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1. Osztie E, Várallyay P, Doolittle ND, Lacy C, Jones G, Nickolson HS, Neuwelt EA: Combined intraarterial carboplatin, intraarterial etoposide phosphate, and IV Cytoxan chemotherapy for progressive optic-hypothalamic gliomas in young children. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol; 2001 May;22(5):818-23
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  • [Title] Combined intraarterial carboplatin, intraarterial etoposide phosphate, and IV Cytoxan chemotherapy for progressive optic-hypothalamic gliomas in young children.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Optic pathway and/or hypothalamic astrocytomas in children are often quiescent, but in some cases, more aggressive tumors may cause progressive visual, endocrine, and neurologic deterioration.
  • The initial treatment of these gliomas includes surgery and IV chemotherapy.
  • This report suggests a new approach using combined intraarterial and IV carboplatin-based chemotherapy for patients for whom first line treatment has already failed.
  • METHODS: Six children (mean age, 57 months) with the diagnosis of optic pathway hypothalamic gliomas, who had tumor progression after surgery and underwent IV chemotherapy, were treated monthly with intraarterially administered carboplatin, intraarterially administered etoposide phosphate, and IV administered Cytoxan.
  • Four of the children had histologically verified pilocytic astrocytomas, and in two cases, diagnosis was made on the basis of clinical findings.
  • Administration of the intraarterial chemotherapy required catheter placement in both internal carotid arteries at the level of C2-C3 and into one of the vertebral arteries at the level of C6-C7, with the patient under general anesthesia.
  • One patient showed mild ototoxicity, and four patients needed platelet transfusion because of hematologic toxicity of drugs.
  • CONCLUSION: These results suggest that this modality of chemotherapy (administered after failure of systemic [ie, IV] chemotherapy), of progressive optic-hypothalamic astrocytomas in young children may be an effective treatment prior to radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Glioma / drug therapy. Hypothalamic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Visual Pathways
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Carboplatin / adverse effects. Carboplatin / therapeutic use. Child. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / adverse effects. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Etoposide / adverse effects. Etoposide / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Infusions, Intra-Arterial. Injections, Intravenous. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11337321.001).
  • [ISSN] 0195-6108
  • [Journal-full-title] AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA31770; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS33618; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS34608
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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2. Dalla Via P, Opocher E, Pinello ML, Calderone M, Viscardi E, Clementi M, Battistella PA, Laverda AM, Da Dalt L, Perilongo G: Visual outcome of a cohort of children with neurofibromatosis type 1 and optic pathway glioma followed by a pediatric neuro-oncology program. Neuro Oncol; 2007 Oct;9(4):430-7
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  • [Title] Visual outcome of a cohort of children with neurofibromatosis type 1 and optic pathway glioma followed by a pediatric neuro-oncology program.
  • We evaluated the visual outcome of a cohort of children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and optic pathway glioma (OPG) treated according to standardized therapeutic guidelines.
  • Treatment was instituted only in cases of progressive disease or clinical deterioration.
  • Treatment modalities were chemotherapy (based on vincristine/carboplatin) for children younger than 5 years and radiotherapy for all others.
  • Ten boys and 10 girls (seven with a positive family history) entered the trial (median age at diagnosis of OPG, 29 months).
  • At a median follow-up time of 78 months, seven patients had been treated with chemotherapy only, four with radiotherapy, and four with chemotherapy plus radiotherapy.
  • Eight patients were treated for progressive visual loss in the face of stable disease, five for tumor volume increase without visual deterioration, and two for symptomatic tumor volume increase.
  • At referral, six children had a visual acuity (VA) of < 30% in both eyes; eight children had 100% VA bilaterally.
  • At referral, the visual field (VF) could be assessed in three children: One had VF loss in both eyes, one had VF loss in one eye, and one had normal VF.
  • Among 11 children who had some visual function, three had VF loss in one eye and three in both eyes, and five had an intact VF.
  • In summary, among the 15 children treated, one had a definitive and two a mild improvement in VA.
  • In conclusion, the visual outcome of this selected cohort of NF1 patients with OPG is unsatisfactory.
  • A critical reappraisal of the therapeutic strategy adopted is needed.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Neurofibromatosis 1 / therapy. Optic Nerve Glioma / therapy. Radiotherapy / adverse effects. Vision Disorders / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Carboplatin / adverse effects. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Contrast Sensitivity / drug effects. Contrast Sensitivity / radiation effects. Evoked Potentials, Visual. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Vincristine / administration & dosage. Vincristine / adverse effects. Visual Fields / drug effects. Visual Fields / radiation effects


3. Chernov MF, Ivanov PI, Zhinzhina IV, Getmanova OY, Zabrodskaya JM, Tigliev GS: Complete recovery of visual functions after multimodality treatment for intrinsic chiasmatic-hypothalamic astrocytoma--case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2004 Mar;44(3):129-32
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  • [Title] Complete recovery of visual functions after multimodality treatment for intrinsic chiasmatic-hypothalamic astrocytoma--case report.
  • The visual acuity was 0.02 in both eyes along with residual visual fields and central scotomas.
  • Surgery was performed with partial removal of the intrachiasmatic part of the intrinsic tumor.
  • The histological diagnosis was fibrillary astrocytoma.
  • Adjuvant treatment included one course of fractionated radiation therapy and six courses of chemotherapy.
  • Complete recovery of visual acuity occurred after 10 months, and the visual fields were restored after an additional 6 months.
  • The prognosis for recovery of vision after treatment of optic pathway gliomas mainly depends on the severity of visual loss at admission and is negatively influenced by intrinsic tumor growth, symmetrical extension, and involvement of the chiasm.
  • Despite the presence of all these factors in the present case, multimodality management resulted in the complete recovery of visual functions.
  • Surgery may be indicated in cases of intrinsic chiasmatic gliomas complicated by severe visual loss.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / therapy. Hypothalamic Neoplasms / therapy. Optic Chiasm. Optic Nerve Neoplasms / therapy. Vision Disorders / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Treatment Outcome. Visual Acuity

