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Items 1 to 25 of about 25
1. Ganguly R, Mitra S, Datta AK: Synchronous occurrence of anaplastic, follicular and papillary carcinomas with follicular adenoma in thyroid gland. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2010 Apr-Jun;53(2):337-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Synchronous occurrence of anaplastic, follicular and papillary carcinomas with follicular adenoma in thyroid gland.
  • Various combinations of thyroid carcinomas have been reported including those between different cancers of follicular cell origin and those between follicular and C-cell histogenesis.
  • We report a case of composite anaplastic and papillary cancer on one thyroid lobe with a follicular carcinoma in the other lobe in a female patient aged 64 years.
  • The patient also had a separate and independent follicular adenoma in the same lobe as the composite anaplastic and papillary carcinoma.
  • The papillary carcinoma was continuous with the anaplastic carcinoma.
  • The patient was managed by a total thyroidectomy with bilateral modified radical neck dissection followed by chemotherapy.
  • This could result from the dedifferentiation of a pre-existing differentiated carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / complications. Adenoma / complications. Carcinoma / complications. Carcinoma, Papillary / complications. Thyroid Gland / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Drug Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Histocytochemistry. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Microscopy. Middle Aged. Thyroidectomy

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  • [CommentIn] Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2011 Apr-Jun;54(2):434-5 [21623130.001]
  • [CommentIn] Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2011 Apr-Jun;54(2):414-5; author reply 415 [21623114.001]
  • (PMID = 20551551.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-5130
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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2. Rohan S, Tu JJ, Kao J, Mukherjee P, Campagne F, Zhou XK, Hyjek E, Alonso MA, Chen YT: Gene expression profiling separates chromophobe renal cell carcinoma from oncocytoma and identifies vesicular transport and cell junction proteins as differentially expressed genes. Clin Cancer Res; 2006 Dec 1;12(23):6937-45
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  • [Title] Gene expression profiling separates chromophobe renal cell carcinoma from oncocytoma and identifies vesicular transport and cell junction proteins as differentially expressed genes.
  • PURPOSE: To compare gene expression profiles of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and benign oncocytoma, aiming at identifying differentially expressed genes.
  • Five of these genes, AP1M2, MAL2, PROM2, PRSS8, and FLJ20171, were shown to effectively separate these two tumor groups by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR using fresh tissue samples, with similar trends seen on formalin-fixed tissues.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis revealed selective expression of MAL2 and claudin 8 in distal renal tubules, with MAL2 antibody showing differential expression between chromophobe RCC and oncocytoma.
  • Functional analyses suggest that genes encoding tight junction proteins and vesicular membrane trafficking proteins, normally expressed in distal nephrons, are retained in chromophobe RCC and lost or consistently down-regulated in oncocytoma, indicating that these two tumor types, believed to be both derived from distal tubules, are likely distinctive in their histogenesis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We showed that chromophobe RCC and oncocytoma are distinguishable by mRNA expression profiles and a panel of gene products potentially useful as diagnostic markers were identified.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / genetics. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling. Kidney Neoplasms / genetics. Membrane Proteins / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Vesicular Transport Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17145811.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AP1M2 protein, human; 0 / Adaptor Protein Complex 1; 0 / Adaptor Protein Complex mu Subunits; 0 / FLJ20171 protein, human; 0 / MAL2 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Myelin and Lymphocyte-Associated Proteolipid Proteins; 0 / PROM2 protein, human; 0 / Proteolipids; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Vesicular Transport Proteins; EC 3.4.21.- / Serine Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.21.- / prostasin
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3. Lopez-Penabad L, Chiu AC, Hoff AO, Schultz P, Gaztambide S, Ordoñez NG, Sherman SI: Prognostic factors in patients with Hürthle cell neoplasms of the thyroid. Cancer; 2003 Mar 1;97(5):1186-94
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  • [Title] Prognostic factors in patients with Hürthle cell neoplasms of the thyroid.
  • BACKGROUND: Hürthle cell neoplasms, often considered a variant of follicular thyroid neoplasms, represent 3% of thyroid carcinomas.
  • Only a handful of publications have focused on the biologic behavior, prognostic factors, and treatment outcomes of Hürthle cell carcinoma.
  • METHODS: The authors reviewed medical records of patients who were treated for Hürthle cell carcinoma (HCC) and Hürthle cell adenoma (HCA) at The University of Texas M. D.
