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1. Steffens M, Beauloye V, Brichard B, Robert A, Alexopoulou O, Vermylen Ch, Maiter D: Endocrine and metabolic disorders in young adult survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) or non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2008 Nov;69(5):819-27
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Endocrine and metabolic disorders in young adult survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) or non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).
  • BACKGROUND: Treatments of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), involving various combinations of chemotherapy (chemo), cranial irradiation (CI) and/or bone marrow transplantation after total body irradiation (BMT/TBI), are often successful but may have several long-term harmful effects.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate late endocrine and metabolic complications in adult survivors of childhood ALL and NHL, in relation with the different therapeutic schemes received.
  • DESIGN: Endocrine and metabolic parameters were determined in 94 patients (48 men, mean age: 24 +/- 5 years) with a former childhood ALL (n = 78) or NHL (n = 16) and subgrouped according to their previous treatment: chemo only (group I; n = 44), chemo + CI (group II; n = 32) and chemo + BMT/TBI (group III; n = 18).
  • Moreover, 83% of men developed hypogonadism after BMT/TBI, compared to 17% and 8% in groups I and II, respectively (P < 0.05), and all grafted women had ovarian failure, in contrast with other female patients in whom menarche had occurred spontaneously.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals a high prevalence of endocrine and metabolic disorders in young adult survivors of childhood ALL or NHL, this frequency mainly depending on the treatment received.
  • Treatment with BMT/TBI is the most detrimental and many of these patients will develop GHD, hypothyroidism, hypogonadism, insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Endocrine System Diseases / epidemiology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / epidemiology. Metabolic Diseases / epidemiology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / epidemiology. Survivors / statistics & numerical data
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age of Onset. Female. Gonads / physiology. Human Growth Hormone / blood. Human Growth Hormone / metabolism. Humans. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / metabolism. Male. Prevalence. Signal Transduction / physiology. Thyroid Gland / physiology. Young Adult


2. Lee DH, Park JH, Lee JJ, Chung IJ, Chung DJ, Chung MY, Lee TH: Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the thyroid and adrenal glands. Korean J Intern Med; 2000 Jan;15(1):76-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the thyroid and adrenal glands.
  • We report a case of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma(NHL) with simultaneous involvement of both thyroid and bilateral adrenal glands.
  • The final diagnosis of diffuse large B cell lymphoma was confirmed by biopsies of thyroid gland, enlarged cervical lymph node, and adrenal gland.
  • The significant endocrine dysfunction of the thyroid, adrenal or other endocrine glands was absent in our case.
  • The patient responded dramatically to three cycles of chemotherapy with no complication or endocrine dysfunction and continues to be followed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biopsy, Needle. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Prednisolone / administration & dosage. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 10714096.001).
  • [ISSN] 1226-3303
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] KOREA (SOUTH)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone; VAP-cyclo protocol
  • [Number-of-references] 16
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4531737
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3. Ha CS, Shadle KM, Medeiros LJ, Wilder RB, Hess MA, Cabanillas F, Cox JD: Localized non-Hodgkin lymphoma involving the thyroid gland. Cancer; 2001 Feb 15;91(4):629-35
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  • [Title] Localized non-Hodgkin lymphoma involving the thyroid gland.
  • BACKGROUND: The current study was undertaken to define the natural history and patterns of failure of localized non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) involving the thyroid gland.
  • METHODS: A retrospective review of 51 patients with Ann Arbor Stage I or II NHL involving the thyroid gland was performed.
  • Four patients underwent thyroidectomy, 18 patients received radiation therapy, 5 patients received chemotherapy, and 24 patients received combined modality therapy (CMT) with chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
  • Treatment modality, patient gender, IPI, disease stage, and mediastinal involvement were examined for significance with regard to overall survival (OS) and failure free survival (FFS).
  • The 5-year FFS rates by treatment regimen were 76% for radiation therapy, 50% for chemotherapy, and 91% for CMT (P = 0.15).
  • Eleven patients failed treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The prognosis of patients with localized NHL involving the thyroid gland appears to be very good, especially when CMT is used.
  • Distant recurrences appear to account for the majority of treatment failures.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / mortality. Thyroid Neoplasms / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Failure


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4. Stoll L, Mudali S, Ali SZ: Merkel cell carcinoma metastatic to the thyroid gland: Aspiration findings and differential diagnosis. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 Oct;38(10):754-7
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  • [Title] Merkel cell carcinoma metastatic to the thyroid gland: Aspiration findings and differential diagnosis.
  • Clinically diagnosed metastasis to the thyroid gland is exceptionally rare and may present diagnostic issues on fine needle aspiration.
  • The most common primary sites of metastases to the thyroid are cancers of the lung, breast, skin (especially melanoma), colon, and kidney.
  • Herein, we report a case of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma to the thyroid presenting as a 2.1-cm solid nodule in a 50-year-old male with a previous history of Merkel cell carcinoma of the upper extremity.
  • The differential diagnosis centered on the "small round blue cell" tumor group such as medullary thyroid carcinoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • In patients with a known history of a primary neoplasm, the differential diagnosis of a thyroid nodule should always include potential metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Merkel Cell / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] 6-Mercaptopurine / therapeutic use. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Crohn Disease / complications. Crohn Disease / drug therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Fibrosis / complications. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Male. Middle Aged

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 20082438.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; E7WED276I5 / 6-Mercaptopurine
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5. Sun TQ, Zhu XL, Wang ZY, Wang CF, Zhou XY, Ji QH, Wu Y: Characteristics and prognosis of primary thyroid non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in Chinese patients. J Surg Oncol; 2010 Jun 1;101(7):545-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Characteristics and prognosis of primary thyroid non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in Chinese patients.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There exists no universally accepted treatment for primary thyroid non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (TNHL) due to the rarity of this entity.
