropenia due to disease, extensive prior chemotherapy, or previous irradiation to the pelvis or other areas containing large amounts of bone marrow.
  • Future studies are needed to better define the patients most likely to benefit from CSF therapy, both for prophylaxis and as an adjunct to antibiotics for treatment of FN.
  • Other potential uses include combination therapy with stem cell factors and other cytokines to boost progenitor cell development, maintaining dose intensity of salvage therapy in metastatic cancer patients, and application in patients with pneumonia, Crohn's fistulas, diabetic foot infections and a variety of other infectious conditions.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Colony-Stimulating Factors / therapeutic use. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neutropenia / prevention & control
  • [MeSH-minor] Bone Marrow Transplantation. Clinical Trials as Topic. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Therapy, Combination. Fever / chemically induced. Fever / prevention & control. Filgrastim. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / administration & dosage. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / therapeutic use. Humans. Leukemia / drug therapy. Leukemia / therapy. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / drug therapy. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / therapy. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Recombinant Proteins. Stem Cell Transplantation

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  • (PMID = 12479591.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-6667
  • [Journal-full-title] Drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Colony-Stimulating Factors; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 143011-72-7 / Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor; PVI5M0M1GW / Filgrastim
  • [Number-of-references] 108
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18. Jansen B, Wacheck V, Heere-Ress E, Schlagbauer-Wadl H, Hoeller C, Lucas T, Hoermann M, Hollenstein U, Wolff K, Pehamberger H: Chemosensitisation of malignant melanoma by BCL2 antisense therapy. Lancet; 2000 Nov 18;356(9243):1728-33
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  • [Title] Chemosensitisation of malignant melanoma by BCL2 antisense therapy.
  • Antisense oligonucleotides (ASO) targeted against BCL2 mRNA decreased BCL2 protein concentrations, increased tumour-cell apoptosis, and led to tumour responses in a mouse xenotransplantation model when combined with systemic dacarbazine.
  • METHODS: In a within-patient dose-escalation protocol, 14 patients with advanced malignant melanoma were given augmerosen intravenously or subcutaneously in daily doses of 0.6-6.5 mg/kg plus standard dacarbazine treatment (total doses up to 1000 mg/m2 per cycle).
  • In serial tumour biopsy samples, BCL2 protein concentrations were measured by western blotting and tumour-cell apoptosis was assessed.
  • Higher doses of augmerosen were associated with transient fever.
  • By day 5, daily doses of 1.7 mg/kg and higher led to a median 40% decrease in BCL2 protein in melanoma samples compared with baseline, concomitantly with increased tumour-cell apoptosis, which was greatly increased after dacarbazine treatment.
  • Such downregulation of BCL2, combined with standard anticancer therapy, offers a new approach to the treatment of patients with resistant neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA, Antisense / therapeutic use. Melanoma / drug therapy. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / antagonists & inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Dacarbazine / adverse effects. Dacarbazine / therapeutic use. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Fever / chemically induced. Follow-Up Studies. Hematologic Diseases / chemically induced. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Skin / drug effects. Skin / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / prevention & control. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11095261.001).
  • [ISSN] 0140-6736
  • [Journal-full-title] Lancet (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lancet
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / DNA, Antisense; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine
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19. Paira S, Graf C, Roverano S, Rossini J: Remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting oedema: a study of 12 cases. Clin Rheumatol; 2002 May;21(2):146-9
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  • Eight of them had typical RS3PE without underlying disease, and four presented associated neoplasia.
  • The mean treatment duration was 18 months and the mean follow-up was 4.4 years.
  • During the follow-up, none of these patients relapsed, had fever or general health deterioration, and hand and foot radiographs did not show erosion.
  • One of them developed a panarteritis nodosa 6 years later.
  • Four RS3PE patients had associated neoplasia.
  • The first patients presented clinical characteristics suggestive of paraneoplastic RS3PE, and they had a poor response to corticosteroid therapy.
  • Two patients died, and the rest of them had a complete response to surgical resection of the tumour or to chemotherapy.
  • In general, idiopathic RS3PE patients do not show either general health deterioration or fever and they do respond to low doses of steroids (10 mg/day).
  • We observed strong contrasts with the results obtained when treating RS3PE patients with associated neoplasia.
