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1. Colao A, Dorato M, Pulcrano M, Rossi FW, Auriemma RS, Lombardi G, Lastoria S: [Somatostatin analogs in the clinical management of pituitary neoplasms]. Minerva Endocrinol; 2001 Sep;26(3):181-91
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Somatostatin analogs in the clinical management of pituitary neoplasms].
  • The medical approach to patients with secreting or clinically non-functioning pituitary adenoma as made considerable progress thanks to the use of new somatostatin analogs.
  • Good results were obtained using slow-release analog treatment also in TSH-secreting adenomas, whereas the therapeutic efficacy of these peptides in clinically non-functioning adenomas is still controversial.
  • Treatment with somatostatin analogs improves symptoms, normalises hormone secretion and in some cases may induce a reduction in the volume of pituitary adenomas.
  • Scintigraphy with octreotide may help to select patients who respond to this form of treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Octreotide / analogs & derivatives. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Pentetic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Peptides, Cyclic / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Somatostatin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Acromegaly / drug therapy. Adolescent. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma / radionuclide imaging. Humans. Indium Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / secretion. Kidney Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Melanoma / radionuclide imaging. Middle Aged. Pheochromocytoma / radionuclide imaging. Predictive Value of Tests. Prolactinoma / drug therapy. Radiopharmaceuticals / therapeutic use. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thymoma / radionuclide imaging. Thymus Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Thyrotropin / secretion. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11753242.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Indium Radioisotopes; 0 / Peptides, Cyclic; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 118992-92-0 / lanreotide; 142694-57-3 / SDZ 215-811; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; 7A314HQM0I / Pentetic Acid; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
  • [Number-of-references] 95
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2. Mezosi E, Nemes O: [Treatment of pituitary adenomas]. Orv Hetil; 2009 Sep 27;150(39):1803-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Treatment of pituitary adenomas].
  • According to epidemiological studies, the prevalence of pituitary adenomas is 16.5% and the majority of them are "incidentalomas".
  • The symptoms of pituitary disorders are often non-specific; disturbances of pituitary function, compression symptoms, hypophysis apoplexy or accidental findings may help the diagnosis.
  • The hormonal evaluation of pituitary adenomas is different from the algorithm used in the disorders of peripheral endocrine organs.
  • The first-line therapy of prolactinomas are the dopamine agonists, and the aims of the treatment are to normalize the prolactin level, restore fertility in child-bearing age, decrease tumor mass, save or improve the residual pituitary function and inhibit the relapse of the disease.
  • In case of tumors with good therapeutic response, medical therapy can be withdrawn after 3-5 years; hyperprolactinemia will not recur in 2/3 of these patients.
  • Neurosurgery is the primary therapy of GH-, ACTH-, TSH-producing and inactive adenomas.
  • Acromegalic patients with unresectable tumors have a great benefit from somatostatin analog treatment.
  • The growth hormone receptor antagonist pegvisomant is the newest modality for the treatment of acromegaly.
  • The medical therapy of Cushing's disease is still based on the inhibition of steroid production.
  • The rare TSH-producing tumor can respond to both dopamine agonist and somatostatin analog therapy.
  • The application of conventional radiotherapy has decreased; radiotherapy is mainly used in the treatment of invasive, incurable or malignant tumors.
  • Further studies are needed to elucidate the exact role of radiosurgery and fractionated stereotaxic irradiation in the treatment of pituitary tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / therapy. Pituitary Hormones / blood. Pituitary Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / therapy. Acromegaly / drug therapy. Acromegaly / etiology. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Bromocriptine / therapeutic use. Cushing Syndrome / drug therapy. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Female. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / therapy. Human Growth Hormone / analogs & derivatives. Human Growth Hormone / blood. Human Growth Hormone / therapeutic use. Humans. Hypophysectomy. Incidental Findings. Male. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / therapy. Prolactinoma / therapy. Radiosurgery. Receptors, Somatotropin / antagonists & inhibitors. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Somatostatin / therapeutic use. Thyrotropin / blood

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  • (PMID = 19758960.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6002
  • [Journal-full-title] Orvosi hetilap
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orv Hetil
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Pituitary Hormones; 0 / Receptors, Somatotropin; 0 / pegvisomant; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 3A64E3G5ZO / Bromocriptine; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 80Q9QWN15M / quinagolide; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; 98H1T17066 / pasireotide
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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3. Daems T, Verhelst J, Michotte A, Abrams P, De Ridder D, Abs R: Modification of hormonal secretion in clinically silent pituitary adenomas. Pituitary; 2009;12(1):80-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Modification of hormonal secretion in clinically silent pituitary adenomas.
