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1. Sampson E, Brierley JD, Le LW, Rotstein L, Tsang RW: Clinical management and outcome of papillary and follicular (differentiated) thyroid cancer presenting with distant metastasis at diagnosis. Cancer; 2007 Oct 1;110(7):1451-6
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  • [Title] Clinical management and outcome of papillary and follicular (differentiated) thyroid cancer presenting with distant metastasis at diagnosis.
  • BACKGROUND: Differentiated thyroid cancer has a good prognosis and only rarely presents with distant metastasis at diagnosis.
  • METHODS: A retrospective review was undertaken of patients with stage M1 differentiated thyroid cancer at presentation (n = 49), referred from 1980-2000 at a single institution.
  • HISTOLOGY: papillary, 51%, follicular, 49%.
  • Initial treatment(s) included: thyroidectomy, 82%, radioactive iodine (RAI), 88%, excision of metastasis, 29%, radiotherapy, 47%, and chemotherapy, 6%.
  • With a median follow-up time of 3.5 years, 25 patients are alive (51%) and 24 died (49%), with 3-year and 5-year actuarial survivals of 69% and 50%, respectively.
  • Most deaths (17/24, 71%) were due to progressive cancer.
  • The 3-year survival for lung only versus bone only metastasis was 77% versus 56% (P = .02); for papillary versus follicular carcinoma, 75% versus 62% (P = .006); for iodine-avid disease (n = 29) versus not avid (n = 14), 82% versus 57% (P = .02), respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The data support the aggressive management of patients presenting with stage M1 thyroid cancer, with thyroidectomy and RAI.
  • Young patients with papillary tumors and/or iodine-avid disease have an even better prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / therapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / therapy. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy. Thyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome


2. Heudel P, El Karak F, Ismaili N, Droz JP, Flechon A: Micropapillary bladder cancer: a review of Léon Bérard Cancer Center experience. BMC Urol; 2009;9:5
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  • [Title] Micropapillary bladder cancer: a review of Léon Bérard Cancer Center experience.
  • BACKGROUND: Micropapillary bladder cancer is a rare and aggressive variant of urothelial carcinoma.
  • A retrospective review of our experience in management of patients with muscle-invasive or metastatic micropapillary bladder cancer was performed to better define the behavior of this disease.
  • METHODS: We reviewed the records of the 11 patients with micropapillary bladder cancer who were evaluated and treated at Léon Bérard Cancer Center between 1994 and 2007, accounting for 1,2% of all urothelial tumors treated in this institution.
  • Two patients presented with stage II, one with stage III and eight with stage IV disease All 5 patients who had node positive metastases and treated with radical surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy relapsed and had a disease free survival of 9.6 months.
  • CONCLUSION: Micropapillary bladder cancer is probably an underreported variant of urothelial carcinoma associated with poor prognosis.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy might have a questionable efficacy and the optimal treatment strategy is yet to be defined.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / mortality. Carcinoma, Papillary / therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / mortality. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cancer Care Facilities. Female. France / epidemiology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prevalence. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Cites] Am J Surg Pathol. 2002 Mar;26(3):358-64 [11859208.001]
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  • (PMID = 19534791.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2490
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2713271
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3. Sidibé el H: [Thyroid diseases in sub-Saharan Africa]. Sante; 2007 Jan-Mar;17(1):33-9
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  • [Title] [Thyroid diseases in sub-Saharan Africa].
  • Thyroid gland diseases vary according to the environment.
  • More cosmopolitan diseases are now added to these thyroid disorders.
  • Millet from semi-arid zones contains apigenin at a concentration of 150 mg/kg and luteolin at 350 mg/kg, both of which can interfere with thyroid function.
  • The proportion of thyroid surgery indicated for hyperthyroidism has tripled, now accounting for 18.5% of all such operations.
  • Single-nodule tumors were assessed in 89 patients in Khartoum: they were found to be simple goiters in 72% of cases, follicular adenoma in 13.5%, cancer in 13.5% (with 6 of the 12 cases follicular, 5 papillary, and 1 anaplastic).
  • The sex ratio for thyroid cancer in Ouagadougou is 0.22, thus mainly women.
  • Thyroid cancer at Ibadan was found to be papillary carcinoma in 45.3% of cases; follicular forms were seen in 44.5% and this series includes 5% of medullary cancers (7 cases), with a mean age of 34 years.