  • In patients with RS3PE the presence of systemic symptoms along with resistance to low doses of corticosteroid therapy should alert the physician to the possible presence of malignancy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / complications. Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Colectomy / methods. Colorectal Neoplasms / complications. Colorectal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Colorectal Neoplasms / therapy. Female. Humans. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / complications. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / complications. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / diagnosis. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / drug therapy. Prednisone / therapeutic use. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Serologic Tests. Severity of Illness Index

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  • (PMID = 12086166.001).
  • [ISSN] 0770-3198
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical rheumatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Rheumatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone
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20. McKeage K, Perry CM: Trastuzumab: a review of its use in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer overexpressing HER2. Drugs; 2002;62(1):209-43
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  • [Title] Trastuzumab: a review of its use in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer overexpressing HER2.
  • Trastuzumab is a humanised monoclonal antibody developed to target the HER2 receptor which is overexpressed by some cancer cells, including 25 to 30% of breast cancers.
  • Binding with high affinity to the extracellular domain of HER2, trastuzumab inhibits the proliferation of tumour cells that overexpress HER2.
  • A large well designed multicentre study found that the addition of trastuzumab to either an anthracycline plus cyclophosphamide or to paclitaxel, as first-line therapy for metastatic breast cancer overexpressing the HER2 receptor, significantly increased time to disease progression, rate of objective response, duration of response and survival compared with chemotherapy alone.
  • Single-agent trastuzumab was associated with an objective response in 15% of extensively pretreated patients with metastatic breast cancer overexpressing HER2, and 26% of previously untreated patients.
  • Patients with a HER2 overexpression level of 3+ using immunohistochemical (IHC) assay or a positive HER2 result using fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH), benefit more from trastuzumab therapy than those with tumours overexpressing at a level of 2+.
  • Trastuzumab has demonstrated synergistic action with several chemotherapy agents preclinically but the optimal combination clinically is yet to be determined.
  • Trastuzumab is generally well tolerated by most patients; the most significant adverse effects being acute fever and/or chills and the potential to cause cardiac dysfunction.
  • Thus, combination therapy with anthracyclines is not recommended.
  • CONCLUSION: Intravenous trastuzumab is effective as a single-agent, and in combination with chemotherapy it significantly improves the median time to disease progression and survival time in patients with metastatic breast cancer overexpressing the HER2 receptor compared with chemotherapy alone.
  • Cardiotoxicity is the main concern with therapy; particularly in patients with pre-existing cardiac dysfunction, the elderly and in combination with, or following, anthracyclines.
  • Trastuzumab is indicated for use with paclitaxel as first-line therapy or as a single agent in second- or third-line treatment regimens for patients with metastatic breast cancer overexpressing HER2.
  • In addition, current research is focusing on the optimal timing, sequencing and duration of therapy as well as administration in the neoadjuvant and adjuvant setting.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Genes, erbB-2 / genetics


21. Comella P, Biglietto M, Casaretti R, De Lucia L, Avallone A, Maiorino L, Di Lullo L, De Cataldis G, Rivellini F, Comella G: Irinotecan and mitomycin C in 5-fluorouracil-refractory colorectal cancer patients. A phase I/II study of the Southern Italy Cooperative Oncology Group. Oncology; 2001;60(2):127-33
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  • METHODS: Fifty-two patients, all pretreated with adjuvant 5-fluorouracil (20 patients) and/or one (35 patients) or two (8 patients) lines of chemotherapy, were entered in this study.
  • One complete, 4 partial, 3 minor responses and 11 cases of stable disease were registered, giving a response rate of 12% [95% confidence interval (CI), 4-27%] and an overall control of tumor growth in 47% (95% CI, 31-64%) of patients.
  • The median time to treatment failure was 6 months (range 1-19+).
  • The median survival time was 14.5 months, and the 1-year and 2-year probability of survival were 56 and 43%.
  • One episode of neutropenic fever was reported.