  • BACKGROUND: Silent pituitary adenomas are a subtype of adenomas characterized by positive immunoreactivity for one or more hormones classically secreted by normal pituitary cells but without clinical expression, although in some occasions enhanced or changed secretory activity can develop over time.
  • Silent corticotroph adenomas are the classical example of this phenomenon.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A series of about 500 pituitary adenomas seen over a period of 20 years were screened for modification in hormonal secretion.
  • RESULTS: Two cases were retrieved, one silent somatotroph adenoma and one thyrotroph adenoma, both without specific clinical features or biochemical abnormalities, which presented 20 years after initial surgery with evidence of acromegaly and hyperthyroidism, respectively.
  • While the acromegaly was controlled by a combination of somatostatin analogs and growth hormone (GH) receptor antagonist therapy, neurosurgery was necessary to manage the thyrotroph adenoma.
  • Immunohistochemical examination demonstrated an increase in the number of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)-immunoreactive cells compared to the first tissue.
  • Apparently, the mechanisms responsible for the secretory modifications are different, being a change in secretory capacity in the silent somatotroph adenoma and a quantitative change in the silent thyrotroph adenoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These two cases, one somatotroph and one thyrotroph adenoma, are an illustration that clinically silent pituitary adenomas may in rare circumstances evolve over time and become active, as previously demonstrated in silent corticotroph adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Acromegaly / drug therapy. Acromegaly / metabolism. Acromegaly / surgery. Adult. Human Growth Hormone / secretion. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / secretion. Male. Thyrotropin / secretion

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  • (PMID = 18350381.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7403
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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4. Orrego JJ, Barkan AL: Pituitary disorders. Drug treatment options. Drugs; 2000 Jan;59(1):93-106
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pituitary disorders. Drug treatment options.
  • Pituitary diseases are relatively common entities in the general population.
  • They include pituitary adenomas and hypopituitarism.
  • Pituitary tumours can cause symptoms of mass effect and hormonal hypersecretion that can be reversed with surgical resection or debulking of the adenoma, radiotherapy, or medical treatment.
  • Transsphenoidal adenomectomy is the treatment of choice for acromegaly, Cushing's disease, gonadotropin-secreting tumours; and thyrotropin (TSH)-secreting adenomas.
  • Pituitary irradiation and medical therapy are secondary options.
  • Conversely, medical treatment is the primary choice for prolactinomas.
  • Dopamine agonists are very effective in the treatment of prolactin (PRL)-secreting tumours, with rates of control as high as 80 to 90% for microprolactinomas (< 10 mm) and 60 to 75% for macroprolactinomas (> or = 10 mm).
  • Somatostatin analogues have also shown efficacy in patients with acromegaly who have not responded to surgery or in patients with TSH-secreting adenomas who have not improved with surgery and radiotherapy.
  • In patients with Cushing's disease, who are not cured surgically or who relapse after pituitary adenomectomy and irradiation, steroidogenic inhibitors can be an efficient method of controlling the hypercortisolism.
  • Pituitary insufficiency is the partial or complete loss of the anterior hypophyseal function, which is due to hypothalamic or pituitary disease.
  • Although the classic sequence of loss of pituitary secretion is growth hormone (GH), gonadotropins, TSH, and corticotropin (ACTH), the order to begin the replacement therapy of the deficient hormone(s) is cortisol, thyroxine, androgens/estrogens and, if necessary, GH.
  • In general, the hormone replacement therapy is lifelong.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Hypopituitarism / drug therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / secretion. Animals. Gonadotropins, Pituitary / secretion. Human Growth Hormone / secretion. Humans. Prolactin / secretion. Thyrotropin / secretion

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  • (PMID = 10718101.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-6667
  • [Journal-full-title] Drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gonadotropins, Pituitary; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
  • [Number-of-references] 88
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5. Yoshihara A, Isozaki O, Hizuka N, Nozoe Y, Harada C, Ono M, Kawamata T, Kubo O, Hori T, Takano K: Expression of type 5 somatostatin receptor in TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas: a possible marker for predicting long-term response to octreotide therapy. Endocr J; 2007 Feb;54(1):133-8
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  • [Title] Expression of type 5 somatostatin receptor in TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas: a possible marker for predicting long-term response to octreotide therapy.
  • In TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas (TSHoma), octreotide (OCT) therapy reduces tumor size and TSH secretion in some cases but not in others.
  • As OCT acts through various types of somatostatin receptors (SSTRs), the different responses of TSHoma to OCT might be explained by the differences of SSTR expression.
  • We therefore studied the expression of subtype-specific SSTR mRNA transcripts in tumor tissues by RT-PCR.
  • Type 2 (SSTR2) mRNA transcripts were detected in all 8 tumors but those of SSTR3 and SSTR5 were demonstrated only in 5 of them.
