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1. Sheng LM, Zhang LZ, Xu HM, Zhu Y: Ascending colon adenocarcinoma with tonsillar metastasis: a case report and review of the literature. World J Gastroenterol; 2008 Dec 14;14(46):7138-40
The Weizmann Institute of Science GeneCards and MalaCards databases. gene/protein/disease-specific - MalaCards for colon adenocarcinoma .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ascending colon adenocarcinoma with tonsillar metastasis: a case report and review of the literature.
  • Metastatic palatine tonsil cancer is extremely rare, with nearly 100 such tumors reported in the English literature.
  • The prognosis of metastatic palatine tonsil cancer is poor.
  • A 53-year-old man presented with painless left palatine tonsillar swelling and a cervical mass following right hemicolectomy for an ascending colon adenocarcinoma.
  • Physical examination showed an ulcerated mass located on the upper pole of the left palatine tonsil.
  • The patient was treated with palliative radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • Our case shows that immunohistochemical diagnosis of metastatic palatine tonsil cancer is essential.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Colon, Ascending / pathology. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Tonsillar Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tonsillar Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Therapy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 19084924.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Number-of-references] 23
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2776847
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2. Prestwich RJ, Kancherla K, Oksuz DC, Williamson D, Dyker KE, Coyle C, Sen M: A single centre experience with sequential and concomitant chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced stage IV tonsillar cancer. Radiat Oncol; 2010;5:121

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A single centre experience with sequential and concomitant chemoradiotherapy in locally advanced stage IV tonsillar cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Chemo-radiotherapy offers an alternative to primary surgery and adjuvant therapy for the management of locally advanced stage IV squamous cell carcinomas of the tonsil.
  • METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed of the outcomes of 41 patients with locoregionally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil treated non-surgically at the Yorkshire Cancer Centre between January 2004 and December 2005.
  • Due to long radiotherapy waiting times, patients received induction chemotherapy with cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil followed by either cisplatin concurrent chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy alone.
  • 35/41 patients (85%) received 2 or more cycles of induction chemotherapy.
  • Following induction chemotherapy, 32/41 patients (78%) had a clinical response.
  • Concomitant chemotherapy was given to 30/41 (73%).
  • There were no treatment related deaths.
  • Six (15%) patients had gastrostomy tubes placed before treatment, and 22 (54%) required nasogastric tube placement during or after treatment for nutritional support.
  • 17 patients required unplanned admissions during treatment for supportive care.
  • At 4 months post treatment assessment 35 out of 41 (85%) patients achieved complete clinical and radiographic response.
  • CONCLUSION: Cisplatin-based induction and concurrent chemoradiotherapy provides excellent tumour control with acceptable toxicity for patients with locally advanced tonsillar cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Tonsillar Neoplasms / drug therapy. Tonsillar Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / methods. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant / methods. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 21176154.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-717X
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiation oncology (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiat Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3022575
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3. Dreilich M, Bergqvist M, Moberg M, Brattström D, Gustavsson I, Bergström S, Wanders A, Hesselius P, Wagenius G, Gyllensten U: High-risk human papilloma virus (HPV) and survival in patients with esophageal carcinoma: a pilot study. BMC Cancer; 2006;6:94
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Human papilloma virus (HPV) in patients with esophageal carcinoma has previously been studied with an average detection rate of 15%, but the role of HPV in relation to survival is less clear.
  • In cervical cancer, lung cancer and tonsil cancer HPV viral load is a predictive factor for survival and outcome of treatment.
  • The primary aim was to study the spectrum of high-risk HPV types in esophageal tumors.
  • METHODS: We compared both the presence and the viral load of high-risk HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33, 39, 45, 52, 58, and 67 in relation to clinical data from patients with esophageal carcinoma.
  • Survival data and tumor samples were retrieved from 100 patients receiving treatment at the Department of Oncology, Uppsala Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
  • The tumor samples were investigated for HPV viral load using real-time PCR.
  • RESULTS: HPV 16 was detected in 16% of the patients; no other HPV type was detected.
  • Also, HPV 16 did not improve survival after treatment (radiotherapy or chemotherapy).
  • HPV 16 in esophageal carcinoma patients did not influence survival or improve therapy response.
