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1. Melonakos EJ, Santucci RA: Treatment of low-grade bulbar transitional cell carcinoma with urethral instillation of mitomycin C. Adv Urol; 2008;:173694

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment of low-grade bulbar transitional cell carcinoma with urethral instillation of mitomycin C.
  • A 63-year old man was referred to us after three rapid recurrences of low-grade urethral papillary transitional cell carcinoma of the bulbar urethra, after repeated primary excision.
  • Cystoscopy confirmed 3-4 low-grade urethral transitional cell carcinomas, which were subsequently fulgurated.
  • After urethral healing, a solution of Mitomycin C (40 mg/80 cc) was instilled into the urethra for fifteen minutes and held in place with a penile clamp.
  • Urethral instillations were repeated weekly for six weeks.
  • This case highlights the successful treatment of urethral carcinoma with topical chemotherapy, which is usually reserved for the bladder, using a slight modification of standard technique.

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  • [Cites] BJU Int. 2006 Sep;98(3):526-31 [16925747.001]
  • [Cites] J Urol. 2000 Oct;164(4):1305 [10992392.001]
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  • (PMID = 18989359.001).
  • [ISSN] 1687-6369
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2575232
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2. Ohyama C, Takyu S, Yoshikawa K, Suzuki H, Tezuka F, Hasuda A, Inaba Y, Hoshi S, Orikasa S: Adenocarcinoma arising from the prostatic duct mimicking transitional cell carcinoma. Int J Urol; 2001 Jul;8(7):408-11
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  • [Title] Adenocarcinoma arising from the prostatic duct mimicking transitional cell carcinoma.
  • A 71-year-old man was first diagnosed with primary transitional cell carcinoma of the prostate with a skip lesion on the distal urethra.
  • The patient received three courses of intra-arterial chemotherapy of cisplatin (CDDP) and pirarubicin (THP-ADM) followed by a radical prostatectomy.
  • This rare histopathologic feature should be recognized as 'ductal carcinoma of the prostate', to distinguish it from papillary adenocarcinoma or adenocarcinoma with endometrioid features.
  • CDDP-based chemotherapy followed by radical prostatectomy may be one of the promising therapeutic modalities for this rare entity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 11442666.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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3. Danesi DT, Arcangeli G, Cruciani E, Altavista P, Mecozzi A, Saracino B, Orefici F: Conservative treatment of invasive bladder carcinoma by transurethral resection, protracted intravenous infusion chemotherapy, and hyperfractionated radiotherapy: long term results. Cancer; 2004 Dec 1;101(11):2540-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Conservative treatment of invasive bladder carcinoma by transurethral resection, protracted intravenous infusion chemotherapy, and hyperfractionated radiotherapy: long term results.
  • BACKGROUND: Organ preservation has been investigated in patients with muscle-invasive bladder carcinoma over the past decades as an alternative to radical cystectomy.
  • The majority of studies reported that trimodal schedules, including transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURB), radiotherapy (RT), and chemotherapy, are a feasible and safe organ-sparing approach without deferring the survival probability.
  • However, to the authors' knowledge the best combination of RT and chemotherapy has yet to be well defined.
  • The current study evaluated the long-term results of a schedule of concurrent cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) administered as protracted intravenous infusions (PVI) during hyperfractionated radiotherapy (HFRT) with organ-sparing intent in patients with infiltrating transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder (TCCB).
  • METHODS: Seventy-seven patients with a classification of T2-T4aN0M0 TCCB were enrolled in the current study.
  • After a complete TURB and bladder mapping, 42 of 77 patients underwent 2 cycles of induction chemotherapy.
  • Six to 8 weeks after RCT, patient response was evaluated by computed tomography scan, urine cytology, and TURB.
  • The observed toxicity, mainly hematologic, was higher among the patients who received induction chemotherapy compared with the patients who did not receive induction chemotherapy, even though the difference was not statistically significant.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Combined treatment appeared to provide high response rates and can be offered as an alternative option to radical cystectomy in selected patients who refuse or are unsuitable for surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cystectomy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Dose Fractionation. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Treatment Outcome. Urethra / surgery

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2004 American Cancer Society
  • [CommentIn] J Urol. 2005 Oct;174(4 Pt 1):1252-3 [16145384.001]
  • (PMID = 15481058.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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4. Michaelson MD, Shipley WU, Heney NM, Zietman AL, Kaufman DS: Selective bladder preservation for muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. Br J Cancer; 2004 Feb 9;90(3):578-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Selective bladder preservation for muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder.
  • Invasive transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder is traditionally treated with radical cystectomy.
  • An alternative approach using selective bladder-preservation techniques incorporates transurethral resection of bladder tumours, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.
  • Another important positive predictor of complete response to therapy is the ability of the urologic oncologist to remove all visible tumour through a transurethral approach prior to initiation of radiation therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / surgery. Cystectomy. Neoplasm Staging. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Clinical Trials as Topic. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Hydronephrosis / complications. Morbidity. Patient Selection. Prognosis. Quality of Life. Salvage Therapy. Treatment Outcome. Urethra / surgery