  • Iodine deficiency is suggested to play a role because follicular cancer in southern Africa accounts for up to 55% of thyroid cancers.
  • Thyroid cancers in Algeria are associated with low socioeconomic status and characterized by a high prevalence of cancers discovered at an advanced stage and of anaplastic carcinomas.
  • In conclusion, thyroid disease is due predominantly to iodine deficiency and goitrogenic products, but we also note the increasing emergence of hyperthyroidism, especially Graves disease, atrophic auto-immune hypothyroidism, and thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Diseases / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Africa South of the Sahara / epidemiology. Age Factors. Antithyroid Agents / therapeutic use. Carbimazole / therapeutic use. Child. Female. Goiter / epidemiology. Goiter, Endemic / epidemiology. Goiter, Nodular / epidemiology. Graves Disease / drug therapy. Graves Disease / epidemiology. Humans. Hyperthyroidism / epidemiology. Hyperthyroidism / surgery. Hypothyroidism / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Complications / epidemiology. Prevalence. Risk Factors. Rural Population. Sex Factors. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology. Thyroiditis / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 17897900.001).
  • [ISSN] 1157-5999
  • [Journal-full-title] Santé (Montrouge, France)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sante
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antithyroid Agents; 8KQ660G60G / Carbimazole
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4. Mazzaferri EL, Massoll N: Management of papillary and follicular (differentiated) thyroid cancer: new paradigms using recombinant human thyrotropin. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2002 Dec;9(4):227-47
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of papillary and follicular (differentiated) thyroid cancer: new paradigms using recombinant human thyrotropin.
  • The incidence of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) has increased in many places around the world over the past three decades, yet this has been associated with a significant decrease in DTC mortality rates in some countries.
  • While the best 10-year DTC survival rates are about 90%, long-term relapse rates remain high, in the order of 20-40%, depending upon the patient's age and tumor stage at the time of initial treatment.
  • About 80% of patients appear to be rendered disease-free by initial treatment, but the others have persistent tumor, sometimes found decades later.
  • Optimal treatment for tumors that are likely to relapse or cause death is total thyroidectomy and ablation by iodine-131 ((131)I), followed by long-term levothyroxine suppression of thyrotropin (TSH).
  • On the basis of regression modeling of 1510 patients without distant metastases at the time of initial treatment and including surgical and (131)I treatment, the likelihood of death from DTC is increased by several factors, including age >45 years, tumor size >1.0 cm, local tumor invasion or regional lymph-node metastases, follicular histology, and delay of treatment >12 months.
  • Cancer mortality is favorably and independently affected by female sex, total or near-total thyroidectomy, (131)I treatment and levothyroxine suppression of TSH.
  • Treatments with (131)I to ablate thyroid remnants and residual disease are independent prognostic variables favorably influencing distant tumor relapse and cancer death rates.
  • Delay in treatment of persistent disease has a profound impact on outcome.
  • Optimal long-term follow-up using serum thyroglobulin (Tg) measurements and diagnostic whole-body scans (DxWBS) require high concentrations of TSH, which until recently were possible to achieve only by withdrawing levothyroxine treatment, producing symptomatic hypothyroidism.
  • New paradigms, however, provide alternative pathways to prepare patients for (131)I treatment and to optimize follow-up.
  • Patients with undetectable or low Tg concentrations and persistent occult disease can now be identified within the first year after initial treatment by recombinant human (rh)TSH-stimulated serum Tg concentrations greater than 2 microg/l, without performing DxWBS.
  • These new follow-up paradigms promptly identify patients with lung metastases that are not evident on routine imaging, but which respond to (131)I treatment.
  • In addition, rhTSH can be given to prepare patients for (131)I remnant ablation or (131)I treatment for metastases, especially those who are unable to withstand hypothyroidism because of concurrent illness or advanced age, or whose hypothyroid TSH fails to increase.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thyrotropin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Differentiation. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Recombinant Proteins / therapeutic use. Thyroidectomy


5. Kloos RT, Ringel MD, Knopp MV, Hall NC, King M, Stevens R, Liang J, Wakely PE Jr, Vasko VV, Saji M, Rittenberry J, Wei L, Arbogast D, Collamore M, Wright JJ, Grever M, Shah MH: Phase II trial of sorafenib in metastatic thyroid cancer. J Clin Oncol; 2009 Apr 1;27(10):1675-84
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  • [Title] Phase II trial of sorafenib in metastatic thyroid cancer.