  • However, given the size of the study there is a need to examine a larger cohort in order to understand in more detail the effect of high risk HPV types in esophageal carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 16620378.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1475606
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4. Naidu SI, Vieira F, Samant S, Vang MC, Wan AY, Robbins TK: Targeted intra-arterial chemoradiation for advanced tonsil cancer. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2005 Dec;133(6):882-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Targeted intra-arterial chemoradiation for advanced tonsil cancer.
  • OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of combined radiation and targeted, intra-arterial (IA) cisplatin infusions (RADPLAT) in patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the tonsil.
  • STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study of treatment outcomes and toxicity of patients enrolled on the RADPLAT protocol, with specific analysis of patients with advanced SCC of the tonsil.
  • RESULTS: Thirty patients with advanced tonsil carcinoma (17 T(4), 12 T(3), 1 T(2)) were enrolled, and 24 of 30 patients completed at least 3 IA cisplatin infusions and a minimum of 63 Gy or radiation therapy (minimum therapy).
  • Two-year estimated overall and disease-specific survival was 42% and 50%, respectively, for all 30 patients (intent-to-treat group) and 49% and 58%, respectively, for the minimum therapy subgroup.
  • The 2-year estimated local and regional disease control was 87% and 90%, respectively, for the intent-to-treat group, and 100% and 90% for the minimum therapy subgroup.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Locoregional disease control achieved with this regimen appears to be significantly improved over that described in the literature for similarly staged tonsil cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Tonsillar Neoplasms / drug therapy. Tonsillar Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infusions, Intra-Arterial. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16360508.001).
  • [ISSN] 0194-5998
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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5. LoTempio MM, Wang MB, Sadeghi A: Treatment of advanced oropharyngeal cancers with chemotherapy and radiation. Ear Nose Throat J; 2003 May;82(5):367-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment of advanced oropharyngeal cancers with chemotherapy and radiation.
  • We conducted a retrospective chart review of treatment outcomes in 17 adults who had been selected to undergo concomitant chemotherapy and radiation (chemo/XRT) for late-stage oropharyngeal cancers.
  • Nine patients had a primary tumor at the base of the tongue, five had a primary tumor in the tonsillar area, and three had a tumor that affected both sites.
  • Of this group, 15 patients completed one to three cycles of chemo/XRT, and the remaining two died during therapy.
  • At the most recent follow-up, 9 of the 17 patients (52.9%) were documented to still be alive; seven patients had earlier died as a result of their primary tumor or a distant metastasis, and one patient had been lost to follow-up after completing treatment.
  • At study's end, the duration of post-treatment survival ranged from 2 to 36 months (mean: 12.5).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Brachytherapy / methods. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Palliative Care / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiation Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Sampling Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12789762.001).
  • [ISSN] 0145-5613
  • [Journal-full-title] Ear, nose, & throat journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ear Nose Throat J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Genden EM, Ferlito A, Scully C, Shaha AR, Higgins K, Rinaldo A: Current management of tonsillar cancer. Oral Oncol; 2003 Jun;39(4):337-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Current management of tonsillar cancer.
  • Traditionally, risk factors for the development of tonsil cancer include the use of alcohol and/or tobacco, however a significant proportion of new cases develop in young patients without these risk factors.
  • Irrespective of the etiology, in the majority of cases early carcinoma of the tonsil can effectively be treated using single modality therapy.
  • In contrast to early tonsillar disease, advanced tonsil cancer represents a clinical challenge that requires multimodality therapy.
  • While advanced lesions are often treated with a combination of radiation, chemotherapy, and surgical ablation, management of the neck and distant metastases continues to present a therapeutic dilemma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / radiotherapy. Tonsillar Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Papillomaviridae. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Radiotherapy Dosage. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Virus Infections / complications

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.
  • (PMID = 12676252.001).
  • [ISSN] 1368-8375
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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7. Hong AM, Dobbins TA, Lee CS, Jones D, Harnett GB, Armstrong BK, Clark JR, Milross CG, Kim J, O'Brien CJ, Rose BR: Human papillomavirus predicts outcome in oropharyngeal cancer in patients treated primarily with surgery or radiation therapy. Br J Cancer; 2010 Nov 9;103(10):1510-7
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Human papillomavirus predicts outcome in oropharyngeal cancer in patients treated primarily with surgery or radiation therapy.
  • OBJECTIVE: This study examines the prognostic significance of human papillomavirus (HPV) in patients with locally advanced oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) treated primarily with surgery or definitive radiotherapy.