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  • (PMID = 14760367.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 23
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2409604
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5. Murphy DR, Morris NJ: Transitional cell carcinoma of the urethra [correction of ureter] in a patient with buttock pain: a case report. Arch Phys Med Rehabil; 2008 Jan;89(1):150-2
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  • [Title] Transitional cell carcinoma of the urethra [correction of ureter] in a patient with buttock pain: a case report.
  • This case reports on a patient with an unusual presentation of a rare tumor: urethral transitional cell carcinoma (TCC).
  • Urethral TCC occurs in approximately 0.7% to 4.0% of patients who have had primary bladder cancer.
  • The patient was initially suspected to have piriformis syndrome, but when he did not respond as expected to treatment, and because of his history of primary bladder cancer, further evaluation was undertaken and the diagnosis was made.
  • The patient responded well to radiation and chemotherapy.
  • Musculoskeletal physicians should be particularly suspicious of the presence of urethral TCC in a patient with a history of primary bladder cancer who reports low back or buttock pain, particularly if the patient does not respond quickly to treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / complications. Low Back Pain / etiology. Urethral Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Buttocks. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Prostatic Neoplasms. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 18164345.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-821X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Phys Med Rehabil
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Gillitzer R, Hampel C, Wiesner C, Hadaschik B, Thüroff J: Single-institution experience with primary tumours of the male urethra. BJU Int; 2008 Apr;101(8):964-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Single-institution experience with primary tumours of the male urethra.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess primary tumours of the urethra in males.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed our database from 1986 to 2006 for primary tumours of the male urethra; nine patients with primary tumours of the urethra were analysed and follow-up information was obtained.
  • RESULTS: Three patients had tumours of the prostatic urethra, two of which had proliferating focal inflammation and one a low-grade, superficial urothelial cancer.
  • Six patients had carcinoma of the bulbar or penile urethra, including two with previous local percutaneous radiotherapy for prostate cancer.
  • One patient had adjuvant chemotherapy after surgery.
  • CONCLUSION: Primary carcinoma of the male urethra is a rare entity.
  • Multimodal therapy might be required to obtain an optimum oncological outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Urethral Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Epidemiologic Methods. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 18070169.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-410X
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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7. Nishimoto K, Oyama M, Ando T, Nakajima Y, Kiguchi H: [Inguinal lymph node metastasis of bladder carcinoma ten years after cystourethrectomy: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2005 Nov;51(11):759-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Inguinal lymph node metastasis of bladder carcinoma ten years after cystourethrectomy: a case report].
  • A 79-year-old man had undergone radical cystourethrectomy for bladder carcinoma in January, 1989.
  • Pathological report was Small cell carcinoma (SCC) >> transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), G2 > G3, pT4 (prostate), ew (-).
  • Ten years later, follow-up computed tomography (CT) revealed swollen left inguinal lymph node in October 1998 and lymph node dissection was performed in January, 2000.
  • Three couses of MVAC (methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin cisplatinum) chemotherapy had been performed since September, 2001 but were in effective.
  • Papillary tumor was observed at external urethral meatus in September, 2002 and the biopsied specimens showed TCC, G1 > G2, pathologically.
  • It is suggested that the recurrent TCC tumor in the urethral remnants might metastasize into the inguinal lymph nodes.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / surgery. Cystectomy. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Urethra / surgery. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Humans. Inguinal Canal. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 16363710.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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8. Ito Y, Nishiyama H, Higashi S, Kinoshita H, Ito N, Yamamoto S, Kamoto T, Ogawa O: [Transitional cell carcinoma in prostate after intravesical instillation of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2004 May;50(5):335-8
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  • [Title] [Transitional cell carcinoma in prostate after intravesical instillation of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin].
  • We report 3 cases of prostatic involvement of transitional cell carcinomas (TCCs).
  • All cases presented positive urinary cytology after intravesical instillation of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) and then random biopsy of bladder and transurethral resection (TUR)-biopsy of prostatic urethra were performed.
  • TUR-biopsy of prostatic urethra should be perfomed when patients present positive urinary cytology after BCG instillation therapy, because prostatic involvement of TCC associated with bladder carcinoma in situ is not rare.
  • [MeSH-major] BCG Vaccine / administration & dosage. Carcinoma in Situ / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / etiology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / etiology. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 15237488.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BCG Vaccine
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9. VanderMolen LA, Sheehy PF, Dillman RO: Successful treatment of transitional cell carcinoma of the urethra with chemotherapy. Cancer Invest; 2002;20(2):206-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Successful treatment of transitional cell carcinoma of the urethra with chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / drug therapy. Urethral Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 11901541.001).
  • [ISSN] 0735-7907
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; M-VAC protocol
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10. Hong JY, Choi MK, Uhm JE, Park MJ, Lee J, Park SH, Park JO, Kim WS, Kang WK, Lee HM, Choi HY, Lim H: Palliative chemotherapy for non-transitional cell carcinomas of the urothelial tract. Med Oncol; 2009;26(2):186-92
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  • [Title] Palliative chemotherapy for non-transitional cell carcinomas of the urothelial tract.
  • Non-transitional cell carcinomas of the urothelial tract comprise 5-10% of urothelial cancers.
  • Clinical information regarding the clinical behavior and chemotherapy outcome of non-transitional cell carcinomas of the urothelial tract are incomplete due to their rarity.
  • The object of this study was to evaluate the clinical features and the efficacy of palliative chemotherapy in advanced non-transitional cell carcinomas of the urothelial tract.
  • We analyzed the clinical records of 21 consecutive patients who received palliative chemotherapy for unresectable or metastatic non-transitional cell carcinomas of the urothelial tract between January 1995 and November 2007.
  • All the 21 patients received first-line chemotherapy with platinum-based regimens which are known to be effective in transitional cell urothelial carcinomas.
  • The primary sites of involvement were the bladder, urethra, urachus, and ureter in 43%, 29%, 19%, and 10% of the patients, respectively.
  • Adenocarcinoma was the most common histological type (67%); squamous cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma comprised 24 and 10% of the histologic types, respectively.
  • With a median duration of follow-up of 32 months (range, 12-71 months), the median overall survival for all 21 patients from the day of first-line chemotherapy was 13 months (95% CI, 6.8-19.2).
  • The median overall survival of patients who received platinum-based palliative chemotherapy for advanced non-transitional cell carcinomas was comparable to previous studies for patients with transitional cell carcinomas.
  • Adenocarcinomas appear to have a favorable prognosis for the survival of the patients who received platinum-based chemotherapy for advanced non-transitional cell carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / drug therapy. Palliative Care. Urologic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Urothelium
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18988001.001).
  • [ISSN] 1357-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical oncology (Northwood, London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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11. Canda AE, Tuzel E, Mungan MU, Yorukoglu K, Kirkali Z: Conservative management of mucosal prostatic urethral involvement in patients with superficial transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Eur Urol; 2004 Apr;45(4):465-9; discussion 469-70
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  • [Title] Conservative management of mucosal prostatic urethral involvement in patients with superficial transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.
  • OBJECTIVE: Treatment of patients with mucosal prostatic urethral transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is controversial.
  • In this study, we evaluated the outcome of patients with mucosal prostatic urethral TCC who were managed conservatively.
  • Initially, all patients with mucosal PU involvement without evidence of ductal and/or stromal involvement underwent intravesical BCG or Epirubicin therapy.
  • RESULTS: Nineteen patients (6.6%) had mucosal involvement of the prostatic urethra (PU) and concomitant multifocal TCC of the bladder.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Prostatic urethral sampling should be considered necessary in intermediate and high risk patients with superficial TCC of the bladder.
  • Intravesical therapy, especially with BCG seems to be an effective treatment alternative in the management of mucosal PU involvement.
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. BCG Vaccine / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / drug therapy. Epirubicin / therapeutic use. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Urethral Neoplasms / drug therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 15041110.001).
  • [ISSN] 0302-2838
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / BCG Vaccine; 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin
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12. Ennis RD: Combined chemotherapy and external beam radiotherapy for transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Curr Oncol Rep; 2004 May;6(3):230-6
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  • [Title] Combined chemotherapy and external beam radiotherapy for transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.
  • A growing body of evidence supports the treatment of invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder with transurethral resection, chemotherapy, and external beam radiotherapy.
  • Randomized trials have demonstrated the superiority of chemotherapy plus radiotherapy to radiotherapy alone.
  • Preservation of the urothelium, however, results in continued risk of de novo bladder cancer development in addition to the possibility of recurrence.
  • Thus, continued close surveillance and treatment of subsequent superficial or invasive bladder cancer is an essential component of this bladder preservation approach.
  • Concomitant cisplatin chemotherapy and radiotherapy or initial (neoadjuvant) combination cisplatin-based chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy are the two options best supported by the literature.
  • How these regimens compare with each other and with cystectomy-based treatment remains to be defined.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / radiotherapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cystectomy / methods. Dose Fractionation. Humans. Neoadjuvant Therapy / methods. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome. Urethra / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15066235.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-6269
  • [Journal-full-title] Current oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Oncol Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Number-of-references] 63
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13. Cruz Guerra NA, del Valle Manteca A, Zamora Martínez T, Tarroc Blanco A: [Metacronous transitional cell carcinoma of the prostatic urethra in a patient with history of nephroureterectomy for upper urinary tract urothelial tumor]. Arch Esp Urol; 2004 Dec;57(10):1125-7
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  • [Title] [Metacronous transitional cell carcinoma of the prostatic urethra in a patient with history of nephroureterectomy for upper urinary tract urothelial tumor].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinoma transicional de uretra prostatica meta-crónico en paciente con antecedente de nefroureterectomía por tumor uroteual del tracto urinario superior.
  • OBJECTIVES: We report one case of Metacronous transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the prostatic urethra in a patient with history of left nephroureterectomy 22 years before for urothelial neoplasia of the upper urinary tract.
  • Cystourethroscopy showed irregular hyperemic lesions in the prostatic urethra, cold biopsy of which showed urothelial atypia.
  • Pathology report of fragments of a posterior transurethral resection (TUR) was compatible with high-grade superficial transitional cell neoplasia.
  • Chemotherapy did not achieve significant results.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We emphasize the notable metachronous character of the transitional cell carcinoma of the prostatic urethra with respect to the upper urinary tract TCC.
  • We also point out the metastasic capacity of these neoplasias, as well as the bad prognosis of those cases in which chemotherapy is not effective.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis. Urethral Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15714851.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0614
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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14. Parada D, Páez A, Acosta M, Caricote L, Trujillo E, Luigi JC, Farías RM: [Primary urothelial carcinoma of the bulbomembranous urethra. Histologic and immunohistochemical study of a case]. Arch Esp Urol; 2003 Dec;56(10):1144-7