  • PURPOSE: Based on the pivotal role of Ras-Raf-MAP-ERK signaling and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), we conducted a phase II clinical trial of sorafenib targeting RAF and VEGF receptor kinases in PTC.
  • Using a Simon minimax two-stage design, 16 or 25 chemotherapy-naïve metastatic PTC patients were to be enrolled in arm A (accessible tumor for biopsy).
  • Arm B patients had other subtypes of thyroid carcinoma or prior chemotherapy, and did not require tumor biopsies.
  • Four of 10 paired tumor biopsies from PTC patients showed a reduction in levels of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor phosphorylation, ERK phosphorylation, and in VEGF expression during sorafenib therapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Sorafenib is reasonably well-tolerated therapy with clinical and biologic antitumor activity in metastatic PTC.


6. Tuttle RM, Brokhin M, Omry G, Martorella AJ, Larson SM, Grewal RK, Fleisher M, Robbins RJ: Recombinant human TSH-assisted radioactive iodine remnant ablation achieves short-term clinical recurrence rates similar to those of traditional thyroid hormone withdrawal. J Nucl Med; 2008 May;49(5):764-70
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  • [Title] Recombinant human TSH-assisted radioactive iodine remnant ablation achieves short-term clinical recurrence rates similar to those of traditional thyroid hormone withdrawal.
  • Recent studies have confirmed that radioactive iodine therapy after recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) stimulation effectively ablates the normal thyroid remnant.
  • METHODS: Disease recurrence was retrospectively assessed a median of 2.5 y after radioiodine remnant ablation (RRA) in 394 consecutive thyroid cancer patients (93% papillary, 71% female, 47+/-15 y old [mean +/- SD], median (131)I dose of 3,996 MBq [108 mCi]).
  • RESULTS: Similar rates of clinically evident disease recurrence (4% rhTSH vs. 7% thyroid hormone withdrawal [THW], P=not statistically significant) and residual thyroid bed uptake without other evidence of persistent disease (4% rhTSH vs. 7% THW, P=not statistically significant) were seen in the 320 patients undergoing rhTSH-assisted RRA and the 74 patients prepared for RRA by THW.
  • Patients selected for rhTSH-assisted RRA were older (48+/-15 vs. 44+/-15 y, P=0.03) and received a slightly higher administered activity of (131)I (median, 4,033 MBq [109 mCi] vs. 3,811 MBq [103 mCi], P=0.01) but did not differ with respect to sex, histology, disease stage, or mean time to recurrence (19+/-9 mo for rhTSH vs. 20+/-16 mo for THW).
  • CONCLUSION: rhTSH-assisted RRA is associated with rates of clinically evident disease recurrence and persistent uptake in the thyroid bed that are similar to those for traditional THW.
  • [MeSH-major] Catheter Ablation / methods. Recombinant Proteins / metabolism. Recombinant Proteins / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / prevention & control. Thyrotropin / metabolism. Thyrotropin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers / metabolism. Child. Female. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Risk. Secondary Prevention. Thyroglobulin / metabolism. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. Whole Body Imaging

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  • [CommentIn] J Nucl Med. 2009 May;50(5):832; author reply 832-3 [19372486.001]
  • (PMID = 18413378.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-5505
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Nucl. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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7. Ayoub JP, Amato RJ, Chiu A, Sellin RV, Weber RS: Synchronous appearance of germ cell tumor and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Am J Otolaryngol; 2000 Nov-Dec;21(6):416-20
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  • [Title] Synchronous appearance of germ cell tumor and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid.
  • We describe our experience of 2 patients with synchronous malignancies of the testis and thyroid gland, and of a third patient who developed a thyroid neoplasm unrelated to recent treatment for a germ cell tumor.
  • The medical records of 3 male patients treated for both a germ cell tumor and a thyroid cancer between 1989 and 1994 were reviewed.
  • Two patients with nonseminomatous germ cell tumor received postoperative chemotherapy after orchiectomy and developed a papillary carcinoma of the thyroid during treatment.
  • A third patient, who received radiation therapy for a clinical stage 1 seminoma, recurred with biopsy proven seminoma in the neck in association with a thyroid nodule 2 years later.