  • METHODS: Patient presentations, pathologies, surgical interventions, multidisciplinary treatment, prognostic factors and the value of fine needle aspiration were analyzed.
  • Thirty-eight patients underwent an initial surgical procedure.
  • Further treatments consisted of radiotherapy or chemotherapy alone, and the majority of patients were treated with combined chemo-radiation.
  • Survival curves showed no significant difference between therapeutic operations when compared with diagnostic operations.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy may offer better outcome without the need for extensive resection, and surgery should be reserved to providing tissue for diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. China. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neck Dissection. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 20461759.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9098
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Mazur-Roszak M, Litwiniuk M, Łacka K: [Lymphoma of the thyroid in a patient with autoimmune thyroiditis and Sjögren's syndrome--case report]. Pol Merkur Lekarski; 2008 Aug;25(146):155-7
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  • [Title] [Lymphoma of the thyroid in a patient with autoimmune thyroiditis and Sjögren's syndrome--case report].
  • We present the case of a 74 year old patient suffering from primary Non Hodgkin's lymphoma of the thyroid and Sjogren's syndrome.
  • A massively enlarging goitre, causing breathlessness in a female patient previously treated for autoimmune inflammation of the thyroid (Hashimoto's disease) and Sjogren's syndrome, indicated the need for a fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNA) of the thyroid gland.
  • Non Hodgkin's lymphoma of the thyroid was diagnosed and chemotherapy was begun.
  • After 10 months of cytostatic treatment clinical tests and imaging indicated complete local regression.
  • However, two months after cessation of chemotherapy the patient suffered a relapse of the disease owing to infiltration of the central nervous system.
  • The main purpose for presenting this case was to describe the problem of primary lymphoma of the thyroid in cases of autoimmune disease.
  • In cases of Hashimoto's autoimmune disease of the thyroid, monitoring of the anti-thyroid antibodies is indicated, at least annually, as an increase in the concentration of these antibodies over a period of at least seven years would suggest further development of autoimmune disease.
  • If such conditions are accompanied by tumours of the thyroid, surgery should be considered.
  • It is worth keeping in mind that the thyroid can be a site for extra-lymphatic lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / etiology. Sjogren's Syndrome / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / etiology. Thyroiditis, Autoimmune / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biopsy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Palliative Care. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Recurrence

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  • (PMID = 18942337.001).
  • [ISSN] 1426-9686
  • [Journal-full-title] Polski merkuriusz lekarski : organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol. Merkur. Lekarski
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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7. Shimizu J, Ishida Y, Takehara A, Kinoshita T, Tatsuzawa Y, Kawaura Y, Matsumoto I, Imai M: Salvage surgery for primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the thyroid gland with histopathological complete response to radio-chemotherapy: report of a case. Surg Today; 2003;33(1):45-8
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  • [Title] Salvage surgery for primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the thyroid gland with histopathological complete response to radio-chemotherapy: report of a case.
  • An open biopsy confirmed a diagnosis of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the thyroid (NHLT), of a diffuse large cell type.
  • The patient was referred to our department for radio-chemotherapy for stage I E NHLT.
  • She was given radiotherapy in the form of 40 Gy radiation directed at her neck and superior mediastinum, with one course of chemotherapy using cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristine, and prednisolone (CHOP).
  • After radio-chemotherapy, the tumor was obviously smaller.
  • Because the patient refused further chemotherapy, she underwent salvage surgery, after being sufficiently advised, and with her informed consent.
  • Histological examination of the removed thyroid tissue showed that the radio-chemotherapy had produced a complete response.
  • Thus, we believe that an open biopsy should be performed early to confirm the diagnosis of lymphoma histologically and to determine the degree of malignancy.
  • We also stress the fact that NHLT is presently most effectively treated by radiotherapy combined with several courses of CHOP chemotherapy.
  • The role of surgery in the treatment of NHLT is diminishing.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Diagnosis, Differential. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Prednisolone / administration & dosage. Salvage Therapy. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 12560906.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone; VAP-cyclo protocol
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8. Bhatti P, Veiga LH, Ronckers CM, Sigurdson AJ, Stovall M, Smith SA, Weathers R, Leisenring W, Mertens AC, Hammond S, Friedman DL, Neglia JP, Meadows AT, Donaldson SS, Sklar CA, Robison LL, Inskip PD: Risk of second primary thyroid cancer after radiotherapy for a childhood cancer in a large cohort study: an update from the childhood cancer survivor study. Radiat Res; 2010 Dec;174(6):741-52
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  • [Title] Risk of second primary thyroid cancer after radiotherapy for a childhood cancer in a large cohort study: an update from the childhood cancer survivor study.
  • Previous studies have indicated that thyroid cancer risk after a first childhood malignancy is curvilinear with radiation dose, increasing at low to moderate doses and decreasing at high doses.
  • Understanding factors that modify the radiation dose response over the entire therapeutic dose range is challenging and requires large numbers of subjects.
  • We quantified the long-term risk of thyroid cancer associated with radiation treatment among 12,547 5-year survivors of a childhood cancer (leukemia, Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, central nervous system cancer, soft tissue sarcoma, kidney cancer, bone cancer, neuroblastoma) diagnosed between 1970 and 1986 in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study using the most current cohort follow-up to 2005.