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  • [Title] [Primary urothelial carcinoma of the bulbomembranous urethra. Histologic and immunohistochemical study of a case].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinoma urotelial primario de uretra bulbomembranosa. Estudio histológico e inmunohistoquímico de un caso.
  • OBJECTIVE: We report a case of a primary urothelial carcinoma of the bulbomembranous urethra, with special emphasis on histopathological and immunohistochemical findings.
  • METHODS/RESULTS: A 63-year-old man presented urethral obstruction symptoms.
  • A radical phalectomy was performed and a 4.5 x 4 cm bulbomembranous urethral tumor was observed.
  • Histopathological analysis disclosed an urothelial carcinoma, that showed positive immunostaining for cytokeratin AE1/AE3, cytokeratin 7, carcinoembrionic antigen and epithelial membrane antigen.
  • The patient received radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy and is currently free of disease.
  • CONCLUSION: Posterior male urothelial carcinoma of the urethra is a rare neoplasm that usually is mistaken clinically for a benign lesion.
  • The diagnostic is generally made in advanced stages with a poor therapeutical response.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Urethral Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 14763421.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0614
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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15. Lerner SP, Colen J, Shen S: Prostatic biology, histologic patterns and clinical consequences of transitional cell carcinoma. Curr Opin Urol; 2008 Sep;18(5):508-12
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  • [Title] Prostatic biology, histologic patterns and clinical consequences of transitional cell carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the current fund of knowledge about prostatic transitional cell carcinoma and the implications for diagnostic and management strategies particularly as they relate to radical cystectomy.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Prostatic transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is present in up to 48% of patients undergoing radical cystoprostatectomy.
  • Transurethral resection biopsies of the prostatic urethra are a sensitive means of detecting prostatic TCC and whole-mount step sectioning is the most accurate method for determining the presence and extent of prostatic TCC.
  • Preoperative detection of prostatic TCC enables accurate staging and treatment planning, including assessment of the risk of cancer at the apical urethral margin and the risk of a second primary tumor of the retained urethra, all of which factor into decision-making around urinary diversion and urethrectomy.
  • Recognition of true T4a stage requires consideration of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and the need for extended pelvic and iliac lymphadenectomy in order to optimize an integrated treatment strategy.
  • In patients with recurrent high-grade nonmuscle invasive cancer and patients undergoing radical cystoprostatectomy, a thorough assessment of the prostatic urethra and stroma is imperative for accurate staging and treatment planning.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / secondary. Prostate / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / secondary. Urinary Bladder / pathology. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cystectomy. Humans. Male. Urethra / pathology. Urethra / surgery. Urethral Neoplasms / secondary. Urethral Neoplasms / surgery