  • Seven patients with HCC had foci of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • Forty percent of patients in the HCC group died of thyroid carcinoma, whereas no patients in the HCA group died of the disease.
  • Univariate analysis identified older age, higher disease stage, tumor size, extraglandular invasion, multifocality, lymph node disease, distant metastasis, extensive surgery, external beam radiation therapy, and chemotherapy as factors that were associated with decreased survival.
  • Although radioactive iodine treatment had no overall effect on survival, subgroup analysis showed that patients who received radioactive iodine for adjuvant ablation therapy had better outcomes compared either with patients who did not receive radioactive iodine or with patients who received radioactive iodine as treatment for residual disease.
  • The association of extensive surgery, external beam radiation therapy, and chemotherapy with worse survival also disappeared once those factors were analyzed together with other prognostic factors, such as distant metastases.
  • Radioactive iodine therapy may confer a survival benefit when it is used for adjuvant ablation therapy, but not when residual disease is present.
  • The authors could not demonstrate a survival benefit for the use of extensive surgery, external beam radiation therapy, or chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Male. Middle Aged. Mortality. Prognosis. Survival Analysis. Thyroidectomy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 12599224.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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4. Sidibé el H: [Thyroid diseases in sub-Saharan Africa]. Sante; 2007 Jan-Mar;17(1):33-9
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  • [Title] [Thyroid diseases in sub-Saharan Africa].
  • Thyroid gland diseases vary according to the environment.
  • More cosmopolitan diseases are now added to these thyroid disorders.
  • Millet from semi-arid zones contains apigenin at a concentration of 150 mg/kg and luteolin at 350 mg/kg, both of which can interfere with thyroid function.
  • The proportion of thyroid surgery indicated for hyperthyroidism has tripled, now accounting for 18.5% of all such operations.
  • Single-nodule tumors were assessed in 89 patients in Khartoum: they were found to be simple goiters in 72% of cases, follicular adenoma in 13.5%, cancer in 13.5% (with 6 of the 12 cases follicular, 5 papillary, and 1 anaplastic).
  • The sex ratio for thyroid cancer in Ouagadougou is 0.22, thus mainly women.
  • Thyroid cancer at Ibadan was found to be papillary carcinoma in 45.3% of cases; follicular forms were seen in 44.5% and this series includes 5% of medullary cancers (7 cases), with a mean age of 34 years.
  • Iodine deficiency is suggested to play a role because follicular cancer in southern Africa accounts for up to 55% of thyroid cancers.
  • Thyroid cancers in Algeria are associated with low socioeconomic status and characterized by a high prevalence of cancers discovered at an advanced stage and of anaplastic carcinomas.
  • In conclusion, thyroid disease is due predominantly to iodine deficiency and goitrogenic products, but we also note the increasing emergence of hyperthyroidism, especially Graves disease, atrophic auto-immune hypothyroidism, and thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Diseases / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Africa South of the Sahara / epidemiology. Age Factors. Antithyroid Agents / therapeutic use. Carbimazole / therapeutic use. Child. Female. Goiter / epidemiology. Goiter, Endemic / epidemiology. Goiter, Nodular / epidemiology. Graves Disease / drug therapy. Graves Disease / epidemiology. Humans. Hyperthyroidism / epidemiology. Hyperthyroidism / surgery. Hypothyroidism / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Complications / epidemiology. Prevalence. Risk Factors. Rural Population. Sex Factors. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology. Thyroiditis / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 17897900.001).
  • [ISSN] 1157-5999
  • [Journal-full-title] Santé (Montrouge, France)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sante
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antithyroid Agents; 8KQ660G60G / Carbimazole
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5. Sherman SI, Wirth LJ, Droz JP, Hofmann M, Bastholt L, Martins RG, Licitra L, Eschenberg MJ, Sun YN, Juan T, Stepan DE, Schlumberger MJ, Motesanib Thyroid Cancer Study Group: Motesanib diphosphate in progressive differentiated thyroid cancer. N Engl J Med; 2008 Jul 3;359(1):31-42
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  • [Title] Motesanib diphosphate in progressive differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is characteristic of differentiated thyroid cancer and is associated with aggressive tumor behavior and a poor clinical outcome.
  • METHODS: In an open-label, single-group, phase 2 study, we treated 93 patients who had progressive, locally advanced or metastatic, radioiodine-resistant differentiated thyroid cancer with 125 mg of motesanib diphosphate, administered orally once daily.
