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1. Foppiani L, Secondo V, Arlandini A, Quilici P, Cabria M, Del Monte P: Thyroid lymphoma: a rare tumor requiring combined management. Hormones (Athens); 2009 Jul-Sep;8(3):214-8
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  • [Title] Thyroid lymphoma: a rare tumor requiring combined management.
  • Thyroid lymphoma is a rare disease which occurs mainly in elderly females.
  • Most patients with thyroid lymphoma have Chronic Lymphocytic Thyroiditis (CLT), suggesting a role of chronic antigen stimulation in the development of the disease.
  • We present two cases of thyroid Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) diagnosed after surgery (subtotal thyroidectomy) by means of combined histology and immunohistochemistry (positive staining for CD-20) in two elderly female patients presenting at our institution for compressive symptoms (dysphonia in patient 1, dysphagia in patient 2) due to a gross neck mass.
  • The first patient had a long-lasting history of hypothyroidism due to CLT and was on L-thyroxine replacement therapy, whereas the second patient had normal thyroid function and negative thyroid autoantibodies.
  • After surgery both patients underwent chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (CHOP) plus rituximab).
  • Thyroid lymphoma is an uncommon tumor which requires prompt diagnosis and combined management for a high rate of cure to be achieved.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / drug therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Diagnosis, Differential. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Female. Hashimoto Disease / diagnosis. Humans. Prednisone / therapeutic use. Rituximab. Vincristine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19671521.001).
  • [ISSN] 1109-3099
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormones (Athens, Greece)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hormones (Athens)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; CHOP protocol
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2. Daneshbod Y, Omidvari S, Daneshbod K, Negahban S, Dehghani M: Diffuse large B cell lymphoma of thyroid as a masquerader of anaplastic carcinoma of thyroid, diagnosed by FNA: a case report. Cytojournal; 2006;3:23

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  • [Title] Diffuse large B cell lymphoma of thyroid as a masquerader of anaplastic carcinoma of thyroid, diagnosed by FNA: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Both thyroid lymphoma and anaplastic carcinoma of thyroid present with rapidly growing mass in eldery patients.
  • Anaplastic carcinoma has high mortality rate and combination of surgery, radiation therapy and multidrug chemotherapy are the best chance for cure.
  • Prognosis of thyroid lymphoma is excellent and chemotherapy for widespred lymphoms and radiotherapy with or without adjuvant chemotherapy for tumors localized to the gland, are the treatment of choice.
  • CASE REPORT: This article reports a 70 year old man presenting with diffuse neck swelling and hoarseness of few weeks duration.
  • Fine needle aspiration was done and reported as anaplastic carcinoma of thyroid which thyroidectomy was planned.
  • After review, with initial diagnosis of anaplastic carcinoma versus lymphoma, immunocytochemical study was performed.
  • Smears were positive for B cell markers and negative for cytokeratin, so with the impression of diffuse large B cell lymphoma, the patient received two courses of chemotherapy by which the tumor disappeared during two weaks.
  • CONCLUSION: Despite previous reports, stating easy diagnosis of high-grade thyroid lymphoma on the grounds of cytomorphological features we like to emphasize, overlapping cytologic features of the curable high grade thyroid lymphoma form noncurable anaplastic thyroid carcinoma and usefulness of immunocytochemistry to differentiate these two disease.

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  • [Cites] Semin Oncol. 1999 Jun;26(3):316-23 [10375088.001]
  • [Cites] Thyroid. 1999 Dec;9(12):1273-80 [10646671.001]
  • [Cites] Am J Surg Pathol. 2000 May;24(5):623-39 [10800981.001]
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  • [Cites] Cytojournal. 2005;2:21 [16336672.001]
  • [Cites] Diagn Cytopathol. 1991;7(2):163-71 [2065571.001]
  • [Cites] Acta Cytol. 1989 Jan-Feb;33(1):48-52 [2521756.001]
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  • (PMID = 17052355.001).
  • [ISSN] 1742-6413
  • [Journal-full-title] CytoJournal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytojournal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1630693
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3. Roldán-Valadez E, Ortega-López N, Cervera-Ceballos E, Valdivieso-Cárdenas G, Vega-González I, Granados-García M: Whole-body (18)F-FDG PET/CT in primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the thyroid associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and bilateral kidney infiltration. Rev Esp Med Nucl; 2008 Jan-Feb;27(1):34-9
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  • [Title] Whole-body (18)F-FDG PET/CT in primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the thyroid associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and bilateral kidney infiltration.
  • Nevertheless, a rapid growth of the thyroid over 3-6 months caused dysphagia and shortness of breath.
  • Ultrasound and a thyroid gammagram showed an image consistent with multinodular goiter with a hyperfunctioning nodule in the right lobe.
  • Due to the history of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and a rapid increase in size of the thyroid gland, diagnoses of thyroid lymphoma and anaplastic thyroid cancer were considered.
  • Fine needle aspiration was insufficient for diagnosis, and the product of thyroidectomy confirmed the diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
  • A positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan was performed in our institution for staging, revealing nodal and extranodal metastasis.
  • Chemotherapy using cyclophosphamide, vincristine and dexamethasone (COP modified) led to a dramatic response of the tumor and a complete resolution of compressive symptoms.
  • [MeSH-major] Diagnostic Errors. Hashimoto Disease / radionuclide imaging. Kidney / pathology. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Whole Body Imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Dexamethasone / administration & dosage. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Goiter, Nodular / diagnosis. Humans. Radiopharmaceuticals. Remission Induction. Thyroidectomy. Thyroxine / therapeutic use. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 18208780.001).