  • CONCLUSIONS: CPT-11 175 mg/m2 on days 1 and 8 associated with MMC 10 mg/m2 on day 1, every 4 weeks, is a safe and moderately active regimen in heavily pretreated patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Camptothecin / administration & dosage. Camptothecin / adverse effects. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Colorectal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Mitomycin / administration & dosage. Mitomycin / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Actuarial Analysis. Adult. Aged. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / adverse effects. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / adverse effects. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Administration Schedule. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Salvage Therapy / methods. Survival Analysis. Treatment Failure. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11244327.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-2414
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0H43101T0J / irinotecan; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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22. Khoo JJ, Clouston A: Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma: a case report. Malays J Pathol; 2001 Dec;23(2):115-8
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  • A 6-year-old Malay boy presented with fever and abdominal pain for 2 months.
  • Computerised tomography showed a nodular mass in the left lobe of the liver.
  • In view of extensive tumour involvement, he could not be operated on but was treated with chemotherapy.
  • However, the tumour did not respond.
  • While this is expected for fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma, the possibility of the tumour having a component of ordinary hepatocellular carcinoma could not be excluded as the tumour was not resected.
  • Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma is a rare histological subtype of hepatocellular carcinoma, associated with a better prognosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Humans. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 12166592.001).
  • [ISSN] 0126-8635
  • [Journal-full-title] The Malaysian journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Malays J Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Malaysia
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23. Juergens C, Weston C, Lewis I, Whelan J, Paulussen M, Oberlin O, Michon J, Zoubek A, Juergens H, Craft A: Safety assessment of intensive induction with vincristine, ifosfamide, doxorubicin, and etoposide (VIDE) in the treatment of Ewing tumors in the EURO-E.W.I.N.G. 99 clinical trial. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2006 Jul;47(1):22-9
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  • [Title] Safety assessment of intensive induction with vincristine, ifosfamide, doxorubicin, and etoposide (VIDE) in the treatment of Ewing tumors in the EURO-E.W.I.N.G. 99 clinical trial.
  • BACKGROUND: The EUROpean Ewing tumour Working Initiative of National Groups 1999 (EURO-E.W.I.N.G.
  • 99) protocol prescribes six courses of vincristine, ifosfamide, doxorubicin, and etoposide (VIDE) as intensive induction chemotherapy for Ewing tumors (ET).
  • PROCEDURE: Safety data from 4,746 courses of VIDE in 851 patients less than 50 years with ET were collected using a checklist and evaluated using descriptive statistics with sub-groups including gender, age, and tumor volume, analyzed by Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis tests.
  • RESULTS: Myelosuppression and infections were the major AR but with appropriate supportive therapy targeted dose intensity was maintained.
  • Renal and cardiac toxicity were reflected by glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <39 ml/min/1.73 m2 in 0.1%, tubular phosphate reabsorption < or = 0.80 in 1.9%, and left ventricular shortening fracture <28% in 2.5% VIDE courses.
  • Statistically significant gender-associated AR concerning hemoglobin and platelets were observed with females > males as were age-associated AR concerning hemoglobin, WBC, platelets, stomatitis, and vomiting with AR decreasing with age, that is, children > adolescents > adults.
  • No association of AR to tumor volume was found.
  • In VIDE courses with and without G-CSF, neutropenia-related fever in 60.8% and 65.8%, and infection in 54.7% and 61.0% courses, respectively, were recorded.
  • Some AR, for example, hematotoxicity were significantly influenced by age and gender but not by tumor volume.
  • G-CSF did not significantly influence neutropenia-related fever and infection.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Sarcoma, Ewing / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Clinical Trials as Topic. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / adverse effects. Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Etoposide / adverse effects. Female. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Ifosfamide / adverse effects. Male. Middle Aged. Statistics, Nonparametric. Vincristine / administration & dosage. Vincristine / adverse effects


24. Rylander MN, Feng Y, Zimmermann K, Diller KR: Measurement and mathematical modeling of thermally induced injury and heat shock protein expression kinetics in normal and cancerous prostate cells. Int J Hyperthermia; 2010;26(8):748-64
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  • PURPOSE: Hyperthermia can induce heat shock protein (HSP) expression in tumours, which will cause enhanced tumour viability and increased resistance to additional thermal, chemotherapy, and radiation treatments.
  • Based on measured HSP expression data, a mathematical model was developed for predicting thermally induced HSP expression.
  • RESULTS: Significant Hsp27 and Hsp70 levels were induced in both cell types with maximum HSP expression occurring at 16 h post-heating, and diminishing substantially after 72 h.