16. Taylor JH, Davis J, Schellhammer P: Long-term follow-up of intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin treatment for superficial transitional-cell carcinoma of the bladder involving the prostatic urethra. Clin Genitourin Cancer; 2007 Sep;5(6):386-9
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  • [Title] Long-term follow-up of intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin treatment for superficial transitional-cell carcinoma of the bladder involving the prostatic urethra.
  • BACKGROUND: Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is a treatment option for superficial (<or=T1) transitional cell carcinoma.
  • Transitional cell carcinoma involving the prostatic urethra presents a treatment dilemma.
  • Whereas prostatic urethral involvement might require radical cystectomy, select patients can be offered BCG and careful surveillance to preserve the bladder.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-eight patients with high-risk superficial bladder cancer and prostatic urethral involvement were treated with once-weekly BCG for 6 weeks.
  • Twenty-eight percent (8 of 28 patients) underwent cystectomy because of failure of treatment to eradicate superficial disease or disease progression.
  • CONCLUSION: Our long-term data support the durability of intravesical BCG in select patients with superficial bladder transitional cell carcinoma with prostatic urethral involvement.
  • Follow-up biopsy of the prostatic urethra is mandatory and, if positive, cystectomy is indicated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use. BCG Vaccine / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Urethral Neoplasms / drug therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Intravesical. Cystoscopy. Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Instillation, Drug. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Transurethral Resection of Prostate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17956711.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-7673
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical genitourinary cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Genitourin Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / BCG Vaccine
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17. Liptak JM, Brutscher SP, Monnet E, Dernell WS, Twedt DC, Kazmierski KJ, Walter CU, Mullins MN, Larue SM, Withrow SJ: Transurethral resection in the management of urethral and prostatic neoplasia in 6 dogs. Vet Surg; 2004 Sep-Oct;33(5):505-16
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  • [Title] Transurethral resection in the management of urethral and prostatic neoplasia in 6 dogs.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess cystoscopic transurethral resection (TUR) for the palliative management of dogs with neoplastic infiltration of the urethra.
  • METHODS: Cystoscopic examination and electrosurgical TUR were performed in dogs with urination difficulties caused by prostatic or urethral neoplasia.
  • Cystoscopic examination was used to determine the extent of neoplastic involvement of the urethra.
  • TUR involved piecemeal removal of neoplastic tissue from the urethral lumen using an electrocautery cutting loop.
  • Hemorrhage was controlled with a cystoscopic cauterized roller-ball.
  • In 2 male dogs, intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) was used to treat both prostatic neoplasia and the sublumbar lymph node bed.
  • Surgical technique, complications, adjuvant treatment, and outcome were recorded.
  • RESULTS: TUR was performed in 3 male dogs with prostatic carcinoma and 2 female dogs with urethral transitional cell carcinoma (TCC).
  • Iatrogenic urethral perforation occurred during TUR in 3 dogs.
  • Treatment-related complications included urinary tract infection and tumor seeding.
  • CONCLUSIONS: TUR (in combination with chemotherapy+/-IORT) resulted in rapid palliation of urination difficulties in male dogs with prostatic carcinoma.
  • In female dogs with urethral TCC, however, electrosurgical TUR cannot be recommended because of a high intra- and postoperative complication rate with no improvement in postoperative management compared with historical reports of tube cystostomy.
  • CLINICAL RELEVANCE: TUR is a novel alternative for the palliation of male dogs with prostatic carcinoma.
  • In female dogs with urethral TCC, electrosurgical TUR does not provide any advantages compared with tube cystostomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / veterinary. Dog Diseases / surgery. Electrosurgery / veterinary. Prostatic Neoplasms / veterinary. Urethral Neoplasms / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 15362989.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-3499
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary surgery : VS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Upton ML, Tangner CH, Payton ME: Evaluation of carbon dioxide laser ablation combined with mitoxantrone and piroxicam treatment in dogs with transitional cell carcinoma. J Am Vet Med Assoc; 2006 Feb 15;228(4):549-52
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  • [Title] Evaluation of carbon dioxide laser ablation combined with mitoxantrone and piroxicam treatment in dogs with transitional cell carcinoma.
  • CASE DESCRIPTION: 8 dogs that underwent carbon dioxide (CO2) laser ablation of transitional cell carcinoma in the bladder trigone and proximal portion of the urethra and were also treated with mitotranxone and piroxicam.
  • CLINICAL FINDINGS: Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder frequently involves the trigone and urethra and can be difficult to manage surgically.
  • Dogs underwent laser ablation of the primary tumor and were treated with mitoxantrone at a dosage of 5 mg/m2)every 3 weeks for 4 treatments.
  • TREATMENT AND OUTCOME: Median and mean disease-free intervals were 200 and 280 days, respectively.
  • Median and mean survival times were 299 and 411 days, respectively.
  • Adverse treatment effects were observed in 2 dogs; signs included mild, self-limiting inappetance and lethargy.
  • The procedure appeared to be well tolerated; all treated dogs had rapid resolution of clinical signs of disease of the lower portion of the urinary tract.
  • CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Although survival times achieved with CO2 laser ablation and treatment with mitoxantrone and piroxicam were similar to survival times associated with chemotherapy alone, resolution of clinical signs was better with the combined treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / veterinary. Dog Diseases / drug therapy. Dog Diseases / surgery. Laser Therapy / veterinary. Urethral Neoplasms / veterinary. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Carbon Dioxide. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Dogs. Female. Male. Mitoxantrone / adverse effects. Mitoxantrone / therapeutic use. Piroxicam / adverse effects. Piroxicam / therapeutic use. Remission Induction. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16478428.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1488
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 13T4O6VMAM / Piroxicam; 142M471B3J / Carbon Dioxide; BZ114NVM5P / Mitoxantrone
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19. Nonomura N, Ono Y, Nozawa M, Fukui T, Harada Y, Nishimura K, Takaha N, Takahara S, Okuyama A: Bacillus Calmette-Guérin perfusion therapy for the treatment of transitional cell carcinoma in situ of the upper urinary tract. Eur Urol; 2000 Dec;38(6):701-4;discussion 705
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  • [Title] Bacillus Calmette-Guérin perfusion therapy for the treatment of transitional cell carcinoma in situ of the upper urinary tract.
  • OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intrarenal bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) instillation as a treatment for transitional cell carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the upper urinary tract.
  • METHODS: Diagnostic criteria of upper urinary tract CIS were (1) positive urinary cytology, (2) negative multiple random biopsy of the bladder and prostatic urethra, (3) negative radiographic findings in the upper urinary tract and (4) two serial positive cytologies in selective ipsilateral urine sampling from the pyeloureteral system.
  • After placing a 6-french Double-J stent, BCG (80 mg) in 40 ml saline was instilled into the bladder weekly, 6 times in total as one course.
  • Mean recurrence-free time was 19.6 months.
  • The remaining patient died of rectal cancer with no evidence of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC).
  • The other case was diagnosed as having malignant lymphoma 3 months after the end of this instillation therapy, and he died of malignant lymphoma.
  • However, no patient needed antitubercular treatment.
  • CONCLUSION: As for the short-term response, BCG instillation for the treatment of upper urinary tract CIS is considered to be effective and safe.
  • Longer follow-up and further experience with this treatment are required.
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use. BCG Vaccine / therapeutic use. Carcinoma in Situ / therapy. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / therapy. Kidney Neoplasms / therapy. Ureteral Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Intravesical. Aged. Disease-Free Survival. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Instillation, Drug. Male. Perfusion. Stents. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 11111187.001).
  • [ISSN] 0302-2838
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] SWITZERLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / BCG Vaccine
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20. Uchio EM, Linehan WM, Figg WD, Walther MM: A phase I study of intravesical suramin for the treatment of superficial transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. J Urol; 2003 Jan;169(1):357-60
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  • [Title] A phase I study of intravesical suramin for the treatment of superficial transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.
  • PURPOSE: Suramin is a polysulfonated naphthylurea that inhibits proliferation and DNA synthesis of transitional cell carcinoma cell lines.
  • Its large molecular size and negative charge inhibit bladder absorption, making suramin an excellent candidate for intravesical chemotherapy.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Intravesical suramin treatment was administered in 9 patients with histologically identified transitional cell carcinoma (Tcis, Ta or T1) in whom at least 1 course of standard intravesical chemotherapy (bacillus Calmette-Guerin, thiotepa or mitomycin C) had failed.
  • RESULTS: The 9 patients underwent 54 treatments with suramin.
  • Plasma suramin concentration after treatment was 1.9 to 38.0 microg.
  • /ml. and was not related to treatment dose.
  • Complications included self-limited bladder spasms (less than 24 hours) in 4 of 54 treatments (7%) and new or worsening vesicoureteral reflux in 3 ureters (17%).
  • Another patient who was treated after the Foley balloon was inflated in the urethra experienced bladder spasms, skin flushing and fever (39C).
  • Mean bladder capacity before and after treatment was 600 and 540 ml., respectively.
  • At followup 7 patients had stage Ta tumors and 2 had carcinoma in situ.
  • /ml was defined as a safe treatment parameter with acceptable plasma concentrations and minimal side effects.
  • Phase II studies are needed to assess the antitumor activity of suramin in patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / drug therapy. Suramin / administration & dosage. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 12478189.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 6032D45BEM / Suramin
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21. Dalbagni G, Donat SM, Eschwège P, Herr HW, Zelefsky MJ: Results of high dose rate brachytherapy, anterior pelvic exenteration and external beam radiotherapy for carcinoma of the female urethra. J Urol; 2001 Nov;166(5):1759-61
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  • [Title] Results of high dose rate brachytherapy, anterior pelvic exenteration and external beam radiotherapy for carcinoma of the female urethra.
  • PURPOSE: We evaluated a multimodality approach to locally advanced urethral carcinoma in women.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between August 1996 and July 1999, 6 women were treated for locally advanced carcinoma of the urethra with anterior pelvic exenteration followed by high dose 192iridium intraoperative radiation therapy.
  • Four of the 6 patients were also treated with neoadjuvant or concomitant platinum based chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Brachytherapy. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / surgery. Pelvic Exenteration. Urethral Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Urethral Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 11586218.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Hakenberg OW, Franke HJ, Froehner M, Wirth MP: The treatment of primary urethral carcinoma--the dilemmas of a rare condition: experience with partial urethrectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy. Onkologie; 2001 Feb;24(1):48-52
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  • [Title] The treatment of primary urethral carcinoma--the dilemmas of a rare condition: experience with partial urethrectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • BACKGROUND: Primary urethral carcinoma is a very rare condition, and no large-scale experience with such cases has been published.
  • Treatment will therefore have to follow rules established for the treatment of similar conditions.
  • PATIENTS: Six cases of primary urethral carcinoma (5 male, 1 female) who had been treated at our institution between 1995 and 1999 were retrospectively analyzed.
  • In 3 male cases, a primary urothelial carcinoma of the distal urethra was treated by distal urethrectomy only.
  • In 3 other cases with locally advanced tumors and/or lymph node metastases surgical treatment was followed by adjuvant cisplatinum-containing chemotherapy.
  • RESULTS: In the 3 cases with distal urethral carcinoma, partial urethrectomy with preservation of the penis resulted in cure, with a follow-up of 12-71 months.
  • In the cases with advanced disease, adjuvant chemotherapy after surgery has resulted in complete remissions in all 3 cases, with a follow-up of 4-47 months at present.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In localized, noninvasive carcinoma of the distal male urethra, partial urethrectomy seems adequate and the avoidance of penile amputation justified.
  • In advanced cases, after local excision and lymphadenectomy adjuvant chemotherapy which by necessity must follow the guidelines established for the treatment of other urothelial or squamous cell malignancies seems to be beneficial.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / surgery. Urethral Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Urethra / pathology. Urethra / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg
  • (PMID = 11441281.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-584X
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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23. Grasso M, Torelli F, Scannapieco G, Franzoso F, Lania C: Neoadiuvant treatment with intravesical interleukin-2 for recurrent superficial transitional bladder carcinoma Ta-T1/G1-2. J Immunother; 2001 Mar-Apr;24(2):184-7
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  • [Title] Neoadiuvant treatment with intravesical interleukin-2 for recurrent superficial transitional bladder carcinoma Ta-T1/G1-2.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the direct action of IL-2 on recurrent superficial transitional bladder carcinoma and the effect on recurrence rate.
  • 27 patients were submitted to neoadjuvant treatment by intra-vesical instillation of recombinant IL-2 and to transurethral resection.
  • It is possible that treatment of bladder carcinoma with intra-vesical instillation of IL-2 may promote immuno-prophilaxis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / drug therapy. Interleukin-2 / administration & dosage. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Recombinant Proteins / administration & dosage. Recombinant Proteins / therapeutic use. Urethra. Urinary Bladder / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 11265776.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-9557
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of immunotherapy (Hagerstown, Md. : 1997)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Immunother.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interleukin-2; 0 / Recombinant Proteins
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24. Osai WE, Ng CS, Pagliaro LC: Positive response to bevacizumab in a patient with metastatic, chemotherapy-refractory urothelial carcinoma. Anticancer Drugs; 2008 Apr;19(4):427-9
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  • [Title] Positive response to bevacizumab in a patient with metastatic, chemotherapy-refractory urothelial carcinoma.
  • We report the case of a 78-year-old man with metastatic transitional-cell carcinoma with squamous differentiation that responded dramatically to the monoclonal antibody agent, bevacizumab.
  • The tumor originated in the bulbar urethra, with histology of poorly differentiated urothelial carcinoma.
  • Metastasis to a right inguinal lymph node was biopsy-confirmed as transitional-cell carcinoma with areas of keratinization.
  • At last follow-up, he had received 24 months of bevacizumab treatment with minimal toxicity and a positive response.
  • Mediators of angiogenesis have been implicated in the clinical progression of bladder cancer, although the role of angiogenesis inhibitors as treatment has not yet been defined.
  • The striking benefit achieved in this heavily treated patient suggests that bevacizumab could have clinically useful antitumor activity in advanced urothelial carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / drug therapy. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Urethral Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18454053.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-4973
  • [Journal-full-title] Anti-cancer drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab
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25. Pieras E, Palou J, Salvador J, Rosales A, Marcuello E, Villavicencio H: Management and prognosis of transitional cell carcinoma superficial recurrence in muscle-invasive bladder cancer after bladder preservation. Eur Urol; 2003 Aug;44(2):222-5; discussoion 225
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  • [Title] Management and prognosis of transitional cell carcinoma superficial recurrence in muscle-invasive bladder cancer after bladder preservation.
  • PURPOSE: To assess the bladder preservation rate and cancer-specific survival after conservative treatment of superficial relapses in invasive tumors after bladder preservation.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty-one patients with invasive bladder tumor (T2) were treated using transurethral resection (TUR) followed by three cycles of systemic chemotherapy (carboplatin-vinblastine).
  • RESULTS: With a median follow-up of 63 months, 18 patients recurred as superficial TCC tumor (43%).
  • With a median follow-up of 44 months after TUR of first superficial relapse, there was only one case with progression of the disease without any evidence of bladder tumor.
  • Two cystectomies were made due to carcinoma in situ (Cis) persistence and high grade superficial recurrence.
  • Cis is the most frequent type of superficial recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Transurethral Resection of Prostate. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] BCG Vaccine / administration & dosage. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Carcinoma in Situ / therapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Cystectomy. Disease Progression. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Muscle, Smooth / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care). Prognosis. Survival Analysis. Urethra / surgery. Vinblastine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 12875942.001).
  • [ISSN] 0302-2838
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BCG Vaccine; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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26. Koga H, Kuroiwa K, Yamaguchi A, Osada Y, Tsuneyoshi M, Naito S: A randomized controlled trial of short-term versus long-term prophylactic intravesical instillation chemotherapy for recurrence after transurethral resection of Ta/T1 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. J Urol; 2004 Jan;171(1):153-7
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  • [Title] A randomized controlled trial of short-term versus long-term prophylactic intravesical instillation chemotherapy for recurrence after transurethral resection of Ta/T1 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The patients were instilled with epirubicin (30 mg/30 ml in normal saline) within 24 hours after transurethral resection and then randomized into 2 groups after a definite histopathological diagnosis of Ta/T1 bladder cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / prevention & control. Epirubicin / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / prevention & control
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Intravesical. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Time Factors. Urethra

