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1. Youn JC, Rhee Y, Park SY, Kim WH, Kim SJ, Chung HC, Hong SW, Lim SK: Severe hypothyroidism induced by thyroid metastasis of colon adenocarcinoma: a case report and review of the literature. Endocr J; 2006 Jun;53(3):339-43
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Severe hypothyroidism induced by thyroid metastasis of colon adenocarcinoma: a case report and review of the literature.
  • Symptoms of hoarseness and neck swelling were already evident 4 months prior at which time tests for normal thyroid function were performed.
  • An enlarged thyroid with some calcification was noticed in the neck ultrasonography with multiple cervical lymphadenopathies.
  • Core biopsy of the thyroid gland showed invasion of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma cells.
  • There were multiple lung parenchymal nodules and adrenal masses at the time of evaluation.
  • The patient was started on palliative chemotherapy with thyroid hormone replacement and gradually became euthyroid.
  • From these findings and the clinical observations, thyroid metastasis with hypothyroidism developing acutely from metastatic colon adenocarcinoma was diagnosed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Hypothyroidism / etiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Goiter / ultrasonography. Humans. Male. Thyroid Function Tests. Thyrotropin / blood. Thyroxine / blood

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  • (PMID = 16714841.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-8959
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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2. Ganguly R, Mitra S, Datta AK: Synchronous occurrence of anaplastic, follicular and papillary carcinomas with follicular adenoma in thyroid gland. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2010 Apr-Jun;53(2):337-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Synchronous occurrence of anaplastic, follicular and papillary carcinomas with follicular adenoma in thyroid gland.
  • Various combinations of thyroid carcinomas have been reported including those between different cancers of follicular cell origin and those between follicular and C-cell histogenesis.
  • We report a case of composite anaplastic and papillary cancer on one thyroid lobe with a follicular carcinoma in the other lobe in a female patient aged 64 years.
  • The patient was managed by a total thyroidectomy with bilateral modified radical neck dissection followed by chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / complications. Adenoma / complications. Carcinoma / complications. Carcinoma, Papillary / complications. Thyroid Gland / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Drug Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Histocytochemistry. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Microscopy. Middle Aged. Thyroidectomy

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  • [CommentIn] Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2011 Apr-Jun;54(2):434-5 [21623130.001]
  • [CommentIn] Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2011 Apr-Jun;54(2):414-5; author reply 415 [21623114.001]
  • (PMID = 20551551.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-5130
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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3. Poon D, Toh HC, Sim CS: Two case reports of metastases from colon carcinoma to the thyroid. Ann Acad Med Singapore; 2004 Jan;33(1):100-2
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  • [Title] Two case reports of metastases from colon carcinoma to the thyroid.
  • INTRODUCTION: Secondary malignancy of the thyroid gland is uncommon, but it is a problem requiring ongoing recognition.
  • As it is more common than primary thyroid malignancy, metastatic disease involving the thyroid gland should be actively excluded in a patient with enlarging or abnormal thyroid gland and a previously known primary tumour.
  • CLINICAL PICTURE: We report 2 cases of primary colon carcinoma with metastasis to the thyroid gland that mimicked thyroid anaplastic carcinoma.
  • TREATMENT AND OUTCOME: Emergency tracheostomy was necessary in the first case with subsequent oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy providing palliation of symptom of breathlessness, with significant reduction in size of thyroidal metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Colonic Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 15008573.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-4602
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Acad. Med. Singap.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
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4. Simpson AC, McCown JL: Systemic hypertension in a dog with a functional thyroid gland adenocarcinoma. J Am Vet Med Assoc; 2009 Dec 15;235(12):1474-9
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  • [Title] Systemic hypertension in a dog with a functional thyroid gland adenocarcinoma.
  • Palpation of the ventral cervical region revealed a fixed asymmetric mass in the area of the lobes of the thyroid gland.
  • Thyroidectomy of both lobes of the gland was performed.
  • Histologic examination revealed a bilateral, multilobulated, and encapsulated thyroid gland adenocarcinoma.
  • TREATMENT AND OUTCOME: Thyroidectomy of both lobes of the gland was performed with clinical resolution of hypertension.
  • CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This report describes concurrent hypertension in a dog with a functional thyroid gland adenocarcinoma with subsequent return of blood pressure values to within reference ranges after thyroidectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / veterinary. Dog Diseases / etiology. Hypertension / veterinary. Thyroid Neoplasms / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Dogs. Female. Hypocapnia. Hypothyroidism / drug therapy. Hypothyroidism / veterinary. Thyroxine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 20001784.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1488
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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5. Cherk MH, Moore M, Serpell J, Swain S, Topliss DJ: Metastatic colorectal cancer to a primary thyroid cancer. World J Surg Oncol; 2008;6:122
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  • [Title] Metastatic colorectal cancer to a primary thyroid cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Metastatic malignancy to the thyroid gland is generally uncommon due to an unfavourable local thyroid micro-environment which impairs the ability of metastatic cells to settle and thrive.
  • Metastases to the thyroid gland have however been reported to occur occasionally particularly if there has been disruption to normal thyroid tissue architecture.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We report a patient with a history of surgically resected rectal adenocarcinoma who presents with a rising serum CEA level and an 18F-FDG PET scan positive thyroid nodule which was subsequently confirmed at surgery to be a focus of metastatic rectal adenocarcinoma within a primary poorly differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma.Subsequent treatment involved right hemi-thyroidectomy, pulmonary wedge resection of oligometastatic metastatic colorectal cancer and chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Metastatic rectal carcinoma to the thyroid gland and in particular to a primary thyroid malignancy is rare and unusual.
  • Prognosis is likely to be more dependent on underlying metastatic disease rather than the primary thyroid malignancy hence primary treatments should be tailored towards treating and controlling metastatic disease and less emphasis placed on the primary thyroid malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Positron-Emission Tomography