  • All 3 patients had their thyroid cancer treated by surgical resection, and one received adjuvant radioactive iodine.
  • Synchronous appearance of germ cell tumor and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid has not been previously described.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Seminoma / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 11115530.001).
  • [ISSN] 0196-0709
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Otolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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8. Barbaro D, Boni G, Meucci G, Simi U, Lapi P, Orsini P, Pasquini C, Turco A, Mariani G: Recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone is effective for radioiodine ablation of post-surgical thyroid remnants. Nucl Med Commun; 2006 Aug;27(8):627-32
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone is effective for radioiodine ablation of post-surgical thyroid remnants.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether recombinant human thyroid-stimulating factor (rhTSH) is effective for the radiometabolic ablation of post-surgery thyroid remnants, using low doses of (131)I.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included two groups of patients enrolled consecutively: group 1 consisted of 52 patients with papillary cancer or minimally invasive follicular cancer (stage I and II), and group 2 consisted of 41 patients with the same stage of disease.
  • To investigate (131)I uptake in this group, a tracer dose was administered 3 h after the second injection of rhTSH and the uptake was evaluated at 24 h just before administration of the therapeutic dose.
  • I was also measured in the patients treated in the hypothyroid state just before the therapeutic dose was given.
  • No patients treated with the aid of rhTSH and with the short stoppage of L-T4 experienced symptoms of hypothyroidism, and free thyroxine (FT4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone levels remained normal.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our data confirm that, when the interference of iodine is minimized, rhTSH is highly effective for the treatment of post-surgical thyroid remnants using a low dose of (131)I.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Thyrotropin / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Recombinant Proteins / therapeutic use. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16829763.001).
  • [ISSN] 0143-3636
  • [Journal-full-title] Nuclear medicine communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nucl Med Commun
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
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9. Zhang Y, Jia S, Liu Y, Li B, Wang Z, Lu H, Zhu C: A clinical study of all-trans-retinoid-induced differentiation therapy of advanced thyroid cancer. Nucl Med Commun; 2007 Apr;28(4):251-5
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  • [Title] A clinical study of all-trans-retinoid-induced differentiation therapy of advanced thyroid cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the changes in differentiation markers and therapeutic effects in all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA)-treated patients with dedifferentiated thyroid cancer.
  • They had dedifferentiated thyroid cancers (DTC) (four follicular, five papillary, two oxyphilic) and were selected for treatment with ATRA (1.00+/-0.09 mg x kg x d) for 30 or 60 days.
  • All patients had advanced stage tumours with prior operative and radioiodine treatment.
  • Extensive tumour invasion, distant metastatic spread, and insufficient or non-existent uptake of radioiodine precluded conventional therapeutic options.
  • Changes in I uptake, response of target lesions, and serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels were measured and compared in these patients before and after ATRA therapy.
  • Tg was assessed in eight patients, in whom two responders showed increased radioiodine uptake or no change and decreased Tg level, as well as PR after ATRA-induced differentiation therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Thyroglobulin / blood. Thyroid Gland / drug effects. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Tretinoin / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes. Male. Middle Aged. Radiopharmaceuticals. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17325586.001).
  • [ISSN] 0143-3636
  • [Journal-full-title] Nuclear medicine communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nucl Med Commun
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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10. Vezzadini C, Cremonini N, Sforza A, Presutti L, Chiarini V: Treated Wilm's tumor in childhood as potential risk factor for second thyroid cancer. Panminerva Med; 2002 Sep;44(3):275-7
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  • [Title] Treated Wilm's tumor in childhood as potential risk factor for second thyroid cancer.
  • The potential risk of a treatment-induced second neoplasia affecting the thyroid is well known after radiation therapy for several types of cancer, but few cases have been related to incidental irradiation for Wilms' tumor.
  • We report a case of a papillary thyroid carcinoma discovered in a young patient 15 years after treatment of a Wilms' tumor.
  • An 18-year-old man was referred to our Endocrinological Department for a single 3 cm nodule in the right lobe of the thyroid.
  • His past medical history included at the age of 2 years surgical resection, chemotherapy (actinomycin-D and vincristine) and cesium radiation therapy to the right side for a Wilms' tumor in stage III: a total dose of 7700 rads was delivered to an area of 17 x 10 cm in the right flank.