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  • (PMID = 14665865.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin
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27. Serretta V, Pomara G, Piazza F, Gange E: Pure squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder in western countries. Report on 19 consecutive cases. Eur Urol; 2000 Jan;37(1):85-9
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  • [Title] Pure squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder in western countries. Report on 19 consecutive cases.
  • INTRODUCTION: Pure squamous carcinoma (SCC) is a rare entity in western regions.
  • The management of SCC still remains similar to that of transitional carcinoma, although it is a different entity.
  • Involvement of prostatic urethra and upper urinary tract was evident in 9 (47.3%) and 5 patients (26.3%), respectively.
  • Four patients were submitted to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and 1 to presurgical radiotherapy without any objective response.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy was performed in 3 patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Invasion of the upper urinary tract and prostatic urethra seems more common in SCC than in transitional cell carcinoma.
  • Preoperative radiotherapy should be considered since pelvic recurrences are the leading cause of progression in squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 10671791.001).
  • [ISSN] 0302-2838
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] SWITZERLAND
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28. Tamada S, Omachi T, Ito T, Kawashima H, Nakatani T: [Primary urothelial carcinoma with sarcomatous transformation of the prostate]. Nihon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi; 2010 Jul;101(5):698-702
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  • [Title] [Primary urothelial carcinoma with sarcomatous transformation of the prostate].
  • A small papillary tumor at the prostatic urethra was found by cystourethroscopy.
  • Then, we performed transurethral resection of the tumor and trans-perineal needle biopsy of the prostate, and diagnosed him as primary urothelial carcinoma of the prostate.
  • Following neo-adjuvant chemotherapy(MVAC), the patient was treated with radical cystoprostatectomy.
  • The histopathological examination showed urothelial carcinoma with concomitant sarcomatous transformation.
  • He was treated with the second-line chemotherapy using paclitaxel and gemcitabin combined with the radiation therapy, resulting in the disappearance of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / therapy. Sarcoma / pathology. Sarcoma / therapy. Urethral Neoplasms / pathology. Urethral Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Cystectomy. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Prostatectomy. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20715503.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5287
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Hinyōkika Gakkai zasshi. The japanese journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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29. Ruoppolo M, Gozo M, Milesi R, Spina R, Fragapane G: [Urethral recurrence of invasive carcinoma following BCG treatment for bladder Ca in situ]. Urologia; 2010 Oct-Dec;77 Suppl 17:72-7
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  • [Title] [Urethral recurrence of invasive carcinoma following BCG treatment for bladder Ca in situ].
  • [Transliterated title] Recidiva uretrale di Ca infiltrante dopo trattamento con BCG per Ca in situ vescicale.
  • CIS is a flat, high-grade, non-invasive microscopic urothelial carcinoma.
  • CIS is classified as primary, secondary or concurrent, when occurred as isolated CIS without cuncurrent papillary tumors, or detected during the follow-up of patients with a previous papillary tumor, or finally in the presence of bladder neoplasm.
  • BCG is widely established as the treatment of choice for CIS with a success rate of approximately 70%.
  • BCG reduces the risk of progression of CIS into invasive carcinoma in 30 to 50% of cases.
  • Direct and prolonged contact between the urothelium and BCG is a prerequisite for successful therapy.
  • Discovery of CIS in the prostatic or membranous urethra represents an ominous sign.
  • CIS may be present only in the epithelial lining of the prostatic urethra or in the ducts, or in the worst case it may be found in the prostatic tissue stroma.
  • Urethral involvement by CIS is at high risk of tumor progression and development of metastases due to reduced thickness of lamina propria and absence of muscolaris mucosa.
  • 83 patients, enrolled from 1/1996 to 12/2005 at our urological department with CIS: primary (focal and multifocal) in 25, secondary in 7 and cuncurrent in 51 (associated with T1bG3 cancer in 37 cases), and urethral CIS in 5 and conservatively treated by TUR and intravescical instillations of BCG, 4 developed afterwords only invasive cancer of the urethra in the absence of bladder involvement.
  • In 2 cases cancer arised from the prostatic fossa after TURP, in 1 from membranous urethra and in the last from prostatic ducts.
  • Among the 4 patients, 3 were treated by cystoprostatourethrectomy and Platinum-based chemotherapy, 1 refused surgical treatment.
  • We conclude that prostatic/urethral involvement during follow-up after successful intravesical treatment with BCG in CIS represents a high risk of developing invasive and incontrolled cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] BCG Vaccine / therapeutic use. Carcinoma in Situ / therapy. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / secondary. Urethral Neoplasms / secondary. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Cystectomy / methods. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunotherapy. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Organoplatinum Compounds / administration & dosage. Prostatectomy / methods. Prostatic Neoplasms / secondary. Risk. Treatment Outcome. Urethra / surgery

