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1. Trehan G, Bruge H, Vinchon M, Khalil C, Ruchoux MM, Dhellemmes P, Ares GS: MR imaging in the diagnosis of desmoplastic infantile tumor: retrospective study of six cases. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol; 2004 Jun-Jul;25(6):1028-33
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  • [Title] MR imaging in the diagnosis of desmoplastic infantile tumor: retrospective study of six cases.
  • We have studied the usefulness of MR imaging in the diagnosis of these tumors.
  • Neuroimaging, age at diagnosis, sex, clinical presentation, symptoms duration, follow-up, and development were studied retrospectively.
  • RESULTS: These tumors were massive and predominantly cystic, with preferential frontal and parietal involvement.
  • Meningeal enhancement and thickening adjacent to the solid portion of the tumor, calcifications, bone abnormalities adjacent to the tumor consisting of thinning and deformation were noted in 50% of our cases.
  • CONCLUSION: Despite their malignant appearance, MR imaging features of DIT may help in the diagnosis and obviate unnecessary chemotherapy or radiation therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Ganglioglioma / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Supratentorial Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15205142.001).
  • [ISSN] 0195-6108
  • [Journal-full-title] AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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2. Kadar AA, Hearst MJ, Collins MH, Mangano FT, Samy RN: Ewing's Sarcoma of the Petrous Temporal Bone: Case Report and Literature Review. Skull Base; 2010 May;20(3):213-7
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  • [Title] Ewing's Sarcoma of the Petrous Temporal Bone: Case Report and Literature Review.
  • Ewing's sarcoma, which accounts for 6 to 9% of malignant bone neoplasms in children, typically affects the trunk and long bones and less often affects the skull (i.e., maxilla, frontal, parietal, ethmoid, temporal bones).
  • Adding to literature of five previously reported cases, we now describe the case of the oldest child, a 16-year-old boy, with a primary Ewing's sarcoma of the petrous temporal bone.
  • When this patient presented after 1 week of right-sided facial paralysis and new-onset headache, imaging studies showed a mass that originated in the right petrous temporal bone.
  • Postoperatively, he then underwent radiotherapy with both induction and adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Although an uncommon tumor of the temporal bone, physicians should consider Ewing's sarcoma in the differential diagnosis of children and adolescents who present with facial nerve paralysis.

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  • [Cites] Neurosurgery. 2000 Jan;46(1):62-8; discussion 68-9 [10626936.001]
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  • (PMID = 21318041.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0065
  • [Journal-full-title] Skull base : official journal of North American Skull Base Society ... [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Skull Base
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3037099
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Ewing's sarcoma / facial nerve paralysis / petrous temporal bone
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3. Tatsui CE, Koerbel A, Prevedello DM, Araújo JC, Ditzel LF, Bleggi-Torres LF: [Central nervous system granulocytic sarcoma after bone marrow transplant: case report]. Arq Neuropsiquiatr; 2002 Sep;60(3-B):852-5
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  • [Title] [Central nervous system granulocytic sarcoma after bone marrow transplant: case report].
  • Granulocytic sarcoma is a solid tumor, composed by granulocytic precursor cells at various levels of differentiation, located at an extra-medullary site.
  • The treatment usually consists of radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • A case of an intracranial granulocytic sarcoma occurring six months after a bone marrow transplant in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia is reported.
  • The patient presented with headache and left hemiplegia caused by a large fronto-parietal lesion with significant mass effect.
  • The patient completed radiotherapy and chemotherapy with no evidence of disease after three months of follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Myeloid / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bone Marrow Transplantation. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy

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  • (PMID = 12364961.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-282X
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos de neuro-psiquiatria
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Neuropsiquiatr
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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4. Chou EK, Chang CS, Chen PK, Chen YR, Yu JC, Jung SM, Chang SC: Long-term management of craniofacial osteosarcoma. J Craniofac Surg; 2009 Mar;20(2):406-9
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  • A computed tomographic scan revealed a 4 x 3 x 2-cm3 osteolytic lesion over the right parietal cortex with a sunburst appearance.