  • METHODS: One hundred and ninety-eight patients with Stage 3/4 SCC were followed up for recurrence in any form or death from any cause for between 1 and 235 months after diagnosis.
  • HPV status was determined using HPV E6-targeted multiplex real-time PCR/p16 immunohistochemistry.
  • RESULTS: Forty-two per cent of cancers were HPV-positive (87% type 16).
  • Within the surgery with adjuvant radiotherapy (n=110), definitive radiotherapy-alone (n=24) and definitive radiotherapy with chemotherapy (n=47) groups, patients with HPV-positive cancers were one-third or less as likely to have loco-regional recurrence, an event or to die of any cause as those with HPV-negative cancers after adjusting for age, gender, tumour grade, AJCC stage and primary site.
  • CONCLUSION: HPV status predicts better outcome in oropharyngeal cancer treated with surgery plus adjuvant radiotherapy as well as with definitive radiation therapy±chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Recurrence. Tongue Neoplasms / pathology. Tongue Neoplasms / therapy. Tonsillar Neoplasms / pathology. Tonsillar Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 20959828.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2990586
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8. Chao KS, Low DA, Perez CA, Purdy JA: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy in head and neck cancers: The Mallinckrodt experience. Int J Cancer; 2000 Apr 20;90(2):92-103
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intensity-modulated radiation therapy in head and neck cancers: The Mallinckrodt experience.
  • The purpose of the study was to investigate the feasibility and the optimization of tomotherapy-based intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in patients with head and neck cancer.
  • Treatment planning was performed on a Peacock inverse planning system and prescription optimization was used to achieve the best plan for target coverage and parotid sparing.
  • The treatment planning system process has a dosimetric characteristic of delivering different doses to different target structures simultaneously in each daily treatment; therefore, the biological equivalent dose was implemented using the linear-quadratic model to adjust the total dose to the target volume receiving a daily dose of less than 1.9 Gy.
  • All eight patients with gross disease (six in the nasopharynx, two in the tonsil) and one patient with recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma received concurrent cisplatin chemotherapy.
  • All patients completed the prescribed treatment without unexpected interruption.
  • In the best-achievable plan of our studied cohort, only 27% +/- 8% of parotid gland volumes were treated to more than 30 Gy, while an average of 3.3% +/- 0.6% of the target volume received less than 95% of the prescribed dose.
  • The inverse planning system allowed us the freedom of weighting normal tissue-sparing and target coverage to select the best-achievable plan.
  • Local control was achieved in eight patients with gross tumor; six were treated postoperatively.
  • In summary, a system for patient immobilization, setup verification, and dose optimization for head and neck cancer with parotid sparing without significantly compromising target coverage is being implemented for a tomotherapy-based IMRT plan at the Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology.
  • The initial clinical experience in tumor control is promising, and no severe adverse acute side effects have been observed.
  • Further refining of delivery technology and the inverse planning system, gaining clinical experience to address target definition and dose inhomogeneity within the targets, and understanding the partial volume effect on normal tissue tolerance are needed for IMRT to excel in the treatment of head and neck cancer. Int. J.
  • Cancer (Radiat. Oncol. Invest.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Laryngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiation Dosage. Tonsillar Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 10814959.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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9. Galati LT, Myers EN, Johnson JT: Primary surgery as treatment for early squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil. Head Neck; 2000 May;22(3):294-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary surgery as treatment for early squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil.
  • BACKGROUND: The management of tonsil carcinoma has gradually evolved such that the literature is replete with outcome summaries of this disease treated with primary RT and chemotherapy.
  • Recently there have been no reports of patient outcomes with primary surgical therapy.
  • Nonsurgical treatment is warranted when tumors are unresectable or if the patient refuses surgery.
  • Our policy has been to treat operable squamous cell carcinoma (SCCA) of the tonsil with surgery.
  • The decision to use adjuvant therapy is based on the surgical and histologic findings.
  • We herein report our results with this treatment protocol.
  • METHODS: A retrospective review of 162 patients with SCCA of the tonsil was performed.
  • Eighty-four patients were treated with surgery, which was followed by RT and/or chemotherapy if histologic signs of aggressive behavior were identified.
  • Patients were followed 2 to 15 years after treatment.
  • RESULTS: Of the 9 patients with stage I disease, 89% are without evidence of recurrent disease and 91% of patients with stage II tonsil cancers are also disease free.
  • The survival rates for stage III and stage IV cancer patients are 79 and 52%, respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that patients with early tonsil cancer can be effectively treated with surgery.