  • After fine-needle demonstration of a follicular thyroid lesion, the patient underwent right lobectomy, followed by total thyroidectomy for histologic diagnosis of a follicular variant papillary cancer.
  • Residual thyroid tissue was ablated by iodine-131 administration (3700 MBq), but scanning after therapeutic iodine showed radioactive uptake in the left regional lymph nodes, with elevated serum thyroglobulin off therapy (830 ng/ml).
  • Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the presence of lymph node enlargements and bilateral neck dissection was performed, followed by radioiodine treatment (3700 MBq) and thyroxine suppressive therapy.
  • Although few cases of thyroid cancer have been reported in the literature after irradiation for a Wilms' tumor during childhood, this association should be considered in the long-term follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / etiology. Kidney Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced. Neoplasms, Second Primary / etiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / etiology. Wilms Tumor / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Male. Risk Factors


11. Sanyal P, Bing-You RG, Braverman LE: Use of methotrexate to treat isolated Graves ophthalmopathy developing years after thyroidectomy and iodine 131 treatment of papillary thyroid cancer. Endocr Pract; 2008 May-Jun;14(4):422-5
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  • [Title] Use of methotrexate to treat isolated Graves ophthalmopathy developing years after thyroidectomy and iodine 131 treatment of papillary thyroid cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of Graves ophthalmopathy developing years after subtotal thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine treatment of papillary thyroid cancer.
  • RESULTS: In 2001, a 51-year-old woman presented with an asymptomatic thyroid nodule.
  • Stage 2 follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma was diagnosed.
  • She received radioactive iodine (I 131) therapy (94.8 mCi and 147.2 mCi) in 2003.
  • Computed tomography of her orbits showed symmetric bilateral exophthalmos and prominence of orbital fat.
  • Subsequent treatment with methotrexate resulted in marked symptomatic improvement and lowered the thyrotropin receptor antibody level to 24%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Isolated Graves ophthalmopathy in a patient after treatment of thyroid cancer and radioactive iodine ablation has not been previously reported.
  • Methotrexate therapy may be a useful therapeutic approach in this setting.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / therapy. Graves Ophthalmopathy / drug therapy. Methotrexate / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy / adverse effects. Female. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy / adverse effects. Thyroidectomy / adverse effects. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Endocr Pract. 2008 May-Jun;14(4):412-4 [18558590.001]
  • (PMID = 18558593.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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12. Santoro M, Carlomagno F: Drug insight: Small-molecule inhibitors of protein kinases in the treatment of thyroid cancer. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Jan;2(1):42-52
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  • [Title] Drug insight: Small-molecule inhibitors of protein kinases in the treatment of thyroid cancer.
  • Molecular targeting of protein kinases is a new paradigm in the treatment of cancer.
  • The clinical efficacy of low-molecular weight inhibitors of ABL, stem-cell growth-factor receptor, and the epidermal growth factor receptor in different tumor types is witness to the power of this approach.
  • Thyroid cancer is the most prevalent endocrine malignancy and is frequently associated with the oncogenic conversion of two specific protein kinases, RET and BRAF.
  • Small-molecule inhibitors of both kinases have already reached the clinical testing stage.
  • Protein kinases other than RET and BRAF are also being evaluated for their potential in thyroid-cancer treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / etiology. Carcinoma, Medullary / etiology. Carcinoma, Papillary / etiology. Gene Targeting. Humans. Models, Biological. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics. RNA Interference

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  • (PMID = 16932252.001).
  • [ISSN] 1745-8366
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
  • [Number-of-references] 73
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13. Chen MY, Jung SM, Ng KK, Chang TC: Pulmonary papillary serous adenocarcinoma with intraperitoneal and ovarian tumors: identification of primary site. A case report. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2006 Jan-Feb;16 Suppl 1:231-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pulmonary papillary serous adenocarcinoma with intraperitoneal and ovarian tumors: identification of primary site. A case report.
  • Papillary serous adenocarcinoma has been recognized as a highly malignant ovarian cancer and is also not uncommonly seen in primary lung cancer.
  • We present a patient who was initially diagnosed and treated as stage IV papillary serous ovarian cancer with diffuse pulmonary metastases.
  • Only transient symptomatic improvement was achieved after standard chemotherapy for ovarian cancer, and then she died of respiratory distress during treatment.