  • CONCLUSION: Measurement of thermally induced HSP expression kinetics and cell viability associated with hyperthermia enabled development of thermal dosimetry guidelines and predictive models for HSP expression and cell injury as a function of thermal stress to investigate and design more effective hyperthermia therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Chaperonin 60 / metabolism. Fever / pathology. HSP27 Heat-Shock Proteins / metabolism. HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins / metabolism. Models, Theoretical. Prostate. Prostatic Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 20858083.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-5157
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of hyperthermia : the official journal of European Society for Hyperthermic Oncology, North American Hyperthermia Group
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Hyperthermia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K25 CA116291
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chaperonin 60; 0 / HSP27 Heat-Shock Proteins; 0 / HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins
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25. Seront E, Marot L, Coche E, Gala JL, Sempoux C, Humblet Y: Successful long-term management of a patient with late-stage metastatic colorectal cancer treated with panitumumab. Cancer Treat Rev; 2010 Feb;36 Suppl 1:S11-4
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  • INTRODUCTION: Recent approval and introduction into clinical practice of epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors such as the chimeric monoclonal antibody cetuximab and the fully human monoclonal antibody panitumumab have provided new treatment options for chemotherapy-refractory patients.
  • Here, we report a case of a 47-year-old man with metastatic, chemotherapy-refractory colorectal cancer who achieved long-term partial remission during panitumumab therapy.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: A 41-year-old male patient presented with a 24-hour history of abdominal pain and fever.
  • A computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a voluminous and perforated abscess with a suspected tumour lesion in the sigmoid colon.
  • The patient underwent sigmoidectomy and was diagnosed with a poorly differentiated necrotic carcinoma of the sigmoid colon with invasion in 13 of 19 tested lymph nodes.
  • A colonoscopy revealed multiple tubular adenomas and a positron emission tomography CT scan showed multiple and bilateral hyperfixating lumbar-aortic lymph nodes leading to a final tumour classification of T4N2M1.
  • The patient achieved a partial response following six cycles of FOLFIRI (irinotecan, 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin), then progressed and was enrolled in a trial where he received treatment with FOLFOX4 (oxaliplatin, leucovorin and 5-fluorouracil) with or without a vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor (PTK787/ZK 222584 [valatinib]).
  • A partial response was noted after 8 weeks of therapy along with a rapid CEA reduction and decrease in lymph node size.
  • The patient is continuing panitumumab treatment and is still in partial remission after 65 months' treatment.
  • During treatment the patient has on occasion experienced grade 1-2 diarrhoea as well as folliculitis and acne-like rash up to grade 3 in severity.
  • Cutaneous toxicity was managed with a combination dose interruption/reduction and the use of topical agents.
  • CONCLUSION: This case shows that long-term responses are possible during panitumumab therapy and that this agent may be an effective long-term treatment option for selected patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.
  • The associated skin toxicities can be successfully managed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Colorectal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Camptothecin / therapeutic use. Clinical Trials as Topic. Diarrhea / chemically induced. Exanthema / chemically induced. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Folliculitis / chemically induced. Humans. Leucovorin / therapeutic use. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • [CommentIn] Cancer Treat Rev. 2010 Feb;36 Suppl 1:S15-6 [20189055.001]
  • (PMID = 20189054.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1967
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer treatment reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Treat. Rev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / panitumumab; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin; IFL protocol
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26. Adams JR, Lyman GH, Djubegovic B, Feinglass J, Bennett CL: G-CSF as prophylaxis of febrile neutropenia in SCLC. Expert Opin Pharmacother; 2002 Sep;3(9):1273-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVES: In 1991, small cell lung cancer (SCLC) was reported as the first tumour type where colony stimulating factor (CSF) support was clinically effective.
  • Cost-effectiveness models indicate that CSF use in this setting is associated with as much as US$1900 incremental patient care costs per cycle given an 18% febrile neutropenia rate.
