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1. Sampson E, Brierley JD, Le LW, Rotstein L, Tsang RW: Clinical management and outcome of papillary and follicular (differentiated) thyroid cancer presenting with distant metastasis at diagnosis. Cancer; 2007 Oct 1;110(7):1451-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical management and outcome of papillary and follicular (differentiated) thyroid cancer presenting with distant metastasis at diagnosis.
  • BACKGROUND: Differentiated thyroid cancer has a good prognosis and only rarely presents with distant metastasis at diagnosis.
  • METHODS: A retrospective review was undertaken of patients with stage M1 differentiated thyroid cancer at presentation (n = 49), referred from 1980-2000 at a single institution.
  • HISTOLOGY: papillary, 51%, follicular, 49%.
  • Initial treatment(s) included: thyroidectomy, 82%, radioactive iodine (RAI), 88%, excision of metastasis, 29%, radiotherapy, 47%, and chemotherapy, 6%.
  • With a median follow-up time of 3.5 years, 25 patients are alive (51%) and 24 died (49%), with 3-year and 5-year actuarial survivals of 69% and 50%, respectively.
  • Most deaths (17/24, 71%) were due to progressive cancer.
  • The 3-year survival for lung only versus bone only metastasis was 77% versus 56% (P = .02); for papillary versus follicular carcinoma, 75% versus 62% (P = .006); for iodine-avid disease (n = 29) versus not avid (n = 14), 82% versus 57% (P = .02), respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The data support the aggressive management of patients presenting with stage M1 thyroid cancer, with thyroidectomy and RAI.
  • Young patients with papillary tumors and/or iodine-avid disease have an even better prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / therapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / therapy. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy. Thyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome


2. Altumbabić H, Salkić A, Ramas A, Burgić M, Kasumović M, Brkić F: Pattern of head and neck malignant tumours in a Tuzla ENT clinic--a five year experience. Bosn J Basic Med Sci; 2008 Nov;8(4):377-80
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  • One overriding factor in deciding on treatment policy is the tendency for head and neck malignancy to be limited to the primary site and regional lymph nodes with surgery and chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • The most common sites for head and neck malignancies were found to be in the larynx (26,1%), oral cavity (21,7%), the thyroid gland (14,64 %) and the neck (8,51%).
  • A total of 230 patients were diagnosed with laryngeal carcinoma (M:173; F:57), showing the increasing number of female patients.
  • The histopathological tumour types found in this work were mostly squamous cell carcinoma (72,09%), papillary carcinoma (12,2%), while many other minor histopathological variants accounted for 13%.
  • The most patients were presented with stage I and stage III of disease (27% and 28,3%), and 19,9% with stage IV.

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  • (PMID = 19125712.001).
  • [ISSN] 1512-8601
  • [Journal-full-title] Bosnian journal of basic medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bosn J Basic Med Sci
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Bosnia and Herzegovina
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3. Ramalingam P, Middleton LP, Tamboli P, Troncoso P, Silva EG, Ayala AG: Invasive micropapillary carcinoma of the breast metastatic to the urinary bladder and endometrium: diagnostic pitfalls and review of the literature of tumors with micropapillary features. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2003 Apr;7(2):112-9
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  • [Title] Invasive micropapillary carcinoma of the breast metastatic to the urinary bladder and endometrium: diagnostic pitfalls and review of the literature of tumors with micropapillary features.
  • Consequently, these tumors have a high propensity for lymph node metastases and high-stage disease.
  • The metastatic carcinoma can consist exclusively of the micropapillary component, which may elicit an erroneous diagnosis if located in the bladder or lung, as in the patient presented herein.
  • We present a case of a 59-year-old woman with a history of bilateral breast carcinoma status post-bilateral mastectomy, chemotherapy, and tamoxifen therapy.
  • A biopsy of the endometrium revealed a poorly differentiated carcinoma.
  • Urinary bladder biopsies showed a carcinoma with micropapillary features diagnosed as micropapillary transitional cell carcinoma.
  • Anderson Cancer Center (Houston, TX) for further treatment recommendations.
  • The mastectomy specimen showed an invasive ductal carcinoma with a significant micropapillary component.
  • In view of the morphologic and immunohistochemical profile, the carcinoma in the endometrium and urinary bladder were interpreted as metastatic lesions from the breast primary.