6. Jung TS, Oh YL, Min YK, Lee MS, Lee MK, Kim KW, Chung JH: A patient with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid intermingled with follicular thyroid carcinoma that remains alive more than 8 years after diagnosis. Korean J Intern Med; 2006 Mar;21(1):73-8
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  • [Title] A patient with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid intermingled with follicular thyroid carcinoma that remains alive more than 8 years after diagnosis.
  • Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid is an extremely rare tumor with a highly aggressive clinical course.
  • We report here on a patient with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid who remains alive more than 8 years after diagnosis.
  • A 56-year-old man presented with a hoarse voice and a rapidly progressing mass on the right side of the thyroid gland.
  • Histopathologic findings revealed primary squamous cell carcinoma combined with follicular carcinoma of the thyroid.
  • TSH suppressive therapy with L-thyroxine was administered alone rather than radioactive iodine therapy or chemotherapy.
  • The patient underwent colectomy for the diagnosis of a colon cancer.
  • Recent evaluation has revealed a new lesion in the lung; this was diagnosed as metastatic follicular carcinoma originating from the thyroid.
  • High dose radioactive iodine therapy was administered, and he remains alive in stable condition.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16646570.001).
  • [ISSN] 1226-3303
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3891069
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7. Bae WK, Shim HJ, Choi YD, Kim JW, Cho SH, Kang HC, Chung IJ: Severe hypothyroidism induced by thyroid metastasis of cholangiocarcinoma. Cancer Res Treat; 2009 Mar;41(1):56-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Severe hypothyroidism induced by thyroid metastasis of cholangiocarcinoma.
  • We report a case of severe hypothyroidism in a cholangiocarcinoma patient with metastasis to the thyroid gland.
  • Abdominal computed tomography (CT) demonstrated the presence of a 4.7-cm tumor in the right hepatic lobe, and core needle biopsy revealed it to be cholangiocarcinoma.
  • Neck CT showed a diffuse, low attenuation thyroid gland, and fine-needle aspiration (FNA) demonstrated metastatic adenocarcinoma.
  • Thyroid function tests were initially normal, but the size of the thyroid gland decreased and severe hypothyroidism developed after chemotherapy was implemented for cholangiocarcinoma.
  • In a patient with malignant disease and a goiter, the possibility of a metastatic tumor involving the thyroid should be seriously considered.
  • Metastatic thyroid cancer and thyroid dysfunction are probably infrequent, but diagnosis is important in the institution of appropriate therapy.

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  • (PMID = 19688074.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-2998
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research and treatment : official journal of Korean Cancer Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res Treat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2699092
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Cholangiocarcinoma / Hypothyroidism / Thyroid metastasis
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8. Hacker U, Lenz G, Brehm G, Müller-Höcker J, Schalhorn A, Hiddemann W: Metastasis of a rectal adenocarcinoma to the thyroid gland: diagnostic and therapeutic implications. Anticancer Res; 2003 Nov-Dec;23(6D):4973-6
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  • [Title] Metastasis of a rectal adenocarcinoma to the thyroid gland: diagnostic and therapeutic implications.
  • BACKGROUND: Overt metastasis from solid tumors to the thyroid gland is a rare finding.
  • We describe a rare case of metastasis to the thyroid gland from a rectal adenocarcinoma which had been treated by rectum extirpation and a combined radiochemotherapy seven years earlier.
  • Since the lesion in the thyroid gland was the only tumor manifestation in this patient, total thyroidectomy was performed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In patients with a history of cancer, primary neoplasms of the thyroid gland are not likely to be the cause of a thyroidal tumor.
  • Fine-needle aspiration biopsy is the appropriate diagnostic procedure to define the histological diagnosis.
  • Potentially curative resection should be performed if metastasis to the thyroid gland is the only tumor manifestation.
  • Palliative chemotherapy should be considered if additional tumor manifestations are detected.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 14981954.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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9. McCain SL, Allender MC, Bohling M, Ramsay EC, Morandi F, Newkirk KM: Thyroid neoplasia in captive raccoons (Procyon lotor). J Zoo Wildl Med; 2010 Mar;41(1):121-7
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  • [Title] Thyroid neoplasia in captive raccoons (Procyon lotor).
  • Two adult, spayed, female raccoons were diagnosed with thyroid neoplasia.
  • One raccoon had a palpable, left-sided, nonfunctional thyroid adenocarcinoma which was treated with a thyroidectomy twice with local recurrence both times.
  • The raccoon developed pancytopenia and became anorexic after chemotherapy, and the owner elected humane euthanasia.
  • The second raccoon had nonpalpable, bilateral, functional follicular thyroid adenomatous hyperplasia and was treated with a right thyroidectomy and a partial left thyroidectomy, leaving behind the grossly normal portion of the left thyroid.
  • Thyroid pathology has been documented in raccoons in Europe, but is not reported in the United States.
  • Thyroid neoplasia in raccoons can occur as a nonfunctional adenocarcinoma, as is commonly reported in dogs, or as a functional adenoma, as is commonly reported in cats.
  • Methimazole gel may be a viable treatment option for raccoons with hyperthyroidism.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Female. Raccoons