  • ASCO membership surveys found that < 10% of respondents supported CSF as primary prophylaxis while a patterns-of-care study found 55% use.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / drug therapy. Fever / drug therapy. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / therapeutic use. Neutropenia / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 12186620.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-6566
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Opin Pharmacother
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 143011-72-7 / Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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27. Agelaki S, Bania H, Kouroussis C, Blazoyiannakis G, Souglakos J, Tsiafaki X, Kalbakis K, Rapti A, Androulakis N, Georgoulias V, Papadakis E: Second-line treatment with vinorelbine and carboplatin in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. A multicenter phase II study. Lung Cancer; 2001 Dec;34 Suppl 4:S77-80
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  • [Title] Second-line treatment with vinorelbine and carboplatin in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. A multicenter phase II study.
  • OBJECTIVE: A phase II study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of vinorelbine-carboplatin (VNB-C) combination as a salvage treatment in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) progressing after or failing previous non-platinum, taxane-based treatment.
  • Grade 3 and 4 neutropenia occurred in three (8%) and ten (27%) patients, respectively, and six cases (16%) were complicated with fever.
  • No treatment-related deaths occurred.
  • CONCLUSION: VNB-C combination is well tolerated and retains a notable degree of activity in NSCLC patients progressing after previous non-platinum, taxane-based treatment.
  • Moreover, it confers tumour growth control in a significant proportion of patients, and this seems to be associated with a survival benefit for them.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Vinblastine / analogs & derivatives

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  • (PMID = 11742708.001).
  • [ISSN] 0169-5002
  • [Journal-full-title] Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; Q6C979R91Y / vinorelbine
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28. Park YH, Lee JL, Ryoo BY, Ryu MH, Yang SH, Kim BS, Shin DB, Chang HM, Kim TW, Yuh YJ, Kang YK: Capecitabine in combination with Oxaliplatin (XELOX) as a first-line therapy for advanced gastric cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol; 2008 Apr;61(4):623-9
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  • [Title] Capecitabine in combination with Oxaliplatin (XELOX) as a first-line therapy for advanced gastric cancer.
  • Treatment was continued until disease progression, intolerable toxicities or eight cycles reached.
  • All tumour evaluations were reviewed and confirmed centrally.
  • Grade 3-4 neutropenia was observed in four patients, with neutropenic fever in only one patient.
  • Treatment was delayed or the dose reduced in 30 and 15% of cycles, respectively.
  • There was one treatment-related death associated with grade 4 neutropenic sepsis.
  • CONCLUSION: XELOX was active and well tolerated as a first-line therapy for AGC.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Stomach Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17522863.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-5704
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 04ZR38536J / oxaliplatin; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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29. Stokes Z, Symonds P, Habeshaw T, Reed N, Curto J, Joynson C, Chan S: Phase one dose finding study of capecitabine (Xeloda), radiotherapy and cisplatin in the treatment of locally advanced squamous cervical cancer. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Jun;97(3):790-5
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  • [Title] Phase one dose finding study of capecitabine (Xeloda), radiotherapy and cisplatin in the treatment of locally advanced squamous cervical cancer.
  • MTD would be reached if at least 2 out of 6 at any particular dose level developed Grade 3 or 4 diarrhoea, mucositis, skin or bladder toxicity or Grade 4 neutropenia associated with fever lasting more than 7 days or Grade 3 or 4 thrombocytopenia.
  • The secondary endpoints were to define the toxicity profile, compliance with treatment, late radiation effects and to determine the tumour responses.
  • RESULTS: One patient in cohort 1 developed Grade 3 diarrhoea and 2 patients had Grade 3 leucopenia.
  • Two patients in cohort 2 developed Grade 4 leucopenia and neutropenic fever; one of these patients also had Grade 3 diarrhoea and thrombocytopenia.
  • Three patients have developed late (RTOG/ECOG) Grade 3 toxicity bladder or vaginal mucosa at 6, 9 and 15 months.
  • Progression-free survival at 12 months was 69.2%, and at 24 months, it was 49.2% (SE 15.4%) with an overall survival of 57.7% (SE 15.0%) at 24 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / drug therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Capecitabine. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Combined Modality Therapy. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Fluorouracil / analogs & derivatives. Hematologic Diseases / chemically induced. Hematologic Diseases / etiology. Humans. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 15894361.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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30. Peuckmann V, Fisch M, Bruera E: Potential novel uses of thalidomide: focus on palliative care. Drugs; 2000 Aug;60(2):273-92
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  • Thalidomide, after being banned from the market in the early 1960s because of the worldwide teratogenesis disaster, is currently being rediscovered because of its multiple therapeutic effects in various serious diseases and symptoms.