  • [ISSN] 0212-6982
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista española de medicina nuclear
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Esp Med Nucl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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4. Guimarães J, Rodrigues D, Fagulha A, Almeida S, Bastos M, Carvalheiro M: [Thyroid lymphoma]. Acta Med Port; 2007 May-Jun;20(3):239-42
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  • [Title] [Thyroid lymphoma].
  • Thyroid Lymphomas are rare tumors among thyroid neoplasms.
  • Almost all types originate from B cells and the most frequent subtype is a diffuse large cell lymphoma.
  • The majority arise in a background of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and patients present with a thyroid mass, rapidly enlarging and with pressure symptoms.
  • The treatment depends on the histological subtype and stage of the disease but include radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy.
  • The reported case presents a thyroid lymphoma.
  • We discussed the clinic, diagnosis and treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, B-Cell. Thyroid Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 17868534.001).
  • [ISSN] 1646-0758
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta médica portuguesa
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Med Port
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Portugal
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5. Hervás Benito I, Vera Espallardo F, Saura Quiles A, González Cabezas P, Bello Arques P, Rivas Sánchez A, Alonso Monfort J, Pérez Velasco R, Mateo Navarro A: [Thyroid scintigraphy and body scanning with 67 Ga in a case of primary thyroid lymphoma]. Rev Esp Med Nucl; 2001 Oct;20(6):462-5
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  • [Title] [Thyroid scintigraphy and body scanning with 67 Ga in a case of primary thyroid lymphoma].
  • The fine needle aspiration-puncture (FNAP) lead to a diagnosis of thyroiditis.
  • The pathological diagnosis was diffuse large cell primary thyroid lymphoma (PTL).
  • The thyroid scintigraphy showed the existence of a cold nodule in the left thyroid lobule and the 67Ga scan revealed a large abnormal lesion in the mediastinum that extended to the right latero-cervical region.
  • After two chemotherapy courses, the 67Ga scan was normal.
  • [MeSH-major] Gallium Radioisotopes. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / radionuclide imaging. Radiopharmaceuticals. Thyroid Gland / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biopsy, Needle. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Diagnostic Errors. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Humans. Mediastinal Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Mediastinal Neoplasms / therapy. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Remission Induction. Thyroidectomy. Thyroiditis / diagnosis. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 11578581.001).
  • [ISSN] 0212-6982
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista española de medicina nuclear
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Esp Med Nucl
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gallium Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; CHOP protocol
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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6. Niitsu N, Okamoto M, Nakamura N, Nakamine H, Bessho M, Hirano M: Clinicopathologic correlations of stage IE/IIE primary thyroid diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Ann Oncol; 2007 Jul;18(7):1203-8
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  • [Title] Clinicopathologic correlations of stage IE/IIE primary thyroid diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
  • BACKGROUND: We studied the clinicopathological characteristics and prognoses of localized stage thyroid diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study included 32 patients with stage I/IIE thyroid DLBCL.
  • Twelve cases showed abnormal karyotypes: two cases with t(8;14)(q24;q32), four cases with 3q27, two cases with 17p11, and four cases with other abnormal karyotypes.
  • As for treatment, eight cases were treated with chemotherapy alone and 24 cases were treated with chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy.
  • The germinal center B-cell (GCB) type had a significantly better prognosis than the non-GCB type.
  • CONCLUSION: Localized stage thyroid DLBCL is a disease with a relatively good prognosis.
  • It is, however, a heterogeneous disease with regard to histological type and pathological state.
  • Localized stage thyroid DLBCL has a good prognosis and it is that there are more GCB-type DLBCL lymphomas.

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  • (PMID = 17429099.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD20; 0 / Antigens, CD5; 0 / BCL6 protein, human; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Receptors, IgE; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
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7. Niitsu N, Okamoto M, Yoshino T, Nakamine H, Nakamura N, Bessho M, Hirano M, Miura I: t(8;14)(q24;q32) in two patients with CD10-negative primary thyroid diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Leuk Res; 2007 May;31(5):707-11
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  • [Title] t(8;14)(q24;q32) in two patients with CD10-negative primary thyroid diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
  • Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) with the 8q24 translocation is occasionally seen in the gastrointestinal tract, but has rarely been reported in the thyroid gland.
  • We experienced two cases of primary thyroid DLBCL having t(8;14)(q24;q32).
  • Although long-term complete remission could be achieved in both of our patients by conventional chemotherapy with/without radiation therapy, accumulation of further such cases is necessary to develop a standard treatment protocol and also to elucidate the pathogenesis of t(8;14)(q24;q32)-positive primary thyroid DLBCL.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomes, Human, Pair 14 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8 / genetics. Lymphoma, B-Cell / genetics. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Translocation, Genetic / genetics


8. Dai CW, Zhang GS, Pei MF, Shen JK: Thyroid diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) following thyroid medullary cancer: long-term complete remission with R-CHOP therapy. Ann Hematol; 2009 Jul;88(7):701-2
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  • [Title] Thyroid diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) following thyroid medullary cancer: long-term complete remission with R-CHOP therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Stem Neoplasms / surgery. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Second Primary / drug therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Prednisone / therapeutic use. Remission Induction / methods. Vincristine / therapeutic use


9. Marchesi M, Biffoni M, Biancari F: False-positive finding on 18F-FDG PET after chemotherapy for primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the thyroid: a case report. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2004 May;34(5):280-1
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  • [Title] False-positive finding on 18F-FDG PET after chemotherapy for primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the thyroid: a case report.
  • Primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the thyroid is an uncommon disease.
  • It is a potentially aggressive disease and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the thyroid may result in 5 year survival rates <50%.
  • Hence adequate follow-up and multimodality treatment for recurrent or persistent disease are required.
  • Since 18F-FDG PET is considered the imaging method of choice for the detection and staging of lymphoma, this was used for restaging of a case of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the thyroid after chemotherapy and its diagnostic value is questioned in the present case report.
  • [MeSH-major] Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Lymphoma, B-Cell / radionuclide imaging. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / radionuclide imaging. Radiopharmaceuticals. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] False Positive Reactions. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Tomography, Emission-Computed

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  • (PMID = 15231864.001).
  • [ISSN] 0368-2811
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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10. Jonak C, Troch M, Müllauer L, Niederle B, Hoffmann M, Raderer M: Rituximab plus dose-reduced cyclophosphamide, mitoxantrone, vincristine, and prednisolone are effective in elderly patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the thyroid. Thyroid; 2010 Apr;20(4):425-7
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  • [Title] Rituximab plus dose-reduced cyclophosphamide, mitoxantrone, vincristine, and prednisolone are effective in elderly patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the thyroid.
  • BACKGROUND: Primary thyroid lymphoma is a rare disease.
  • Although many reports have dealt with surgery followed by chemotherapy or radiation as well as combined chemoradiation, little is known about the value of immunochemotherapy alone.
  • We present the results of systemic treatment using rituximab plus dose reduced mitoxantrone, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisolone in three elderly patients with primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the thyroid.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Three patients aged between 86 and 93 years were found to have DLBCL of the thyroid.
  • Lymphoma was locally advanced and deemed unresectable in one patient, whereas the remaining two patients were judged unfit for surgery.
  • All patients were given systemic therapy with R 375 mg/m(2) on day 1, mitoxantrone 8 mg intravenously, cyclophosphamide 750 mg intravenously, and vincristine 1 mg (all given on day 2), along with 100 mg oral prednisolone on days 1-5.
  • RESULTS: Two patients were given 6 cycles and one patient was given 8 courses of treatment, and all responded with complete remission of the lymphoma.
  • All three patients are alive without evidence of disease recurrence 16, 19, and 25 months after initiation of therapy.
  • CONCLUSION: These data suggest that R plus dose-reduced mitoxantrone, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisolone are feasible and highly effective in elderly patients with DLBCL of the thyroid.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / drug therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 20210673.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone; BZ114NVM5P / Mitoxantrone
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11. Ogawa T, Kanauchi H, Kammori M, Mimura Y, Ota S, Kaminishi M: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in the thyroid gland associated with primary hyperparathyroidism. Int J Clin Oncol; 2007 Feb;12(1):48-51
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  • [Title] Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in the thyroid gland associated with primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • We report a case of primary hyperparathyroidism associated with a malignant lymphoma in the thyroid gland.
  • Ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) revealed a hypoechoic, multinodular tumor in the left thyroid gland.
  • A gallium-67 citrate scintigram revealed intense radioisotope uptake in the thyroid tumor.
  • Histological examination of biopsy specimens indicated that this tumor was a large B-cell lymphoma.
  • The coexistence of parathyroid adenoma in this patient was revealed by a sestamibi scintigram, performed prior to chemotherapy.
  • Following the complete remission of the lymphoma by chemotherapy, we carried out an excision of the single parathyroid adenoma.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first report to describe a malignant thyroid lymphoma associated with primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Lymphoma, B-Cell / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis


12. Hosoya Y, Yokoyama T, Arai W, Hyodo M, Nishino H, Sugawara Y, Yasuda Y, Nagai H: Tracheoesophageal fistula secondary to chemotherapy for malignant B-cell lymphoma of the thyroid: successful surgical treatment with jejunal interposition and mesenteric patch. Dis Esophagus; 2004;17(3):266-9
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  • [Title] Tracheoesophageal fistula secondary to chemotherapy for malignant B-cell lymphoma of the thyroid: successful surgical treatment with jejunal interposition and mesenteric patch.
  • We report a case of tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) secondary to chemotherapy for primary thyroid lymphoma.
  • A 65-year-old man with a short history of a rapidly enlarging neck mass was diagnosed as having thyroid lymphoma of diffuse, large B-cell type.
  • The TEF occurred during the first course of chemotherapy including cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone.
  • After placing a feeding gastrostomy without oral intake, eight cycles of chemotherapy were completed and complete remission was achieved.
  • This seems to be the first report of a TEF caused by chemotherapy for primary thyroid B-cell lymphoma.
  • A variety of treatments for TEF including simple closure, tracheal resection, colonic bypass and muscle flap have been reported with low success rates.
  • Our procedure using a jejunal mesenteric patch seems to be unique and may be a new treatment strategy for TEF.

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  • (PMID = 15361103.001).
  • [ISSN] 1120-8694
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the esophagus : official journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Esophagus
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone
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13. Shimizu J, Ishida Y, Takehara A, Kinoshita T, Tatsuzawa Y, Kawaura Y, Matsumoto I, Imai M: Salvage surgery for primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the thyroid gland with histopathological complete response to radio-chemotherapy: report of a case. Surg Today; 2003;33(1):45-8
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  • [Title] Salvage surgery for primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the thyroid gland with histopathological complete response to radio-chemotherapy: report of a case.