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  • (PMID = 21308679.001).
  • [ISSN] 1724-6075
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologia
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BCG Vaccine; 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds
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30. Varol C, Thalmann GN, Burkhard FC, Studer UE: Treatment of urethral recurrence following radical cystectomy and ileal bladder substitution. J Urol; 2004 Sep;172(3):937-42
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  • [Title] Treatment of urethral recurrence following radical cystectomy and ileal bladder substitution.
  • PURPOSE: With the introduction of orthotopic bladder substitution after radical cystectomy in patients with invasive bladder cancer urethral recurrences have become a therapeutic challenge.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated our patients with urethral recurrences treated with a urethra sparing approach after orthotopic bladder substitution.
  • Depending on the extension of recurrence and eventual concomitant metastases patients were treated with urethrectomy, no treatment, systemic chemotherapy or intraurethral bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG).
  • Three times the common dose of BCG (ImmuCyst, Aventis, Paris, France or OncoTICE, Organon, West Orange, New Jersey) in 150 ml NaCl 0.9% was used for intraurethral BCG perfusion therapy according to an institutional protocol using a modified Foley catheter.
  • RESULTS: Between 1985 and 2001, 15 of 371 patients (4%) who received an orthotopic bladder substitute had urethral recurrence.
  • Two patients were treated with systemic chemotherapy (methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin and cisplatin) alone due to metastatic disease and 10 received intraurethral BCG therapy.
  • Five of 6 patients (83%) with carcinoma in situ remained free of recurrence following treatment with BCG, while in 4 with papillary or invasive disease treatment failed.
  • Three patients underwent urethrectomy, including 2 following failed BCG therapy for papillary disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Carcinoma in situ urethral recurrence following orthotopic bladder substitution can be treated successfully with intraurethral BCG perfusion therapy in approximately 80% of patients.
  • However, papillary and invasive transitional cell urethral recurrence should be treated with urethrectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / therapy. Cystectomy. Urethral Neoplasms / secondary. Urethral Neoplasms / therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / surgery. Urinary Reservoirs, Continent
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. BCG Vaccine / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Urethra / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15311003.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / BCG Vaccine
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31. Nanaura H, Yamada Y, Fukatsu H: [A case of subcutaneous metastases from bladder cancer after radical cystouretherectomy]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2002 Mar;48(3):179-81
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  • A case of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder metastasizing subcutaneously to the right lower abdomen and to the left back approximately 2 years after radical cystouretherectomy is reported.
  • A 65-year-old male underwent radical cystouretherectomy with the creation of ileal couduit after preoperative intraarterial chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • The patient received three courses of postoperative systemic chemotherapy.
  • At 15 months after the last chemotherapy, the patient remains free of metastases and relapse.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Urethra / surgery. Urinary Bladder / surgery. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology. Urologic Surgical Procedures / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 11993215.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 9
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32. Divrik RT, Sahin AF, Yildirim U, Altok M, Zorlu F: Impact of routine second transurethral resection on the long-term outcome of patients with newly diagnosed pT1 urothelial carcinoma with respect to recurrence, progression rate, and disease-specific survival: a prospective randomised clinical trial. Eur Urol; 2010 Aug;58(2):185-90
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  • [Title] Impact of routine second transurethral resection on the long-term outcome of patients with newly diagnosed pT1 urothelial carcinoma with respect to recurrence, progression rate, and disease-specific survival: a prospective randomised clinical trial.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of routine second TUR on the long-term outcome of patients with newly diagnosed pT1 urothelial carcinoma.
  • All patients (groups 1 and 2) received the first instillation of intravesical chemotherapy within 24h after the initial resection.
  • Urine cytology and follow-up cystoscopy were performed at 3-mo intervals for the first year, biannually for the second year, and annually thereafter.
  • All patients were followed until death or a minimum of 54 mo.
  • RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: The mean follow-up period was 66.1 mo without a significant difference between the groups.
  • Median recurrence-free survival was 47 mo for group 1 compared with 12 mo for group 2.
  • Median progress-free survival was 73 mo for group 1 compared to 53.5 mo for group 2.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cystectomy / methods. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Reoperation. Survival Rate. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. Urethra

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • [CommentIn] Eur Urol. 2010 Aug;58(2):191-2 [20427121.001]
  • [CommentIn] Eur Urol. 2010 Aug;58(2):193-4 [20418013.001]
  • (PMID = 20303646.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-7560
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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33. Saulnier-Troff FG, Busoni V, Hamaide A: A technique for resection of invasive tumors involving the trigone area of the bladder in dogs: preliminary results in two dogs. Vet Surg; 2008 Jul;37(5):427-37
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  • OBJECTIVE: To describe a surgical technique for resection of the entire bladder neck, including the trigone and proximal urethra in dogs with invasive tumors causing life-threatening urinary tract obstruction.
  • METHODS: Circumferential excision of the bladder neck and proximal urethra with preservation of the neurovascular pedicles was performed to remove a rhabdomyosarcoma (dog 1) and a transitional cell carcinoma (dog 2) involving the trigone and bladder neck that were causing urinary tract obstruction.
  • Reconstruction of the bladder and proximal urethra included bilateral ureteroneocystostomy.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy was administered postoperatively to both dogs.
  • CONCLUSION: En-bloc removal of the bladder neck and proximal urethra with preservation of the dorsal vascular and nervous pedicles, although a technically challenging procedure, can be performed without associated urinary incontinence or bladder wall necrosis.
  • CLINICAL RELEVANCE: In dogs with invasive bladder tumors causing life-threatening urinary tract obstruction, resection of the bladder neck and proximal urethra should be considered as a promising surgical alternative to urinary diversion.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / veterinary. Dog Diseases / surgery. Rhabdomyosarcoma / veterinary. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Dogs. Female. Treatment Outcome. Urethral Obstruction / epidemiology. Urethral Obstruction / etiology. Urethral Obstruction / veterinary. Urinary Incontinence / epidemiology. Urinary Incontinence / etiology. Urinary Incontinence / veterinary. Urinary Tract / pathology. Urinary Tract / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18986309.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-950X
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary surgery : VS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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34. Anderson CR, McNiel EA, Gillette EL, Powers BE, LaRue SM: Late complications of pelvic irradiation in 16 dogs. Vet Radiol Ultrasound; 2002 Mar-Apr;43(2):187-92
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  • When external beam radiation therapy is administered to the pelvis, normal tissues irradiated may include the colon, small intestine, urethra, bladder, bone, and spinal cord.
  • Medical records of all dogs treated with curative intent external beam radiation therapy to the pelvic region between 1993 and 1999 were reviewed.
  • Patients with follow-up longer than 9 months or any patient that developed late complications earlier than 9 months were evaluated.
  • All dogs were treated with a 6-MV linear accelerator with bilaterally opposed beams.
  • Diseases treated included transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder, transitional cell carcinoma of the prostate, and anal sac apocrine gland adenocarcinoma.
  • Four dose/fractionation schemes were used: 49.5 Gy in 3.3 Gy fractions, 54 Gy in 3.0 Gy fractions, 54 Gy in 2.7 Gy fractions, and 18 Gy intraoperative radiation therapy followed by 43 Gy external beam radiation therapy in 2.9 Gy fractions.
  • Implantable chemotherapy in the form of an OPLA-Pt sponge was used in six dogs as a radiation potentiator.
  • All dogs with severe late effects received 3 or 3.3 Gy per fraction, and 80% received radiation potentiators.
  • In the seven dogs that received 2.7 Gy or 2.9 Gy per fraction, late effects were classified as none (n = 5), mild colitis (n = 1), and moderate colitis (n = 1).
  • Radiation therapy can be administered to the pelvic region with a minimal risk of late effects to the colon by giving smaller doses per fraction and avoiding systemic radiation potentiators.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / veterinary. Dog Diseases / radiotherapy. Neoplasms / veterinary. Radiation Injuries / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 11954816.001).
  • [ISSN] 1058-8183
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary radiology & ultrasound : the official journal of the American College of Veterinary Radiology and the International Veterinary Radiology Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet Radiol Ultrasound
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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35. Amling CL: Diagnosis and management of superficial bladder cancer. Curr Probl Cancer; 2001 Jul-Aug;25(4):219-78
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnosis and management of superficial bladder cancer.
  • Initial radiologic evaluation usually includes the excretory urography (intravenous pyelography), although further evaluation of the renal parenchyma with ultrasound or computed tomography scanning has been advocated by some.
  • These radiologic studies are unable to provide adequate bladder imaging, and thus cystoscopy is required for the diagnosis of bladder cancer.
  • Superficial tumors consist of papillary tumors that are mucosally confined (Ta), papillary or sessile tumors extending into the lamina propria (T1), and carcinoma in situ, which occurs as "flat" mucosal dysplasia, which can be focal, diffuse, or associated with a papillary or sessile tumor.
  • It is important to identify those tumors at risk for recurrence or progression so that adjuvant intravesical therapies can be instituted.
  • Most are given intravesically on a weekly basis, although many studies suggest that a single instillation immediately after transurethral resection may be as good as a longer course of therapy.
  • Although all of these drugs have toxicity, they usually are well tolerated.
  • Intravesical bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is an immunotherapeutic agent that when given intravesically is very effective in the treatment of superficial transitional cell carcinoma.
  • Compared with controls, BCG has a 43% advantage in preventing tumor recurrence, a significantly better rate than the 16% to 21% advantage of intravesical chemotherapy.
  • In addition, BCG is particularly effective in the treatment of carcinoma in situ, eradicating it in more than 80% of cases.
  • In contrast to intravesical chemotherapy, BCG has also been shown to decrease the risk of tumor progression.
  • Unfortunately, adverse effects associated with this prolonged therapy may limit its widespread applicability.
  • In those patients at high risk in whom BCG therapy fails, intravesical interferon-alpha with or without BCG may be beneficial in some.
  • Photodynamic therapy has also been used but is limited by its toxicity.
  • In patients who progress or do not respond to intravesical therapies, cystectomy should be considered.
  • With the development of orthotopic lower urinary tract reconstruction to the native urethra, the quality of life impact of radical cystectomy has been lessened.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / therapy. Immunotherapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] ABO Blood-Group System. Administration, Intravesical. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Hematuria / etiology. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Photochemotherapy. Risk Factors. Surgical Procedures, Operative / methods. Urethra / surgery