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  • (PMID = 15095966.001).
  • [ISSN] 0470-8105
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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4. Sánchez-Barceló EJ, Cos S, Fernández R, Mediavilla MD: Melatonin and mammary cancer: a short review. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2003 Jun;10(2):153-9
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  • However, later studies on the possible role of melatonin on human breast cancer have been scarce and mostly of an epidemiological type.
  • These studies described a low incidence of breast tumors in blind women as well as an inverse relationship between breast cancer incidence and the degree of visual impairment.
  • The direct oncostatic effects of melatonin depends on its interaction with the tumor cell estrogen-responsive pathway.
  • The characteristics of melatonin's oncostatic actions, comprising different aspects of tumor biology as well as the physiological doses at which the effect is accomplished, give special value to these findings and encourage clinical studies on the possible therapeutic value of melatonin on breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Melatonin / pharmacology. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Female. Humans. Mice. Tumor Cells, Cultured / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 12790777.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; JL5DK93RCL / Melatonin
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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5. Sawamura Y, Kamoshima Y, Kato T, Tajima T, Tsubaki J: Chemotherapy with cisplatin and vincristine for optic pathway/hypothalamic astrocytoma in young children. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2009 May;39(5):277-83
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  • [Title] Chemotherapy with cisplatin and vincristine for optic pathway/hypothalamic astrocytoma in young children.
  • OBJECTIVE: Optic pathway/hypothalamic astrocytomas (OPHA) in young children often show accelerated growth and require rather intensive induction chemotherapy.
  • All of them presented with progressive disease, and the tumor size was larger than 34 mm.
  • Eleven patients had visual disturbance, six had diencephalic syndrome and four had hydrocephalus.
  • All children tolerated the chemotherapy well under careful audiological monitoring.
  • CONCLUSION: Although the present series was small, this chemotherapy is a useful regimen for induction therapy in children with an aggressive deep-seated pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Hypothalamic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Visual Pathways
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Child. Child, Preschool. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Drug Administration Schedule. Humans. Infant. Male. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 19224939.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3621
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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6. Zhang Y, Zhao B: Green tea polyphenols enhance sodium nitroprusside-induced neurotoxicity in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. J Neurochem; 2003 Sep;86(5):1189-200
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  • In the present study, we demonstrated that higher-concentration green tea ployphenols significantly enhanced the neurotoxicity by treatment of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a nitric oxide donor.
  • SNP induced apoptosis in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells in a concentration and time-dependent manner, as estimated by cell viability assessment, FACScan analysis and DNA fragmentation assay, whereas treatment with green tea polyphenols alone had no effect on cell viability.
  • Pre-treatment with lower-dose green tea polyphenols (50 and 100 microm) had only a slightly deleterious effect in the presence of SNP, while higher-dose green tea polyphenols (200 and 500 microm) synergistically damaged the cells severely.
  • Further research showed that co-incubation of green tea polyphenols and SNP caused loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, depletion of intracellular GSH and accumulation of reactive oxygen species, and exacerbated NO-induced neuronal apoptosis via a Bcl-2 sensitive pathway.
  • [MeSH-major] Flavonoids. Neuroblastoma / drug therapy. Neuroblastoma / metabolism. Neurotoxins / toxicity. Nitroprusside / toxicity. Phenols / pharmacology. Polymers / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis / drug effects. Blotting, Western. Cell Survival / drug effects. DNA Fragmentation / drug effects. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Synergism. Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy. Flow Cytometry. Glutathione / metabolism. Humans. Membrane Potentials / drug effects. Mitochondria / drug effects. Nitric Oxide Donors / toxicity. Polyphenols. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism. Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism. Signal Transduction. Tea / chemistry. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 12911627.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3042
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Flavonoids; 0 / Neurotoxins; 0 / Nitric Oxide Donors; 0 / Phenols; 0 / Polymers; 0 / Polyphenols; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Reactive Oxygen Species; 0 / Tea; 169D1260KM / Nitroprusside; GAN16C9B8O / Glutathione
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7. van Ginkel PR, Darjatmoko SR, Sareen D, Subramanian L, Bhattacharya S, Lindstrom MJ, Albert DM, Polans AS: Resveratrol inhibits uveal melanoma tumor growth via early mitochondrial dysfunction. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci; 2008 Apr;49(4):1299-306
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  • [Title] Resveratrol inhibits uveal melanoma tumor growth via early mitochondrial dysfunction.
  • PURPOSE: To test the efficacy of resveratrol, a nontoxic plant product, in the treatment of uveal melanoma.
  • METHODS: The effect of oral administration and peritumor injection of resveratrol was tested on tumor growth in two animal models of uveal melanoma.
  • RESULTS: Resveratrol treatment inhibited tumor growth in animal models of uveal melanoma.
  • Since oral administration resulted in relatively low bioavailability of resveratrol, the effect of increased local levels was tested by peritumor injection of the drug.
  • This method resulted in tumor cell death and tumor regression.
  • In vitro experiments with multiple uveal melanoma cell lines demonstrate that resveratrol causes a decrease in cell viability, resulting at least in part from an increase in apoptosis through a mitochondrial pathway.
  • An early event in drug action is the direct targeting of mitochondria by resveratrol, which leads to a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and the eventual activation of caspase-3.
  • CONCLUSION: These data suggest that resveratrol can inhibit tumor growth and can induce apoptosis via the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway and that by further increasing bioavailability of resveratrol the potency of the drug can be increased, leading to tumor regression.
  • The nontoxic nature of the drug at levels needed for therapy make resveratrol an attractive candidate for the treatment of uveal melanoma.