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  • (PMID = 20722264.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-7260
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of zoo and wildlife medicine : official publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Zoo Wildl. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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10. Miyakawa M, Sato K, Hasegawa M, Nagai A, Sawada T, Tsushima T, Takano K: Severe thyrotoxicosis induced by thyroid metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma: a case report and review of the literature. Thyroid; 2001 Sep;11(9):883-8
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  • [Title] Severe thyrotoxicosis induced by thyroid metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma: a case report and review of the literature.
  • A 50-year-old woman who had undergone lung lobectomy because of lung adenocarcinoma presented with thyrotoxicosis, neck swelling, and cervical lymphadenopathy one month after the operation.
  • Although the thyroid gland had been normal before surgery, chest computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a markedly enlarged thyroid gland only 1 month after surgery.
  • 123I uptake for 24 hours was suppressed to 4% in the thyroid gland with no uptake elsewhere including the lung.
  • Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the thyroid showed invasion of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma cells, cytologically identical to the cells obtained from sputum and those infiltrating the resected sections of the lung adenocarcinoma.
  • Immunohistochemical studies of resected lung tissues did not show positive staining for thyroglobulin, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), or surfactant protein A.
  • Clinically, the thyrotoxicosis had spontaneously improved, followed by a hypothyroid state with shrinkage of the thyroid gland after chemotherapy.
  • Despite repeated chemotherapy and the administration of thyroxine for hypothyroidism, the patient died of respiratory failure 9 months after the onset of thyrotoxicosis.
  • From these findings and the clinical course, thyroid metastasis, developing subacutely from lung adenocarcinoma, was diagnosed.
  • We speculate that aggressive invasion of tumor cells into the thyroid gland resulted in highly destructive thyrotoxicosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / complications. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary. Thyrotoxicosis / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 11575859.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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11. Pereira-Filho VA, Chaves MD, Haddad J, Gabrielli MF, Gabrielli MA, Hochulli-Vieira E, Vargas PA: Mandible metastasis as the first sign from primary adenocarcinoma of the lung. Gen Dent; 2007 May-Jun;55(3):224-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mandible metastasis as the first sign from primary adenocarcinoma of the lung.
  • Adenocarcinoma of the lung that metastasizes to the mandible is very uncommon; only a few cases have been described in the English-language literature.
  • This article presents a metastasis from adenocarcinoma of the lung affecting the mandible of a 64-year-old woman, in which the first discovered metastatic lesion was detected before the primary tumor.
  • The immunoreactivity for human thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) in the oral lesion was essential for determining the site and type of the primary tumor, as the patient showed no clinical or radiographic evidence of a tumor in the thyroid gland.
  • After the primary tumor in the lung was diagnosed, radiotherapy and chemotherapy were initiated; unfortunately, the patient died two months after the start of treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Mandibular Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 17511366.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-6771
  • [Journal-full-title] General dentistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gen Dent
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / thyroid nuclear factor 1
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12. Cheung WY, Brierley J, Mackay HJ: Treatment of rectal cancer metastases to the thyroid gland: report of two cases. Clin Colorectal Cancer; 2008 Jul;7(4):280-2
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  • [Title] Treatment of rectal cancer metastases to the thyroid gland: report of two cases.
  • Rectal cancer rarely metastasizes to the thyroid gland.
  • When it does, however, it poses particular problems with regard to diagnosis and management.
  • Case reports to date support a first-line surgical approach alone or in combination with radiation therapy.
  • Despite the use of these treatment modalities, the presence of thyroid metastasis is associated with a very poor prognosis and significant morbidity.
  • Herein, we review the literature and report on 2 cases of rectal carcinoma metastatic to the thyroid gland that were treated with oxaliplatin-containing chemotherapy regimens.
  • In both cases, the patients responded well to combination chemotherapy up front or after previous surgery and chemoradiation.
  • The favorable survival and symptom benefits observed in these patients suggest that combination chemotherapy should be considered in the management of these very rare cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Organoplatinum Compounds / administration & dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 18650197.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0028
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical colorectal cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Colorectal Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 04ZR38536J / oxaliplatin
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13. Wirtz G, Quoix E, Grunenberger F, Massard G, Mennecier B: [Thyroid metastasis of lung cancer and abnormal thyroid function--a case report]. Rev Pneumol Clin; 2009 Feb;65(1):27-31
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  • [Title] [Thyroid metastasis of lung cancer and abnormal thyroid function--a case report].
  • The thyroid gland is a very rare location of metastasis and the metastatic involvement of the thyroid is mostly asymptomatic.
  • The authors report one of the first cases of pulmonary adenocarcinoma associated with painful metastatic involvement of the thyroid gland.
  • The evolution after five cycles of chemotherapy by cisplatine and docetaxel was marked by a complete regression of the thyroid metastasis and an improvement in the thyroid function.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Hyperthyroidism / etiology. Hypothyroidism / etiology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary


14. Ghofrani M, Sosa JA, Ocal IT, Angeletti C: Fine needle aspiration of poorly differentiated oxyphilic (Hürthle cell) thyroid carcinoma: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2006 Sep-Oct;50(5):560-2
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  • [Title] Fine needle aspiration of poorly differentiated oxyphilic (Hürthle cell) thyroid carcinoma: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Poorly differentiated oxyphilic (Hürthle cell) carcinomas are a more recently described variant of poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma and are characterized by a prominent Hürthle cell component in a solid or trabecular arrangement.
  • Although the histology of these rare thyroid tumors has been reported in the literature, the cytologic features on fine needle aspiration biopsy have not been described before.
  • CASE: A 73-year-old man with a long history of radioactive iodine and levothyroxine therapy for multinodular goiter presented with a painful, rapidly expanding, 6-cm, left thyroid mass with aggressive radiologic features.
  • Subsequent thyroidectomy confirmed the malignant nature of this Hürthle cell-rich tumor, warranting a diagnosis of poorly differentiated oxyphilic (Hürthle cell) thyroid carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Poorly differentiated oxyphilic thyroid carcinoma is an aggressive variant of Hürthle cell carcinomas and must enter the differential diagnosis when fine needle aspiration biopsy of a radiologically aggressive thyroid mass yields extremely hypercellular smears with a prominent Hürthle cell component.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Goiter, Nodular / complications. Goiter, Nodular / drug therapy. Goiter, Nodular / radiotherapy. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Thyroidectomy. Thyroxine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17017447.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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15. Sevinc A, Buyukberber S, Sari R, Baysal T, Mizrak B: Follicular thyroid cancer presenting initially with soft tissue metastasis. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2000 Jan;30(1):27-9
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  • [Title] Follicular thyroid cancer presenting initially with soft tissue metastasis.
  • Follicular thyroid cancer rarely manifests itself as a distant metastatic lesion.
  • We report a case of an otherwise asymptomatic 58-year-old woman with follicular thyroid cancer who initially presented with a soft tissue mass on the right scapular region.
  • An incisional biopsy specimen of soft tissue metastasis showed thyroid follicular neoplasm.
  • Upon this diagnosis, the thyroid gland was re-evaluated by ultrasound, which demonstrated a solitary, hypoechoic nodule in the right lobe.
  • Ultrasonography guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid nodule confirmed follicular neoplasm and the diagnosis of metastatic follicular thyroid cancer was established.
  • The patient refused any type of treatment and left hospital against medical advice.
  • 2.5 years later the patient was admitted to the hospital with giant, sarcoma-like multiple soft tissue masses.
  • On this admission, the serum thyroglobulin level was extremely elevated (3500 ng/ml) and she only accepted to receive chemotherapy.
  • She received three courses of chemotherapy and is alive with a stable disease after 3 months of follow-up.
  • This case of follicular thyroid cancer is reported because of its uncommon initial presentation with soft tissue metastasis which spread to multiple areas as giant soft tissue masses during follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biopsy, Needle. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Epirubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Thyroglobulin / blood. Thyroid Nodule / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Ultrasonography, Interventional