  • The patient underwent en bloc tumor resection using bicortical parietal craniectomy with a 2-cm margin of normal bone, including the tightly adherent periosteum over the tumor.
  • Immediate cranioplasty was performed with split-thickness autogenous calvarial bone grafts.
  • Histopathologic examination showed the tumor to be a primary high-grade osteosarcoma of the skull.
  • She received postoperative chemotherapy.
  • The key to disease-free survival in treating primary osteosarcoma of the calvarium is complete surgical resection with immediate reconstruction followed by adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Osteosarcoma / surgery. Parietal Bone / surgery. Skull Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Transplantation / methods. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Craniotomy / methods. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Periosteum / surgery. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / methods. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19276827.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3732
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of craniofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Craniofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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5. Rodríguez-Arias CA, Lobato RD, Millán JM, Lagares A, de la Lama A, Alén JF: Parosteal osteosarcoma of the skull. Neurocirugia (Astur); 2001 Dec;12(6):521-4
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  • Parosteal osteosarcoma of the skull is a distinct surface bone tumor, with a better prognosis than conventional osteosarcoma.
  • The most common location is on the surface of the distal femur which accounts for 46-66% of the cases.
  • We describe the case of a man who developed a parosteal osteosarcoma arising from the occipital bone with extension to the parietal bone.
  • The patient was operated and had a complete tumor resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Occipital Bone / pathology. Osteosarcoma, Juxtacortical / pathology. Parietal Bone / pathology. Skull Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cerebral Angiography. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Craniotomy. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Osteosarcoma / diagnosis. Osteosarcoma / drug therapy. Osteosarcoma / pathology. Osteosarcoma / radiotherapy. Osteosarcoma / secondary. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 11787402.001).
  • [ISSN] 1130-1473
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurocirugía (Asturias, Spain)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurocirugia (Astur)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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6. Aoki Y, Kase H, Kashima K, Yahata T, Tanaka K: Placental site trophoblastic tumor presenting as subaponeurotic metastasis. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2005 Mar-Apr;15(2):385-8
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  • [Title] Placental site trophoblastic tumor presenting as subaponeurotic metastasis.
  • Cases of metastatic placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) have a very poor prognosis because these tumors tend to be less sensitive to chemotherapy than other types of gestational trophoblastic disease.
  • We describe the case of a 25-year-old woman who presented with occipital tumor and abnormal vaginal bleeding.
  • Hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and occipital tumor removal revealed a primary PSTT in the uterus, with ovarian and occipital subaponeurotic metastases.
  • She received etoposide, methotrexate, actinomycin-D/cyclophosphamide, vincristine chemotherapy and had a complete clinical remission.
  • Fifteen months later, she had a recurrent subaponeurotic occipital tumor invading the cranium and underwent tumor removal along with cranial bone followed by local irradiation.
  • She was then treated with etoposide, cis-platinum/etoposide, methotrexate, actinomycin-D chemotherapy and again had a remission for 5 months.
  • The patient, however, had a left parietal subaponeurotic tumor, invading the dura mater, and received local irradiation.
  • Soon after, she developed left orbital bone metastasis, treated by local irradiation.
  • These bone metastases responded to the radiation completely.
  • New modalities of treatment for high-risk or metastatic PSTT need to be developed.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Occipital Bone / pathology. Placenta Diseases / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Trophoblastic Neoplasms / secondary. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15823131.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. Watanabe T, Fuse T, Umezu M, Yamamoto M, Demura K, Niwa Y: Radiation-induced osteosarcoma 16 years after surgery and radiation for glioma--case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2006 Jan;46(1):51-4
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  • A 35-year-old man developed osteosarcoma of the left parietal and occipital bones 16 years after radiotherapy for glioma in the right occipital lobe.
  • Radiotherapy of the primary neoplasm used 50 Gy administered to a localized field through two lateral ports.
  • The secondary neoplasm arose contralateral to the primary lesion but within the irradiated field.