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  • (PMID = 18385041.001).
  • [ISSN] 0146-0404
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / P30 EY016665; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA103653-07; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA103653-07; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA103653; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / P30 EY016665-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA103653
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / DIABLO protein, human; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Mitochondrial Proteins; 0 / Stilbenes; 9007-43-6 / Cytochromes c; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 3; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 9; Q369O8926L / resveratrol
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS53568; NLM/ PMC2465765
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8. van Ginkel PR, Sareen D, Subramanian L, Walker Q, Darjatmoko SR, Lindstrom MJ, Kulkarni A, Albert DM, Polans AS: Resveratrol inhibits tumor growth of human neuroblastoma and mediates apoptosis by directly targeting mitochondria. Clin Cancer Res; 2007 Sep 1;13(17):5162-9
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  • [Title] Resveratrol inhibits tumor growth of human neuroblastoma and mediates apoptosis by directly targeting mitochondria.
  • Treatments are often ineffective and have serious side effects.
  • Because resveratrol, a natural plant product, has been reported to have limited toxicity at chemotherapeutic levels, we investigated its efficacy in the treatment of neuroblastoma as well as its underlying mechanism of action.
  • The bioavailability of the drug in serum was in the low micromolar range (2-10 micromol/L) and no accumulation was observed in tumor tissue.
  • When resveratrol levels were increased by peritumor injection, rapid tumor regression occurred.
  • Resveratrol decreased tumor cell viability in vitro by 75% to 90%, resulting from an inhibition of cell proliferation and an induction of apoptosis.
  • In addition, resveratrol treatment of isolated mitochondria also led to depolarization, suggesting that the drug may target mitochondria directly.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These studies indicate that, despite low bioavailability, resveratrol is effective at inhibiting tumor growth.
  • Elevated levels of resveratrol enhance its antitumor potency leading to tumor regression, associated with widespread tumor cell death, the underlying mechanism of which involves the direct activation of the mitochondrial intrinsic apoptotic pathway.

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  • (PMID = 17785572.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / P30 EY016665; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / P30 EY016665-02.; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA103653
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Stilbenes; Q369O8926L / resveratrol
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9. Pepin SM, Lessell S: Anterior visual pathway gliomas: The last 30 years. Semin Ophthalmol; 2006 Jul-Sep;21(3):117-24
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  • [Title] Anterior visual pathway gliomas: The last 30 years.
  • Modern neuroimaging provides excellent characterization of anterior visual pathway gliomas, often obviating the need for biopsy of the tumor.
  • Management remains controversial, but if there is progression, chemotherapy is preferred for young patients.
  • A mouse model of NF-1 with optic pathway gliomas has the potential to provide important insights into the development of gliomas as well as serving as a model for their effective treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Glioma / pathology. Optic Nerve Neoplasms / pathology. Visual Pathways / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Disease Models, Animal. Humans. Neurofibromatosis 1 / drug therapy. Neurofibromatosis 1 / pathology. Neurofibromatosis 1 / radiotherapy. Optic Chiasm / drug effects. Optic Chiasm / pathology. Optic Chiasm / radiation effects. Radiotherapy, Conformal

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  • (PMID = 16912009.001).
  • [ISSN] 0882-0538
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 55
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10. Liu GT: Optic gliomas of the anterior visual pathway. Curr Opin Ophthalmol; 2006 Oct;17(5):427-31
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  • [Title] Optic gliomas of the anterior visual pathway.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review advances in the diagnosis and management of optic-pathway gliomas made within the past 5 years.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Important papers regarding optic-pathway gliomas have been published recently in the following areas: neuroimaging, natural history and how the presence of neurofibromatosis type 1 affects it, unusual presentations, visual prognosis, and treatment with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy.
  • SUMMARY: The diagnosis and treatment of optic-pathway gliomas has been aided greatly by a greater understanding of the natural history of these tumors and their prognosis related to the presence of neurofibromatosis type 1.
  • Advances in magnetic resonance imaging are helping to delineate tumor extent.
  • Newer radiation techniques that spare surrounding tissues are being used to treat optic-pathway gliomas, but chemotherapy has become the first-line treatment modality.
  • [MeSH-major] Glioma / pathology. Optic Chiasm / pathology. Optic Nerve Neoplasms / pathology. Visual Pathways / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16932058.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8738
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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11. Campagna M, Opocher E, Viscardi E, Calderone M, Severino SM, Cermakova I, Perilongo G: Optic pathway glioma: long-term visual outcome in children without neurofibromatosis type-1. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2010 Dec 1;55(6):1083-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Optic pathway glioma: long-term visual outcome in children without neurofibromatosis type-1.
  • BACKGROUND: Little is known about the visual outcome of children affected by an optic pathway glioma (OPG).
  • PROCEDURES: We evaluated the long-term visual outcome of 32 consecutive children affected by OPG without neurofibromatosis type-1 referred to the Pediatric Department of Padua University and managed according to standardized strategies.
  • RESULTS: Eight children received chemotherapy, 10 radiotherapy, 7 both chemotherapy and radiotherapy, whereas 7 were untreated.
  • At presentation, visual acuity (VA) was normal in 22 children (13 unilaterally and 9 bilaterally), and reduced in 10.
  • Visual field, assessed in 29 children, was normal in 9 and reduced in 20.
  • The number of children with some grade of visual impairment increased from 7 to 10 during follow-up.
  • Of the 17 children in whom the tumor became significantly smaller, VA improved in 6, was stable in 3, and worse in 8.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The visual prognosis of children with OPG is unsatisfactory.
  • Older children treated with radiotherapy seem to have a better visual outcome than younger children.
  • Severe optic pallor at diagnosis or during follow-up may be indicative of a negative prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Optic Nerve Glioma / physiopathology. Optic Nerve Neoplasms / physiopathology. Visual Acuity / physiology. Visual Fields / physiology. Visual Pathways / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Neurofibromatosis 1 / physiopathology. Radiotherapy Dosage. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20979170.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Stieber VW: Radiation therapy for visual pathway tumors. J Neuroophthalmol; 2008 Sep;28(3):222-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Radiation therapy for visual pathway tumors.
  • The multimodality management of visual pathway tumors frequently involves radiation.
  • Most commonly, photons are delivered via multiple focused beams aimed at the tumor while sparing adjacent tissues.
  • The dose can be delivered in multiple treatments (radiation therapy) or in a single treatment (radiosurgery).
  • Children with visual pathway gliomas should be treated with chemotherapy alone, delaying the use of radiation therapy until progression.
  • Definitive radiation therapy of optic nerve sheath meningiomas results in stable vision in most patients.
  • Radiation therapy or radiosurgery for pituitary tumors can result in control of both tumor growth and hormone hypersecretion.
  • Postoperative radiation therapy or radiosurgery of craniopharyngiomas significantly improves local control rates compared with surgery alone.
  • Radiation therapy is highly effective for eradicating orbital pseudolymphoma and lymphoma.
  • The risk of complications from radiation treatment is dependent on the organ at risk, the cumulative dose it receives, and the dose delivered per fraction.
  • [MeSH-major] Optic Nerve / radiation effects. Optic Nerve Diseases / radiotherapy. Optic Nerve Glioma / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Craniopharyngioma / complications. Craniopharyngioma / pathology. Craniopharyngioma / radiotherapy. Humans. Lymphoma / complications. Lymphoma / pathology. Lymphoma / radiotherapy. Meningioma / complications. Meningioma / pathology. Meningioma / radiotherapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Pseudolymphoma / complications. Pseudolymphoma / pathology. Pseudolymphoma / radiotherapy. Radiation Dosage