  • Surgery allows pathologic staging so that patients with advanced tumors can be treated with adjuvant therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / mortality. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Tonsillar Neoplasms / mortality. Tonsillar Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 10748454.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-3074
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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10. Mendenhall WM, Amdur RJ, Stringer SP, Villaret DB, Cassisi NJ: Radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsillar region: a preferred alternative to surgery? J Clin Oncol; 2000 Jun;18(11):2219-25
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsillar region: a preferred alternative to surgery?
  • PURPOSE: There are no definitive randomized studies that compare radiotherapy (RT) with surgery for tonsillar cancer.
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of RT alone and RT combined with a planned neck dissection for carcinoma of the tonsillar area and to compare these data with the results of treatment with primary surgery.
  • One hundred forty-one patients underwent planned neck dissection, and 18 patients received induction (17 patients) or concomitant (one patient) chemotherapy.
  • RESULTS: Five-year local control rates, by tumor stage, were as follows: T1, 83%; T2, 81%; T3, 74%; and T4, 60%.
  • Multivariate analysis revealed that local control was significantly influenced by tumor stage (P =.0001), fractionation schedule (P =.0038), and external beam dose (P =.0227).
  • Local control after RT for early-stage cancers was higher for tonsillar fossa/posterior pillar cancers than for those arising from the anterior tonsillar pillar.
  • The incidence of severe late complications after treatment was 5%.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Tonsillar Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Tonsillar Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neck Dissection. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Radiotherapy Dosage. Salvage Therapy. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 10829041.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Rusthoven KE, Raben D, Schneider C, Witt R, Sammons S, Raben A: Freedom from local and regional failure of contralateral neck with ipsilateral neck radiotherapy for node-positive tonsil cancer: results of a prospective management approach. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2009 Aug 1;74(5):1365-70

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Freedom from local and regional failure of contralateral neck with ipsilateral neck radiotherapy for node-positive tonsil cancer: results of a prospective management approach.
  • PURPOSE: To review the outcomes of a prospective management approach using ipsilateral neck radiotherapy in the treatment of node-positive squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil with a well-lateralized primary lesion.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between August 2003 and June 2007, 20 patients who presented with squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil, without involvement of the base of the tongue or midline soft palate, and with Stage N1-N2b disease were prospectively treated with radiotherapy to the primary site and ipsilateral neck.
  • In addition, 18 patients received concurrent chemotherapy.
  • Acute and late toxicity were prospectively evaluated using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3, and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria.
  • Late Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade 2 xerostomia occurred in 1 patient (5%).
  • CONCLUSION: In carefully selected patients with node-positive, lateralized tonsillar cancer, treatment of the ipsilateral neck and primary site does not appear to increase the risk of contralateral nodal failure and reduces late morbidity compared with historical controls.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Tonsillar Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / radiotherapy. Male. Middle Aged. Neck. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Conformal / methods. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19168295.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Yao M, Dornfeld KJ, Buatti JM, Skwarchuk M, Tan H, Nguyen T, Wacha J, Bayouth JE, Funk GF, Smith RB, Graham SM, Chang K, Hoffman HT: Intensity-modulated radiation treatment for head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma--the University of Iowa experience. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2005 Oct 1;63(2):410-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intensity-modulated radiation treatment for head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma--the University of Iowa experience.
  • PURPOSE: To review the University of Iowa experience with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in the treatment of head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma.
  • One patient was lost to follow-up 2 months after treatment and therefore excluded from analysis.
  • Of the remaining 150 patients, 99 were treated with definitive IMRT, and 51 received postoperative IMRT.
  • None of the patients treated with postoperative IMRT received chemotherapy.
  • Of 99 patients who had definitive IMRT, 68 patients received concurrent cisplatin-based chemotherapy.
  • One patient received induction cisplatin-based chemotherapy, but no concurrent chemotherapy was given.
  • The prescribed doses to CTV1, CTV2, and CTV3 in the definitive cohort were 70-74 Gy, 60 Gy, and 54 Gy, respectively.
  • For high-risk postoperative IMRT, the prescribed doses to CTV1, CTV2, and CTV3 were 64-66 Gy, 60 Gy, and 54 Gy, respectively.
  • For intermediate-risk postoperative IMRT, the prescribed doses to CTV1, CTV2, and CTV3 were 60 Gy, 60 Gy, and 54 Gy.