  • The tumor had a multilocular cyst with considerable intracranial extension, and symptoms of elevated intracranial pressure were prominent early in the course.
  • After a short-lived initial remission following surgical intervention and chemotherapy, the patient deteriorated because of tumor recurrence and died 18 months after the diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Glioma / radiotherapy. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / etiology. Occipital Bone. Osteosarcoma / etiology. Parietal Bone. Skull Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Male. Radiotherapy / adverse effects. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 16434828.001).
  • [ISSN] 0470-8105
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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8. Boumdin H, el Quessar A, Chakir N, el Hassani MR, Jiddane M: [Primary Ewing's sarcoma of the cranial vault. Report of 2 cases]. J Neuroradiol; 2001 Sep;28(3):200-4
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  • Frontal and parietal convexities are the common sites of occurrence.
  • The first tumor involved the right temporal region and exhibited unclear osteolytic appearance on skull x-rays while computed tomography showed an extraaxial enhanced mass and bone sclerosis with spiculated periosteal reaction.
  • In the second case, the tumor was temporoparietal.
  • Plain films demonstrated a large osteolysis and computed tomography revealed extensive bone destruction involving both the inner and outer tables.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy was given and no recurrence or metastasis has occurred two years later.
  • [MeSH-major] Sarcoma, Ewing / diagnosis. Skull Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 11894527.001).
  • [ISSN] 0150-9861
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuroradiology. Journal de neuroradiologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neuroradiol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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9. Nicollas R, Rome A, Belaïch H, Roman S, Volk M, Gentet JC, Michel G, Triglia JM: Head and neck manifestation and prognosis of Langerhans' cell histiocytosis in children. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol; 2010 Jun;74(6):669-73
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  • The age at diagnosis, gender, clinical presentation, extension of disease as well as response to treatment and outcome were recorded from the charts of each of these patients.
  • All treatments delivered to patients were well-tolerated and the evolution good.
  • There is no consensus about treatment but authors highlight that all teams in charge of patients presenting with LCH agree to remain as conservative as possible.
  • For solitary large lesions looking like a tumor which resection could result in functional or cosmetic morbidity, it would be important to get first a biopsy.
  • For multisystemic LHC, therapeutic trials with chemotherapy agents still in process should increase the rate of success.
  • [MeSH-major] Frontal Bone / radiography. Histiocytosis, Langerhans-Cell / radiography. Orbit / radiography. Parietal Lobe / pathology. Prednisone / therapeutic use. Temporal Bone / radiography. Vinblastine / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Diseases / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Drug Therapy, Combination. Etoposide / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Infant. Interdisciplinary Communication. Male. Neck. Patient Care Team. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20363036.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-8464
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone
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10. Caramella C, Roujeau T, Drapé JL, Minkin K, Krainik C, Kahan A, Allanore Y: Osteosarcoma presenting as a solitary focus of osteolysis in the calvarium. Joint Bone Spine; 2006 Jul;73(4):459-61
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  • However, histology is the only means of obtaining a definitive diagnosis and should therefore be performed at the slightest doubt.
  • Chemotherapy and radiation therapy were given after complete excision of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Osteolysis / etiology. Osteosarcoma / complications. Parietal Bone. Skull Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16626994.001).
  • [ISSN] 1297-319X
  • [Journal-full-title] Joint, bone, spine : revue du rhumatisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Joint Bone Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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11. Alexiou GA, Mpairamidis E, Sfakianos G, Prodromou N: Cranial unifocal Langerhans cell histiocytosis in children. J Pediatr Surg; 2009 Mar;44(3):571-4
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  • METHODS: Twenty-two patients (13 males, 9 females; mean age, 7.5 years; range, 3-14 years) with a suspected diagnosis of a cranial EG were enrolled in the study.
  • They all had been preoperatively evaluated by skull x-ray and computed tomography, whereas 10 patients additionally underwent magnetic resonance imaging.
  • Frontal bone was the most common affected bone.