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  • (PMID = 18769290.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-5166
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-ophthalmology : the official journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neuroophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 106
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13. Lee AG: Neuroophthalmological management of optic pathway gliomas. Neurosurg Focus; 2007;23(5):E1
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Neuroophthalmological management of optic pathway gliomas.
  • The growth rate of optic pathway gliomas (OPGs) is unpredictable and quite variable, especially in children with neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1).
  • Typically, only symptomatic and/or radiographically growing tumors require treatment, and observation is the accepted first-line option.
  • Although both chemotherapy and radiotherapy can stabilize growth or even decrease the size of tumors, chemotherapy, especially in younger patients, has fewer side effects than radiation therapy (such as secondary tumors, radiation necrosis, and Moyomoya disease) and is generally considered the first-line treatment for progressive lesions in younger patients.
  • The tumor location defines prognosis in OPGs; optic nerve gliomas (ONG) have the lowest rate of complications and death, and optic chiasm and retrochiasmal gliomas the highest.
  • Although the major complication of an OPG is visual loss, hypothalamic involvement can lead to death.
  • Resection is an option for ONGs but is generally reserved for tumors confined to the optic nerve with poor or no vision, or for patients with severe, cosmetically unappealing proptosis, producing severe pain or exposure keratopathy in a blind eye.
  • The approach to a patient with OPG must be individualized based on tumor location, radiographic or clinical progression, the presence of NF1, and a risk-benefit comparison for treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Glioma / diagnosis. Glioma / therapy. Optic Nerve Neoplasms / diagnosis. Optic Nerve Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Child. Disease Progression. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neurofibromatosis 1 / complications. Optic Chiasm. Practice Guidelines as Topic

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  • (PMID = 18004957.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgical focus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg Focus
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 80
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14. Suárez JC, Viano JC, Zunino S, Herrera EJ, Gomez J, Tramunt B, Marengo I, Hiramatzu E, Miras M, Pena M, Sonzini Astudillo B: Management of child optic pathway gliomas: new therapeutical option. Childs Nerv Syst; 2006 Jul;22(7):679-84

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of child optic pathway gliomas: new therapeutical option.
  • OBJECTIVE: To present our experience in the treatment of child optic pathway gliomas in the last 25 years.
  • The most frequent symptoms have been ophthalmologic and visual alterations in all 17 patients, endocrine alterations in 10, and neurological signs in 6.
  • One of the patients presented neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), another patient had Down syndrome.
  • Diagnosed using computed tomography or/and magnetic resonance imaging, histological studies showed pilocytic astrocytomas in 13 cases and a fibrillary astrocytoma grade II in 1 case.
  • There were three patients without histological diagnosis; one of them had NF1.
  • The treatment consisted of surgery, external beam radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and brachytherapy with iodine 125, separately or combined.
  • Five patients died; the causes were secondary tumors in two children, tumor recurrence in one, sepsis secondary to respiratory and urinary tract infections in the child with Down syndrome, and finally, hydrocephaly due to hyperproteinorachia of tumor origin in one.
  • CONCLUSION: Chemotherapy and brachytherapy are therapeutic methods to be considered, especially in children under 5.
  • Marsupialization of the residual cyst into the ventricular system postradio or oncolytic treatment through endoscopic or stereotactic techniques is useful in the treatment of endocranial hypertension and/or hypothalamic compression in these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Glioma / therapy. Optic Nerve Glioma / therapy. Optic Nerve Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Neurosurgery. Radiotherapy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 16389565.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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15. Jaing TH, Lin KL, Tsay PK, Hsueh C, Hung PC, Wu CT, Tseng CK: Treatment of optic pathway hypothalamic gliomas in childhood: experience with 18 consecutive cases. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2008 Mar;30(3):222-4

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment of optic pathway hypothalamic gliomas in childhood: experience with 18 consecutive cases.
  • The aim of this study was to present our 17-year experience (1989 to 2006) in the treatment of optic pathway/hypothalamic gliomas (OPHG) in 18 children younger than 17 years (median age, 66 mo).
  • OPHG was diagnosed using computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging.
  • Treatment included partial tumor resection in 12 patients, chemotherapy in 5, and radiotherapy in 3.
  • Ophthalmologic and visual alterations occurred in 12 patients, endocrine alterations in 6, and neurologic signs in 5.
  • All treatment modalities led to tumor shrinkage and stabilization for a variable period, but none of them totally eradicated the tumor.
  • Fourteen (78%) of 18 patients had a sustained reduction of tumor size between 6 months and 17 years.
  • Two patients died, none with neurofibromatosis-1, with a hypothalamic/chiasmatic tumor with suprasellar extension and accompanying electrolyte abnormalities.
  • Because progression of these tumors is slow and associated with endocrinopathy, we recommend chemotherapy as a primary treatment of OPHG if the disease progresses.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Hypothalamic Neoplasms / therapy. Optic Nerve Glioma / therapy. Visual Pathways / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Predictive Value of Tests. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18376285.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Shofty B, Constantini S, Freedman S, Ben-Sira L, Kesler A: [Optic pathway gliomas--current position and future directions]. Harefuah; 2010 Nov;149(11):721-5, 748