  • There were 11 local-regional failures: 7 local failures, 3 regional failures, and 1 failure both in the primary tumor and regional lymph node.
  • The median time from treatment completion to local-regional recurrence was 4.7 months (range, 1.8 to 15.6 months).
  • Only one marginal failure was noted in a patient who had extensive tonsil cancer with tumor extension into the orbit and cavernous sinus.
  • Patients with oropharyngeal cancer did significantly better than patients with oral cavity and laryngeal cancer, with a 2-year local-regional control rate of 98%, compared with 78% for oral cavity cancer and 85% for laryngeal cancer (p = 0.005).
  • There was no significant difference in local-regional control for patients who received postoperative radiation or definitive radiation (p = 0.339) and for patients who had chemotherapy or not (p = 0.402).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results have confirmed the effectiveness of IMRT in head-and-neck cancer.
  • More studies are necessary to further improve the outcomes of laryngeal cancer as well as oral cavity cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Iowa. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Failure. Universities

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  • (PMID = 16168834.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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13. Pajor A, Murlewska A, Józefowicz-Korczyńska M: [Tonsillar carcinoma--clinical assessment and analysis of treatment results]. Otolaryngol Pol; 2002;56(3):319-22

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Tonsillar carcinoma--clinical assessment and analysis of treatment results].
  • The aim of the study was an evaluation of the clinical signs and treatment results of the patients with tonsillar cancer treated in the ENT Clinic Medical University in Łódź during 10 years (1985-1994).
  • Twenty four patients (55%) had tumor with T3-T4 stage and 21 patients (52.5%)--palpable lymph neck nodes.
  • The most frequent treatment modality was combined therapy (surgery with radio/chemotherapy) introduced in 25 persons (62.5%), surgery alone was performed in 10 cases (25%).
  • Distant metastases developed in 6 patients (15%) and the second primary neoplasm in 5 patients (12.5%).
  • We stress the importance of careful clinical assessment before planning the treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell. Tonsillar Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / surgery. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12162020.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6657
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngologia polska = The Polish otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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14. Nguyen NP, Chi A, Nguyen LM, Ly BH, Karlsson U, Vinh-Hung V: Human papillomavirus-associated oropharyngeal cancer: a new clinical entity. QJM; 2010 Apr;103(4):229-36

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Human papillomavirus-associated oropharyngeal cancer: a new clinical entity.
  • The incidence of oropharyngeal cancers is rising worldwide in both nonsmokers and nondrinkers.
  • Epidemiology studies suggest a strong association between human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 infection, changing sexual behavior and cancer development.
  • Despite initial presentation with locally advanced disease and poorly differentiated histology, HPV-associated oropharyngeal carcinoma is associated with a good prognosis because its response to chemotherapy and radiation.
  • Clinicians should be aware of the risk of oropharyngeal cancer in young people to avoid unnecessary delay in diagnosis and treatment.
  • A history of oral sex should be elicited in young patients with enlarged neck nodes and/or tonsillar masses.

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  • (PMID = 20015950.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2393
  • [Journal-full-title] QJM : monthly journal of the Association of Physicians
  • [ISO-abbreviation] QJM
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
  • [Number-of-references] 82
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15. Hofmann U, O'Connor JP, Biyani CS, Harnden P, Selby P, Weston PM: Retroperitoneal metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil (with elevated beta human chorionic gonadotrophin): a misdiagnosis as extra-gonadal germ cell tumour. J Laryngol Otol; 2006 Oct;120(10):885-7
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  • [Title] Retroperitoneal metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil (with elevated beta human chorionic gonadotrophin): a misdiagnosis as extra-gonadal germ cell tumour.
  • Head and neck cancers usually spread first to the regional lymph nodes but rarely may metastasize to distant sites.
  • A case of retroperitoneal metastasis from a squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil, secreting beta human chorionic gonadotrophin (beta-hCG), is reported.
  • A 58-year-old man had undergone a tonsillectomy and chemo-radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the left tonsil and 13 months later presented with non-specific abdominal pain.
  • A computed tomography scan demonstrated para-aortic retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy.
  • The initial pathological analysis was interpreted as extra-gonadal germ cell tumour and the patient received chemotherapy.
  • A subsequent review was consistent with a metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil, as immunohistochemical studies showed positive staining for epithelial membrane antigen and cytokeratins 5/6 but a negative reaction to placental alkaline phosphatase.