  • An open biopsy confirmed a diagnosis of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the thyroid (NHLT), of a diffuse large cell type.
  • The patient was referred to our department for radio-chemotherapy for stage I E NHLT.
  • She was given radiotherapy in the form of 40 Gy radiation directed at her neck and superior mediastinum, with one course of chemotherapy using cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, vincristine, and prednisolone (CHOP).
  • After radio-chemotherapy, the tumor was obviously smaller.
  • Because the patient refused further chemotherapy, she underwent salvage surgery, after being sufficiently advised, and with her informed consent.
  • Histological examination of the removed thyroid tissue showed that the radio-chemotherapy had produced a complete response.
  • Thus, we believe that an open biopsy should be performed early to confirm the diagnosis of lymphoma histologically and to determine the degree of malignancy.
  • We also stress the fact that NHLT is presently most effectively treated by radiotherapy combined with several courses of CHOP chemotherapy.
  • The role of surgery in the treatment of NHLT is diminishing.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Diagnosis, Differential. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Prednisolone / administration & dosage. Salvage Therapy. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 12560906.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone; VAP-cyclo protocol
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14. Dem A, Traore B, Diallo BK, Mbodj M, Dieng MM, Kasse AA, Dangou JM, Diouf R, Toure P: [Primary lymphoma of the thyroid: a case report]. Dakar Med; 2004;49(1):10-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Primary lymphoma of the thyroid: a case report].
  • Primary lymphoma of the thyroid is an uncommon disease.
  • It diagnosis is difficult without immunohistochemestry.
  • We report a case of thyroid lymphoma diagnosed at the A.
  • Clinical examination showed a thyroid mass with a susclavicular palpable lymph node.
  • Total thyroidectomy with cervical lymphadenectomy was the first treatment.
  • Histological examination of the surgical specimen concluded that the mass was an anaplastic lymphoma (large cells type) involving the sus clavicular lymph nodes (stage IIE).
  • Chemotherapy was administrated after one month with C-MOPP schedule.
  • Fine needle aspiration and immunocytochemestry of the thyroid cold masses will contribute in an accurate diagnosis and the management of disease in our institution.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / pathology. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Procarbazine / administration & dosage. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 15782469.001).
  • [ISSN] 0049-1101
  • [Journal-full-title] Dakar médical
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dakar Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Senegal
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 35S93Y190K / Procarbazine; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; COPP protocol
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15. Payne JF, Shields CL, Eagle RC Jr, Shields JA: Orbital lymphoma simulating thyroid orbitopathy. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg; 2006 Jul-Aug;22(4):302-4
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  • [Title] Orbital lymphoma simulating thyroid orbitopathy.
  • These findings were initially suggestive of thyroid orbitopathy.
  • Thyroid function tests were normal.
  • Coronal MRI showed additional superior oblique enlargement and involvement of the levator superioris palpebrae muscle, which are both suggestive of a non-thyroid pathology.
  • Muscle biopsy revealed large B-cell lymphoma.
  • The patient was treated with chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and radiotherapy, with complete tumor control.
  • Orbital lymphoma can simulate thyroid orbitopathy, even in patients with classic "thyroid-like" symptoms and imaging.
  • [MeSH-major] Graves Ophthalmopathy / diagnosis. Lymphoma, B-Cell / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / diagnosis. Orbital Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Oculomotor Muscles / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16855508.001).
  • [ISSN] 0740-9303
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Widder S, Pasieka JL: Primary thyroid lymphomas. Curr Treat Options Oncol; 2004 Aug;5(4):307-13
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  • [Title] Primary thyroid lymphomas.
  • Primary thyroid lymphoma is a rare disease that continues to produce diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas.
  • There was great difficulty in distinguishing thyroid lymphoma from anaplastic thyroid carcinoma but, because of new immunocytochemical staining techniques and increased cytopathologic knowledge, our ability to diagnose thyroid lymphoma has improved drastically over the past decade.
  • Surgery that was once the mainstay of treatment for this disease, now plays a minimal role.
  • Current treatment regimens for primary thyroid lymphoma consist of chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) and external beam radiation.
  • The overall and distant relapse rates have been shown to be significantly lower in those patients receiving combined modality therapy compared to chemotherapy or radiation alone.
  • Although the role of surgery has changed over time, it continues to play an important role, especially in confirming diagnoses through open biopsies, potentially providing local control in the more indolent subtypes, and may play a role in the palliation of symptoms for large obstructive lymphomas.
  • Most thyroid lymphomas are B-cell origin, with six different histologic subtypes, but there appears to be two distinct clinical and prognostic groupings of these rare tumors.
  • The more indolent lymphomas are the subgroup of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas comprising approximately 6% to 27% of thyroid lymphomas.
  • This subgroup, when localized to the thyroid (stage IE), responds well to total thyroidectomy or radiation with a complete response rate of more than 90%, leading some authors to recommend surgery as primary therapy in the treatment of localized MALT lymphomas.
  • Therefore, surgery as a primary treatment for thyroid lymphomas would only be recommended under ideal conditions, such as MALT subtype stage IE only, and completely resectable with minimal morbidity.
  • The more common subtype, comprising up to 70% of cases, is diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
  • Up to 40% of all diffuse large cell lymphomas appear to have undergone transformation from a MALT lymphoma, but they behave in a similar fashion to diffuse large cell lymphomas.