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Optic pathway gliomas--current position and future directions].
  • Optic pathway gliomas (OPG) are the most common primary tumors of the visual pathways, and constitute 1% of all brain tumors and 5% of all brain tumors in children.
  • Among Neurofibromatosis type 1 patients (a hereditary genetic disorder which is characterized by higher incidence of tumors from a neurocutaneous origin) it is the most frequent tumor and it constitutes between 15 to 20 percent of all nervous system tumors.
  • These tumors are stable most of the time and remain indolent for many years after diagnosis, especially in patients suffering from Neurofibromatosis type 1.
  • However, amongst some of the patients suffering from OPG, these tumors develop progressive characteristics and can cause visual disturbances, endocrine dysfunction, blindness and even death.
  • Patients with aggressive tumors will need treatment, which can be either surgery, chemotherapy or radiation therapy.
  • Today, the treating physicians face substantial difficulty in estimating the course the tumor will take, choosing the right candidates for oncological treatment and the type of therapy most suited to the case, due to lack of reliable information in the relevant literature.
  • This article characterizes the tumors, presents updates from recent literature, as well as recommendations for treatment and follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Neurofibromatosis 1 / surgery. Optic Nerve Glioma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Glioma / drug therapy. Glioma / radiography. Glioma / radiotherapy. Glioma / surgery. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

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  • (PMID = 21250414.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-7768
  • [Journal-full-title] Harefuah
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Harefuah
  • [Language] heb
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Israel
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17. Suzuki Y, Ohgami K, Shiratori K, Jin XH, Ilieva I, Koyama Y, Yazawa K, Yoshida K, Kase S, Ohno S: Suppressive effects of astaxanthin against rat endotoxin-induced uveitis by inhibiting the NF-kappaB signaling pathway. Exp Eye Res; 2006 Feb;82(2):275-81
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  • [Title] Suppressive effects of astaxanthin against rat endotoxin-induced uveitis by inhibiting the NF-kappaB signaling pathway.
  • These results suggest that AST reduces ocular inflammation in eyes with EIU by downregulating proinflammatory factors and by inhibiting the NF-kappaB-dependent signaling pathway.
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use. Aqueous Humor / metabolism. NF-kappa B / metabolism. Signal Transduction / drug effects. Uveitis / drug therapy. beta Carotene / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Ciliary Body / drug effects. Ciliary Body / immunology. Ciliary Body / metabolism. Depression, Chemical. Dinoprostone / analysis. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Iris / drug effects. Iris / immunology. Iris / metabolism. Lipopolysaccharides. Male. Nitric Oxide / analysis. Nitrites / analysis. Random Allocation. Rats. Rats, Inbred Lew. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / analysis. Xanthophylls

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  • (PMID = 16126197.001).
  • [ISSN] 0014-4835
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental eye research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Eye Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Lipopolysaccharides; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Nitrites; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 0 / Xanthophylls; 01YAE03M7J / beta Carotene; 31C4KY9ESH / Nitric Oxide; 8XPW32PR7I / astaxanthine; K7Q1JQR04M / Dinoprostone
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18. Massimino M, Spreafico F, Cefalo G, Riccardi R, Tesoro-Tess JD, Gandola L, Riva D, Ruggiero A, Valentini L, Mazza E, Genitori L, Di Rocco C, Navarria P, Casanova M, Ferrari A, Luksch R, Terenziani M, Balestrini MR, Colosimo C, Fossati-Bellani F: High response rate to cisplatin/etoposide regimen in childhood low-grade glioma. J Clin Oncol; 2002 Oct 15;20(20):4209-16
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. ETOPOSIDE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to avoid radiotherapy and to induce an objective response in children with low-grade glioma (LGG) using a simple chemotherapy regimen based on cisplatin and etoposide.
  • Tumor originated in the visual pathway in 29 patients, in the temporal lobe in two, in the frontal lobe in two, and in the spine in one.
  • Eight children were affected by neurofibromatosis type 1.
  • Objective tumor response and toxicity were evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging and neurologic and functional tests at 3-month intervals.
  • CONCLUSION: Cisplatin and etoposide combined treatment is one of the most active regimens for LGG in children and allows avoidance of radiotherapy in the vast majority of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / drug therapy. Glioma / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 12377964.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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19. Lena G, Pech-Gourg G, Scavarda D, Klein O, Paz-Paredes A: [Optic nerve glioma in children]. Neurochirurgie; 2010 Apr-Jun;56(2-3):249-56
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  • [Title] [Optic nerve glioma in children].
  • Optic pathway gliomas are rare tumors accounting for 3-5% of brain tumors in children; 90% are observed in children.
  • Association with NF 1 is classical and the incidence of NF 1 in patients with optic pathway gliomas is estimated at 30-58%.
  • Exophthalmos and loss of visual acuity or blindness are the usualpresentation in progressive disease.
  • Gross total removal of the tumor provides 100% cure, but surgery can be proposed only for growing tumor with severe exophthalmos and no useful field of view or blindness.
  • Chemotherapy must be proposed as first-line treatment for growing tumor with moderate exophthalmos and useful vision when the tumor is strictly confined in the orbit.
  • The place of radiotherapy for pure intraorbital gliomas has not been defined and proton beam therapy has to be evaluated.
  • [MeSH-major] Glioma / epidemiology. Optic Nerve Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Blindness / etiology. Brain / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Exophthalmos / drug therapy. Exophthalmos / epidemiology. Exophthalmos / surgery. Female. Humans. Incidence. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neurofibromatosis 1 / complications. Neurofibromatosis 1 / epidemiology. Neurofibromatosis 1 / pathology. Neurofibromatosis 1 / surgery. Orbit / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Visual Acuity