  • However, micropapillary serous carcinoma has a different appearance more akin to borderline tumors of the ovary.
  • Immunohistochemical stains are useful in distinguishing these lesions in that thyroid transcription factor-1 positivity suggests a lung primary, CK7 and estrogen receptor suggest a breast primary, and both CK7 and CK20 positivity suggest a urinary bladder primary.
  • Carcinomas with micropapillary features have a propensity for lymph node metastases and advanced stage disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Endometrial Neoplasms / secondary. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratin-7. Keratins / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism. Middle Aged. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 12715337.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-9134
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / KRT7 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-7; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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4. Sidibé el H: [Thyroid diseases in sub-Saharan Africa]. Sante; 2007 Jan-Mar;17(1):33-9
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  • [Title] [Thyroid diseases in sub-Saharan Africa].
  • Thyroid gland diseases vary according to the environment.
  • More cosmopolitan diseases are now added to these thyroid disorders.
  • Millet from semi-arid zones contains apigenin at a concentration of 150 mg/kg and luteolin at 350 mg/kg, both of which can interfere with thyroid function.
  • The proportion of thyroid surgery indicated for hyperthyroidism has tripled, now accounting for 18.5% of all such operations.
  • Single-nodule tumors were assessed in 89 patients in Khartoum: they were found to be simple goiters in 72% of cases, follicular adenoma in 13.5%, cancer in 13.5% (with 6 of the 12 cases follicular, 5 papillary, and 1 anaplastic).
  • The sex ratio for thyroid cancer in Ouagadougou is 0.22, thus mainly women.
  • Thyroid cancer at Ibadan was found to be papillary carcinoma in 45.3% of cases; follicular forms were seen in 44.5% and this series includes 5% of medullary cancers (7 cases), with a mean age of 34 years.
  • Iodine deficiency is suggested to play a role because follicular cancer in southern Africa accounts for up to 55% of thyroid cancers.
  • Thyroid cancers in Algeria are associated with low socioeconomic status and characterized by a high prevalence of cancers discovered at an advanced stage and of anaplastic carcinomas.
  • In conclusion, thyroid disease is due predominantly to iodine deficiency and goitrogenic products, but we also note the increasing emergence of hyperthyroidism, especially Graves disease, atrophic auto-immune hypothyroidism, and thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Diseases / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Africa South of the Sahara / epidemiology. Age Factors. Antithyroid Agents / therapeutic use. Carbimazole / therapeutic use. Child. Female. Goiter / epidemiology. Goiter, Endemic / epidemiology. Goiter, Nodular / epidemiology. Graves Disease / drug therapy. Graves Disease / epidemiology. Humans. Hyperthyroidism / epidemiology. Hyperthyroidism / surgery. Hypothyroidism / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Complications / epidemiology. Prevalence. Risk Factors. Rural Population. Sex Factors. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology. Thyroiditis / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 17897900.001).
  • [ISSN] 1157-5999
  • [Journal-full-title] Santé (Montrouge, France)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sante
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antithyroid Agents; 8KQ660G60G / Carbimazole
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5. Vezzadini C, Cremonini N, Sforza A, Presutti L, Chiarini V: Treated Wilm's tumor in childhood as potential risk factor for second thyroid cancer. Panminerva Med; 2002 Sep;44(3):275-7
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  • [Title] Treated Wilm's tumor in childhood as potential risk factor for second thyroid cancer.
  • The potential risk of a treatment-induced second neoplasia affecting the thyroid is well known after radiation therapy for several types of cancer, but few cases have been related to incidental irradiation for Wilms' tumor.
  • We report a case of a papillary thyroid carcinoma discovered in a young patient 15 years after treatment of a Wilms' tumor.
  • An 18-year-old man was referred to our Endocrinological Department for a single 3 cm nodule in the right lobe of the thyroid.
  • His past medical history included at the age of 2 years surgical resection, chemotherapy (actinomycin-D and vincristine) and cesium radiation therapy to the right side for a Wilms' tumor in stage III: a total dose of 7700 rads was delivered to an area of 17 x 10 cm in the right flank.
  • After fine-needle demonstration of a follicular thyroid lesion, the patient underwent right lobectomy, followed by total thyroidectomy for histologic diagnosis of a follicular variant papillary cancer.