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  • (PMID = 10770565.001).
  • [ISSN] 0368-2811
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] JAPAN
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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16. Yalcin M, Bharali DJ, Dyskin E, Dier E, Lansing L, Mousa SS, Davis FB, Davis PJ, Mousa SA: Tetraiodothyroacetic acid and tetraiodothyroacetic acid nanoparticle effectively inhibit the growth of human follicular thyroid cell carcinoma. Thyroid; 2010 Mar;20(3):281-6
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  • [Title] Tetraiodothyroacetic acid and tetraiodothyroacetic acid nanoparticle effectively inhibit the growth of human follicular thyroid cell carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Tetraiodothyroacetic acid (tetrac) is a deaminated analogue of L-thyroxine that blocks the actions of L-thyroxine and 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine at the cell surface receptor for thyroid hormone on integrin alpha v beta 3.
  • Tetrac blocks the proliferative effects of thyroid hormone on tumor cells and the proangiogenesis actions of the hormone.
  • In the absence of thyroid hormone, tetrac also blocks angiogenesis induced by various growth factors.
  • Here, the activity of tetrac and tetrac NP against follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC)-236 cells was studied in two models:.
  • Animals were monitored after discontinuation of treatment up to day 40.
  • There was some regrowth of tumor after interruption of tetrac treatment, but at day 40, tumor volume and tumor weight at sacrifice were 45-55% below those of controls (p < 0.01).
  • Animal weight gain was comparable in the control and treatment groups of animals.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / drug therapy. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Nanoparticles. Thyroid Gland / drug effects. Thyroxine / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Analysis of Variance. Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Cells, Cultured. Chick Embryo. Chorioallantoic Membrane / drug effects. Chorioallantoic Membrane / pathology. Drug Delivery Systems. Humans. Mice. Mice, Nude. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • (PMID = 20187783.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] PA7UX1FFYQ / tetraiodothyroacetic acid; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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17. Sarlis NJ, Gourgiotis L: Molecular elements of apoptosis-regulating pathways in follicular thyroid cells: mining for novel therapeutic targets in the treatment of thyroid carcinoma. Curr Drug Targets Immune Endocr Metabol Disord; 2004 Sep;4(3):187-98
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  • [Title] Molecular elements of apoptosis-regulating pathways in follicular thyroid cells: mining for novel therapeutic targets in the treatment of thyroid carcinoma.
  • Recent advances in molecular techniques have shed light upon elements of the above pathways in assorted malignancies, including non-medullary thyroid carcinoma (ThyrCa).
  • A subgroup of ThyrCa patients is (or becomes over time) refractory to standard treatment modalities and eventually succumbs to their disease.
  • For such patients with clinically aggressive ThyrCa, novel therapeutic agents are urgently needed.
  • Changes in the sensitivity of cells to apoptosis have clear implications for the treatment of any malignancy.
  • In this review, we outline the main molecular targets that play a role in apoptosis in ThyrCa cells, and discuss various options for promoting apoptosis, either by pharmacologic or gene transfer therapeutic interventions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Apoptosis / physiology. Drug Delivery Systems / methods. Signal Transduction / drug effects. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Humans. Thyroid Gland / drug effects. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15379722.001).
  • [ISSN] 1568-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Current drug targets. Immune, endocrine and metabolic disorders
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Drug Targets Immune Endocr. Metabol. Disord.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 162
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18. Honoré B, Baandrup U, Vorum H: Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins F and H/H' show differential expression in normal and selected cancer tissues. Exp Cell Res; 2004 Mar 10;294(1):199-209
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  • [Title] Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins F and H/H' show differential expression in normal and selected cancer tissues.
  • We have compared a set of tissues and found striking differences in their levels of expression as well as in the nuclear versus the cytoplasmic distribution.
  • Generally, hnRNP F is broadly expressed in many tissues with extremely strong expression in the prostate gland while hnRNP H/H' shows a more restricted degree of expression with low expression in some tissues, for example, liver, exocrine acini of the pancreas, thyroid gland and heart.
  • A quite pronounced heterogeneous expression pattern is seen in the proximal tubules of the kidney where hnRNP F is present at moderate cytoplasmic levels while hnRNP H/H' is undetectable, whereas both proteins are more evenly expressed in distal tubules and collecting ducts.
  • Generally, tumor tissues reveal a broad expression of hnRNP F in the nuclei as well as in the cytoplasm while hnRNP H/H' is expressed at higher levels in the nuclei than in the cytoplasm.
  • Up-regulation of hnRNP H/H' is found in a few tissues that normally express low cytoplasmic levels of hnRNP H/H', for example, adenocarcinoma of the pancreas, hepatocellular carcinoma and gastric carcinoma. hnRNP F is down-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma and up-regulated in gastric carcinoma.
  • The present study indicates the important potential role of this subset of hnRNPs on the gene expression in many tissues.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / metabolism. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Liver Neoplasms / metabolism. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / metabolism. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology. Tissue Distribution. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 14980514.001).
  • [ISSN] 0014-4827
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental cell research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Cell Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein Group F-H
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19. Pacini F, Molinaro E, Castagna MG, Lippi F, Ceccarelli C, Agate L, Elisei R, Pinchera A: Ablation of thyroid residues with 30 mCi (131)I: a comparison in thyroid cancer patients prepared with recombinant human TSH or thyroid hormone withdrawal. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2002 Sep;87(9):4063-8
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  • [Title] Ablation of thyroid residues with 30 mCi (131)I: a comparison in thyroid cancer patients prepared with recombinant human TSH or thyroid hormone withdrawal.
  • The aim of the study was to assess whether stimulation by recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) may be used in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma for postsurgical ablation of thyroid remnants using a 30-mCi standard dose of (131)I during thyroid hormone therapy.
  • The rate of ablation was prospectively compared in three groups of patients consecutively assigned to one of three treatment arms: in the first arm, patients (n = 50) were treated while hypothyroid (HYPO); in the second arm, patients (n = 42) were treated while HYPO and stimulated in addition with rhTSH (HYPO + rhTSH); in the third arm, patients (n = 70) were treated while euthyroid (EU) on thyroid hormone therapy and stimulated with rhTSH (EU + rhTSH).
  • The outcome of thyroid ablation was assessed by conventional HYPO (131)I scan performed in HYPO state 6-10 months after ablation.
  • Basal 24-h radioiodine thyroid bed uptake was 5.8 +/- 5.7% (range, 0.2-21%) and 5.4 +/- 5.7% (range, 0.2-26%) in the HYPO and HYPO + rhTSH groups, respectively.
  • In the HYPO + rhTSH group, mean 24-h thyroid bed uptake rose to 9.4 +/- 9.5% (range, 0.2-46%) after rhTSH (P < 0.0001).
  • Mean initial dose rate (the radiation dose delivered during the first hour after treatment) was significantly lower in the EU + rhTSH group (10.7 +/- 12.6 Gy/h) compared with the HYPO + rhTSH group (48.5 +/- 43 Gy/h) and the HYPO group (27.1 +/- 42.5 Gy/h).
  • In conclusion, our study indicates that by using stimulation with rhTSH, a 30-mCi standard dose of radioiodine is not sufficient for a satisfactory thyroid ablation rate.
  • Possible alternatives for obtaining a satisfactory rate of thyroid ablation with rhTSH may consist of increasing the dose of radioiodine or using different protocols of rhTSH administration producing more prolonged thyroid cells stimulation.
  • [MeSH-major] Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Thyroid Gland / radiation effects. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Thyrotropin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / radiotherapy. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Adult. Biological Transport. Carcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Recombinant Proteins / therapeutic use. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Sep;87(9):4059-62 [12213844.001]
  • (PMID = 12213846.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
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20. Gimm O: Thyroid cancer. Cancer Lett; 2001 Feb 26;163(2):143-56
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  • [Title] Thyroid cancer.
  • Four types of thyroid cancer comprise more than 98% of all thyroid malignancies.
  • Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) may have a very benign course while undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC) belongs to the most aggressive human malignancies.
  • A variety of genes have been identified to be involved in the pathogenesis of thyroid carcinoma.
  • Somatic Ras mutations seem to be an early event and are frequently found in follicular thyroid carcinomas.
  • Germline RET missense mutations lead to hereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC).
  • In contrast, the significance of somatic RET mutations in sporadic MTC is unknown. p53 seems to play a crucial role in the dedifferentiation process of thyroid carcinoma.
  • The only clearly identified exogenous factor that may lead to thyroid carcinoma (mainly PTC) is radiation.
  • In general, early diagnosis is mandatory to enable the chance of cure.
  • Surgery is the treatment of choice.
  • Depending on the tumour type, surgery in combination with either radioiodine, external radiation or chemotherapy often enables the control of local tumour burden.
  • In MTC and UTC, once thyroid cancer is spread to distant organs, efficacious therapeutic agents are almost non-existing.
  • However, our growing knowledge of genes involved in thyroidal oncogenesis may contribute to the development of more effective treatment modalities.
  • Some preliminary data on gene therapy are quite promising.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms. Transcription Factors
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / etiology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / therapy. Age Factors. Biopsy, Needle. Carcinoma, Papillary / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Papillary / etiology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / therapy. Genes, Tumor Suppressor / genetics. Genes, p53 / genetics. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Nuclear Receptor Coactivators. Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Radiopharmaceuticals / therapeutic use. Survival Rate. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 11165748.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-3835
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / NCOA4 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Receptor Coactivators; 0 / Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Transcription Factors
  • [Number-of-references] 100
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21. Hoffmann S, Wunderlich A, Lingelbach S, Musholt PB, Musholt TJ, von Wasielewski R, Zielke A: Expression and secretion of endostatin in thyroid cancer. Ann Surg Oncol; 2008 Dec;15(12):3601-8
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  • [Title] Expression and secretion of endostatin in thyroid cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: In thyroid cancer (TC) endostatin was identified as a powerful negative regulator of tumor angiogenesis in vitro.
  • It is currently being evaluated in phase I trials for antiangiogenic therapy in various solid tumors.
  • METHODS: Tissue microarrays of 44 differentiated and 7 anaplastic TC and their metastasis were immunostained for endostatin protein expression and compared with corresponding non-neoplastic thyroid tissue (NT).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Angiogenesis Inhibitors / metabolism. Carcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Endostatins / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Differentiation / drug effects. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Epidermal Growth Factor / pharmacology. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Lymphatic Metastasis. Paraffin Embedding. Thyrotropin / pharmacology. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 18818971.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Endostatins; 62229-50-9 / Epidermal Growth Factor; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
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22. Zimmermann-Belsing T, Christensen L, Hansen HS, Kirkegaard J, Blichert-Toft M, Feldt-Rasmussen U: A case of sarcoidosis and sarcoid granuloma, papillary carcinoma, and Graves' disease in the thyroid gland. Thyroid; 2000 Mar;10(3):275-8
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  • [Title] A case of sarcoidosis and sarcoid granuloma, papillary carcinoma, and Graves' disease in the thyroid gland.
  • The disease was first described in the thyroid gland in 1938.
  • Our patient, a 27-year-old male with known sarcoidosis, was referred to the National University Hospital for acute symptoms of thyrotoxicosis (weight loss of 6 kg, tremor, thyroid enlargement, and tachycardia).
  • Furthermore, Tc-99m pertechnetate scintigraphy disclosed diffuse accumulation of the isotope confirming the diagnosis of Graves' disease.
  • During the next 18 months of antithyroid treatment (thiamazole, Thycapzol) hyperthyroidism was difficult to control, the thyroid gland gradually enlarged, and surgery was recommended.
  • During the 36-month period of antithyroid drug treatment TSH was suppressed (<0.01 mU/L) and T3 often elevated despite high doses of thiamazole.
  • Total thyroidectomy was performed, and histologic examination of the removed thyroid tissue confirmed the diagnosis of Graves' disease and also the presence of sarcoid granuloma and metastatic papillary adenocarcinoma with spread to neck lymph nodes.
  • Four months later, a modified radical neck dissection was performed with removal of neck lymph nodes followed by external radiation therapy (2 Gy x 32 fractions to the neck).
  • The concomitant presence of sarcoidosis, papillary carcinoma, and Graves' disease in a thyroid gland, to our knowledge, has not previously been described in the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Granuloma / diagnosis. Graves Disease / diagnosis. Sarcoidosis / diagnosis. Thyroid Diseases / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antithyroid Agents / therapeutic use. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Methimazole / therapeutic use. Thyrotropin / blood. Thyroxine / blood. Triiodothyronine / blood