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20303553.001).
  • [ISSN] 1773-0619
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-Chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurochirurgie
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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20. Widodo N, Takagi Y, Shrestha BG, Ishii T, Kaul SC, Wadhwa R: Selective killing of cancer cells by leaf extract of Ashwagandha: components, activity and pathway analyses. Cancer Lett; 2008 Apr 8;262(1):37-47
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  • [Title] Selective killing of cancer cells by leaf extract of Ashwagandha: components, activity and pathway analyses.
  • We undertook a gene silencing and pathway analysis approach and found that i-Extract and its components kill cancer cells by at least five different pathways, viz. p53 signaling, GM-CFS signaling, death receptor signaling, apoptosis signaling and G2-M DNA damage regulation pathway. p53 signaling was most common.
  • Visual analysis of p53 and mortalin staining pattern further revealed that i-Extract, fraction F1, fraction F4 and i-Factor caused an abrogation of mortalin-p53 interactions and reactivation of p53 function while the fractions F2, F3, F5 work through other mechanisms.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Phytotherapy. Plant Extracts / pharmacology. Plant Leaves. Withania
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Cycle. Cell Line, Tumor. Genes, Plant. Genes, p53. Humans. Medicine, Ayurvedic. Mice. Signal Transduction / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 18191020.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7980
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Ashwagandha; 0 / Plant Extracts
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21. Ohta K, Nakayama K, Kurokawa T, Kikuchi T, Yoshimura N: Inhibitory effects of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate on endotoxin-induced uveitis in Lewis rats. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci; 2002 Mar;43(3):744-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha mRNA expression in the iris-ciliary body (ICB) was determined by RNase protection assay (RPA).
  • The number of activated NF-kappaB-positive cells in the ICB was reduced by the PDTC treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that PDTC reduces ocular inflammation in eyes with EIU by downregulating proinflammatory cytokine expression and by inhibiting the NF-kappaB-dependent signaling pathway.
  • [MeSH-major] Antioxidants / therapeutic use. Lipopolysaccharides. Pyrrolidines / therapeutic use. Salmonella. Thiocarbamates / therapeutic use. Uveitis, Anterior / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Aqueous Humor / cytology. Aqueous Humor / metabolism. Ciliary Body / metabolism. Ciliary Body / pathology. Down-Regulation. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect. Interleukin-1 / genetics. Interleukin-1 / metabolism. Interleukin-6 / genetics. Interleukin-6 / metabolism. Iris / metabolism. Iris / pathology. Male. NF-kappa B / genetics. NF-kappa B / metabolism. Nitric Oxide / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Rats. Rats, Inbred Lew. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / genetics. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 11867593.001).
  • [ISSN] 0146-0404
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Interleukin-1; 0 / Interleukin-6; 0 / Lipopolysaccharides; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Pyrrolidines; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Thiocarbamates; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 25769-03-3 / pyrrolidine dithiocarbamic acid; 31C4KY9ESH / Nitric Oxide
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22. Allen JC: Initial management of children with hypothalamic and thalamic tumors and the modifying role of neurofibromatosis-1. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2000 Mar;32(3):154-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Optic pathway/hypothalamus gliomas (OPG) arise primarily from a slower-growing juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma, and thalamic gliomas arise primarily from a fibrillary astrocytoma which can become clinically and histologically more aggressive.
  • The major therapeutic challenge for these patients is to maximize their quality of life by preserving visual and endocrine function while minimizing treatment-related morbidity.
  • Treatment is often initiated at diagnosis in infants and toddlers who have a major visual impairment or the diencephalic syndrome.
  • The judicious application of chemotherapy may serve to forestall the need for radiotherapy or surgery.
  • However, over 90% of children with OPG without NF-1 will require some form of therapy.
  • Surgical intervention is often required to relieve intracranial pressure and establish the histologic identity of the tumor.
  • Current multimodality therapy is relatively ineffective.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Hypothalamic Neoplasms / surgery. Neurofibromatosis 1 / surgery. Thalamic Diseases / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Child, Preschool. Humans. Hypothalamus / pathology. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Optic Nerve Glioma / diagnosis. Optic Nerve Glioma / surgery. Thalamus / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 10867564.001).
  • [ISSN] 1016-2291
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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23. Parsa CF, Hoyt CS, Lesser RL, Weinstein JM, Strother CM, Muci-Mendoza R, Ramella M, Manor RS, Fletcher WA, Repka MX, Garrity JA, Ebner RN, Monteiro ML, McFadzean RM, Rubtsova IV, Hoyt WF: Spontaneous regression of optic gliomas: thirteen cases documented by serial neuroimaging. Arch Ophthalmol; 2001 Apr;119(4):516-29
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  • [Title] Spontaneous regression of optic gliomas: thirteen cases documented by serial neuroimaging.
  • OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate spontaneous regression of large, clinically symptomatic optic pathway gliomas in patients with and without neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1).
  • Serial documentation of tumor signal and size, using magnetic resonance imaging in 11 patients and computed tomography in 2 patients, was used to evaluate clinically symptomatic optic pathway gliomas.
  • All tumors met radiologic criteria for the diagnosis of glioma and 4 patients had biopsy confirmation of their tumors.
  • In 3 patients, some attempt at therapy had been made many years before regression occurred.
  • In one of these, radiation treatment had been given 19 years before tumor regression, while in another, chemotherapy had been administered 5 years before signal changes in the tumor.
  • In the third patient, minimal surgical debulking was performed 1 year before the tumor began to shrink.
  • RESULTS: Spontaneous tumor shrinkage was noted in 12 patients.
  • In an additional patient without NF-1, a signal change within the tumor without associated shrinkage was detected.
  • Tumor regression was associated with improvement in visual function in 10 of 13 patients, stability of function in 1, and deterioration in 2.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Large, clinically symptomatic optic gliomas may undergo spontaneous regression.
  • Regression may manifest either as an overall shrinkage in tumor size, or as a signal change on magnetic resonance imaging.
  • A variable degree of improvement in visual function may accompany regression.
  • The possibility of spontaneous regression of an optic glioma should be considered in the planning of treatment of patients with these tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / physiopathology. Neoplasm Regression, Spontaneous. Neurofibromatosis 1 / physiopathology. Optic Nerve Glioma / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