  • There were 119 subsequent pathologically confirmed thyroid cancer cases, and individual radiation doses to the thyroid gland were estimated for the entire cohort.
  • This cohort study builds on the previous case-control study in this population (69 thyroid cancer cases with follow-up to 2000) by allowing the evaluation of both relative and absolute risks.
  • Poisson regression analyses were used to calculate standardized incidence ratios (SIR), excess relative risks (ERR) and excess absolute risks (EAR) of thyroid cancer associated with radiation dose.
  • Other factors such as sex, type of first cancer, attained age, age at exposure to radiation, time since exposure to radiation, and chemotherapy (yes/no) were assessed for their effect on the linear and exponential quadratic terms describing the dose-response relationship.
  • Similar to the previous analysis, thyroid cancer risk increased linearly with radiation dose up to approximately 20 Gy, where the relative risk peaked at 14.6-fold (95% CI, 6.8-31.5).
  • At thyroid radiation doses >20 Gy, a downturn in the dose-response relationship was observed.
  • We found that age at exposure modified the ERR linear dose term (higher radiation risk with younger age) (P < 0.001) and that sex (higher radiation risk among females) (P  =  0.008) and time since exposure (higher radiation risk with longer time) (P < 0.001) modified the EAR linear dose term.
  • Sex, age at exposure and time since exposure were found to be significant modifiers of the radiation-related risk of thyroid cancer and as such are important factors to account for in clinical follow-up and thyroid cancer risk estimation among childhood cancer survivors.

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  • (PMID = 21128798.001).
  • [ISSN] 1938-5404
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiation research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiat. Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U24 CA055727; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 CP010131-13; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U24 CA55727
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS269726; NLM/ PMC3080023
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9. Frache S, Peter MO, Laithier V, Bertrand AM, Thiriez G, Menget A, Kantelip B, Yakouben K, Plouvier E, Rohrlich PS: [Involvement of thyroid gland at non-Hodgkin lymphoma initial diagnosis: 2 pediatric cases]. Arch Pediatr; 2006 Jan;13(1):38-40
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  • [Title] [Involvement of thyroid gland at non-Hodgkin lymphoma initial diagnosis: 2 pediatric cases].
  • [Transliterated title] Goitre thyroïdien révélateur d'un lymphome non hodgkinien: à propos de 2 cas.
  • Extranodal thyroid lymphomatous involvement is rare in childhood.
  • We report here 2 children, 1 with vertical transmission-acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), presenting with lymphomatous infiltration of the thyroid gland at diagnosis.
  • One child had infra-clinical endocrine impairment and both responded well to chemotherapy.
  • Although the cases are too scarce to be affirmative, thyroid gland involvement doesn't seem to alter the good prognosis of childhood Burkitt's lymphoma.
  • The third child's cancer in frequency is Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas.
  • Presenting as the initial AIDS event in 1 patient, this case report also highlights the need to systematically propose antiretroviral therapy in vertically HIV infected children.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / etiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology


10. Wirtzfeld DA, Winston JS, Hicks WL Jr, Loree TR: Clinical presentation and treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the thyroid gland. Ann Surg Oncol; 2001 May;8(4):338-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical presentation and treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the thyroid gland.
  • BACKGROUND: Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) of the thyroid is a rare malignancy.
  • The traditional approach to curative treatment of localized (stages I and II) NHL of the thyroid gland is surgical resection.
  • The recent success of multimodality chemoradiotherapy suggests that surgery should be reserved for providing a tissue diagnosis or relief from acute airway obstruction.
  • It is questionable whether this has made an impact on treatment approaches.
  • METHODS: Retrospective chart review was conducted for all cases of localized NHL of the thyroid gland treated at Roswell Park Cancer Institute between January 1970 and January 1999.
  • All patients were treated with either a total thyroidectomy (eight patients) or a thyroid lobectomy (two patients).
  • Nine (90%) were initially treated outside of Roswell Park Cancer Institute and referred secondarily for consideration of further therapy.
  • Adjuvant therapy consisting of cyclophosphamide-based chemoradiotherapy was administered to nine patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A review of the literature suggests that fine needle aspiration (FNA) with flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry can be used to accurately diagnose NHL of the thyroid gland.
  • Open biopsy should be reserved for cases where this technique is not available or where the diagnosis can not be confirmed by FNA alone.
  • Further review suggests that the most efficacious therapy is systemic chemotherapy in combination with radiation for local control.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy. Bone Marrow / pathology. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 11352307.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Hou HA, Tang JL, Hsu SC, Yu CL, Chen YC, Yao M: Acquisition and cure of autoimmune disease following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. J Formos Med Assoc; 2007 Sep;106(9):779-83
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  • The other case was a 50-year-old woman with Sjgrens syndrome and hypothyroidism who was diagnosed with peripheral T cell non-Hodgkins lymphoma.
  • She received allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) from her histocompatible sister owing to only partial response to traditional chemotherapy.
  • Cure of lymphoma and remission of Sjgrens syndrome was noted 4 years after PBSCT.

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  • (PMID = 17908668.001).
  • [ISSN] 0929-6646
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Formosan Medical Association = Taiwan yi zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Autoantibodies
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12. Zinzani PL, Stefoni V, Musuraca G, Tani M, Alinari L, Gabriele A, Marchi E, Pileri S, Baccarani M: Fludarabine-containing chemotherapy as frontline treatment of nongastrointestinal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Cancer; 2004 May 15;100(10):2190-4
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  • [Title] Fludarabine-containing chemotherapy as frontline treatment of nongastrointestinal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is a specific clinicopathologic entity with gastric and nongastrointestinal site involvement.