  • Treatment for these tumors should include chemotherapy and radiation.
  • Surgery is rarely beneficial in diffuse large cell lymphoma and the mixed large cell subtypes because the disease is generally disseminated and surgical excision of all disease is not possible or associated with increased morbidity.
  • However, there may be a role for palliative surgical debulking to alleviate obstructive symptoms while the patient is undergoing standard chemotherapy and radiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / pathology. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Biopsy, Needle. Clinical Trials as Topic. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Radiotherapy, High-Energy / methods. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Thyroidectomy / methods. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15233907.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-2729
  • [Journal-full-title] Current treatment options in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Treat Options Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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17. Derringer GA, Thompson LD, Frommelt RA, Bijwaard KE, Heffess CS, Abbondanzo SL: Malignant lymphoma of the thyroid gland: a clinicopathologic study of 108 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2000 May;24(5):623-39
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  • [Title] Malignant lymphoma of the thyroid gland: a clinicopathologic study of 108 cases.
  • We report a retrospective clinicopathologic study of 108 primary thyroid gland lymphomas (PTLs), classified using the REAL and proposed WHO classification schemes.
  • All patients presented with a thyroid mass.
  • The PTLs were classified as marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) or MZBL (n = 30), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) with MZBL (n = 36), DLBCL without MZBL (n = 41), and follicle center lymphoma (FCL; n = 1).
  • Excluding the FCL, features of lymphomas of MALT-type were identified in all groups, despite a follicular architecture in 23% of cases.
  • Ninety-one percent of patients presented with stage IE or IIE disease, whereas 69% had perithyroidal soft tissue infiltration.
  • All patients were treated with surgical excision followed by adjuvant therapy (76%): chemotherapy (15%), radiation (19%), or a combination of radiation and chemotherapy (42%).
  • Statistically, stages greater than IE, presence of DLBCL, rapid clinical growth, abundant apoptosis, presence of vascular invasion, high mitotic rate, and infiltration of the perithyroidal soft tissue were significantly associated with death with disease.
  • In summary, PTLs typically occur in middle- to older-aged individuals as a thyroid mass, with a predilection for females.
  • Despite their histologic heterogeneity and frequent simulation of other lymphoma subtypes, virtually all PTLs are lymphomas of MALT-type arising in the setting of LT.
  • Overall, PTLs have a favorable outcome with appropriate therapy, but prognosis depends on both clinical stage and histology.
  • MZBL and stage IE tumors have an excellent prognosis, whereas tumors with a large cell component or DLBCL or stage greater than IE have the greatest potential for a poor outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphoma, B-Cell / pathology. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / pathology. Lymphoma, Follicular / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 10800981.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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18. Ohye H, Fukata S, Hirokawa M: [Malignant lymphoma of the thyroid]. Nihon Rinsho; 2007 Nov;65(11):2092-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Malignant lymphoma of the thyroid].
  • Primary malignant lymphoma of thyroid is frequently associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and it is usually non-Hodgkin type.
  • Thyroid lymphoma is common in women and the mean age at onset is 60 years old.
  • The majority of histopathologic types are extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and mixed type of above two.
  • If the findings on ultrasonography and fine needle aspiration cytology are suspected thyroid lymphoma, histopathological diagnosis of tissue obtaining from open biopsy is necessary.
  • The treatment for thyroid lymphoma consists of chemotherapy (CHOP), rituximab combined with CHOP, and radiation therapy.
  • It is selected based on the histopathologic type and the extent of disease.
  • The prognosis depends on the histopathologic type and the staging.
  • It should be recognized that early diagnosis and correct treatment lead to favorable prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, B-Cell. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin. Thyroid Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Diagnosis, Differential. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Hashimoto Disease / complications. Humans. Middle Aged. Molecular Diagnostic Techniques. Neoplasm Staging. Prednisolone / administration & dosage. Prognosis. Radiotherapy. Rituximab. Ultrasonography. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 18018576.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone; VAP-cyclo protocol
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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19. Zhou SY, Huang DZ, Shi YK, He XH, Wu YH, Li YX: [Clinicopathologic features of primary thyroid lymphoma]. Ai Zheng; 2005 Jan;24(1):95-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Clinicopathologic features of primary thyroid lymphoma].
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Primary thyroid lymphoma (PTL) is a rare disease.
  • It is likely to be misdiagnosed, and its treatment remains controversy.
  • This study was to investigate clinicopathologic features of PTL, and explore proper treatments.
  • All patients were B-cell original; according to WHO classification, 16 (72.7%) were diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), and 6 (27.3%) were mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma.
  • Five patients received surgery alone; 7 received radiotherapy after surgery, 6 received chemotherapy after surgery, 4 received chemotherapy and radiotherapy after surgery.
  • The majority of PTL is B-cell original; DLBCL, and MALT lymphoma were the most common histological subtypes.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / therapy. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy. Thyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Sex Factors. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 15642210.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; CHOP protocol
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20. Caparević Z, Stojanović D, Bojković G, Lalosević D, Stojanović M: [Malignant lymphoma of the thyroid gland]. Med Pregl; 2002 Nov-Dec;55(11-12):485-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Malignant lymphoma of the thyroid gland].
  • INTRODUCTION: Malignant lymphoma of the thyroid gland can be defined as a lymphoma arising from the thyroid gland.