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  • (PMID = 11514784.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-0272
  • [Journal-full-title] Current problems in cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Probl Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ABO Blood-Group System; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 179
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36. Cresswell J, Roberts JT, Neal DE: Urethral recurrence after radical radiotherapy for bladder cancer. J Urol; 2001 Apr;165(4):1135-7
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  • [Title] Urethral recurrence after radical radiotherapy for bladder cancer.
  • PURPOSE: Following cystectomy for bladder cancer, orthotopic reconstruction may result in a decreased risk of urethral recurrence compared to cutaneous diversion.
  • We evaluate the rate of urethral recurrence after radical external beam radiotherapy.
  • Patients treated with chemotherapy were excluded from study.
  • Urethral recurrence developed in 7 (3.2%) cases and was detected within 18 months (median 10 months, range 3 months to 5 years) of followup in 5.
  • In 2 of these 7 cases recurrence developed in the prostatic urethra, and when these 2 cases were excluded from analysis the recurrence rate decreased to 2.3%.
  • A total of 64 men completed 5-year followup, with a 4.7% rate of urethral recurrence (3.1% excluding prostatic urethral recurrence).
  • Multifocal disease, bladder neck involvement, prostatic disease and cis were possible risk factors for urethral recurrence.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The risk of urethral recurrence after radical radiotherapy for transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder is comparable with that reported after orthotopic reconstruction.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Urethral Neoplasms / prevention & control. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 11257654.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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37. Grob BM, Macchia RJ: Radical transurethral resection in the management of muscle-invasive bladder cancer. J Endourol; 2001 May;15(4):419-23; discussion 425-6
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  • The morbidity of radical cystectomy and early reports of good results have stimulated interest in radical transurethral resection of bladder tumors (TURBT) for muscle-invasive transitional-cell carcinoma of the bladder.
  • Various investigators have used surgery alone or with adjuvant or neoadjuvant chemotherapy or radiation.

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  • (PMID = 11394456.001).
  • [ISSN] 0892-7790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endourology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endourol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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38. Uemura M, Nakagawa M, Mukai M, Kanno N, Nishimura K, Miyoshi S, Yoshida K, Kawano K: [A case of inguinal lymph node metastasis and urethral remnant tumor arising eight years after cystourethrectomy for bladder cancer]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2003 Aug;49(8):471-3
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  • [Title] [A case of inguinal lymph node metastasis and urethral remnant tumor arising eight years after cystourethrectomy for bladder cancer].
  • Eight years later, he visited our department complaining of bleeding from external urethral meatus.
  • Imaging study including computed tomographic (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a tumor arising from the urethral remnant and left inguinal lymph node involvement.
  • Histopathological examination revealed that both tumors were transitional cell carcinomas suggesting recurrence of bladder cancer.
  • Two courses of M-VAC chemotherapy were given as adjuvant therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / surgery. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Urethra / surgery. Urethral Neoplasms / secondary. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 14518384.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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39. Startsev V, Pouline I: Adjuvant therapy in different risk-groups of patients with superficial bladder cancer. Arch Ital Urol Androl; 2005 Jun;77(2):93-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adjuvant therapy in different risk-groups of patients with superficial bladder cancer.
  • OBJECTIVES: We assessed and compared the outcomes of two different courses of adjuvant therapy to patients with superficial bladder TCC.
  • METHODS: The study included 142 patients (28 women and 114 men with a median age of 58.5 years) with newly diagnosed bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), who underwent transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) between October 2002 and October 2003.
  • The main criteria for adjuvant treatment were: grade, number and location of the tumor in the bladder The group of patients (group A) with G3 and multicentric lesions, localized at the lower third of the bladder, underwent BCG-therapy according the conventional schedule (60 patients, 42.3%).
  • In group B (82 patients, 57.7%) patients underwent local chemotherapy (Thiotepa 80 mg p/week or Doxorubicin 50 mg p/week), started within 24 hours after operation.
  • A second-look TURBT was performed within 6 weeks of treatment course in both groups.
  • Adjuvant therapy was continued in all patients, except four patients with G3 and two patients with T2 stage who underwent more aggressive treatment (4 cystectomies and 2 external beam radiotherapy).
  • We switched 16 patients in group B with recurrent cancer to BCG treatment.
  • Nobody of TURP-operated patients had recurrence in the distal part of urethra, and toxicity level of TURP-operated patients was not worse than in the whole patients cohort (not more than grade II).
  • CONCLUSION: BCG adjuvant therapy demonstrated good results in the treatment of the recurrence of superficial TCC.
  • However, in patients with low recurrence risk we used chemotherapy successfully.
  • Patients with T1G3 tumors, being at high risk of residual, or even invasive, cancer, could be offered definitive therapy within a 1-year period.
  • Patients who underwent simultaneous TURP for relief of LUTS did not show cancer recurrences in the operated area or an higher toxicity of adjuvant treatment.

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  • (PMID = 16146269.001).
  • [ISSN] 1124-3562
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivio italiano di urologia, andrologia : organo ufficiale [di] Societa italiana di ecografia urologica e nefrologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Ital Urol Androl
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / BCG Vaccine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 905Z5W3GKH / Thiotepa
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40. Palou J, Baniel J, Klotz L, Wood D, Cookson M, Lerner S, Horie S, Schoenberg M, Angulo J, Bassi P: Urothelial carcinoma of the prostate. Urology; 2007 Jan;69(1 Suppl):50-61
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  • [Title] Urothelial carcinoma of the prostate.
  • This study was conducted to explore the diagnosis and management of urothelial carcinoma of the prostate in superficial disease and carcinoma in situ, stromal invasion, primary urothelial carcinoma, and urethral recurrence after radical surgery.
  • A consensus conference convened by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Société Internationale d'Urologie (SIU) reviewed the diagnosis and management of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder.
  • English-language literature about urothelial carcinoma of the prostate was identified and reviewed.
  • Evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis and management of urothelial carcinoma were made.
  • Many recommendations were level 3 or 4 citations involving the diagnosis and management of superficial urothelial carcinoma; a few were level 2 citations.
  • Level 1 citations related only to chemotherapy and radiotherapy in patients with stromal invasion, although these were not related specifically to invasive prostatic involvement.
  • Published reports on the diagnosis and treatment of superficial urothelial disease of the prostate primarily consist of short case series from individual centers.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell. Prostatic Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Global Health. Humans. Incidence. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Prostatectomy