  • The authors reported the clinical outcome of patients with Stage IE nongastrointestinal MALT lymphoma treated with a frontline fludarabine-containing regimen or with a regimen containing cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone (CVP).
  • Presenting sites included periorbital soft tissue (n = 8), lung (n = 5), skin (n = 5), salivary glands (n = 5), lacrimal glands (n = 5), and thyroid (n = 3).
  • Four patients, all treated with CVP, experienced disease recurrence and then achieved a second CR after FM salvage treatment.
  • No tumor recurrence was observed in patients with thyroid, lacrimal gland, or pulmonary lymphoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The fludarabine-containing FM regimen provided a relatively effective frontline (or salvage) treatment option for patients with nongastrointestinal Stage IE MALT lymphoma and probably was superior to CVP in terms of efficacy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. DNA (Cytosine-5-)-Methyltransferase / antagonists & inhibitors. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Vidarabine / analogs & derivatives. Vidarabine / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2004 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 15139063.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; EC 2.1.1.37 / DNA (Cytosine-5-)-Methyltransferase; FA2DM6879K / Vidarabine; P2K93U8740 / fludarabine; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; COP protocol 2
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13. Santoe MF, Van Houten AA, Muller AF, Berghout A: [A pregnant woman with autoimmune thyroiditis and recurrent goiter]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2004 Jul 17;148(29):1455-9
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  • Tests for antibodies against thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin were positive.
  • Thyroid-suppression therapy with levothyroxine resulted in regression of the goitre.
  • At the age of 26 there was a transitory recurrence of the goitre during a pregnancy, during which time the thyroid peroxidase antibodies became strongly positive.
  • Serology established the diagnosis of viral thyroiditis due to a Coxsackie-B virus.
  • The size of the goitre decreased after treatment with acetylsalicylic acid and prednisone.
  • Two months later the goitre again showed further growth, now in association with cervical lymphadenopathy and an enlarged left parotid gland.
  • Histology revealed a non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the type diffuse large B-cell (stage II), very likely a primary thyroid lymphoma.
  • The lymphoma was refractory to cyclophosphamide-doxorubicin-vincristine-prednisolone (CHOP); this was followed by intensive chemotherapy and autologous stem-cell transplantation, resulting finally in a complete remission.
  • The goitre disappeared and thyroid peroxidase antibodies were no longer detectable.
  • Primary thyroid lymphoma is a rare disease, but autoimmune thyroiditis appears to be an important predisposing factor.
  • [MeSH-major] Goiter / complications. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / diagnosis. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroiditis, Autoimmune / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Autoantibodies / analysis. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Iodide Peroxidase / immunology. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Pregnancy. Recurrence. Stem Cell Transplantation. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 15326651.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2162
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Autoantibodies; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; EC 1.11.1.8 / Iodide Peroxidase; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; CHOP protocol
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14. van Santen HM, Vulsma T, Dijkgraaf MG, Blumer RM, Heinen R, Jaspers MW, Geenen MM, Offringa MO, de Vijlder JJ, van den Bos C: No damaging effect of chemotherapy in addition to radiotherapy on the thyroid axis in young adult survivors of childhood cancer. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2003 Aug;88(8):3657-63
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  • [Title] No damaging effect of chemotherapy in addition to radiotherapy on the thyroid axis in young adult survivors of childhood cancer.
  • Late effects of treatment for childhood cancer on the thyroid axis are ascribed predominantly to radiotherapy.
  • Whether chemotherapy has an additional detrimental effect is still unclear.
  • The thyroid axis in 205 childhood cancer survivors was evaluated in relation to former use of chemotherapy and radiotherapy (cranial, cranio-spinal, cervical, mediastinal, or thoracic).
  • The mean follow-up time was 17.5 yr.
  • Damage to the thyroid axis was found in 55 patients (26.8%).
  • After multivariate analysis, high risk radiation field, irradiation dose, and the diagnosis of non-Hodgkin lymphoma/Hodgkin's disease were found to be significant risk factors for developing thyroid disease.
  • Treatment with chemotherapy did not have an additional negative effect on the thyroid axis.
  • For the development of central (pituitary or hypothalamic) thyroid dysfunction, patients with a brain tumor were at increased risk.
  • Chemotherapy for childhood cancer does not contribute to the damage on the thyroid axis inflicted by radiotherapy during young adulthood.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Neoplasms / therapy. Radiotherapy / adverse effects. Thyroid Gland / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation. Female. Humans. Hypothyroidism / epidemiology. Hypothyroidism / etiology. Infant. Male. Multivariate Analysis. Risk Factors. Survivors. Thyroid Diseases / epidemiology. Thyroid Diseases / etiology. Thyroid Function Tests. Thyroid Hormones / blood


15. Goldani LZ, Klock C, Diehl A, Monteiro AC, Maia AL: Histoplasmosis of the thyroid. J Clin Microbiol; 2000 Oct;38(10):3890-1
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  • [Title] Histoplasmosis of the thyroid.
  • Fungal infection of the thyroid is rare.
  • Infection of the thyroid with Histoplasma capsulatum is rarely reported as part of disseminated disease, even in geographic areas where histoplasmosis is endemic.
  • We report a 52-year-old woman with a previous Hashimoto's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in which a diffuse enlarged thyroid gland with a large nodule was the only apparent locus of histoplasmosis.
  • Fine-needle aspiration of the thyroid was an important diagnostic tool in establishing the diagnosis of histoplasmosis of the thyroid.