  • Lymphomas of the thyroid gland represent less than 5% of primary thyroid neoplasms and are two to three times more common in women than in men, whereas the median age is usually close to 60 years.
  • Majority of thyroid lymphomas are diffuse, large-cell lymphomas.
  • The incidence of thyroid lymphomas in patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis has markedly increased and this phenomenon is probably related to their pathogenesis.
  • CLINICAL PRESENTATION: Unlike most other thyroid neoplasms, lymphomas are usually rapidly enlarging masses and local symptoms are common: pain, hoarseness, dysphagia, and dyspnea or stridor.
  • DIAGNOSIS: To evaluate the extent of disease, a chest x-ray and CT scans of the head and neck, chest, abdomen, and pelvis are necessary.
  • An excisional or large-needle biopsy may also be necessary to make the correct diagnosis.
  • Occasionally, these tumors can be confused with anaplastic thyroid carcinomas, which can lead to serious mistakes in management.
  • A gallium scan or a positron emission tomography (PET) scan can help later to establish whether any residual abnormality, observed on x-ray studies after treatment, contains active lymphoma or scar tissue.
  • After diagnosis, patients are clinically staged (without surgery) using appropriate computed tomography scans or magnetic resonance imaging.
  • THERAPY: Assessment of the extent of thyroid lymphomas is crucial for prognosis and treatment.
  • It is very important to identify patients with favorable prognostic factors and to treat them with standard chemotherapy (CHOP) and radiotherapy protocols.
  • Patients with diffuse large-cell primary thyroid lymphomas should not be treated with radiation therapy alone.
  • CONCLUSION: The best treatment results for malignant lymphomas of the thyroid gland are achieved using a combined-modality therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 12712891.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-8105
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicinski pregled
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Pregl.
  • [Language] hrv
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Yugoslavia
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21. Kebapcilar L, Alacacioglu I, Comlekci A, Ozcan MA, Piskin O, Kargi A, Undar B, Yesil S: Primary thyroid lymphoma: case series with literature review. J BUON; 2009 Apr-Jun;14(2):295-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary thyroid lymphoma: case series with literature review.
  • Non Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) of the thyroid are rare thyroid neoplasms.
  • The majority of histopathologic types are extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type and, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL).
  • Most of them arise in a background of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and patients mostly present with a rapidly enlarging thyroid mass and with pressure symptoms.
  • Treatment depends on the histological subtype and stage of the disease and includes radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • The prognosis usually is favorable with proper treatment.
  • Herein, we discuss the clinical diagnosis and treatment of thyroid lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, B-Cell / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19650181.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J BUON
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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22. Vicentini L, Grossano L, Pruneri G, Roncaglia O: [Primary large B-cell lymphoma of the thyroid. Apropos of 2 cases]. Minerva Chir; 2000 Jul-Aug;55(7-8):545-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Primary large B-cell lymphoma of the thyroid. Apropos of 2 cases].
  • Two cases of primary large B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma are described.
  • Both cases had typical symptoms: a sudden growth of thyroid in these female patients at their sixth decade of life.
  • The differential diagnosis between undifferentiated carcinoma and lymphoma of the thyroid, uncertain with clinical and ultrasound examination, was defined by a fine needle biopsy (FNAB).
  • Histological examination of the surgical specimen confirmed the presence of a large B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma while the immunophenotypical analysis detected the expression of the common leukocytic antigen and B-correlated antigens CD20, CD74, CDW75 and CD79A.
  • In both cases chemotherapy and radiotherapy were carried out.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD / analysis. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy, Needle. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Iodine Radioisotopes. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 11140111.001).
  • [ISSN] 0026-4733
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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23. Cha C, Chen H, Westra WH, Udelsman R: Primary thyroid lymphoma: can the diagnosis be made solely by fine-needle aspiration? Ann Surg Oncol; 2002 Apr;9(3):298-302
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary thyroid lymphoma: can the diagnosis be made solely by fine-needle aspiration?
  • BACKGROUND: Primary malignant lymphoma of the thyroid accounts for <5% of all thyroid malignancies and is primarily treated with chemotherapy and external beam radiation.
  • METHODS: To investigate the utility of FNA, data from 23 consecutive patients with primary malignant thyroid lymphoma evaluated at the Johns Hopkins Hospital from July 1985 to April 2000 were analyzed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Primary thyroid lymphoma is an uncommon malignancy usually treated nonsurgically once the diagnosis is established.
  • In most patients with malignant lymphoma of the thyroid, FNA, should obviate the need for open surgical biopsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, B-Cell / pathology. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 11923138.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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24. Lee DH, Park JH, Lee JJ, Chung IJ, Chung DJ, Chung MY, Lee TH: Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the thyroid and adrenal glands. Korean J Intern Med; 2000 Jan;15(1):76-80
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  • [Title] Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the thyroid and adrenal glands.
  • We report a case of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma(NHL) with simultaneous involvement of both thyroid and bilateral adrenal glands.
  • The final diagnosis of diffuse large B cell lymphoma was confirmed by biopsies of thyroid gland, enlarged cervical lymph node, and adrenal gland.
  • The significant endocrine dysfunction of the thyroid, adrenal or other endocrine glands was absent in our case.
  • The patient responded dramatically to three cycles of chemotherapy with no complication or endocrine dysfunction and continues to be followed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biopsy, Needle. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Prednisolone / administration & dosage. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 10714096.001).