24. Jin XH, Ohgami K, Shiratori K, Suzuki Y, Koyama Y, Yoshida K, Ilieva I, Tanaka T, Onoe K, Ohno S: Effects of blue honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea L.) extract on lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo. Exp Eye Res; 2006 May;82(5):860-7
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  • The aqueous humor was collected at 24 h after LPS injection, the number of infiltrating cells, protein concentration, nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and prostaglandin (PG)-E2 levels in the aqueous humor were determined.
  • BHE treatment significantly reduced the inflammatory cell infiltration, the protein concentration, the levels of NO, TNF-alpha and PGE2 in the aqueous humor and improved histologic status of the ocular tissue.
  • These results suggest that BHE attenuates the degree of inflammation in eyes with EIU by inhibiting the NF-kappaB dependent signaling pathway and the subsequent production of proinflammatory mediators.
  • [MeSH-major] Lonicera. Phytotherapy / methods. Uveitis / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Aqueous Humor / metabolism. Blotting, Western. Cell Line. Cell Survival / drug effects. Cyclooxygenase 2 / metabolism. Dinoprostone / metabolism. Disease Models, Animal. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Eye Proteins / metabolism. Lipopolysaccharides. Male. NF-kappa B / metabolism. Nitric Oxide / metabolism. Plant Extracts / pharmacology. Plant Extracts / therapeutic use. Rats. Rats, Inbred Lew. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16309673.001).
  • [ISSN] 0014-4835
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental eye research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Eye Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Eye Proteins; 0 / Lipopolysaccharides; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Plant Extracts; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 31C4KY9ESH / Nitric Oxide; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; K7Q1JQR04M / Dinoprostone
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25. All-Ericsson C, Girnita L, Müller-Brunotte A, Brodin B, Seregard S, Ostman A, Larsson O: c-Kit-dependent growth of uveal melanoma cells: a potential therapeutic target? Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci; 2004 Jul;45(7):2075-82
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

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  • [Title] c-Kit-dependent growth of uveal melanoma cells: a potential therapeutic target?
  • Treatment of uveal melanoma cell lines with STI571, which blocks c-kit autophosphorylation, resulted in cell death.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results confirm that c-kit is vastly expressed in uveal melanoma, suggest that the c-kit molecular pathway may be important in uveal melanoma growth, and point to its use as a target for therapy with STI571.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / metabolism. Melanoma / pathology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / metabolism. Uveal Neoplasms / metabolism. Uveal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Benzamides. Blotting, Western. Cell Division. Female. Humans. Imatinib Mesylate. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Paraffin Embedding. Phosphorylation / drug effects. Piperazines. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Pyrimidines / pharmacology. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Tyrosine / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15223779.001).
  • [ISSN] 0146-0404
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Pyrimidines; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 42HK56048U / Tyrosine; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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26. Muranaka K, Yanagi Y, Tamaki Y, Usui T, Kubota N, Iriyama A, Terauchi Y, Kadowaki T, Araie M: Effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and its ligand on blood-retinal barrier in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic model. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci; 2006 Oct;47(10):4547-52
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  • Retinal leukostasis and leakage, quantified by concanavalin A (Con A) lectin perfusion labeling combined with a fluorophotometric dextran leakage assay, were investigated at 120 days in diabetic PPARgamma+/- and wild-type mice and at 21 days in diabetic rats receiving rosiglitazone or the vehicle.
  • The retinal protein expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and the intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 were investigated by means of the ELISA assay.
  • RESULTS: In the diabetic PPARgamma+/- mice, retinal leukostasis and leakage were greater than in the diabetic wild-type mice.
  • In addition retinal leukostasis and leakage were suppressed by treatment with rosiglitazone in experimental diabetic rats.
  • ELISA analysis revealed that the upregulated ICAM-1 expression in the diabetic rat retina was reduced by rosiglitazone treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: An endogenous pathway involving PPARgamma provides protection against retinal leukostasis and retinal leakage in diabetes and treatment with PPARgamma specific ligands inhibits retinal leukostasis and retinal leakage in diabetic rats.
  • [MeSH-major] Blood-Retinal Barrier / drug effects. Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental / drug therapy. Diabetic Retinopathy / drug therapy. PPAR gamma / physiology. Thiazolidinediones / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Blood Glucose / analysis. Capillary Permeability. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Fluorophotometry. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 / metabolism. Leukocytes / physiology. Leukostasis / metabolism. Leukostasis / prevention & control. Ligands. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Rats. Rats, Inbred BN. Retinal Vessels / physiology. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism. Up-Regulation. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17003451.001).
  • [ISSN] 0146-0404
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / Ligands; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / Thiazolidinediones; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 0 / vascular endothelial growth factor A, mouse; 0 / vascular endothelial growth factor A, rat; 05V02F2KDG / rosiglitazone; 126547-89-5 / Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1
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27. Klisovic DD, Katz SE, Effron D, Klisovic MI, Wickham J, Parthun MR, Guimond M, Marcucci G: Depsipeptide (FR901228) inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in primary and metastatic human uveal melanoma cell lines. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci; 2003 Jun;44(6):2390-8
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • PURPOSE: Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary malignant ocular tumor in adults.
  • No effective chemotherapy regimens are available for either intraocular or metastatic uveal melanoma.
  • Real-time PCR was used to study changes in bcl-2/bax gene expression.
  • However, no changes in bcl-2/bax gene expression were detected by real-time PCR.
  • The apoptosis is probably mediated through the Fas/FasL signaling pathway, whereas bcl-2 appears not to be involved.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / pharmacology. Apoptosis / drug effects. Depsipeptides. Melanoma / pathology. Peptides, Cyclic / pharmacology. Uveal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD95 / genetics. Antigens, CD95 / metabolism. Blotting, Western. Butyrates / pharmacology. Caspase 3. Caspases / metabolism. Cell Cycle Proteins / genetics. Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism. Cell Division / drug effects. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27. Cyclins / genetics. Cyclins / metabolism. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Fas Ligand Protein. Flow Cytometry. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors. Humans. Hydroxamic Acids / pharmacology. Membrane Glycoproteins / genetics. Membrane Glycoproteins / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism. bcl-2-Associated X Protein