  • RESULTS: Of the 93 patients, 57 (61%) had papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Among the 75 patients in whom thyroglobulin analysis was performed, 81% had decreased serum thyroglobulin concentrations during treatment, as compared with baseline levels.
  • The most common treatment-related adverse events were diarrhea (in 59% of the patients), hypertension (56%), fatigue (46%), and weight loss (40%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Motesanib diphosphate can induce partial responses in patients with advanced or metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer that is progressive. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00121628. )
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Indoles / therapeutic use. Niacinamide / analogs & derivatives. Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor / antagonists & inhibitors. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / drug therapy. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / secondary. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Genotype. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit. Survival Analysis. Thyroglobulin / blood

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  • [Copyright] 2008 Massachusetts Medical Society
  • [CommentIn] N Engl J Med. 2008 Dec 18;359(25):2727; author reply 2727 [19092161.001]
  • (PMID = 18596272.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4406
  • [Journal-full-title] The New England journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] N. Engl. J. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00121628
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Indoles; 25X51I8RD4 / Niacinamide; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor; F60NE4XB53 / imetelstat
  • [Investigator] Lind P; Pirich C; Daumerie C; Baudin E; Bui BN; Conte-Devolx B; Rohmer V; Schvartz C; Szabolcs I; Racz K; Brandi ML; Pinchera A; Elisei R; Orlandi F; Pacini F; Jarzab B; Sowinski J; Jansson S; Lundell G; Hallqvist A; Meier C; Philippe J; Agarwala S; Ali H; Barrera J; Boccia R; Bukowski R; Burman K; Clark O; Davis T; Hoff A; Sarlis N; Jakub J; Mena R; Nahleh Z; Rosen L; Stephenson J; Srkalovic G; Tchekmedyian N
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6. Palmedo H, Bucerius J, Joe A, Strunk H, Hortling N, Meyka S, Roedel R, Wolff M, Wardelmann E, Biersack HJ, Jaeger U: Integrated PET/CT in differentiated thyroid cancer: diagnostic accuracy and impact on patient management. J Nucl Med; 2006 Apr;47(4):616-24
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Integrated PET/CT in differentiated thyroid cancer: diagnostic accuracy and impact on patient management.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic accuracy and impact on patient management of the new integrated PET/CT modality in patients with suspected iodine-negative, differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC).
  • METHODS: Forty patients with DTC and a suggestion of iodine-negative tumor tissue underwent PET/CT examination (370 MBq (18)F-FDG, coregistered PET/CT whole-body images).
  • In tumor-positive PET patients, PET/CT fusion by coregistration led to a change of therapy in 10 (48%) patients.
  • By precisely localizing tumor tissue, image fusion by integrated PET/CT is clearly superior to side-by-side interpretation of PET and CT images.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / radiography. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / radiography. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / radionuclide imaging. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / radiography. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / radionuclide imaging. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / radiography. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / radionuclide imaging. Adult. Aged. Disease Management. Drug Resistance. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Prospective Studies. Radiopharmaceuticals. Thyroglobulin / blood. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Whole Body Imaging

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  • (PMID = 16595495.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-5505
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Nucl. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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7. Rajoria S, Suriano R, Shanmugam A, Wilson YL, Schantz SP, Geliebter J, Tiwari RK: Metastatic phenotype is regulated by estrogen in thyroid cells. Thyroid; 2010 Jan;20(1):33-41
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  • [Title] Metastatic phenotype is regulated by estrogen in thyroid cells.
  • BACKGROUND: Over 200 million people worldwide are affected by thyroid proliferative diseases, including cancer, adenoma, and goiter, annually.
  • The incidences of thyroid malignancies are three to four times higher in women, suggesting the possible involvement of estrogen.
  • Based on this observed sex bias, we hypothesize that estrogen modulates the growth and metastatic propensity of thyroid cancer cells.
  • METHODS: In this study, two thyroid cell lines (Nthy-ori 3-1 and BCPAP) were evaluated for the presence of estrogen receptor (ER) by Western blot analysis and estrogen responsiveness by using a cell proliferation assay.
  • RESULTS: Thyroid cells expressed a functionally active ER-alpha and ER-beta as evidenced by 50-150% enhancement of proliferation in the presence of E(2).