  • Poor tumor response to chemotherapy prompted us to reevaluate the previous bronchoscopic biopsy, and immunohistochemical studies, which were cytokeratin (CK) 7 positive, CK20 negative, and thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1)-positive, provided irrefutable evidences for the diagnosis of primary lung cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Peritoneal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16515596.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / KRT20 protein, human; 0 / KRT7 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-20; 0 / Keratin-7; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / thyroid nuclear factor 1; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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14. Milano A, Chiofalo MG, Basile M, Salzano de Luna A, Pezzullo L, Caponigro F: New molecular targeted therapies in thyroid cancer. Anticancer Drugs; 2006 Sep;17(8):869-79
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] New molecular targeted therapies in thyroid cancer.
  • Carcinoma of the thyroid gland is the most common malignancy of the endocrine system.
  • A small percentage of such patients, however, do not undergo remission and need new therapeutic approaches.
  • Both anaplastic and medullary thyroid carcinomas exhibit aggressive behavior and are usually resistant to current therapeutic modalities.
  • Thyroid carcinoma represents a fascinating model and a particularly promising paradigm for targeted therapy because some of the key oncogenic events are activating mutations of genes coding for tyrosine kinases, and these occur early in cancer development.
  • Mutations in the RET proto-oncogene have been identified as causative for papillary carcinoma and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma, making it an attractive target for selective inhibition in these subtypes.
  • ZD 6474 has shown promising activity in preclinical models against RET kinase, and its contemporary inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor and epidermal growth factor pathways renders it a very attractive drug for clinical trials in thyroid cancer.
  • Activating point mutation of B-RAF can occur early in the development of papillary carcinoma.
  • Moreover, papillary carcinomas with these mutations have more aggressive properties and are diagnosed more often at an advanced stage.
  • Clinical evaluation of B-RAF-targeting drugs is undergoing and trials in thyroid cancer are planned.
  • Agents that restore radioiodine uptake, such as histone deacetylase inhibitors and retinoids, represent another exciting field in new drug development in thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Membrane / drug effects. Cell Membrane / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / drug effects. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cytoplasm / drug effects. Cytoplasm / metabolism. Humans. Models, Biological. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / metabolism. Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / metabolism


15. Mazzaferri EL, Kloos RT: Using recombinant human TSH in the management of well-differentiated thyroid cancer: current strategies and future directions. Thyroid; 2000 Sep;10(9):767-78
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Using recombinant human TSH in the management of well-differentiated thyroid cancer: current strategies and future directions.
  • Mortality rates from thyroid cancer have fallen significantly in recent decades, almost certainly as the result of earlier diagnosis and improved treatment of differentiated (papillary and follicular) thyroid cancer.
  • Enhanced survival is likely a result of early diagnosis and therapy applied at a disease stage when treatment is most effective.
  • In the United States and Europe, most patients at high risk for relapse and death from thyroid cancer are treated with total or near-total thyroidectomy and receive radioiodine ablation of residual normal or malignant thyroid tissue, followed by treatment with thyroid hormone, a strategy that cures more than 80% of patients.
  • Over 50% of recurrences appear in the first five years, but distant metastases may surface years, and sometimes decades, after initial therapy.
  • Much has been learned about risk stratification to predict recurrence and death from thyroid cancer but individual patients continue to have adverse outcomes not always foreseen by a low tumor stage.
  • The National Cancer Center Network (NCCN) has recently established consensus practice guidelines that give explicit advice about the diagnosis and management of benign and malignant thyroid tumors, including paradigms for long-term follow-up and the treatment of recurrent disease.
  • The guidelines confirm that diagnostic scanning with 131I and measurement of serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels are the mainstay of follow-up, offering the opportunity to detect recurrent or persistent cancer at very early stages.
  • These guidelines advocate TSH-stimulated serum Tg measurements, done either during thyroid hormone withdrawal or stimulation with recombinant human TSH (rhTSH, Thyrogen), that often identify the presence of cancer well before diagnostic whole-body scanning or other imaging studies can spot the tumor, which offers the opportunity to treat recurrent disease at an early stage.
  • Although not yet approved for preparation of patients for 131I therapy, rhTSH has been used successfully in a compassionate use program for this purpose in a relatively large number of patients.