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  • (PMID = 17280908.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 65
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41. Taylor JM, Spiess PE, Kassouf W, Munsell MF, Kamat AM, Dinney CP, Grossman HB, Pisters LL: Management of urethral recurrence after orthotopic urinary diversion. BJU Int; 2010 Jul;106(1):56-61
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  • [Title] Management of urethral recurrence after orthotopic urinary diversion.
  • STUDY TYPE: Therapy (case series) Level of Evidence 4 OBJECTIVE To evaluate our experience with urethral recurrences in patients treated by radical cystectomy(RC) and orthotopic neobladder urinary diversion for carcinoma of the bladder.
  • RESULTS: In all, 260 patients underwent RC with a Studer or Hautmann orthotopic urinary diversion; the median (range) follow-up was 5.1 (0-15.6) years.
  • Six patients (2.3%) developed local recurrence of urothelial cancer (UC) within the urethra after this treatment.
  • The median (range) time to presentation with recurrence after RC was 2.4 (0.7-3.6) years for pT1-4 UC.
  • Recurrences were treated with various methods, including transurethral resection, urethrectomy with conversion of neobladder to continent catheterizable diversion, and chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In our experience, local recurrences involving the urethra are infrequent.
  • Neoadjuvant chemotherapy should be considered for recurrences with adverse clinicopathological features.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / surgery. Cystectomy / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Urethral Neoplasms / secondary. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / surgery. Urinary Diversion / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Epidemiologic Methods. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome. Urinary Reservoirs, Continent

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  • (PMID = 20002676.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-410X
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA91846
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
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42. Giannarini G, Kessler TM, Thoeny HC, Nguyen DP, Meissner C, Studer UE: Do patients benefit from routine follow-up to detect recurrences after radical cystectomy and ileal orthotopic bladder substitution? Eur Urol; 2010 Oct;58(4):486-94
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: The need for and intensity of follow-up to detect disease recurrence after radical cystectomy (RC) for transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) remains a matter for debate.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine whether diagnosis of asymptomatic recurrence after RC by routine follow-up investigations confers a survival benefit versus symptomatic recurrence.
  • DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Retrospective analysis of 479 patients with nonmetastatic bladder TCC receiving no neoadjuvant chemotherapy/radiation therapy and prospectively followed with a standardised protocol for a median 4.3 yr (range: 0.3-20.9) after RC at an academic tertiary referral centre.
  • The effects of age, nerve-sparing surgery, pathologic tumour stage, lymph node status, adjuvant chemotherapy, mode of recurrence diagnosis, and recurrence site on survival were assessed with multivariable Cox regression models.
  • Routine follow-up mostly detected lung metastases and urethral recurrences, while symptoms were predominantly the result of bone metastases and concomitant pelvic/distant recurrences.
  • Of 24 patients with urethral recurrences, 13 had carcinoma in situ (CIS).
  • Of these, 12 were successfully managed with urethra-sparing treatment, and 6 are still alive with no evidence of disease.
  • In multivariable analysis, mode of recurrence diagnosis and site of initial recurrence were the only independent predictors of CSS and OS.
  • Patients with recurrences detected by routine follow-up investigations and with secondary urothelial tumours as site of recurrence had a slightly but significantly higher survival probability.
  • Routine follow-up appears particularly effective in early detection of urethral CIS, which can be treated conservatively.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / surgery. Cystectomy. Ileum / transplantation. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / surgery. Urinary Reservoirs, Continent
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Early Detection of Cancer. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • [CommentIn] Eur Urol. 2010 Oct;58(4):495-7 [20609511.001]
  • (PMID = 20541311.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-7560
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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43. Kato S, Ito Y, Nishino Y, Ban Y, Deguchi T: [Urethral recurrence and distant metastases of bladder cancer 9 years after cystectomy and neobladder]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2005 Mar;51(3):195-7
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  • [Title] [Urethral recurrence and distant metastases of bladder cancer 9 years after cystectomy and neobladder].
  • We report a 79-year-old female with urethral recurrence and distant metastases of urothelial bladder cancer.
  • She had undergone urethra-sparing cystectomy and orthotopic ileal neobladder at 70 years of age.
  • Chemotherapy was not performed and the patient died 5 months later.
  • We concluded that long-term follow-up for urethral recurrence in women with neobladders was necessary.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / surgery. Cystectomy. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Urethral Neoplasms / secondary. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / surgery. Urinary Diversion

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  • (PMID = 15852676.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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44. Hoag N, Pommerville PJ, Kibsey PC, Cavers DJ, Eddy RJ: Tuberculous epididymitis following intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin immunotherapy. Can J Urol; 2009 Apr;16(2):4589-91
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is widely used as an adjuvant therapy in the treatment of superficial bladder cancer.
  • A literature search revealed that tuberculous epididymitis is a rarely reported complication of intravesical BCG therapy.
  • We report the case of an 82-year-old male who developed tuberculous epididymitis while undergoing intravesical BCG treatment for transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.
  • Right orchiectomy was performed, followed by rifampin and isoniazid therapy once M. bovis was identified as the infectious agent.
  • The patient responded well to these treatments, and made a full recovery.
  • Tuberculous epididymitis is an uncommon complication resulting from intravesical BCG therapy, which is likely explained by retrograde migration from the prostatic urethra in this case.
  • [MeSH-major] BCG Vaccine / adverse effects. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / drug therapy. Epididymitis / microbiology. Tuberculosis, Male Genital / etiology. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19364433.001).
  • [ISSN] 1195-9479
  • [Journal-full-title] The Canadian journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BCG Vaccine
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45. Malmström PU: Management of superficial bladder cancer: what is new? Curr Opin Urol; 2000 Sep;10(5):447-51
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  • Transurethral resections with adjuvant intravesical instillation to risk groups have been standard therapy.
  • Recently combinations of drugs for instillation and new urinary markers for diagnosis and follow-up have been tested.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / surgery. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Intravesical. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Combined Modality Therapy. Cystoscopy. Forecasting. Humans. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Prognosis. Urethra / surgery

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  • (PMID = 11005450.001).
  • [ISSN] 0963-0643
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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46. Huguet J, Gaya JM, Sabaté S, Palou J, Villavicencio H: [Radical cystectomy in patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer who fail BCG therapy]. Actas Urol Esp; 2010 Jan;34(1):63-70
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  • [Title] [Radical cystectomy in patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer who fail BCG therapy].
  • [Transliterated title] Cistectomía radical en tumores vesicales no músculoinfiltrantes que fracasan al tratamiento con bacilo de Calmette-Guérin.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-five (11%) of the 864 patients undergoing radical cystectomy (RC) at our center from 1989 to 2002 had received prior treatment with BCG.
  • Of these, 62 (65.2%) underwent RC due to relapsing, high-risk NMIBC or CIS despite BCG therapy.
  • Median time from tumor diagnosis to tumor progression was 24 months (10th-90th percentile, 6-98 months).
  • CONCLUSION: In patients with high-risk NMIBCs who fail BCG therapy, RC should be performed before progression because survival is decreased when the RC specimen shows muscle-invasive disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / surgery. Cystectomy / methods. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. BCG Vaccine / therapeutic use. Biopsy. Disease Progression. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Urethra / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20223134.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-7980
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas urologicas españolas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Urol Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BCG Vaccine
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47. Arya M, Brown RS, Hayne D, Patel HR, Harland SJ: Primary anterior urethral transitional cell carcinoma: a rare tumour. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2001 Sep;27(6):607-8
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  • [Title] Primary anterior urethral transitional cell carcinoma: a rare tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Urethral Neoplasms / pathology. Urethral Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Needle. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Endoscopy / methods. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Instillation, Drug. Male. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11520099.001).
  • [ISSN] 0748-7983
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
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