  • Serum TSH levels were decreased by OCT administration test in all patients but OCT therapy was effective in two patients out of three.
  • SSTR5 mRNA was detected in two tumors from the responder, but not in one tumor that was resistant to OCT.
  • These observations suggest that the temporal decrease of TSH by OCT may be mediated by SSTR2, and that the long term response to OCT therapy may be related with the expression of SSTR5.
  • Therefore, the expression of SSTR5 in TSHoma may be a useful marker for predicting the outcome of the therapy, but further studies with larger numbers of patients are necessary.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Adenoma / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics. Receptors, Somatostatin / genetics. Thyrotropin / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Humans. Male. Prognosis. Protein Isoforms / genetics. Time. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17159301.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-8959
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 0 / somatostatin receptor 5; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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6. Taylor TJ, Donlon SS, Bale AE, Smallridge RC, Francis TB, Christensen RS, Burma KD: Treatment of a thyrotropinoma with octreotide-LAR in a patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia-1. Thyroid; 2000 Nov;10(11):1001-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment of a thyrotropinoma with octreotide-LAR in a patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia-1.
  • OBJECTIVE: To note that a thyrotropin (TSH)-secreting macroadenoma may be part of the multiple endocrine neoplasia-1 (MEN-1) syndrome and to report the use of octreotide-LAR (OCT-LAR) to treat a TSH-secreting macroadenoma in a patient with MEN-1 with previous surgery for hyperparathyroidism and gastrinoma.
  • METHODS: We present a patient with a TSH-secreting pituitary macroadenoma and report the results of her endocrine, genetic, radiologic, and nuclear medicine testing and her response to treatment with octreotide (OCT), octreotide-LAR, and estrogen.
  • RESULTS: This patient's TSH-induced hyperthyroidism responded to octreotide for 5 months and octreotide-LAR for more than 11 months.
  • (1) The use of octreotide-LAR to treat both a TSH-secreting pituitary tumor and a gastrinoma over 12 months;.
  • (2) the importance of including these tumors into the MEN-1 syndrome with its attendant implications; and (3) a genetic defect, typical of patients with MEN-1, associated with this tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Hormones / administration & dosage. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / drug therapy. Octreotide / administration & dosage. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thyrotropin / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Estrogens / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Hypercalcemia / etiology. Hyperthyroidism / drug therapy. Hyperthyroidism / etiology. Hyperthyroidism / radionuclide imaging. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 11128714.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogens; 0 / Hormones; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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7. Pickett CA: Update on the medical management of pituitary adenomas. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep; 2005 May;5(3):178-85
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Update on the medical management of pituitary adenomas.
  • The medical treatment of pituitary adenomas has changed significantly over the past decade.
  • Pharmacologic therapy for prolactinomas in the form of dopamine agonists has been available since the 1970s, and somatostatin analogues for treatment of growth hormone (GH)-secreting adenomas were introduced in the 1980s.
  • Furthermore, long-acting somatostatin analogues also have utility in treating thyrotropin adenomas and a subset of adrenocorticotroph tumors.
  • Limited clinical studies with long-acting dopamine agonists suggest that a subset of patients with GH, adrenocorticotroph, and gonadotropin/nonsecreting adenomas may also benefit from therapy with these agents.
  • The introduction of a GH receptor antagonist in the 1990s has added to the pharmacologic armamentarium for treatment of acromegaly.
  • In parallel with improved medical therapy, hormonal assays for assessing tumor activity have improved in sensitivity, necessitating new standards for treatment optimization.
  • This article highlights some of these evolving new ideas and approaches to the pharmacologic management of pituitary adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Somatostatin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Acromegaly / drug therapy. Growth Hormone / metabolism. History, 20th Century. Humans. Receptors, Somatotropin / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 15865883.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-4042
  • [Journal-full-title] Current neurology and neuroscience reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Historical Article; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Receptors, Somatotropin; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 50
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8. Koch CA, Skarulis MC, Patronas NJ, Sarlis NJ: [TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma: 16 years follow-up]. Med Klin (Munich); 2000 Jan 15;95(1):49-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma: 16 years follow-up].
  • [Transliterated title] TSH-sezernierendes Hypophysenadenom: 16 Jahre Follow-up (TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / secretion. Pituitary Neoplasms / secretion. Thyrotropin / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hypophysectomy. Male. Neoplasm, Residual / drug therapy. Neoplasm, Residual / surgery. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Pituitary Hormones / blood. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 10668345.001).
  • [ISSN] 0723-5003
  • [Journal-full-title] Medizinische Klinik (Munich, Germany : 1983)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Klin. (Munich)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] GERMANY
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Pituitary Hormones; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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