  • E(2) also enhanced adhesion, migration, and invasion of thyroid cells in an in vitro experimental model system that, based on our results, is modulated by beta-catenin.
  • CONCLUSION: Our data provide evidence that the higher incidence of thyroid cancer in women is potentially attributed to the presence of a functional ER that participates in cellular processes contributing to enhanced mitogenic, migratory, and invasive properties of thyroid cells.
  • These findings will enable and foster the possible development of antiestrogenic therapy targeting invasion and migration, thus affecting metastatic propensity.

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  • (PMID = 20067378.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA131946-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA131946; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1R01CA131946-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA131946-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA131946-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA131946-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA131946-01A2
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogen Antagonists; 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha; 0 / Estrogen Receptor beta; 0 / HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins; 0 / beta Catenin; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2833180
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8. Li W, Venkataraman GM, Ain KB: Protein synthesis inhibitors, in synergy with 5-azacytidine, restore sodium/iodide symporter gene expression in human thyroid adenoma cell line, KAK-1, suggesting trans-active transcriptional repressor. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2007 Mar;92(3):1080-7
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  • [Title] Protein synthesis inhibitors, in synergy with 5-azacytidine, restore sodium/iodide symporter gene expression in human thyroid adenoma cell line, KAK-1, suggesting trans-active transcriptional repressor.
  • CONTEXT: Therapy of thyroid carcinoma uses its radioiodine concentration ability for treatment.
  • OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: We explored restoring hNIS expression in human thyroid carcinoma cells using thyroid adenoma and carcinoma cell lines: KAK-1, NPA87, BHT-101, and KAT-4B, with quantitative RT-PCR, chromatin immunoprecipitation, deoxyribonuclease I sensitivity assays, and luciferase reporter construct transfections containing hNIS promoter regions.
  • Cycloheximide in cells transfected with luciferase reporter construct, 1.3 kb hNIS gene promoter, stimulated normalized luciferase expression, singly and synergistically with 5-azacytidine, in a dose-dependent, time course-dependent, cell type-specific, and promoter-specific fashion.
  • Inhibition of this repressive activity increases endogenous hNIS transcription and presents a novel target to restore hNIS expression in dedifferentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Azacitidine / pharmacology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Protein Synthesis Inhibitors / pharmacology. Symporters / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Butyrates / pharmacology. Cell Line, Tumor. Cycloheximide / pharmacology. Deoxyribonuclease I / metabolism. Drug Synergism. Genes, Reporter. Humans. Luciferases / metabolism. Promoter Regions, Genetic / drug effects. Transfection

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  • (PMID = 17164311.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K24CA82116
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Butyrates; 0 / Protein Synthesis Inhibitors; 0 / Symporters; 0 / sodium-iodide symporter; 98600C0908 / Cycloheximide; EC 1.13.12.- / Luciferases; EC 3.1.21.1 / Deoxyribonuclease I; M801H13NRU / Azacitidine
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9. Jereczek-Fossa BA, Alterio D, Jassem J, Gibelli B, Tradati N, Orecchia R: Radiotherapy-induced thyroid disorders. Cancer Treat Rev; 2004 Jun;30(4):369-84
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  • [Title] Radiotherapy-induced thyroid disorders.
  • Despite their specific functional consequences, radiotherapy-induced thyroid abnormalities remain under-estimated and underreported.
  • These sequelae may include primary or central hypothyroidism, thyroiditis, Graves' disease, euthyroid Graves' ophthalmopathy, benign adenomas, multinodular goitre and radiation-induced thyroid carcinoma.
  • Primary hypothyroidism, the most common radiation-induced thyroid dysfunction, affects 20-30% of patients administered following curative radiotherapy to the neck region, with approximately half of the events occurring within the first 5 years after therapy.
  • The aetiology of radiation-induced thyroid injury includes vascular damage, parenchymal cell damage and auto-immune reactions.
  • Total radiotherapy dose, irradiated volume of the thyroid gland, and the extent of prior thyroid resection are among the most important factors associated with the risk of hypothyroidism.
  • The contribution of other treatment modalities (chemotherapy, endocrine therapy) as well as patient- and tumour-related factors is less clear.
  • Reduction in radiation dose to the thyroid gland and hypothalamic/pituitary complex should be attempted whenever possible.