  • The follow-up examinations ranged from 6 months to 17 years, with a mean follow-up of 6.2 years, and no tumor recurrence was noted.
  • At the time of diagnosis, a bone scan should be performed to rule out a multifocal disease.
  • Surgical resection is the treatment of choice.
  • Nevertheless, for lesions in which excision can cause cosmetic defects, administration of sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim after biopsy appeared to be an effective alternative treatment.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Anti-Infective Agents / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Frontal Bone. Humans. Male. Parietal Bone. Prognosis. Sulfamethoxazole / therapeutic use. Temporal Bone. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Trimethoprim / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19302861.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Infective Agents; AN164J8Y0X / Trimethoprim; JE42381TNV / Sulfamethoxazole
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12. Bose B: Primary osteogenic sarcoma of the skull. Surg Neurol; 2002 Sep-Oct;58(3-4):234-9; discussion 239-40
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  • BACKGROUND: An osteogenic sarcoma of the skull is rare, particularly as a primary tumor.
  • A computed tomography scan revealed a large mass, 12 cm x 7 cm, involving the scalp extending from the right temporal region to the vertex.
  • The MRI showed marked vascularity and neovascularity of the tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: We review the literature of reported cases of primary osteogenic sarcomas of the skull to discuss the common clinical presentation, evaluation methods, and recommended treatment plans.
  • [MeSH-major] Osteosarcoma / surgery. Parietal Bone / surgery. Skull Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Cements. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neovascularization, Pathologic / diagnosis. Prosthesis Implantation. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 12480227.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-3019
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Cements
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13. Sato S, Mitsuyama T, Ishii A, Kawakami M, Kawamata T: Multiple primary cranial Ewing's sarcoma in adulthood: case report. Neurosurgery; 2009 Feb;64(2):E384-6; discussion E386
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  • OBJECTIVE: Ewing's sarcoma is a malignant bone tumor occurring most frequently in the long bones and flat bones as a solitary lesion during the first 2 decades of life.
  • Ewing's sarcoma and peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor have recently been considered to be the same entity because of histological and molecular similarities.
  • CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 25-year-old man presented with swelling in the right parietal region.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging scans showed 2 mixed intense mass lesions in the right parietal and left frontal areas with heterogeneous gadolinium enhancement.
  • A computed tomographic scan revealed osteolytic changes of the inner calvarial bone.
  • Ga-67 citrate scintigraphy demonstrated abnormal uptake in the right parietal and the left frontal areas consistent with the findings on magnetic resonance imaging scans.
  • The patient underwent surgical excision of the right parietal lesion.
  • Electron microscopy showed little differentiation to neuronal tissue, indicating Ewing's sarcoma.
  • After surgical treatment, conventional whole cranial irradiation of 40 Gy and chemotherapy were conducted.
  • The tumor in the left frontal region disappeared.
  • CONCLUSION: Although quite rare, Ewing's sarcoma should be taken into consideration as a differential diagnosis of multiple cranial mass lesions in adulthood.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / therapy. Sarcoma, Ewing / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Ewing / therapy. Skull Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skull Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19190443.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Piolat C, Courtot H, Plantaz D, Nugues F, Durand C, Jacquier C, Pasquier D, Dyon JF: [Surgical aspects of intussusception due to lymphoma in children]. Arch Pediatr; 2004 Jan;11(1):40-3
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  • [Transliterated title] Aspects chirurgicaux des invaginations intestinales sur lymphome chez l'enfant.
  • All patients underwent laparotomy: biopsy of massive abdominal tumor 6 and 8 weeks following resection of an intussusception (two cases), ileal resection of non-reductible intussusception (one case), right hemicolectomy for tumor of the appendix (one case), tumorectomy of localized ileal tumor (two cases), enlarged mesenteric lymph node biopsy associated with simple reduction of intussusception (one case).
  • All children were successfully treated with protocol chemotherapy with a 15-month to 13-year follow-up.
  • Diagnosis of lymphoma may be difficult after manual reduction of intussusception.