  • Following this, the chemotherapy regimen was changed; however, a restaging scan demonstrated progression, and the patient died from aspiration pneumonia secondary to alcohol intoxication.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of retroperitoneal metastasis from a squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil, secreting beta-hCG and causing hydronephrosis.
  • This case highlights the necessity of using clinical, histological, immunohistological and ultrastructural examination to establish precise diagnosis and to avoid inappropriate treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Diagnostic Errors. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tonsillar Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / blood. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Hydronephrosis / complications. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / blood

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  • (PMID = 16716237.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-5460
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of laryngology and otology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Laryngol Otol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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16. Wang X, Xie FY, Han F, Hu WH, Li JS, Xu HM: [Tonsillar carcinoma: analyses of the therapy and prognostic factors]. Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2009 Oct;44(10):848-52

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Tonsillar carcinoma: analyses of the therapy and prognostic factors].
  • OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively analyze the therapeutic effect on patients with tonsillar carcinoma and factors affecting their prognosis.
  • METHODS: Clinical data of 61 patients pathologically confirmed with tonsillar carcinoma without distant metastasis were analyzed.
  • All the patients were treated in Cancer Center of Sun Yat-sen University from April 1997 to April 2008.
  • According to the AJCC 2002 staging criteria for head-neck cancers, there were 9 staged I cases, 7 staged II cases, 23 staged III cases and 22 staged IV cases.
  • The treatment was radiotherapy alone in 27 cases, radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy in 23 cases, surgery combined with postoperative radiotherapy in 6 cases, neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus surgery combined with postoperative radiotherapy in 3 cases, radiotherapy with salvage surgery in 2 cases.
  • The difference between the two treatments was not significant in statistics (P = 0.318).
  • For III-IV staged 45 cases, there were 19 cases with simple radiotherapy, 5 years survival was 51.5%, 21 cases with radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy, 5 years survival was 36.4%, 5 cases with surgery combined with postoperative radiotherapy, 5 years survival was 75.0%.
  • The difference among the three treatments was not significant in statistics (P = 0.239).
  • Multivariate analysis demonstrated that T stage, therapeutic effect of primary site and cervical metastatic lymph node were the independent prognostic factors (P < 0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: T stage, the therapeutic effect of primary site and cervical metastatic lymph node were the independent prognostic factors.
  • For I-II staged tonsillar tumor cases, based on organ preservation, were tendency to choice simple radiotherapy.
  • For III-IV staged cases, yet the relationships between therapeutic mode and therapeutic effect still need further researches.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Tonsillar Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 20079056.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-0860
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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17. Mendenhall WM, Morris CG, Amdur RJ, Hinerman RW, Mancuso AA: Parameters that predict local control after definitive radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Head Neck; 2003 Jul;25(7):535-42
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  • [Title] Parameters that predict local control after definitive radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.
  • PURPOSE: To analyze parameters that may influence the likelihood of local control after definitive radiotherapy for head and neck cancer.
  • METHODS: Between April 1980 and January 2000, 404 patients were treated with definitive RT alone (358 patients) or combined with adjuvant chemotherapy (46 patients) at our institution and were followed up for 0.25 to 20.25 years (median, 3.5 years.
  • All patients had the primary tumor volume calculated on pretreatment CT.
  • Parameters evaluated in multivariate analyses of these end points included primary site, T stage, primary tumor volume, N stage, histologic differentiation, fractionation schedule, adjuvant chemotherapy, and gender.
  • RESULTS: The rates of local control and local control without a severe late complication after RT were significantly influenced by primary tumor volume for patients with cancer of the supraglottic larynx and true vocal cord.
  • In contrast, the rates of local control and local control without severe complications for patients with tumors of the oropharynx and hypopharynx were less influenced by tumor volume.
  • Multivariate analyses stratified by primary site revealed that tumor volume significantly influenced local control for patients with cancers of the supraglottis (p =.0220) and glottis (p =.0042) but not for those with lesions of the tonsillar fossa/posterior tonsillar pillar (p =.0892), base of tongue (p =.9493), anterior tonsillar pillar/soft palate (p =.5909), and hypopharynx (p =.2282).