  • New radiotherapy techniques, such as stereotactic radiosurgery, three-dimensional conformal irradiation, intensity modulated radiotherapy and proton therapy allow generally better dose distribution with lower dose to the non-target organs.
  • The diagnostic approach to thyroid radiation injury includes baseline thyroid function assays in all patients undergoing thyroid or parasellar irradiation.
  • Recommended follow-up procedures include at least annual evaluation with a history for symptoms of thyroid dysfunction, clinical examination, and measurement of thyroid hormones and thyrotropin.
  • Management of overt hypothyroidism is based on hormone replacement therapy.
  • Thyroid hormone therapy is also recommended in cases of subclinical hypothyroidism.
  • Treatment of other radiation-induced thyroid disorders (thyroiditis, Graves' disease, thyroid cancer) is similar to that employed in spontaneously occurring conditions.
  • Further improvements in radiotherapy techniques and progress in endocrine diagnostics and therapy may allow better prevention and management of radiation-related thyroid injury.
  • [MeSH-major] Radiotherapy / adverse effects. Thyroid Diseases / etiology. Thyroid Gland / radiation effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / etiology. Carcinoma / etiology. Goiter, Nodular / etiology. Graves Disease / etiology. Humans. Hypothyroidism / etiology. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Conformal / adverse effects. Risk Assessment. Thyroid Neoplasms / etiology. Thyroiditis / etiology

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  • (PMID = 15145511.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-7372
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer treatment reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Treat. Rev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 149
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10. Okoń K, Wierzchowski W, Jabłońska E, Wójcik P, Steczko A: Anaplastic, sarcomatoid carcinoma of the thyroid originating from a Hürthle cell tumor. Pol J Pathol; 2003;54(4):277-81
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  • [Title] Anaplastic, sarcomatoid carcinoma of the thyroid originating from a Hürthle cell tumor.
  • An attempt at chemotherapy was made, but the patient died two months after the onset of the disease.
  • The histology revealed an anaplastic, sarcomatoid component, as well as a Hürthle cell carcinoma.
  • The presented case is an excellent illustration of diagnostic difficulties that may be encountered in differential diagnosis of anaplastic, sarcomatoid thyroid carcinomas and true sarcomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinosarcoma / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 14998298.001).
  • [ISSN] 1233-9687
  • [Journal-full-title] Polish journal of pathology : official journal of the Polish Society of Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol J Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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11. Wojdas A, Jurkiewicz D, Kenig D, Rapiejko P: [The case of carcinoma adenoides cysticum of the tongue, the trachea and the thyroid gland]. Otolaryngol Pol; 2004;58(6):1151-5
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  • [Title] [The case of carcinoma adenoides cysticum of the tongue, the trachea and the thyroid gland].
  • We present a case of a 65-year-old female patient who was for the first time admitted to the clinic in 1997 due to a tuber of the tongue root.
  • The removed tuber turned out to be histopatologically a polymorphic adenoma.
  • In all cases carcinoma adenoides cysticum has been found, as well as metastasis into the thyroid gland and the lungs.
  • The patient was qualified for chemotherapy in the Institute of Oncology, which she has been going through periodically every two weeks until now.
  • Carcinoma adenoides cysticum was found.
  • In November 2002, during the surgery a tumorous infiltration of the thyroid gland was found comprehending trachea and reaching the mediastenum.
  • In February 2003 the patient was re-admitted to the Clinic due to dyspnoea caused by a significant contraction of the trachea which occurred as a result of a focus of carcinoma adenoides cysticum and significantly enlarged lymph glands near the trachea.
  • The presented case describes an exceptionally aggressive and polyfocal regrowth and transformation of a polymorphic adenoma into cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Tongue Neoplasms / pathology. Tracheal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Bronchoscopy / methods. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15732839.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6657
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngologia polska = The Polish otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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12. Besic N, Hocevar M, Zgajnar J, Petric R, Pilko G: Aggressiveness of therapy and prognosis of patients with Hürthle cell papillary thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid; 2006 Jan;16(1):67-72
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  • [Title] Aggressiveness of therapy and prognosis of patients with Hürthle cell papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Hürthle cell papillary thyroid carcinoma (HCPTC) has been studied separately from other types of thyroid carcinoma in relatively few studies.
  • A total of 1552 patients with thyroid carcinoma were seen at our institute during the period of 1976-2003; of them, 42 patients (33 females, 9 males; age 10-85 years, median 56.5 years) had histopathologically verified HCPTC.