  • Intestinal resection allows to reduce the intensity of chemotherapy but must be as limited as possible: ileal resection in cases of complicated intussusception, tumorectomy "in sano" in cases of ileal parietal isolated tumor.
  • Reduction of intussusception alone (with no resection of ileal tumor) seems to be effective if diagnosis of lymphoma is possible from peripheral samples (peritoneal fluid, pleural effusion, mesenteric lymph node, bone marrow biopsy...).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biopsy. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 14700760.001).
  • [ISSN] 0929-693X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives de pédiatrie : organe officiel de la Sociéte française de pédiatrie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Pediatr
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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15. Michael H, Lucia J, Foster RS, Ulbright TM: The pathology of late recurrence of testicular germ cell tumors. Am J Surg Pathol; 2000 Feb;24(2):257-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • A total of 91 men had histologically documented late recurrences of testicular germ cell tumors characterized by a complete response to treatment with a subsequent disease-free interval of at least 2 years and no evidence of a second primary lesion.
  • Ninety percent of the patients for whom information was available received chemotherapy shortly after their initial diagnosis of testicular germ cell tumors; most of the other patients were known to have stage I disease initially.
  • Thus, teratoma was the most common type of neoplasm in late recurrences.
  • Excluding teratoma coexisting with other types of neoplasms, yolk sac tumor was the most frequent type of tumor in patients with late recurrence.
  • It occurred in 47% of patients, either alone or with teratoma, another nonteratomatous germ cell tumor type, or a "nongerm cell malignant tumor."
  • Unusual types of yolk sac tumor, including glandular, parietal, clear cell, and pleomorphic patterns, were seen frequently in late recurrences and often raised differential diagnostic problems with "nongerm cell" carcinomas.
  • A smaller number of late recurrences consisted of other types of neoplasms.
  • Twenty percent of patients with late recurrence had a nonteratomatous germ cell tumor other than yolk sac tumor, either alone, with yolk sac tumor, or with a "nongerm cell malignant tumor."
  • Most of these nonteratomatous germ cell tumors other than yolk sac tumor were embryonal carcinoma, although rarely seminoma and choriocarcinoma were encountered.
  • "Nongerm cell malignant tumors," including both sarcomas and carcinomas of various types, occurred in 23% of late-recurrence patients, either alone or with a nonteratomatous germ cell tumor.
  • Late recurrences were seen in many different sites in these patients, including the retroperitoneum, abdomen, pelvis, liver, mediastinum, lung, bone (femur, vertebra, and rib), lymph nodes outside the retroperitoneum and mediastinum (supraclavicular, neck, and axillary regions), scrotum and inguinal regions, adrenal gland, chest wall, and buttocks.
  • Patients whose late recurrences consisted of pure "nongerm cell malignant tumor" or pure germ cell tumor (yolk sac tumor or other types) had a much worse prognosis: Only 36% to 37% were alive with no evidence of disease.
  • Patients with two different types of nonteratomatous malignancies in their late recurrences had a dismal clinical course: Only 17% with both yolk sac tumor and other nonteratomatous germ cell tumor had no evidence of disease, whereas no patient with both nonteratomatous germ cell tumor and "nongerm cell malignant tumor" was disease free.
  • Furthermore, late recurrence is not likely to respond to chemotherapy and is best treated by surgical excision when possible.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Carcinoma, Embryonal / complications. Carcinoma, Embryonal / pathology. Carcinoma, Embryonal / therapy. Choriocarcinoma / complications. Choriocarcinoma / pathology. Choriocarcinoma / therapy. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / complications. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / therapy. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / therapy. Sarcoma / complications. Sarcoma / pathology. Sarcoma / therapy. Seminoma / complications. Seminoma / pathology. Seminoma / therapy. Teratoma / complications. Teratoma / pathology. Teratoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 10680894.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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16. Woc-Colburn M, Murray S, Boedeker N, Viner T, Fleetwood ML, Barthel TC, Newman KD, Sanchez CR: Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma in a Rothschild's giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi). J Zoo Wildl Med; 2010 Dec;41(4):717-20

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Abstract: A 3-yr-old male Rothschild's giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi) presented for acute swelling caudomedial to the left parietal horn.