  • Original studies examined the anxiolytic, mild hypnotic, anti-emetic and adjuvant analgesic properties of this drug.
  • Subsequently, thalidomide was found to be highly effective in managing the cutaneous manifestations of leprosy (erythema nodosum leprosum) and even to be superior to aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) in controlling leprosy-associated fever.
  • Thalidomide therapy of diseases such as tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, aphthous ulcers in HIV syndrome and Behcet's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple myeloma, graft-versus-host disease, pyoderma gangrenosum, inflammatory bowel disease, Sjögren's syndrome, lupus erythematosus and a variety of solid tumours is currently being explored.
  • Whether thalidomide has a therapeutic effect on neoplastic fever has yet to be elucidated.
  • These intriguing features make the use of the drug potentially attractive for palliative care.
  • In addition, by a distinct mechanism of action compared with most other drugs, thalidomide offers the possibility of combined treatment with other agents with non-overlapping toxicities.
  • The mechanism of action of thalidomide is probably based on the suppression of tumour necrosis factor-alpha and the modulation of interleukins.
  • [MeSH-major] Palliative Care. Thalidomide / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Animals. Cachexia / drug therapy. Cytokines / biosynthesis. Erythema Nodosum / drug therapy. Graft vs Host Disease / drug therapy. Humans. Leprosy, Lepromatous / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 10983733.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-6667
  • [Journal-full-title] Drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Cytokines; 4Z8R6ORS6L / Thalidomide
  • [Number-of-references] 120
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31. Correale P, Campoccia G, Tsang KY, Micheli L, Cusi MG, Sabatino M, Bruni G, Sestini S, Petrioli R, Pozzessere D, Marsili S, Fanetti G, Giorgi G, Francini G: Recruitment of dendritic cells and enhanced antigen-specific immune reactivity in cancer patients treated with hr-GM-CSF (Molgramostim) and hr-IL-2. results from a phase Ib clinical trial. Eur J Cancer; 2001 May;37(7):892-902
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Cancer Chemotherapy.

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  • Two of the most common side-effects were bone pain and fever.
  • Cytokine treatment increased the number of monocytes, dendritic cells (DC), and lymphocytes (memory T cells) in the peripheral blood and enhanced the antigen-specific immunoreactivity of these patients.
  • Its biological activity may support tumour associated antigen (TAA)-specific anticancer immunotherapy by increasing antigen presenting cell (APC) activity and T cell immune competence in vivo.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Dendritic Cells / immunology. Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / therapeutic use. Interleukin-2 / therapeutic use. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Recombinant Proteins / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antigen-Antibody Reactions / immunology. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 11313178.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-8049
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Interleukin-2; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 83869-56-1 / Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor; 99283-10-0 / molgramostim
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32. Shelley MD, Court JB, Kynaston H, Wilt TJ, Coles B, Mason M: Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin versus mitomycin C for Ta and T1 bladder cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2003;(3):CD003231
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. MITOMYCIN C .

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  • BACKGROUND: Tumour recurrence following transurethral resection (TUR) for Ta and T1 bladder cancer is a major clinical problem.
  • Intravesical administration of mitomycin C (MMC) or bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) has proven prophylactic activity but both are associated with local and systemic side-effects.
  • OBJECTIVES: To undertake a systematic review and meta-analysis comparing intravesical mitomycin C and Bacillus Calmette-Guerin in terms of tumour recurrence, disease progression and overall survival in Ta and T1 bladder cancer.
  • Treatment-related toxicities would also be evaluated.
  • Time to event analysis was evaluated using log hazard ratios, with a sensitivity analysis for subgroups according to patient's risk of recurrence.
  • The weighted mean log hazard ratio (variance) for tumour recurrence for the six trials was - 0.022 (0.005).
  • Local toxicities (dysuria, cystitis, frequency, and haematuria) were associated with both MMC (30%) and BCG (44%).
  • Systemic toxicities, such as chills, fever and malaise, were observed with both MMC and BCG (12% and 19%, respectively) although skin rash was more common with MMC.