23. Cho NL, Lin CI, Whang EE, Carothers AM, Moore FD Jr, Ruan DT: Sulindac reverses aberrant expression and localization of beta-catenin in papillary thyroid cancer cells with the BRAFV600E mutation. Thyroid; 2010 Jun;20(6):615-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sulindac reverses aberrant expression and localization of beta-catenin in papillary thyroid cancer cells with the BRAFV600E mutation.
  • BACKGROUND: Activation of the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway is implicated in thyroid tumorigenesis, and up to 90% of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) demonstrate aberrant expression of beta-catenin.
  • Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs reverse aberrant beta-catenin expression and localization in colon cancer.
  • In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug sulindac would reverse aberrant beta-catenin activity in thyroid cancer cells.
  • METHODS: beta-catenin protein levels were determined in thyroidectomy specimens from six consecutive patients and in three different thyroid cancer cells lines (8505-C, KTC-1, and TPC-1) by immunoblotting.
  • PCCL3 rat thyroid cells that conditionally overexpress either BRAF(V600E) or RET/PTC were also treated with sulindac.
  • Further, sulindac treatment reduced c-myc and cyclin D1 levels in 8505-C and KTC-1 cells, but had no effect in TPC-1 cells.
  • Immunocytochemistry demonstrated that sulindac treatment redistributed beta-catenin from the nucleus to the membrane in 8505-C and KTC-1 cells.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our findings demonstrate that sulindac treatment reverses beta-catenin activity in 8505-C and KTC-1 cell lines with the BRAF(V600E), but not in TPC-1 cells with the RET/PTC mutation.
  • Future studies should investigate the potential for beta-catenin-directed therapy for patients with advanced thyroid cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Sulindac / pharmacology. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. beta Catenin / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Humans. Mutation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Rats. Thyroid Gland / drug effects. Thyroid Gland / metabolism