  • Following initial diagnostics and supportive treatment, the mass was surgically resected and intralesional chemotherapy was administered.
  • Despite treatment, the giraffe's condition worsened and euthanasia was performed.
  • Gross necropsy revealed neoplastic invasion and destruction of underlying parietal bone, adjacent horn base, and sinuses, and metastases in the tracheobronchial and mandibular lymph nodes and lung.
  • Histologically, the tumor was composed of packets of anaplastic round cells.
  • Immunohistochemical studies further characterized the tumor as an embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma.

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  • (PMID = 21370656.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-7260
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of zoo and wildlife medicine : official publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Zoo Wildl. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Cecchi PC, Billio A, Colombetti V, Rizzo P, Ricci UM, Schwarz A: Primary high-grade B-cell lymphoma of the choroid plexus. Clin Neurol Neurosurg; 2008 Jan;110(1):75-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • She underwent a parieto-occipital craniotomy and a navigation-assisted posterior parietal transcortical approach, achieving complete removal of the intraventricular lesion originating from the choroid plexus.
  • The histological diagnosis was of high-grade diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
  • Both an MRI scan of the entire craniospinal axis and a thoracic and abdominal CT scan showed no other neoplastic lesions; a bone marrow biopsy was normal; a final diagnosis of primary central nervous system lymphoma was made.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy with methotrexate was administered, and at the last follow-up (26 months) our patient is clinically and radiologically disease-free.
  • Primary choroid plexus lymphoma is a very rare tumor that should be included in the differential diagnosis of intraventricular neoplasms.
  • Surgery is almost always necessary to obtain an adequate tissue sample and frequently leads to a radical removal of the lesion.
  • With a proper adjuvant therapy a relatively good outcome is observed.

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  • (PMID = 17928135.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-8467
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neurology and neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Neurol Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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18. Kadokura M, Tanio N, Nonaka M, Yamamoto S, Kataoka D, Kushima M, Kimura S, Nakamaki T, Sato I, Takaba T: A surgical case of solitary plasmacytoma of rib origin with biclonal gammopathy. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2000 Apr;30(4):191-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Localized solitary plasmacytoma of the bone (SPB) is a rare disease and is characterized by only one or two isolated bone lesions with no evidence of disease dissemination.
  • Radiological evaluation revealed a peripheral opacity in the left chest wall, which was highly suspected to be a chest wall tumor.
  • CT-guided transcutaneous needle biopsy of the tumor was performed and the specimens showed a monomorphous population of mature plasma cells.
  • The bone marrow biopsy findings revealed no evidence of myeloma and bone scanning revealed only abnormal accumulation in the left seventh rib.
  • Immunoelectrophoresis revealed mild biclonal gammopathy of Bence-Jones protein of both the kappa and lambda light-chain types.
  • Under a diagnosis of solitary bone plasmacytoma, preoperative radiation therapy with doses of 40 Gy for the tumor was performed.
  • He underwent complete en bloc resection of the chest wall, including one-third of the left sixth and seventh ribs, the intercostal muscle and the parietal pleura.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy using melphalan and prednisolone was performed.
  • He is doing well without evidence of tumor recurrence 2 years following his initial diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Needle. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Connectin. Humans. Male. Myeloma Proteins / urine. Plasma Cells / pathology. Radiography, Interventional. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 10830989.001).
  • [ISSN] 0368-2811
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] JAPAN
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Connectin; 0 / Immunoglobulin kappa-Chains; 0 / Immunoglobulin lambda-Chains; 0 / Muscle Proteins; 0 / Myeloma Proteins; 0 / multiple myeloma M-proteins; 9006-99-9 / Bence Jones Protein
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19. Sieveking NE, Turk AE, Beck CE, Harsh G: Cranial reconstruction for metastatic breast cancer. Plast Reconstr Surg; 2000 Apr;105(5):1737-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • All women with advanced breast cancer who are medically stable despite their disease are candidates for tumor extirpation and reconstruction.