  • Residual thyroid tissue was ablated by iodine-131 administration (3700 MBq), but scanning after therapeutic iodine showed radioactive uptake in the left regional lymph nodes, with elevated serum thyroglobulin off therapy (830 ng/ml).
  • Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the presence of lymph node enlargements and bilateral neck dissection was performed, followed by radioiodine treatment (3700 MBq) and thyroxine suppressive therapy.
  • Although few cases of thyroid cancer have been reported in the literature after irradiation for a Wilms' tumor during childhood, this association should be considered in the long-term follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / etiology. Kidney Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced. Neoplasms, Second Primary / etiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / etiology. Wilms Tumor / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Male. Risk Factors


6. Ayoub JP, Amato RJ, Chiu A, Sellin RV, Weber RS: Synchronous appearance of germ cell tumor and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Am J Otolaryngol; 2000 Nov-Dec;21(6):416-20
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  • [Title] Synchronous appearance of germ cell tumor and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid.
  • We describe our experience of 2 patients with synchronous malignancies of the testis and thyroid gland, and of a third patient who developed a thyroid neoplasm unrelated to recent treatment for a germ cell tumor.
  • The medical records of 3 male patients treated for both a germ cell tumor and a thyroid cancer between 1989 and 1994 were reviewed.
  • Two patients with nonseminomatous germ cell tumor received postoperative chemotherapy after orchiectomy and developed a papillary carcinoma of the thyroid during treatment.
  • A third patient, who received radiation therapy for a clinical stage 1 seminoma, recurred with biopsy proven seminoma in the neck in association with a thyroid nodule 2 years later.
  • All 3 patients had their thyroid cancer treated by surgical resection, and one received adjuvant radioactive iodine.
  • Synchronous appearance of germ cell tumor and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid has not been previously described.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Seminoma / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 11115530.001).
  • [ISSN] 0196-0709
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Otolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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7. Freschi G, Landi L, Castagnoli A, Taddei A, Bechi P, Bucciarelli G: Advanced thyroid carcinoma: an experience of 385 cases. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2006 Jun;32(5):577-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Advanced thyroid carcinoma: an experience of 385 cases.
  • AIMS: To report clinical outcomes of a large series of cases with advanced thyroid cancer.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Three hundred and eighty-five patients at the UICC stages III and IV were selected for the study with thyroid cancer.
  • RESULTS: Papillary carcinoma and sclerosing carcinoma have better survival than the Hürthle cell and insular types.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Surgical treatment is the primary treatment of thyroid carcinoma.
  • The combined treatments of surgery, metabolic beam therapy, suppressive hormone therapy, radiotherapy and chemotherapy cure a high percentage of patients with the tumour at an advanced stage.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Risk Assessment. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16644177.001).
  • [ISSN] 0748-7983
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal
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8. Chen MY, Jung SM, Ng KK, Chang TC: Pulmonary papillary serous adenocarcinoma with intraperitoneal and ovarian tumors: identification of primary site. A case report. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2006 Jan-Feb;16 Suppl 1:231-5
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  • [Title] Pulmonary papillary serous adenocarcinoma with intraperitoneal and ovarian tumors: identification of primary site. A case report.
  • Papillary serous adenocarcinoma has been recognized as a highly malignant ovarian cancer and is also not uncommonly seen in primary lung cancer.
  • We present a patient who was initially diagnosed and treated as stage IV papillary serous ovarian cancer with diffuse pulmonary metastases.
  • Only transient symptomatic improvement was achieved after standard chemotherapy for ovarian cancer, and then she died of respiratory distress during treatment.
  • Poor tumor response to chemotherapy prompted us to reevaluate the previous bronchoscopic biopsy, and immunohistochemical studies, which were cytokeratin (CK) 7 positive, CK20 negative, and thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1)-positive, provided irrefutable evidences for the diagnosis of primary lung cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Peritoneal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16515596.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / KRT20 protein, human; 0 / KRT7 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-20; 0 / Keratin-7; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / thyroid nuclear factor 1; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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9. Milano A, Chiofalo MG, Basile M, Salzano de Luna A, Pezzullo L, Caponigro F: New molecular targeted therapies in thyroid cancer. Anticancer Drugs; 2006 Sep;17(8):869-79
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  • [Title] New molecular targeted therapies in thyroid cancer.