24. Valo I, Verrièle V, Giraud P, Lorimier G, Guyétant S, Sommelet D: [Thyroid metastases of an adrenocortical carcinoma 41 years after the diagnosis of the primary tumor]. Ann Pathol; 2004 Jun;24(3):264-7
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  • [Title] [Thyroid metastases of an adrenocortical carcinoma 41 years after the diagnosis of the primary tumor].
  • [Transliterated title] Métastases thyroïdiennes d'un corticosurrénalome 41 ans après le diagnostic de la tumeur initiale.
  • Thyroid metastasis are rare and represent less than 4% of malignant thyroid tumors in clinical series.
  • They can develop many years after diagnosis of the primary tumor.
  • We report a case of thyroid metastasis of adrenocortical carcinoma, 41 years after the diagnosis of the primary tumor.
  • Based on current literature, we offer a brief review on thyroid metastasis and differential diagnosis of thyroid gland clear cell neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / secondary. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Combined Modality Therapy. Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate / urine. Humans. Hydrocortisone / urine. Kidney Neoplasms / chemistry. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Middle Aged. Mitotane / therapeutic use. Nephrectomy. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Thyroidectomy. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 15480262.001).
  • [ISSN] 0242-6498
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pathol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 57B09Q7FJR / Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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25. Gow KW, Lensing S, Hill DA, Krasin MJ, McCarville MB, Rai SN, Zacher M, Spunt SL, Strickland DK, Hudson MM: Thyroid carcinoma presenting in childhood or after treatment of childhood malignancies: An institutional experience and review of the literature. J Pediatr Surg; 2003 Nov;38(11):1574-80
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  • [Title] Thyroid carcinoma presenting in childhood or after treatment of childhood malignancies: An institutional experience and review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Thyroid carcinomas can occur as a primary malignancy (PTM) or secondary after another malignancy (STM).
  • The authors sought to compare the clinical characteristics, course, and outcomes of patients with primary or secondary thyroid malignancies.
  • METHODS: The authors reviewed the medical records of 8 children with PTM and 17 children with STM referred to St Jude Children's Research Hospital between February 1962 and February 2002 for evaluation and treatment of malignant thyroid carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: The 8 children who had primary thyroid carcinoma had it diagnosed at a median age of 12.5 years (range, 7.3 to 16.3 years).
  • All 8 patients remain alive a median of 22.6 years after diagnosis (range, 0.7 to 30.5 years); 1 continues to receive radioactive iodine (I 131) ablation for persistent disease.
  • Seventeen patients had thyroid carcinoma as a second malignant neoplasm after treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 6), Hodgkin's disease (n = 5), central nervous system tumor (n = 2), Wilms' tumor (n = 1), retinoblastoma (n = 1), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n = 1), or neuroblastoma (n = 1).
  • Patients with secondary thyroid carcinoma presented at a median age of 21.5 years (range, 15.3 to 42.6 years), a median of 16.2 years (range, 0.9 to 29.2 years) after diagnosis of the primary cancer.
  • Twelve of the 17 patients (70.6%) had received radiation to the thyroid gland during therapy for the primary cancer.
  • At the time of this report, all 17 patients are alive and in continue to be free of disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric thyroid carcinoma is uncommon and responds well to current therapy.
  • Given the limited period of follow-up of our cohort of secondary malignant thyroid tumors that arise after childhood cancer, these lesions appear to have similar presentations and outcomes when compared with primary carcinomas and can therefore be managed in the same manner.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Papillary / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / epidemiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Cohort Studies. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Tennessee / epidemiology. Thyroidectomy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 14614703.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 21765
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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26. Ding H, Kuang AR, Guan CT: [Randomized controlled trial of hydrochlorothiazide in augmenting the dose of 131I absorbed by thyroid remnant]. Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban; 2004 Jul;35(4):546-8
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE .

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  • [Title] [Randomized controlled trial of hydrochlorothiazide in augmenting the dose of 131I absorbed by thyroid remnant].
  • OBJECTIVE: Based on the rationale that the ablation of thyroid remnant can effectively reduce the risk for recurrence of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) and hence decrease the case fatality rate.
  • This randomized controlled trial was designed to assess the value of hydrochlorothiazide in the ablation of thyroid remnant with 131I.
  • METHODS: Thirty consecutive DTC patients with thyroid remnant after thyroid surgery were divided into two groups by randomization, the hydrochlorothiazide group received hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg tid for 4 days, the control group received placebo.
  • Responses to treatment were evaluated by the increment of thyroid 131I uptake rate at 24 h and the augmentation of 131I absorbed dose.
  • RESULTS: In the hydrochlorothiazide group, the 24 h 131I uptake rate was about (1.36+/-0.58) times larger than that before treatment, the absorbed dose was about (1.35+/-0.54) times larger than that before treatment.
  • CONCLUSION: Hydrochlorothiazide is effective for increasing 24 h 131I uptake rate and augmenting 131I absorbed dose of thyroid remnant.
  • [MeSH-major] Hydrochlorothiazide / therapeutic use. Iodine Radioisotopes / pharmacokinetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Adult. Carcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Diuretics. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Postoperative Period. Sodium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / surgery. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 15291124.001).
  • [ISSN] 1672-173X
  • [Journal-full-title] Sichuan da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Sichuan University. Medical science edition
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Diuretics; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Sodium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors; 0J48LPH2TH / Hydrochlorothiazide
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27. Nabeshima S, Kishihara Y, Nabeshima A, Yamaga S, Kinjo M, Kashiwagi S, Hayashi J: Poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with signet-ring cells of the Vater's ampulla, without jaundice but with disseminated carcinomatosis. Fukuoka Igaku Zasshi; 2003 Jul;94(7):235-40
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. LEUCOVORIN .