  • Formal clinical investigations now planned to provide guidelines for the use of rhTSH for therapeutic 131I portend a new set of effective therapeutic paradigms for the management of differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thyrotropin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Recombinant Proteins / therapeutic use. Thyroglobulin / blood. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 11041454.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
  • [Number-of-references] 47
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16. Freschi G, Landi L, Castagnoli A, Taddei A, Bechi P, Bucciarelli G: Advanced thyroid carcinoma: an experience of 385 cases. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2006 Jun;32(5):577-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Advanced thyroid carcinoma: an experience of 385 cases.
  • AIMS: To report clinical outcomes of a large series of cases with advanced thyroid cancer.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Three hundred and eighty-five patients at the UICC stages III and IV were selected for the study with thyroid cancer.
  • RESULTS: Papillary carcinoma and sclerosing carcinoma have better survival than the Hürthle cell and insular types.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Surgical treatment is the primary treatment of thyroid carcinoma.
  • The combined treatments of surgery, metabolic beam therapy, suppressive hormone therapy, radiotherapy and chemotherapy cure a high percentage of patients with the tumour at an advanced stage.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Risk Assessment. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16644177.001).
  • [ISSN] 0748-7983
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal
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17. Ramalingam P, Middleton LP, Tamboli P, Troncoso P, Silva EG, Ayala AG: Invasive micropapillary carcinoma of the breast metastatic to the urinary bladder and endometrium: diagnostic pitfalls and review of the literature of tumors with micropapillary features. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2003 Apr;7(2):112-9
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  • [Title] Invasive micropapillary carcinoma of the breast metastatic to the urinary bladder and endometrium: diagnostic pitfalls and review of the literature of tumors with micropapillary features.
  • Consequently, these tumors have a high propensity for lymph node metastases and high-stage disease.
  • The metastatic carcinoma can consist exclusively of the micropapillary component, which may elicit an erroneous diagnosis if located in the bladder or lung, as in the patient presented herein.
  • We present a case of a 59-year-old woman with a history of bilateral breast carcinoma status post-bilateral mastectomy, chemotherapy, and tamoxifen therapy.
  • A biopsy of the endometrium revealed a poorly differentiated carcinoma.
  • Urinary bladder biopsies showed a carcinoma with micropapillary features diagnosed as micropapillary transitional cell carcinoma.
  • Anderson Cancer Center (Houston, TX) for further treatment recommendations.
  • The mastectomy specimen showed an invasive ductal carcinoma with a significant micropapillary component.
  • In view of the morphologic and immunohistochemical profile, the carcinoma in the endometrium and urinary bladder were interpreted as metastatic lesions from the breast primary.
  • However, micropapillary serous carcinoma has a different appearance more akin to borderline tumors of the ovary.
  • Immunohistochemical stains are useful in distinguishing these lesions in that thyroid transcription factor-1 positivity suggests a lung primary, CK7 and estrogen receptor suggest a breast primary, and both CK7 and CK20 positivity suggest a urinary bladder primary.
  • Carcinomas with micropapillary features have a propensity for lymph node metastases and advanced stage disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Endometrial Neoplasms / secondary. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratin-7. Keratins / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism. Middle Aged. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 12715337.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-9134
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / KRT7 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-7; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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18. Enomoto K, Sakurai K, Amano S, Shiono M: [A case of advanced breast carcinoma with local hemorrhage during a control of hyperthyroidism]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2009 Nov;36(12):2490-2
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  • [Title] [A case of advanced breast carcinoma with local hemorrhage during a control of hyperthyroidism].
  • A medical check-up was done and diagnosed as T4b, N0, M0, stage IIIB of the breast cancer by a close inspection.
  • We waited for a thyroid function to be normalized.
  • In January 2009, we observed a bleeding from the part of the breast cancer.
  • We controlled the thyroid function by internal medicine.
  • Then we performed a pectoralis muscle preservation breast surgery and dermanaplasty with a shortest anesthesia time in order to control the infestation to be minimal.
  • Because we were able to control the hyperthyroidism this time and a thyroid function to be stabilized for a local advanced breast carcinoma with the hemorrhage temporarily, and were able to operate for the breast cancer, as we reported it in this study.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / complications. Hemorrhage / etiology. Hyperthyroidism / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / complications. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Carcinoma, Papillary / complications. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20037465.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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