  • Primary tumor volume also significantly influences the probability of local control in cancers of the supraglottis and glottis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Female. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Radiotherapy / adverse effects. Radiotherapy Dosage

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 25: 535-542, 2003
  • (PMID = 12808656.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-3074
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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18. Mendenhall WM, Morris CG, Amdur RJ, Hinerman RW, Malyapa RS, Werning JW, Lansford CD, Villaret DB: Definitive radiotherapy for tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma. Am J Clin Oncol; 2006 Jun;29(3):290-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Definitive radiotherapy for tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to update our experience with definitive radiotherapy (RT) for carcinoma of the tonsillar area.
  • Of these, 198 patients underwent a planned neck dissection and 57 patients received induction (18 patients) or concomitant (39 patients) chemotherapy.
  • Local control after RT for early stage cancers was higher for tonsillar fossa/posterior pillar tumors than for those arising from the anterior tonsillar pillar.
  • CONCLUSION: Based on our data and a review of the literature, definitive RT provides cure rates that are as good as those after surgery, and is associated with a lower rate of severe complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Tonsillar Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Incidence. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiation Injuries / epidemiology. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16755183.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-453X
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Aaron S, Wong E, Tyrrell D, Duggan M, Vallieres E, Jewell L, Romanowski B, Doe PJ: Interferon treatment of multiple pulmonary malignancies associated with papilloma virus. Can Respir J; 2004 Sep;11(6):443-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Interferon treatment of multiple pulmonary malignancies associated with papilloma virus.
  • Over a period of four years, beginning in spring 1988, a previously healthy man developed a primary squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil, treated with radiotherapy, followed by 10 distinct, primary bronchial squamous cell carcinomas.
  • Four of the cancers were surgically resected, all of which were positive by hybridization for human papilloma virus (type 16).
  • The finding of papilloma virus in malignancies should prompt consideration of antiviral therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Bronchial Neoplasms / virology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Papillomaviridae. Tonsillar Neoplasms / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Lung / pathology. Male. Palatine Tonsil / pathology. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Papillomavirus Infections / drug therapy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15510252.001).
  • [ISSN] 1198-2241
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian respiratory journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can. Respir. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha
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20. Stambuk HE, Karimi S, Lee N, Patel SG: Oral cavity and oropharynx tumors. Radiol Clin North Am; 2007 Jan;45(1):1-20
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  • Cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx are the most common head and neck cancers in the United States, and squamous cell carcinoma is the most frequent histologic type.
  • As a general rule, surgical resection is the primary treatment for oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma, whereas oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas are treated with radiation with or without chemotherapy.
  • A clear understanding of the anatomy and knowledge of clinical behavior and spread patterns of oral cavity and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma are essential for radiologists to make a meaningful contribution to the treatment of these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Mouth Neoplasms / diagnosis. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Mouth / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiography. Neoplasm Staging. Oropharynx / pathology. Palatal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Palatal Neoplasms / pathology. Palatal Neoplasms / radiography. Palate, Soft / pathology. Time Factors. Tonsillar Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tonsillar Neoplasms / pathology. Tonsillar Neoplasms / radiography

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  • (PMID = 17157621.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-8389
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiologic clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiol. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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21. Douglas JG, Koh W, Laramore GE: Metastasis to a percutaneous gastrostomy site from head and neck cancer: radiobiologic considerations. Head Neck; 2000 Dec;22(8):826-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Metastasis to a percutaneous gastrostomy site from head and neck cancer: radiobiologic considerations.
  • BACKGROUND: The use of percutaneously placed feeding tubes has increased in recent years in an effort to maintain adequate caloric balance in patients receiving combined therapy for head and neck cancers, particularly concurrent radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • METHODS: We report a case of a metastasis to a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy site occurring in a patient with an advanced tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma and review the published literature regarding this subject.
  • The interval from performance of the procedure to development of the metastases ranged from 3 to 16 months.
  • Tumor kinetics suggest that a significant tumor burden (10(5)-10(6) cells) would need to be present at the site to manifest a metastatic lesion in such a short time interval.
  • Direct tumor implantation by means of instrumentation at the time of the procedure is most likely explanation for such metastases, although hematogenous seeding cannot be completely discounted.
  • Techniques should be used so as not to disrupt the tumor bed, particularly when gross residual disease is present.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Catheters, Indwelling / adverse effects. Gastrostomy / adverse effects. Neoplasm Seeding. Pharyngeal Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / secondary

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  • [CommentIn] Head Neck. 2001 Dec;23(12):1080-3 [11774395.001]
  • (PMID = 11084645.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-3074
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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