  • The data on the patients' gender, age, disease history, extent of disease, morphologic characteristics, therapy, locoregional control, disease-free interval, and survival were collected.
  • Primary treatment consisted of total or near-total thyroidectomy (39 patients), lobectomy (2 patients), radioiodine ablation of the thyroid remnant (37 patients), external irradiation (14 patients), and chemotherapy (3 patients).
  • Three patients died of thyroid carcinoma during the follow-up period.
  • Long-term survival and locoregional control of disease are likely after the radical tumor resection, radioiodine ablation of the thyroid remnant, and external irradiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / therapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Cytoplasm / pathology. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Iodine / deficiency. Iodine Radioisotopes. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Slovenia / epidemiology. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 16487016.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 9679TC07X4 / Iodine
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13. Jetha MM, Stobart K, Lees GM, Couch RM: Autonomous thyroid nodule in an adolescent 10 years after total body irradiation for bone marrow transplant. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2007 Mar;29(3):203-5
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  • [Title] Autonomous thyroid nodule in an adolescent 10 years after total body irradiation for bone marrow transplant.
  • A male patient with B-cell lymphoma was treated with chemotherapy and allogeneic bone marrow transplant, including preparatory total body irradiation.
  • Ten years later, at age 15 years, the patient developed an autonomous thyroid nodule and an incidental papillary microcarcinoma.
  • This is the first report of an autonomous thyroid nodule after total body irradiation for bone marrow transplant.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Bone Marrow Transplantation / adverse effects. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Lymphoma, B-Cell / therapy. Neoplasms, Second Primary. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis. Whole-Body Irradiation / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Transplantation, Homologous. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17356404.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Kebebew E: Parathyroid carcinoma. Curr Treat Options Oncol; 2001 Aug;2(4):347-54
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  • [Title] Parathyroid carcinoma.
  • Although parathyroid neoplasms are common and cause primary hyperparathyroidism, parathyroid carcinoma is a rare entity.
  • At times it can be difficult to diagnose.
  • Patients with parathyroid carcinoma usually present with profound symptoms of hyperparathyroidism and highly elevated serum calcium and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels.
  • At the time of neck exploration, a large, gray-white, locally invasive tumor is commonly encountered.
  • The course of patients with parathyroid carcinoma is variable; unfortunately, more than 50% have persistent or recurrent disease due to regional or distant disease.
  • Surgical resection is the principal treatment for patients with parathyroid carcinoma.
  • The optimal surgical treatment is en bloc tumor resection with ipsilateral thyroid lobectomy when the diagnosis is suspected and until it is proven otherwise.
  • Patients who have persistent or recurrent parathyroid carcinoma should have localizing studies to identify loco-regional or distant tumor sites.
  • Reoperation in patients with localized parathyroid carcinoma is recommended because it relieves symptoms of hypercalcemia, and it normalizes serum calcium and PTH levels in most patients.
  • For patients who have unresectable parathyroid carcinoma, a protocol-based treatment with chemotherapy and external radiotherapy should be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / complications. Parathyroid Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / blood. Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Algorithms. Combined Modality Therapy. Diuretics / therapeutic use. Epidemiologic Methods. Female. Fluid Therapy. Furosemide / therapeutic use. Humans. Hypercalcemia / drug therapy. Hypercalcemia / etiology. Hyperparathyroidism / drug therapy. Hyperparathyroidism / etiology. Hyperplasia. Male. Middle Aged. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Glands / secretion. Parathyroidectomy. Reoperation

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  • [Cites] World J Surg. 1992 Jul-Aug;16(4):724-31 [1413841.001]
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  • (PMID = 12057115.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-2729
  • [Journal-full-title] Current treatment options in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Treat Options Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Diuretics; 7LXU5N7ZO5 / Furosemide
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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15. Trojanowicz B, Sekulla C, Lorenz K, Köhrle J, Finke R, Dralle H, Hoang-Vu C: Proteomic approach reveals novel targets for retinoic acid-mediated therapy of thyroid carcinoma. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2010 Aug 30;325(1-2):110-7
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  • [Title] Proteomic approach reveals novel targets for retinoic acid-mediated therapy of thyroid carcinoma.
  • Our previous studies demonstrated that retinoic acid (RA)-induced reduction of both, the key glycolytic enzyme ENO1 and proliferation-promoting c-Myc, resulted in decreased vitality and invasiveness of the follicular thyroid carcinoma cell lines FTC-133 and FTC-238.