  • Advanced breast cancer today is incurable, and many prognostic factors can be used to try to predict a clinical course and response to therapy; however, no guidelines are available.
  • As demonstrated here, tumor ablation with immediate, one-stage reconstruction of large scalp defects is possible without the need for free tissue transfer or a delay in adjuvant therapy.
  • Local tissue rearrangement has been employed for coverage of defects up to 50 percent of the cranium.
  • Serial tissue expansion and rearrangement can be used secondarily to replace skin grafts with hair-bearing scalp.
  • Split-calvarial bone grafts can be harvested from the same operative field and cover small to medium-sized defects.
  • Other sources of autogenous grafts include split ribs and iliac bone.
  • Palliation from tumor burden, prevention of pathologic fracture and oncologic emergencies, controlling pain, and enhancing quality of life are the goals of the oncologic and reconstructive surgeons in cases of advanced breast cancer.
  • These goals are becoming even more important as new forms and combinations of chemotherapy, radiation, and gene therapy are extending the life expectancy of women with breast carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Frontal Bone / pathology. Frontal Bone / surgery. Humans. Middle Aged. Parietal Lobe / pathology. Parietal Lobe / surgery. Reoperation


20. Makis W, Hickeson M, Derbekyan V: Myeloid sarcoma presenting as an anterior mediastinal mass invading the pericardium: Serial Imaging With F-18 FDG PET/CT. Clin Nucl Med; 2010 Sep;35(9):706-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Myeloid sarcoma is a tumor formed by extramedullary accumulation of myeloblasts or immature myeloid cells.
  • These tumors can develop in lymphoid organs, bone, skin, soft tissue, and other organs, and may precede or occur concurrently with acute myeloid leukemia.
  • A computed tomography (CT) scan showed a large mediastinal mass and pericardial effusion.
  • An F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-CT scan showed intense fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in the mediastinal mass with invasion of the parietal pericardium.
  • The pericardial effusion was drained and the patient was treated with high-dose cytosine arabinoside (HiDAC) chemotherapy.
  • A follow-up positron emission tomography-CT was done 2 months after the last cycle, showing poor response to therapy and significant progression of disease with invasion through the anterior chest wall.
  • Myeloid sarcoma can be added to the differential diagnosis of F-18 FDG avid anterior mediastinal masses, as well as F-18 FDG uptake in the pericardium.
  • [MeSH-major] Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Mediastinal Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Pericardium / pathology. Positron-Emission Tomography. Sarcoma, Myeloid / radiography. Sarcoma, Myeloid / radionuclide imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Karyotyping. Male. Whole Body Imaging

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  • (PMID = 20706048.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-0229
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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21. Robak T, Góra-Tybor J, Tybor K, Jamroziak K, Robak P, Kordek R, Rieske P, Majos A, Urbańska-Ryś H: Richter's syndrome in the brain first manifested as an ischaemic stroke. Leuk Lymphoma; 2004 Jun;45(6):1261-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Initial cranial computed tomography (CT) revealed a hypodense area in the right parietal lobe showing no contrast enhancement.
  • The follow-up CT done after 2 months showed an irregular, slightly hyperdense tumor surrounded by oedema with mass effect and midline shift.
  • Neurosurgical operation was performed and the diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has been established on the basis of histological and immunological investigation of the tumor.
  • The pattern of immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) gene rearrangement in the patients' bone marrow aspirate and brain tumor was identical and suggested that both tumors originated from the same B-cell progenitors.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / pathology. Brain Ischemia / chemically induced. Brain Neoplasms / chemically induced. Cladribine / adverse effects. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / drug therapy. Lymphoma, B-Cell / chemically induced. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / chemically induced

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  • (PMID = 15360010.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 47M74X9YT5 / Cladribine
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