  • [ISSN] 1226-3303
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] KOREA (SOUTH)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone; VAP-cyclo protocol
  • [Number-of-references] 16
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4531737
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25. Kwak JY, Kim EK, Ko KH, Yang WI, Kim MJ, Son EJ, Oh KK, Kim KW: Primary thyroid lymphoma: role of ultrasound-guided needle biopsy. J Ultrasound Med; 2007 Dec;26(12):1761-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary thyroid lymphoma: role of ultrasound-guided needle biopsy.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe the sonographic findings of primary thyroid lymphoma and evaluate the role of ultrasound-guided biopsy in diagnosing thyroid lymphoma.
  • We searched the database of our institution and retrospectively collected data on the thyroid lymphomas that were confirmed pathologically.
  • The most notable sonographic feature of primary thyroid lymphoma was a marked hypoechoic mass compared with the residual thyroid tissue.
  • Among the 6 patients with a diagnosis of thyroid lymphoma, 3 (50%) had a diagnosis of lymphoma by ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy.
  • Most patients with thyroid lymphoma (5/6 [83.3%]) were found to have diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and were treated with chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy.
  • In 1 patient with follicular lymphoma, diagnosis and treatment were accomplished by total thyroidectomy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy can be a safe and accurate method for diagnosing thyroid lymphoma and may be a suitable replacement for diagnostic thyroid surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Needle / methods. Lymphoma / pathology. Lymphoma / ultrasonography. Surgery, Computer-Assisted / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Interventional / methods

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  • (PMID = 18029928.001).
  • [ISSN] 0278-4297
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ultrasound Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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26. Akcali Z, Sakalli H, Noyan T, Kayaselcuk F, Ozyilkan O: Primary thyroid lymphoma: report of two cases. East Afr Med J; 2004 Jul;81(7):378-80
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  • [Title] Primary thyroid lymphoma: report of two cases.
  • Primary thyroid lymphoma is a rare disease.
  • Main histopathologic subtypes are either mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) or diffuse large cell lymphomas.
  • Treatment options are surgical resection in localised, low-grade MALT lymphomas or systemic chemotherapy in aggressive, diffuse large cell lymphomas.
  • But, sometimes other histopathologic subtypes can be seen and therapeutic approaches must be done.
  • We report two patients who have primary thyroid lymphoma.
  • First patient a sixty four year old woman, admitted to hospital because of bilateral thyroid nodules.
  • Histological subtype was B cell follicular lymphoma.
  • Second patient, a 50 year old man, presented with complaints of a left thyroid mass and dyspnoea.
  • Total thyroidectomy was carried out and chemotherapy was given.
  • Histological diagnosis was diffuse large B cell lymphoma.
  • Thyroid lymphomas had heterogenous histological and clinical characteristics.
  • In localised, non-aggressive subtypes, surgical treatment must be considered.
  • Postoperative chemotherapy or radiotherapy may be necessary in some patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, B-Cell / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15490712.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-835X
  • [Journal-full-title] East African medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] East Afr Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Kenya
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27. Cho JH, Park YH, Kim WS, Oh SY, Cho SI, Kang HJ, Na II, Ryoo BY, Yang SH, Kim K, Jung CW, Park K, Ko YH, Lee SS: High incidence of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue in primary thyroid lymphoma: a clinicopathologic study of 18 cases in the Korean population. Leuk Lymphoma; 2006 Oct;47(10):2128-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] High incidence of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue in primary thyroid lymphoma: a clinicopathologic study of 18 cases in the Korean population.
  • The present study aimed to evaluate the clinicopathologic features and treatment outcomes of patients with primary thyroid lymphoma (PTL).
  • Thirteen cases involved the thyroid alone (stage IE) and five cases involved the regional lymph nodes (stage IIE).
  • Histopathologic studies revealed marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) in 13 patients and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in three patients.
  • Surgery and chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy were performed.
  • The prognosis of patients with primary thyroid lymphoma appears to be favourable.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / complications. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone / epidemiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Incidence. Korea. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 17071486.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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28. Coşkun H, Bozbora A, Kapran Y, Erbil Y, Ozarmağan S: The incidence of primary thyroid lymphoma in thyroid malignancies. Kulak Burun Bogaz Ihtis Derg; 2004;12(1-2):11-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The incidence of primary thyroid lymphoma in thyroid malignancies.
  • OBJECTIVES: We investigated the incidence of primary thyroid lymphoma in thyroid malignancies.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 304 patients whose diagnoses were made as thyroid malignancies between January 1990 and December 2000 were retrospectively evaluated.
  • Of these, primary thyroid lymphoma was documented in four female patients (1.3%; mean age 56.2 years; range 40 to 65 years).
  • Findings from history, physical examination, blood biochemistry, thyroid hormone levels (T3, T4, TSH, thyroglobulin), thyroid scintigraphy, fine-needle aspiration biopsy, and cervical computed tomography (CT) were evaluated.
  • Histopathologic results were evaluated according to the Revised European-American Lymphoma (REAL) classification.
  • In all the cases, thyroid hormone levels were normal, but thyroglobulin levels were 5 to 10 times as high as normal.
  • Pathologic diagnosis was diffuse large B cell lymphoma in all the cases.
  • Postoperatively, three cases underwent chemotherapy and one case chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: In our cases, treatment of localized thyroid lymphoma by surgery combined with chemotherapy or/and radiotherapy was effective.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma / epidemiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 16010091.001).