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  • [Title] Poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with signet-ring cells of the Vater's ampulla, without jaundice but with disseminated carcinomatosis.
  • The histological findings from bone marrow showed metastasis of adenocarcinoma with signet-ring cells, although the primary site was unknown.
  • To reduce tumor cells in number and improve DIC, 11 cycles of 5-Fluorouracil and leucovorin therapy were done, and the patient survived for 12 months.
  • Autopsy showed a 0.8 cm diameter, poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with the signet-ring cell type in the lamina propria of the Vater's ampulla.
  • The sections of the stomach, the gallbladder, urinary bladder, prostate, and thyroid gland showed no malignant cells.
  • This is a rare case of an ampullary tumor of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with the signet-ring cell type, without jaundice but with multiple metastasis.
  • 5-Fluorouracil and leucovorin were effective for increasing survival time and improving quality of life.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation / complications. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation / drug therapy. Fatal Outcome. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Jaundice. Leucovorin / administration & dosage. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplastic Cells, Circulating / pathology. Quality of Life

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  • (PMID = 14509231.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-254X
  • [Journal-full-title] Fukuoka igaku zasshi = Hukuoka acta medica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fukuoka Igaku Zasshi
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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28. Gessl A, Vierhapper H, Feichtinger H: Non-suppressible TSH in a patient thyroidectomized due to follicular thyroid carcinoma. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2006 Jul;114(7):389-92
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Non-suppressible TSH in a patient thyroidectomized due to follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • Poor compliance or drug malabsorption are the most common reasons why an adequate TSH suppression is not achieved with oral levothyroxin in patients with hypothyroidism or thyroid carcinoma.
  • We report a female patient with follicular thyroid carcinoma in whom, under intended levothyroxin suppression therapy, a TSH-PRL-producing pituitary adenoma manifested by failure to achieve adequate TSH suppression, subtle signs of hyperthyroidism,and finally symptoms of elevated PRL.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / blood. Thyroidectomy. Thyrotropin / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / blood. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Adult. Female. Humans. Pituitary Gland / pathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16915543.001).
  • [ISSN] 0947-7349
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
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29. Sulkes A: Novel multitargeted anticancer oral therapies: sunitinib and sorafenib as a paradigm. Isr Med Assoc J; 2010 Oct;12(10):628-32
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  • [Title] Novel multitargeted anticancer oral therapies: sunitinib and sorafenib as a paradigm.
  • The introduction of novel targeted therapies into the clinic in recent years has had a considerable impact on the management of several neoplastic diseases--such as gastrointestinal stromal tumors, hepatocellular carcinomas and renal cell carcinomas--considered until recently refractory to systemic therapies.
  • Side effects occur in most patients, similar for both agents; they may affect several systems and organs but are mostly mild and easily manageable, rarely requiring discontinuation of the drug.
  • Sunitinib, and markedly less frequently sorafenib, may cause thyroid gland dysfunction, mainly hypothyroidism.
  • Antitumor activity has been shown for renal cell carcinoma in pivotal trials, for sunitinib as first-line treatment and for sorafenib in previously treated patients as second-line.
  • Sunitinib is now approved as second-line therapy for patients with GIST refractory to imatinib; sorafenib has resulted in a significant prolongation in median survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • Ongoing clinical trials will further define the spectrum of these agents' antitumor activity, their role in combination with other drugs, as well as their optimal dose and schedule of administration.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Benzenesulfonates / pharmacology. Indoles / pharmacology. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / pharmacology. Pyridines / pharmacology. Pyrroles / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 21090521.001).
  • [ISSN] 1565-1088
  • [Journal-full-title] The Israel Medical Association journal : IMAJ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Isr. Med. Assoc. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Israel
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzenesulfonates; 0 / Indoles; 0 / Phenylurea Compounds; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyridines; 0 / Pyrroles; 0 / sunitinib; 25X51I8RD4 / Niacinamide; 9ZOQ3TZI87 / sorafenib
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30. Fröhlich E, Machicao F, Wahl R: Action of thiazolidinediones on differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis of normal and transformed thyrocytes in culture. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2005 Jun;12(2):291-303
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  • Differentiating drugs may be able to re-sensitize thyroid carcinomas to radioiodine therapy.
  • Substituted thiazolidinediones (TZDs) belong to the group of oral anti-diabetic drugs that also possess anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects and, potentially, differentiating effects on several cancer cell lines.
  • The amount of the sodium iodide-symporter in the membrane fraction was significantly increased, while that of thyroglobulin was not influenced by the treatment.
  • Troglitazone appears to be suited for the re-differentiation treatment of dedifferentiated thyroid carcinoma because its action is twofold.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Apoptosis. Radiation-Sensitizing Agents / pharmacology. Thiazolidinediones / pharmacology. Thyroid Gland / drug effects. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Annexin A5 / analysis. Cell Differentiation / drug effects. Cell Line, Transformed. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Chromans / pharmacology. PPAR gamma / genetics. RNA, Messenger / analysis. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Retinoid X Receptor alpha / genetics. Swine. Symporters / metabolism. Thyroglobulin / metabolism