  • REVIEWER'S CONCLUSIONS: The data from the present meta-analysis indicate that tumour recurrence was significantly reduced with intravesical BCG compared to MMC only in the subgroup of patients at high risk of tumour recurrence.
  • However, there was no difference in terms of disease progression or survival, and the decision to use either agent might be based on adverse events and cost.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. BCG Vaccine / therapeutic use. Mitomycin / therapeutic use. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Intravesical. Carcinoma in Situ. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / drug therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic

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  • [UpdateIn] Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;11:CD003231 [26544085.001]
  • (PMID = 12917955.001).
  • [ISSN] 1469-493X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Cochrane database of systematic reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cochrane Database Syst Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / BCG Vaccine; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin
  • [Number-of-references] 42
  •  go-up   go-down


33. Stein RB, Hanauer SB: Comparative tolerability of treatments for inflammatory bowel disease. Drug Saf; 2000 Nov;23(5):429-48
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Comparative tolerability of treatments for inflammatory bowel disease.
  • Despite limited understanding of therapeutic aetiopathogenesis of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, there is a strong evidence base for the efficacy of pharmacological and biological therapies.
  • Other allergic or toxic adverse effects include fever, rash, haemolytic anaemia, hepatitis, pancreatitis, paradoxical worsening of colitis, and reversible sperm abnormalities.
  • The newer 5-ASA agents were developed to deliver the active ingredient of sulfasalazine while minimising adverse effects.
  • Corticosteroids are commonly prescribed for treatment of moderate to severe IBD.
  • Newer corticosteroid preparations offer potential for targeted therapy and less corticosteroid-related adverse effects.
  • Azathioprine and mercaptopurine are associated with pancreatitis in 3 to 15% of patients that resolves upon drug cessation.
  • These adverse effects usually abate with dose reduction or cessation of therapy.
  • Antibacterials are commonly employed as primary therapy for Crohn's disease.
  • Infliximab, a chimeric antibody targeting tumour necrosis factor-or has been well tolerated in clinical trials and early postmarketing experience.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Anti-Infective Agents / therapeutic use. Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / therapeutic use. Gastrointestinal Agents / therapeutic use. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Male. Mesalamine / adverse effects. Mesalamine / pharmacology. Mesalamine / therapeutic use. Pregnancy. Prodrugs / metabolism. Sulfasalazine / adverse effects. Sulfasalazine / pharmacology. Sulfasalazine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 11085348.001).
  • [ISSN] 0114-5916
  • [Journal-full-title] Drug safety
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drug Saf
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Anti-Infective Agents; 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Gastrointestinal Agents; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / Prodrugs; 3XC8GUZ6CB / Sulfasalazine; 4Q81I59GXC / Mesalamine
  • [Number-of-references] 205
  •  go-up   go-down


34. Gómez Castellanos JR, Prieto JM, Heinrich M: Red Lapacho (Tabebuia impetiginosa)--a global ethnopharmacological commodity? J Ethnopharmacol; 2009 Jan 12;121(1):1-13
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • For the first time, during the 1960s, it attracted considerable attention in Brazil and Argentina as a 'wonder drug'.
  • Traditionally, the botanical drug is widely used in local and traditional phytomedicine, usually ingested as a decoction prepared from the inner bark of the tree to treat numerous conditions like bacterial and fungal infections, fever, syphilis, malaria, trypanosomiasis, as well as stomach and bladder disorders.
  • Two main bioactive components have been isolated from Tabebuia impetiginosa: lapachol and beta-lapachone. beta-Lapachone is considered to be the main anti-tumour compound, and pro-apoptotic effects were observed in vitro.
  • The drug appears to be generally safe and one of the most important interactions of Tabebuia impetiginosa has been associated with interference in the biological cycle of Vitamin K in the body.
  • The botanical (drug) material available on the international markets seems to be of varying quality and composition, making a specific assessment of the products' therapeutic claims problematic.