  • The patient was initially treated with itraconazole (400 mg/day) for the fungal infection and six cycles of chemotherapy for the lymphoma.
  • At a 6-month follow-up examination, the patient was doing well on suppressive therapy of itraconazole (200 mg/day), with no symptoms and with regression of the thyroid nodule and cervical adenopathy.
  • [MeSH-major] Histoplasmosis / pathology. Thyroid Diseases / pathology. Thyroid Gland / microbiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antifungal Agents / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Itraconazole / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / complications. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / pathology. Macrophages / microbiology. Macrophages / pathology. Middle Aged. Thyroiditis, Autoimmune / complications. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Cites] Clin Infect Dis. 2000 Apr;30(4):688-95 [10770731.001]
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  • (PMID = 11015430.001).
  • [ISSN] 0095-1137
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Microbiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antifungal Agents; 304NUG5GF4 / Itraconazole
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC87503
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16. Belcadhi M, el Omri H, Gnaba K, Mani R, Abdelkefi M, Bouzouita K, Ennabli S, Bouzouita H: [Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the thyroid. A case report and review of the literature]. Tunis Med; 2003 Feb;81(2):130-3
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  • [Title] [Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the thyroid. A case report and review of the literature].
  • [Transliterated title] Lymphome non hodgkinien primitif de la thyroïde. A propos d'une observation et revue de la littérature.
  • The authors report an observation of a non-Hodgkinien primitive lymphoma of the thyroid, developed on Hashimoto's thyroiditis.
  • The non-Hodgkinien high-grade lymphoma infiltrated the perithyroidal tissues.
  • The extension' assessment was negative and the lymphoma was classified stage IE.
  • The treatment was supplemented by 6 cures of standard chemotherapy CEOP.
  • Based on this observation and on a literature' review, we will discuss the clinical and therapeutic characteristics of this thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin. Thyroid Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Epirubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroidectomy. Thyroiditis, Autoimmune / complications. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 12708180.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-4131
  • [Journal-full-title] La Tunisie médicale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tunis Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Tunisia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone
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17. Várady E, Deák B, Molnár ZS, Rosta A, Schneider T, Esik O, Eckhardt S: Second malignancies after treatment for Hodgkin's disease. Leuk Lymphoma; 2001 Nov-Dec;42(6):1275-81
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  • [Title] Second malignancies after treatment for Hodgkin's disease.
  • The occurrence of treatment-related second malignancy following Hodgkin's disease (HD) has now been recognized as a major problem.
  • The purpose of this study was to review our experience with second malignancies in patients treated for Hodgkin's disease, comparing the results with the international literature data.
  • Second neoplasm developed in 32 cases (4.8%).
  • Seven secondary hematological malignancies were observed: four acute nonlymphocytic leukemias, two non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and one chronic myeloid leukemia.
  • Among patients with second hematological malignancies, the mean age at diagnosis of HD was 44 years and the mean interval until the development of second malignancy was 6.1 years.
  • Five patients received chemo- and radiotherapy and in two cases chemotherapy was used.
  • Twenty-five patients have had solid tumors, affecting lung (5), breast (3), colon (3), stomach (2), urinary bladder (2), head-and-neck (1), thyroid gland (1), esophagus (1), liver (1), pancreas (1), furthermore, three sarcomas and two malignant melanomas were observed.
  • Their mean age at the diagnosis of HD was 46 years and the mean period of latency was 8.3 years.
  • Chemotherapy was applied to nine patients, 16 patients received both chemo- and radiotherapy.
  • Since alkylating agents increase the risk of leukemia and irradiation contributes mainly to other malignancies, future treatment protocols should attempt to reduce the most serious consequence of therapy without compromising the survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Hodgkin Disease / therapy. Neoplasms, Second Primary / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy / adverse effects. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 11911408.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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18. Fujiu K, Sakuma H, Shio Y, Suzuki H, Mori M: [A case of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma after chemotherapy for cancer of unknown origin]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2008 Nov;35(11):1907-9
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  • [Title] [A case of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma after chemotherapy for cancer of unknown origin].
  • We present a case of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma after chemotherapy for a cancer of unknown origin.
  • Computed tomography(CT)scans showed a swelling of the superior mediastinal lymph node and a tumor of the right lobe of thyroid gland.
  • Pathological findings of the lymph node showed adenosquamous cell carcinoma, but no malignant lesion was found in the thyroid gland.
  • Six courses of chemotherapy consisting of carboplatin and docetaxel were carried out.
  • Seven months later, CT and positron emission tomography revealed swelling of the mediastinal lymph nodes and a tumor in the left abdominal tumor.
  • An open biopsy of the abdominal tumor demonstrated non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, mature B cell type, follicular lymphoma, grade 1.
  • Radiotherapy was done for the malignant lymphoma, and radiochemotherapy for the mediastinal lymph nodes.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / pathology. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Biopsy. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / pathology. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / radiography. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / surgery. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 19011340.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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19. van Poppel PC, Fijnheer R, Haverman JF, Sinniqe HA: [Aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma in 3 patients with rheumatoid arthritis: discontinue the use of methotrexate]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2008 Oct 25;152(43):2351-6
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  • [Title] [Aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma in 3 patients with rheumatoid arthritis: discontinue the use of methotrexate].
  • [Transliterated title] Agressief non-hodgkinlymfoom bij 3 patiënten met reumatoïde artritis: eerst methotrexaat staken.
  • 3 female patients who were being treated with methotrexate developed a non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • The first patient, 67 years old, presented with an enlarged thyroid gland.