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  • [ErratumIn] Endocr Relat Cancer. 2005 Sep;12(3):681
  • (PMID = 15947104.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Annexin A5; 0 / Chromans; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Radiation-Sensitizing Agents; 0 / Retinoid X Receptor alpha; 0 / Symporters; 0 / Thiazolidinediones; 0 / sodium-iodide symporter; 05V02F2KDG / rosiglitazone; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin; I66ZZ0ZN0E / troglitazone; X4OV71U42S / pioglitazone
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31. Bianciotto C, Demirci H, Shields CL, Eagle RC Jr, Shields JA: Metastatic tumors to the eyelid: report of 20 cases and review of the literature. Arch Ophthalmol; 2009 Aug;127(8):999-1005
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the primary sites, clinical features, treatment, and outcome of 20 patients with cancer metastatic to the eyelids.
  • RESULTS: The primary tumors included skin melanoma (4 [20%]), uveal melanoma (4 [20%]), breast carcinoma and conjunctival melanoma (3 [15%] each), renal cell carcinoma (2 [10%]), and medullary thyroid carcinoma, prostate carcinoma, lung carcinoma, and salivary gland carcinoma (1 [5%] each).
  • Primary treatment included excision alone in 6 patients (30%), external beam radiotherapy in 7 (35%), systemic chemotherapy in 4 (20%), and observation in 3 (15%).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Eyelid Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures. Radiotherapy. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 19667336.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3601
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of ophthalmology (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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32. Imai T, Onose J, Hasumura M, Ueda M, Takizawa T, Hirose M: Sequential analysis of development of invasive thyroid follicular cell carcinomas in inflamed capsular regions of rats treated with sulfadimethoxine after N-bis(2-hydroxypropyl)nitrosamine-initiation. Toxicol Pathol; 2004 Mar-Apr;32(2):229-36
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sequential analysis of development of invasive thyroid follicular cell carcinomas in inflamed capsular regions of rats treated with sulfadimethoxine after N-bis(2-hydroxypropyl)nitrosamine-initiation.
  • A 2-stage thyroid follicular carcinogenesis model in rats initiated with N-bis(2-hydroxypropyl)nitrosamine (DHPN) is widely used to detect modifying effects of chemicals on thyroid carcinogenesis.
  • A number of goitrogens are known to strongly promote carcinogenesis, and the carcinomas often originate adjacent to the thyroid capsule and show invasive growth into the capsule or adjacent tissues.
  • In DHPN-SDM-treated rats, multiple focal hyperplasias and adenomas developed in thyroid follicular parenchyma at weeks 4 to 6.
  • Focal hyperplasias/adenomas adjacent to the capsule progressively developed to invasive carcinomas at weeks 6 to 10.
  • In thyroid parenchyma, malignant lesions were seldom observed.
  • With SDM-treatment alone, although no neoplastic lesions were observed, capsular thickening with inflammation and epithelial migration resulted in intracapsular residual follicles.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / chemically induced. Carcinogens / toxicity. Nitrosamines / toxicity. Sulfadimethoxine / toxicity. Thyroid Gland / drug effects. Thyroid Neoplasms / chemically induced
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / chemically induced. Adenoma / pathology. Administration, Oral. Animals. Biomarkers, Tumor. Cytoskeletal Proteins / metabolism. Drug Therapy, Combination. Hyperplasia. Injections, Subcutaneous. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Rats. Rats, Inbred F344. Trans-Activators / metabolism. Water Supply. beta Catenin

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  • (PMID = 15200161.001).
  • [ISSN] 0192-6233
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicologic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carcinogens; 0 / Ctnnb1 protein, rat; 0 / Cytoskeletal Proteins; 0 / Nitrosamines; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / beta Catenin; 30CPC5LDEX / Sulfadimethoxine; 4J072HB2ND / diisopropanolnitrosamine
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33. Bauer JA, Frye G, Bahr A, Gieg J, Brofman P: Anti-tumor effects of nitrosylcobalamin against spontaneous tumors in dogs. Invest New Drugs; 2010 Oct;28(5):694-702
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  • PURPOSE: Given the limited options available to treat canine cancers, the use of companion animals for evaluating new drugs may identify better therapies for veterinary and human oncology.
  • (1) A 13 year-old female spayed Giant Schnauzer with inoperable thyroid carcinoma and hypercalcemia. (2) A 6 year-old male neutered Golden Retriever with a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST). (3) A ten yr-old neutered male Bichon Frise with apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinoma (AGACA). (4) A 7 year-old female spayed Labrador mix with spinal meningioma following partial surgical resection.
  • (1) The Giant Schnauzer demonstrated a 77% reduction in tumor volume after ten weeks of daily NO-Cbl treatment. (2) The Golden Retriever demonstrated a 53% reduction in tumor volume after 15 months of daily NO-Cbl therapy. (3) The Bichon Frise demonstrated a 43% regression of the primary tumor and a 90% regression of an iliac lymph node measured by MRI after 15 months of treatment.
  • After 61 months, the dog currently has stable disease, normal liver enzymes, CBC analysis, and no evidence of toxicity. (4) The Labrador demonstrated complete regression of the residual tumor after 6 months of treatment.
  • The use of NO-Cbl capitalizes on the tumor-specific properties of the vitamin B12 receptor and represents a promising anti-cancer therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Dog Diseases / drug therapy. Neoplasms / veterinary. Nitroso Compounds / therapeutic use. Vitamin B 12 / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antineoplastic Agents / metabolism. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacokinetics. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Dogs. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Tumor Burden. Ultrasonography

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  • [ErratumIn] Invest New Drugs. 2011 Oct;29(5):1122
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  • (PMID = 19557306.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-0646
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigational new drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest New Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA095020
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Nitroso Compounds; 0 / nitrosylcobalamin; P6YC3EG204 / Vitamin B 12
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34. Dohán O, De la Vieja A, Carrasco N: Hydrocortisone and purinergic signaling stimulate sodium/iodide symporter (NIS)-mediated iodide transport in breast cancer cells. Mol Endocrinol; 2006 May;20(5):1121-37
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. HYDROCORTISONE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) mediates a remarkably effective targeted radioiodide therapy in thyroid cancer; this approach is an emerging candidate for treating other cancers that express NIS, whether endogenously or by exogenous gene transfer.
  • Therapeutic efficacy in thyroid cancer requires that radioiodide uptake be maximized in tumor cells by manipulating well-known regulatory factors of NIS expression in thyroid cells, such as TSH, which stimulates NIS expression via cAMP.
  • Similarly, therapeutic efficacy in breast cancer will likely depend on manipulating NIS regulation in mammary cells, which differs from that in the thyroid.
  • Human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells modestly express endogenous NIS when treated with all-trans-retinoic acid (tRa).
  • Surprisingly, the adenyl cyclase activator forskolin, which promotes NIS expression in thyroid cells, markedly decreases tRa-induced NIS protein expression in MCF-7 cells.
  • We also observed that neither iodide, which at high concentrations down-regulates NIS in the thyroid, nor cAMP has a significant effect on NIS expression in MCF-7 cells.
  • Our findings may open new strategies for breast-selective pharmacological modulation of functional NIS expression, thus improving the feasibility of using radioiodide to effectively treat breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] 1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine / pharmacology. Adenylyl Cyclase Inhibitors. Adenylyl Cyclases / pharmacology. Biological Transport / drug effects. Cell Membrane / metabolism. Cells, Cultured. Colforsin / pharmacology. Female. Humans. Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors / pharmacology. Signal Transduction. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Tretinoin / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 16439463.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-8809
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA098390
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adenylyl Cyclase Inhibitors; 0 / Iodides; 0 / Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors; 0 / Symporters; 0 / sodium-iodide symporter; 1F7A44V6OU / Colforsin; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin; 8L70Q75FXE / Adenosine Triphosphate; EC 4.6.1.1 / Adenylyl Cyclases; TBT296U68M / 1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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