  • [ISSN] 1300-7475
  • [Journal-full-title] Kulak burun boğaz ihtisas dergisi : KBB = Journal of ear, nose, and throat
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kulak Burun Bogaz Ihtis Derg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
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29. Ando M, Isobe Y, Sasaki M, Sugimoto K, Ando J, Oshimi K: [Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma expressing surface immunoglobulin heavy chain (Ig alpha) and lacking light chains]. Rinsho Ketsueki; 2005 Jul;46(7):492-5
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  • [Title] [Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma expressing surface immunoglobulin heavy chain (Ig alpha) and lacking light chains].
  • She underwent an endoscopic examination and was admitted to our hospital because gastric biopsy specimens revealed that she had diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
  • A thyroid biopsy also detected the diffuse infiltration of lymphoma cells, which were positive for CD19, CD20, CD38 and HLA-DR.
  • Chromosomal analysis of the thyroid cells showed 47, XX, t(2 ; 3)(q31 ; q13), + 3, t(8 ; 22)(q24 ; q11).
  • After five courses of biweekly CHOP chemotherapy, she received autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in October 2000.
  • [MeSH-major] Immunoglobulin alpha-Chains. Lymphoma, B-Cell / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / immunology. Stomach Neoplasms / diagnosis. Stomach Neoplasms / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Immunoglobulin Light Chains. Middle Aged. Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Remission Induction. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 16440740.001).
  • [ISSN] 0485-1439
  • [Journal-full-title] [Rinshō ketsueki] The Japanese journal of clinical hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rinsho Ketsueki
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunoglobulin Light Chains; 0 / Immunoglobulin alpha-Chains; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; CHOP protocol
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30. Cerchietti LC, Yang SN, Shaknovich R, Hatzi K, Polo JM, Chadburn A, Dowdy SF, Melnick A: A peptomimetic inhibitor of BCL6 with potent antilymphoma effects in vitro and in vivo. Blood; 2009 Apr 9;113(15):3397-405
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  • The BCL6 transcriptional repressor is the most commonly involved oncogene in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs).
  • A recombinant peptide fragment of the SMRT (silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid hormone receptor) corepressor that blocks this site can inhibit BCL6 biologic functions.
  • Like the L-peptide, retroinverso BCL6 peptide inhibitor (RI-BPI) selectively killed BCR rather than OxPhos-type DLBCL cells.
  • RI-BPI showed superior duration of tissue penetration and could accordingly powerfully suppress the growth of human DLBCLs xenografts in a dose-dependent manner.
  • Finally, RI-BPI could kill primary human DLBCL cells but had no effect on normal lymphoid tissue or other tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. DNA-Binding Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors. DNA-Binding Proteins / pharmacology. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / drug therapy. Recombinant Proteins / pharmacology. Repressor Proteins / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Death / drug effects. Cell Division / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Humans. Immune System / drug effects. In Vitro Techniques. Male. Mice. Mice, SCID. Molecular Mimicry. Nuclear Receptor Co-Repressor 2. Transcription, Genetic / drug effects. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • (PMID = 18927431.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-0020
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA104348; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA104348
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / BCL6 protein, human; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / NCOR2 protein, human; 0 / Ncor2 protein, mouse; 0 / Nuclear Receptor Co-Repressor 2; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 0 / Repressor Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2668844
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31. Santoe MF, Van Houten AA, Muller AF, Berghout A: [A pregnant woman with autoimmune thyroiditis and recurrent goiter]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2004 Jul 17;148(29):1455-9
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  • A 27-year-old woman was first referred at the age of 14 with cosmetic complaints due to an echographically diffuse, euthyroid goitre.
  • Tests for antibodies against thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin were positive.
  • Thyroid-suppression therapy with levothyroxine resulted in regression of the goitre.
  • At the age of 26 there was a transitory recurrence of the goitre during a pregnancy, during which time the thyroid peroxidase antibodies became strongly positive.
  • Serology established the diagnosis of viral thyroiditis due to a Coxsackie-B virus.
  • The size of the goitre decreased after treatment with acetylsalicylic acid and prednisone.
  • Two months later the goitre again showed further growth, now in association with cervical lymphadenopathy and an enlarged left parotid gland.
  • Histology revealed a non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the type diffuse large B-cell (stage II), very likely a primary thyroid lymphoma.
  • The lymphoma was refractory to cyclophosphamide-doxorubicin-vincristine-prednisolone (CHOP); this was followed by intensive chemotherapy and autologous stem-cell transplantation, resulting finally in a complete remission.
  • The goitre disappeared and thyroid peroxidase antibodies were no longer detectable.
  • Primary thyroid lymphoma is a rare disease, but autoimmune thyroiditis appears to be an important predisposing factor.
  • [MeSH-major] Goiter / complications. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / diagnosis. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroiditis, Autoimmune / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Autoantibodies / analysis. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Iodide Peroxidase / immunology. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Pregnancy. Recurrence. Stem Cell Transplantation. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 15326651.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2162
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Autoantibodies; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; EC 1.11.1.8 / Iodide Peroxidase; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; CHOP protocol
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32. Ally N, Kumar D, Wodajo FM: Synchronous fibrosarcoma and medullary thyroid cancer in a man with AIDS. Am J Clin Oncol; 2006 Oct;29(5):532-3
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  • [Title] Synchronous fibrosarcoma and medullary thyroid cancer in a man with AIDS.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Fibrosarcoma / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Thoracic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Colonic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Humans. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / drug therapy. Lymphoma, B-Cell / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / drug therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Remission Induction






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