  • The cytological punction was inconclusive and an open biopsy revealed a B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, which was localised.
  • The patient herself reported that the swelling of her thyroid gland was diminished after cessation of methotrexate.
  • The lymphoma showed a complete remission without chemotherapy being given.
  • The second patient, a 78-year-old woman, developed a non-Hodgkin lymphoma in one of her tonsils that showed a partial remission after withdrawal of the methotrexate therapy.
  • The third patient, a 66-year-old woman, presented herself with a pulmonary non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • In this patient withdrawal of the methotrexate resulted in a complete remission of the non-Hodgkin lymphoma as well.
  • If a non-Hodgkin lymphoma develops in a patient being treated with methotrexate then the therapy should be discontinued and chemotherapy should not be given straightaway.
  • [MeSH-major] Antirheumatic Agents / adverse effects. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / chemically induced. Methotrexate / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Arthritis, Rheumatoid / drug therapy. Female. Humans. Remission, Spontaneous


20. Harrington KJ, Michalaki VJ, Vini L, Nutting CM, Syrigos KN, A'hern R, Harmer CL: Management of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the thyroid: the Royal Marsden Hospital experience. Br J Radiol; 2005 May;78(929):405-10
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  • [Title] Management of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the thyroid: the Royal Marsden Hospital experience.
  • A retrospective review was conducted of patients treated for thyroid non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (TNHL) at the Royal Marsden Hospital between 1936 and 1996 to determine the effect of radiotherapy (RT) on outcome.
  • 91 patients were identified from the Thyroid Unit Database.
  • (1) involved field radiotherapy (IFRT) to the thyroid bed and cervical lymph nodes;.
  • (2) extended field radiotherapy (EFRT) covering the thyroid bed, cervical and mediastinal lymph nodes.
  • 89 patients received RT as part of definitive treatment following surgery, to a dose of approximately 40 Gy.
  • 27 patients received cytotoxic chemotherapy.
  • EFRT alone for Stage I, but not for Stage II disease, yielded acceptable rates of local control and disease free survival with doses of at least 40 Gy.
  • These historical data strongly support the addition of combination chemotherapy to the treatment regimen in all patients with Stage II disease.
  • Indeed, in recent years this has become the standard of care for all cases of thyroid lymphoma unless the histology is of marginal zone type (mucosa associated lymphoma tissue (MALT) lymphoma).
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / radiotherapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. London. Lymphatic Metastasis / radiotherapy. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 15845932.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1285
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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21. Buła G, Waler J, Niemiec A, Trompeta J, Steplewska K, Gawrychowski J: Unusual malignant thyroid tumours--a clinical study of 20 cases. Acta Chir Belg; 2008 Nov-Dec;108(6):702-7
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  • [Title] Unusual malignant thyroid tumours--a clinical study of 20 cases.
  • The aim of this study is to assess late results of surgical treatment for primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma (PNHL), thyroid sarcomas (TS) and tumour metastases (TM) of the thyroid gland.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between January 1st, 1990 and December 31st, 2005, 12725 patients were surgically treated for various types of goitre.
  • Malignant tumour was diagnosed in 617 (4.9%) cases, consisting of 597 (96.8%) patients with thyroid carcinoma and 20 (3.2%) with other tumours, which included 9 (1.5%) cases of PNHL, 9 (1.5%) cases of TM and 2 (0.2%) patients who showed TS.
  • RESULTS: In the group of patients diagnosed with PNHL, variant B-cell lymphoma predominated (77.8%), and in cases of patients with TM renal cell carcinoma prevailed (77.8%).
  • All patients were surgically treated with possible complementary chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy.
  • Patients with primary thyroid lymphomas should be approached individually using all available methods of treatment, including surgery and radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy.
  • 2. Diagnosis of cold nodules in patients with oncological history should always arouse suspicion of metastases to the thyroid gland.
  • 3. Diagnosis of non-thyroid cancer prior to surgery is difficult to obtain.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / surgery. Sarcoma / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Female. Goiter / etiology. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Lymphoma, B-Cell / surgery. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19241922.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5458
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir. Belg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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22. DiBiase SJ, Grigsby PW, Guo C, Lin HS, Wasserman TH: Outcome analysis for stage IE and IIE thyroid lymphoma. Am J Clin Oncol; 2004 Apr;27(2):178-84
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  • [Title] Outcome analysis for stage IE and IIE thyroid lymphoma.
  • Previous reports have revealed modest results in the management of thyroid lymphoma with radiotherapy alone.
  • This retrospective report evaluates the outcome of patients treated for thyroid lymphoma with radiotherapy alone and with combined modality therapy (chemotherapy and radiotherapy) at a single institution.
  • Twenty-seven patients with stages IE and IIE non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the thyroid gland were treated between 1960 and 1998 at Barnes-Jewish Hospital, of which 14 patients were stage IE and 13 patients were stage IIE.
  • The median age at diagnosis was 67 years, and there were 21 females and 6 males evaluated.
  • The median follow-up time was 38 months (range: 3-279 months).
  • All patients had histologically proven non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, of which 22 patients (81%) were intermediate grade.
  • Treatment consisted of radiotherapy alone in 19 patients and a combined modality therapy in 8 patients.
  • The median radiation dose to the thyroid bed was 44 Gy, and most patients received a doxorubicin-containing regimen administered prior to radiotherapy.
  • Patient, tumor, and treatment-related characteristics were evaluated using Cox regression analysis.
  • Primary thyroid gland lymphomas have a favorable outcome with appropriate therapy, but prognosis depends on both clinical stage and age at presentation.