  • Carcinoma of the thyroid gland is the most common malignancy of the endocrine system.
  • A small percentage of such patients, however, do not undergo remission and need new therapeutic approaches.
  • Both anaplastic and medullary thyroid carcinomas exhibit aggressive behavior and are usually resistant to current therapeutic modalities.
  • Thyroid carcinoma represents a fascinating model and a particularly promising paradigm for targeted therapy because some of the key oncogenic events are activating mutations of genes coding for tyrosine kinases, and these occur early in cancer development.
  • Mutations in the RET proto-oncogene have been identified as causative for papillary carcinoma and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma, making it an attractive target for selective inhibition in these subtypes.
  • ZD 6474 has shown promising activity in preclinical models against RET kinase, and its contemporary inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor and epidermal growth factor pathways renders it a very attractive drug for clinical trials in thyroid cancer.
  • Activating point mutation of B-RAF can occur early in the development of papillary carcinoma.
  • Moreover, papillary carcinomas with these mutations have more aggressive properties and are diagnosed more often at an advanced stage.
  • Clinical evaluation of B-RAF-targeting drugs is undergoing and trials in thyroid cancer are planned.
  • Agents that restore radioiodine uptake, such as histone deacetylase inhibitors and retinoids, represent another exciting field in new drug development in thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Membrane / drug effects. Cell Membrane / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / drug effects. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cytoplasm / drug effects. Cytoplasm / metabolism. Humans. Models, Biological. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / metabolism. Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / metabolism


10. Kloos RT, Ringel MD, Knopp MV, Hall NC, King M, Stevens R, Liang J, Wakely PE Jr, Vasko VV, Saji M, Rittenberry J, Wei L, Arbogast D, Collamore M, Wright JJ, Grever M, Shah MH: Phase II trial of sorafenib in metastatic thyroid cancer. J Clin Oncol; 2009 Apr 1;27(10):1675-84
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  • [Title] Phase II trial of sorafenib in metastatic thyroid cancer.
  • PURPOSE: Based on the pivotal role of Ras-Raf-MAP-ERK signaling and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), we conducted a phase II clinical trial of sorafenib targeting RAF and VEGF receptor kinases in PTC.
  • Using a Simon minimax two-stage design, 16 or 25 chemotherapy-naïve metastatic PTC patients were to be enrolled in arm A (accessible tumor for biopsy).
  • Arm B patients had other subtypes of thyroid carcinoma or prior chemotherapy, and did not require tumor biopsies.
  • Four of 10 paired tumor biopsies from PTC patients showed a reduction in levels of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor phosphorylation, ERK phosphorylation, and in VEGF expression during sorafenib therapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Sorafenib is reasonably well-tolerated therapy with clinical and biologic antitumor activity in metastatic PTC.


11. Heudel P, El Karak F, Ismaili N, Droz JP, Flechon A: Micropapillary bladder cancer: a review of Léon Bérard Cancer Center experience. BMC Urol; 2009;9:5
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  • [Title] Micropapillary bladder cancer: a review of Léon Bérard Cancer Center experience.
  • BACKGROUND: Micropapillary bladder cancer is a rare and aggressive variant of urothelial carcinoma.
  • A retrospective review of our experience in management of patients with muscle-invasive or metastatic micropapillary bladder cancer was performed to better define the behavior of this disease.
  • METHODS: We reviewed the records of the 11 patients with micropapillary bladder cancer who were evaluated and treated at Léon Bérard Cancer Center between 1994 and 2007, accounting for 1,2% of all urothelial tumors treated in this institution.
  • Two patients presented with stage II, one with stage III and eight with stage IV disease All 5 patients who had node positive metastases and treated with radical surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy relapsed and had a disease free survival of 9.6 months.
  • CONCLUSION: Micropapillary bladder cancer is probably an underreported variant of urothelial carcinoma associated with poor prognosis.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy might have a questionable efficacy and the optimal treatment strategy is yet to be defined.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / mortality. Carcinoma, Papillary / therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / mortality. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cancer Care Facilities. Female. France / epidemiology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prevalence. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19534791.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2490
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2713271
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