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  • (PMID = 12766035.001).
  • [ISSN] 0146-0404
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antigens, CD95; 0 / BAX protein, human; 0 / Butyrates; 0 / CDKN1A protein, human; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / Cyclins; 0 / Depsipeptides; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / FASLG protein, human; 0 / Fas Ligand Protein; 0 / Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors; 0 / Hydroxamic Acids; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Peptides, Cyclic; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / bcl-2-Associated X Protein; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27; 3X2S926L3Z / trichostatin A; CX3T89XQBK / romidepsin; EC 3.4.22.- / CASP3 protein, human; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 3; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspases
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28. Messersmith W, Oppenheimer D, Peralba J, Sebastiani V, Amador M, Jimeno A, Embuscado E, Hidalgo M, Iacobuzio-Donahue C: Assessment of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) signaling in paired colorectal cancer and normal colon tissue samples using computer-aided immunohistochemical analysis. Cancer Biol Ther; 2005 Dec;4(12):1381-6
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  • [Title] Assessment of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) signaling in paired colorectal cancer and normal colon tissue samples using computer-aided immunohistochemical analysis.
  • The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) plays a role in multiple tumor cell processes and is targeted by several anticancer therapies.
  • Although EGFR mutations may determine tumor susceptibility in a small proportion of patients, knowledge of the EGFR signaling pathway status in tumors may help guide further drug development and hypothesis-driven combination studies.
  • We aimed to validate and apply a novel computer-aided immunohistochemical (IHC) technique to characterize the status of EGFR signaling in matched colorectal tumor and normal colon tissue samples.
  • Tissue Microarrays (TMA)were made from both cancerous and normal colorectal tissue in 18 patients and stained with antibodies against EGFR, phospho-EGFR (pEGFR), Akt, pAkt, MAPK, and pMAPK.
  • ACIS was compared against cell line Western blotting, ELISA, and visual scoring (0-3+) by a pathologist.
  • We conclude that ACIS IHC of human tissue samples is quantitative, reproducible, and correlates with Western blots and ELISA in cell line pellets as well as pathologist's scores of human samples.
  • Colorectal tumors show higher staining of pEGFR and downstream effectors compared to matched normal colorectal tissues.
  • [MeSH-major] Colon / chemistry. Colorectal Neoplasms / chemistry. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted / methods. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / analysis. Signal Transduction


29. Ilieva I, Ohgami K, Jin XH, Suzuki Y, Shiratori K, Yoshida K, Kase S, Ohno S: Captopril suppresses inflammation in endotoxin-induced uveitis in rats. Exp Eye Res; 2006 Sep;83(3):651-7
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

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  • Captopril is an inhibitor of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) that is largely used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.
  • We investigated its effect upon cellular infiltration and protein leakage, as well as on the concentration of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in the anterior chamber.
  • Captopril treatment significantly decreased the inflammatory cells infiltration, the level of protein, concentrations of TNF-alpha, PGE2, NO and MCP-1 in the aqueous humor.
  • The present results indicate that captopril suppresses the inflammation in EIU by inhibiting the NF-kappaB-dependent pathway and the subsequent production of pro-inflammatory mediators.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use. Captopril / therapeutic use. Uvea / immunology. Uveitis / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16698015.001).
  • [ISSN] 0014-4835
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental eye research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Eye Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Ccl2 protein, rat; 0 / Chemokine CCL2; 0 / Lipopolysaccharides; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Nitrites; 9G64RSX1XD / Captopril; K7Q1JQR04M / Dinoprostone
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30. Kortmann RD, Timmermann B, Taylor RE, Scarzello G, Plasswilm L, Paulsen F, Jeremic B, Gnekow AK, Dieckmann K, Kay S, Bamberg M: Current and future strategies in radiotherapy of childhood low-grade glioma of the brain. Part I: Treatment modalities of radiation therapy. Strahlenther Onkol; 2003 Aug;179(8):509-20
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  • [Title] Current and future strategies in radiotherapy of childhood low-grade glioma of the brain. Part I: Treatment modalities of radiation therapy.
  • BACKGROUND: Treatment of childhood low-grade gliomas is a challenging issue owing to their low incidence and the lack of consensus about "optimal" treatment approach.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Reports in the literature spanning 60 years of radiation therapy, including orthovoltage, megavoltage and recently modern high-precision treatments, were reviewed with respect to visual function, survival, prognostic factors, dose prescriptions, target volumes, and treatment techniques.
  • Even with the shortcomings of the reports available in the literature, primarily concerning indications, age at treatment, dose response, timing and use of "optimal" treatment fields, radiation therapy continues to play an important role in the management of these tumors achieving long-term survival rates up to 80% or more.
  • Particularly in gliomas of the visual pathway, high local tumor control and improved or stable visual function is achieved in approximately 90% of cases.
  • Data on dose-response relationships recommend dose prescriptions between 45 and 54 Gy with standard fractionation.
  • There is consensus now to employ radiation therapy in older children in case of progressive disease only, regardless of tumor location and histologic subtype.
  • Recent advances in treatment techniques, such as 3-D treatment planning and various "high-precision" treatments achieved promising initial outcome, however with limited patient numbers and short follow-ups.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Radiation therapy is an effective treatment modality in children with low-grade glioma regarding tumor control and improvement and/or preservation of neurologic function or vision, respectively.
  • More prospective studies are needed to address the impact of modern radiation therapy technologies (including intensity-modulated radiotherapy) on outcome especially in the very young and to define the role of radiation therapy as a part of a comprehensive treatment approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Glioma / radiotherapy. Neurofibromatoses / radiotherapy. Optic Nerve Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Astrocytoma / surgery. Brachytherapy. Cerebellar Neoplasms / drug therapy. Cerebellar Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Cerebellar Neoplasms / surgery. Child. Child, Preschool. Clinical Trials as Topic. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Dose Fractionation. Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hypothalamus. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy. Medulloblastoma / radiotherapy. Medulloblastoma / surgery. Optic Chiasm. Postoperative Care. Prognosis. Protons / therapeutic use. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted. Radiotherapy, Conformal. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Time Factors. Vision, Ocular. Visual Pathways

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  • (PMID = 14509949.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-7158
  • [Journal-full-title] Strahlentherapie und Onkologie : Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et al]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Strahlenther Onkol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protons
  • [Number-of-references] 77
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