  • Because of the risk of both local-regional and distant failure, combined modality approaches that use chemotherapy with radiotherapy are warranted for intermediate- and high grade thyroid lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / radiotherapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prednisolone / administration & dosage. Proportional Hazards Models. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 15057158.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-453X
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone; VAP-cyclo protocol
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23. Büchler T, Ferra C, Virgili N, Montanya E, Grañena A: A relapsed non-Hodgkin lymphoma presenting as panhypopituitarism successfully treated by chemotherapy. J Neurooncol; 2002 Aug;59(1):35-8
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  • [Title] A relapsed non-Hodgkin lymphoma presenting as panhypopituitarism successfully treated by chemotherapy.
  • We report a case of relapsed large B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) affecting the anterior pituitary.
  • The levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone and gonadotropins were very low and magnetic resonance imaging showed infiltration of the pituitary gland and stalk.
  • After controlling the hormonal deficiencies with substitution using hydroxycortisone and levothyroxin, the patient was treated with combination chemotherapy using cyclophosphamide, vincristine, mitoxantrone, etoposide, and bleomycin (VNCOP-B regimen), achieving a complete regression of the pituitary mass and partial recovery of the endocrine function.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / therapeutic use. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Etoposide / therapeutic use. Hypopituitarism / etiology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / complications. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Mitoxantrone / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / complications. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Prednisone / therapeutic use. Vincristine / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Treatment Outcome


24. Soliman KB, Abbas MM, Seksaka MA, Wafa S, Balah AS: Aggressive primary thyroid non Hodgkin's lymphoma with pregnancy. Saudi Med J; 2007 Apr;28(4):634-6
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  • [Title] Aggressive primary thyroid non Hodgkin's lymphoma with pregnancy.
  • She was diagnosed as an aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the thyroid gland.
  • She was treated by 6 cycles of chemotherapy, with dramatic response after receiving the first cycle.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Prednisone / therapeutic use. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Outcome. Vincristine / therapeutic use


25. Colović M, Matić S, Kryeziu E, Tomin D, Colović N, Atkinson HD: Outcomes of primary thyroid non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a series of nine consecutive cases. Med Oncol; 2007;24(2):203-8
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  • [Title] Outcomes of primary thyroid non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a series of nine consecutive cases.
  • Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) of the thyroid gland is a rare disease with an incidence of 0.5 per 100,000 population.
  • Stages IE and IIE thyroid NHL have been traditionally treated by surgical resection; however, modern treatment consists of chemotherapy and local radiotherapy, and surgery is often reserved for tissue diagnosis and relief of airway compression.
  • We retrospectively reviewed the management and outcomes of nine consecutive patients with thyroid NHL, eight females and one male (median age 63 yr, range 34-71 yr) treated between 1994 and 1999.
  • Pathohistology and immunohistochemistry identified two patients with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT), three follicular center cell lymphoma (FCC), two patients large B-cell lymphoma (BLCL), one a marginal zone lymphoma (MZL), and one patient a peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL).
  • One (MALT) patient underwent surgery alone; three patients surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy (two FCC, one PTCL); three patients surgery and chemotherapy (one MALT, one FCC, one LBCL); and two chemotherapy alone (one LBCL, one MZL).
  • The PTCL patient, a 34-yr-old man, died from disseminated disease at 13 mo despite secondary chemotherapy, and one LBCL patient with extensively invasive local disease died from stroke 17 mo after diagnosis.
  • With appropriate therapy primary thyroid NHL has a favorable course; however, prognosis depends on the histology, local spread, and the stage of the disease at presentation, as well as the patient's performance status.
  • Surgery in combination with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy is still warranted for intermediate and high-grade thyroid NHLs, with over 77% of patients achieving long-term remission.
  • Peripheral T-cell lymphoma carries a poor prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / pathology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Gland / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17848745.001).
  • [ISSN] 1357-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical oncology (Northwood, London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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26. Estrada-Sánchez G, Ochoa-Carrillo FJ, Altamirano-Ley J: [(18)FDG PET/CT imaging in primary breast lymphoma and breast cancer]. Cir Cir; 2008 Jul-Aug;76(4):279-86
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  • [Title] [(18)FDG PET/CT imaging in primary breast lymphoma and breast cancer].
  • METHODS: We studied 1728 oncological patients and 295 patients were included, 293 with breast cancer (17%) and two patients with primary breast lymphoma (0.1%).
  • SUVmax for the primary tumor was 4.2 +/- 2.6 SD.
  • Mean SUVmax for patients with primary breast lymphoma were 3.2 and 1.4.
  • Sites of metastases were lymph nodes in the neck (4.4% SUVmax 2.7), internal mammary lymph nodes (5% SUVmax 5.3), mediastinum (8.3% SUVmax 5.0), retroperitoneal (6 % SUVmax 5.4), ipsilateral axilla (94% SUVmax 4.5), contralateral axilla (4.4% SUVmax 2.8), pectoral muscle (10.2% SUVmax 2.6), pleura (4.4% SUVmax 3.9), lung (32.3% SUVmax 2.9), liver (19.1% SUVmax 4.5), bone (36.7%), adrenal gland (4.4% SUVmax 2.4), brain (4.4%), spleen and contralateral breast, one case each.
  • One patient presented thymic hyperplasia after chemotherapy.