  • The bioscientific evidence for products derived from Tabebuia impetiginosa is insufficient and one of the core challenges of future research will be--based on the recognition of the drug's widespread use--to establish appropriate quality control procedures.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic. Medicine, Traditional. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Tabebuia / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Humans. Phytotherapy. Plant Bark. Plant Extracts / isolation & purification. Plant Extracts / pharmacology. Plant Extracts / therapeutic use. South America

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  • (PMID = 18992801.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-8741
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ethnopharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ethnopharmacol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Plant Extracts
  • [Number-of-references] 123
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35. Cantini F, Niccoli L, Nannini C, Bertoni M, Salvarani C: Diagnosis and treatment of giant cell arteritis. Drugs Aging; 2008;25(4):281-97
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  • [Title] Diagnosis and treatment of giant cell arteritis.
  • It affects the cranial branches of the arteries originating from the aortic arch and is usually associated with markedly elevated acute-phase reactants.
  • New-onset headache, scalp tenderness, jaw claudication, temporal artery abnormalities on physical examination, visual symptoms and associated PMR represent the most typical and frequent features of the disease.
  • Systemic manifestations, including fever, anorexia and weight loss, are observed in 50% of cases.
  • Temporal artery biopsy still represents the gold standard for diagnosis, while the role of ultrasonography, high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography should be better addressed.
  • Corticosteroids remain the therapy of choice.
  • Data supporting the usefulness of antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants combined with corticosteroids to prevent ischaemic complications as well as the corticosteroid-sparing effect of methotrexate and anti-tumour necrosis factor-alpha drugs are limited and non-conclusive.
  • [MeSH-major] Giant Cell Arteritis / diagnosis. Giant Cell Arteritis / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Polymyalgia Rheumatica / diagnosis. Temporal Arteries / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18361539.001).
  • [ISSN] 1170-229X
  • [Journal-full-title] Drugs & aging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drugs Aging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones
  • [Number-of-references] 116
  •  go-up   go-down


36. Han PD, Cohen RD: Managing immunogenic responses to infliximab: treatment implications for patients with Crohn's disease. Drugs; 2004;64(16):1767-77
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Infliximab .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Managing immunogenic responses to infliximab: treatment implications for patients with Crohn's disease.
  • Infliximab is a tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha antagonist that has revolutionised the treatment of Crohn's disease and rheumatoid arthritis.
  • However, infliximab therapy can be complicated by a variety of adverse reactions.
  • Acute infusion reactions occur during or shortly after infusion and typically consist of fever, chills, nausea, dyspnoea and headaches.
  • Delayed reactions, characterised by myalgias, arthralgias, fever, rash, pruritus, facial, hand or lip oedema, dysphagia, urticaria, sore throat and headache may occur 3-12 days after infusion.
  • Although the mechanisms of these reactions are not yet clearly defined, emerging evidence indicates that these reactions may be associated with the immune response against infliximab and the development of antibodies to infliximab.A number of studies have identified protective factors that may minimise adverse reactions, presumably related to the immune response against infliximab.
  • Factors that may be protective by helping to establish immune tolerance for the foreign infliximab protein include concomitant administration of immunomodulators or corticosteroids, starting infliximab therapy with a 0, 2, 6-week induction regimen, maintenance dose administration with infusions every 8 weeks or less, and avoiding long periods between infusions.
  • Infliximab therapy also may have other immunological consequences.
  • In addition, patients should be screened and appropriately treated for tuberculosis before initiating infliximab therapy.
  • The development of autoantibodies, such as antinuclear antibody or anti-ds-DNA, has also been described with infliximab therapy, although the development of clinical lupus-like syndrome is rare.
  • In addition, cardiac and neurological adverse events associated with infliximab therapy have been described.
  • In summary, infliximab therapy can be an effective treatment for Crohn's disease; however, a number of immunological consequences and adverse events may complicate the infusion of this agent.
  • Appropriate prophylaxis and therapy of these adverse reactions will allow infliximab to be used safely in the vast majority of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Crohn Disease / drug therapy. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / antagonists & inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Autoantibodies / biosynthesis. Clinical Protocols. Clinical Trials as Topic. Hemodynamics / drug effects. Humans. Infection / complications. Infliximab. Infusions, Intravenous. Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic / immunology. Neoplasms / epidemiology. Neoplasms / etiology. Nervous System Diseases / chemically induced

  • Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Crohn Disease.
  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Crohn's Disease.
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  • (PMID = 15301561.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-6667
  • [Journal-full-title] Drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; B72HH48FLU / Infliximab
  • [Number-of-references] 49
  •  go-up   go-down






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