  • The incidence of a second primary was 4.7%, 2.1% ovarian, 1.4% lung, 0.3% lymphoma, 0.3% endometrium, 0.3% pancreas and 0.3% thyroid.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Mean SUVmax for the primary tumor was similar to that reported in the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bone Neoplasms / radiography. Bone Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / radiography. Brain Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Breast Neoplasms, Male / radiography. Breast Neoplasms, Male / radionuclide imaging. Cost-Benefit Analysis. Female. Fluorine Radioisotopes. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Hyperplasia. Lymphatic Metastasis / radiography. Lymphatic Metastasis / radionuclide imaging. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / radiography. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / radionuclide imaging. Male. Mammography. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / radiography. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / radionuclide imaging. Radiopharmaceuticals. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thymus Gland / pathology. Thymus Gland / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 18778536.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-7411
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía y cirujanos
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Cir
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fluorine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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27. Mochiduki Y, Muramoto S: [Therapy-related acute promyelocytic leukemia with a t(9;22)(q34;q11) and t(15;17)(q22;q11 to approximately 12) subclone]. Rinsho Ketsueki; 2005 Nov;46(11):1218-22
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  • [Title] [Therapy-related acute promyelocytic leukemia with a t(9;22)(q34;q11) and t(15;17)(q22;q11 to approximately 12) subclone].
  • We present a case of therapy-related acute promyelocytic leukemia (t-APL) with a subclone accompanied by karyotype 46, XX, t(9; 22)(q34;q11), t(15 ;17)(q22;11 to approximately 12) at onset.
  • A 75-year-old woman was diagnosed as having non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the thyroid gland in July 1997.
  • She then underwent surgical resection of her thyroid gland, and was treated with etoposide (total dose 16775 mg) from February 1998 to May 2000.
  • In June 2000, having developed t-APL, she was referred to our department.
  • The patient attained CR following treatment with chemotherapy containing all-trans retinoic acid.
  • Ten months later she relapsed, but lost the t(9;22), while maintaining the t(15;17).
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Cyclophosphamide / adverse effects. Doxorubicin / adverse effects. Etoposide / adverse effects. Female. Humans. Karyotyping. Prednisolone / adverse effects. Remission Induction. Tretinoin / therapeutic use. Vincristine / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 16440807.001).
  • [ISSN] 0485-1439
  • [Journal-full-title] [Rinshō ketsueki] The Japanese journal of clinical hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rinsho Ketsueki
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone; VAP-cyclo protocol
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28. Belal AA, Allam A, Kandil A, El Husseiny G, Khafaga Y, Al Rajhi N, Ahmed G, Gray A, Ajarim D, Schultz H, Ezzat A: Primary thyroid lymphoma: a retrospective analysis of prognostic factors and treatment outcome for localized intermediate and high grade lymphoma. Am J Clin Oncol; 2001 Jun;24(3):299-305
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  • [Title] Primary thyroid lymphoma: a retrospective analysis of prognostic factors and treatment outcome for localized intermediate and high grade lymphoma.
  • Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma presenting in the thyroid gland is uncommon.
  • A review of the King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre (KFSH & RC) experience was performed to assess treatment outcome and prognostic factors in this rare extranodal presentation of localized lymphoma.
  • Eight patients who had stage III or IV disease, low grade, or did not complete their prescribed treatment were excluded from the study.
  • There were 38 female and 14 male patients with a median age of 59.5 years at the time of diagnosis (range: 10-87 years).
  • Thirty-five of the 52 patients underwent diagnostic partial or total thyroidectomy at other institutions based on a preoperative assumption of thyroid carcinoma.
  • All 52 patients had non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of intermediate (94%) or high (6%) grade.
  • Detailed staging was carried out in all patients; 16 patients (31%) had disease confined to the thyroid gland (stage IE), whereas 36 (69%) had associated disease in cervical lymph nodes and/or the mediastinum (stage IIE) disease.
  • A total of 18 patients (35%) were treated with a single-modality treatment--radiotherapy alone in 2, chemotherapy alone in 13, and surgery alone in the remaining 3 patients.
  • There were no significant differences in outcome between those treated with single-modality and those with combined-modality therapy.
  • Age, sex, stage, histology, lactic acid dehydrogenase level, tumor bulk, and the treatment modality were not found to correlate with RFS or OS.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11404505.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-3732
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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29. Inskip PD, Curtis RE: New malignancies following childhood cancer in the United States, 1973-2002. Int J Cancer; 2007 Nov 15;121(10):2233-40
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  • The objectives of our study were to quantify risks for developing new malignancies among childhood cancer survivors, identify links between particular types of first and subsequent cancer, and evaluate the possible role of treatment.
  • Observed-to-expected ratios (O/E) were calculated, and Poisson regression was used to compare risks among treatment groups.
  • Most common were subsequent primary cancers of the female breast, central nervous system, bone, thyroid gland and soft tissue, as well as cutaneous melanoma and acute non-lymphocytic leukemia (ANLL).
  • The greatest risks of subsequent cancers occurred among patients diagnosed previously with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), Ewing sarcoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumor, or retinoblastoma.
  • Risk of subsequent solid cancers was higher among persons whose initial treatment for childhood cancer included radiotherapy, whereas the excess of subsequent ANLL was strongly related to chemotherapy.
  • The O/E for subsequent ANLL increased with increasing calendar year of initial cancer diagnosis among survivors of cancers other than HL, most likely due to increasing use of leukemogenic drugs for solid cancers and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • Childhood cancer survivors are at markedly increased risk of developing a variety of new cancers relative to the general population, but the magnitude of excess risk and specific types of second cancer vary widely by type of first cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Risk Factors. Sex Characteristics. Time Factors. United States / epidemiology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17557301.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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