  • By employing two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, we identified proteins affected by RA treatment.
  • The same proteins investigated on thyroid tissues were found to be significantly up-regulated in follicular, papillary and undifferentiated thyroid carcinomas when compared with goiter and adenoma tissues.
  • These findings identify new target proteins for RA-mediated anti-tumor and re-differentiation therapies and provide novel insights into treatments for thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Pharmacological / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Tretinoin / therapeutic use

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20538039.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-8057
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Pharmacological; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin
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16. Whatley WS, Thompson JW, Rao B: Salivary gland tumors in survivors of childhood cancer. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2006 Mar;134(3):385-8
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  • The most common second malignancies are acute leukemia, bone and soft tissue tumors, and carcinoma of the skin, breast, and thyroid.
  • RESULTS: Twelve survivors of childhood cancer developed a salivary gland neoplasm after completion of treatment.
  • These patients were initially treated for a variety of childhood cancers with a combination of radiation and chemotherapy.
  • The pathology of the salivary gland tumors were mucoepidermoid carcinoma (10), adenoid cystic carcinoma (1) , and pleomorphic adenoma (1).
  • CONCLUSION: Radiation and chemotherapy used to treat patients with childhood malignancies increases the risk of developing a second neoplasm of salivary gland origin.
  • The majority of these neoplasms are malignant; mucoepidermoid carcinoma occurs most frequently.
  • The treatment of these tumors includes surgical excision of the primary, with neck dissection in patients with clinical evidence of nodal metastasis, and postoperative radiation added for pathologies with adverse features.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Pleomorphic / diagnosis. Adenoma, Pleomorphic / surgery. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / surgery. Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / surgery. Child. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Male. Neck Dissection. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Registries. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors


17. Imai T, Onose J, Hasumura M, Ueda M, Takizawa T, Hirose M: Sequential analysis of development of invasive thyroid follicular cell carcinomas in inflamed capsular regions of rats treated with sulfadimethoxine after N-bis(2-hydroxypropyl)nitrosamine-initiation. Toxicol Pathol; 2004 Mar-Apr;32(2):229-36
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  • [Title] Sequential analysis of development of invasive thyroid follicular cell carcinomas in inflamed capsular regions of rats treated with sulfadimethoxine after N-bis(2-hydroxypropyl)nitrosamine-initiation.
  • A 2-stage thyroid follicular carcinogenesis model in rats initiated with N-bis(2-hydroxypropyl)nitrosamine (DHPN) is widely used to detect modifying effects of chemicals on thyroid carcinogenesis.
  • A number of goitrogens are known to strongly promote carcinogenesis, and the carcinomas often originate adjacent to the thyroid capsule and show invasive growth into the capsule or adjacent tissues.
  • In DHPN-SDM-treated rats, multiple focal hyperplasias and adenomas developed in thyroid follicular parenchyma at weeks 4 to 6.
  • Focal hyperplasias/adenomas adjacent to the capsule progressively developed to invasive carcinomas at weeks 6 to 10.
  • In thyroid parenchyma, malignant lesions were seldom observed.
  • With SDM-treatment alone, although no neoplastic lesions were observed, capsular thickening with inflammation and epithelial migration resulted in intracapsular residual follicles.
  • Intracapsular residual follicular cells as well as invasive and intrathyroidal carcinoma cells generally showed increased cell proliferative activity, coincidental with cytoplasmic/nuclear positivity for beta-catenin.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / chemically induced. Carcinogens / toxicity. Nitrosamines / toxicity. Sulfadimethoxine / toxicity. Thyroid Gland / drug effects. Thyroid Neoplasms / chemically induced
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / chemically induced. Adenoma / pathology. Administration, Oral. Animals. Biomarkers, Tumor. Cytoskeletal Proteins / metabolism. Drug Therapy, Combination. Hyperplasia. Injections, Subcutaneous. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Rats. Rats, Inbred F344. Trans-Activators / metabolism. Water Supply. beta Catenin

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  • (PMID = 15200161.001).
  • [ISSN] 0192-6233
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicologic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carcinogens; 0 / Ctnnb1 protein, rat; 0 / Cytoskeletal Proteins; 0 / Nitrosamines; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / beta Catenin; 30CPC5LDEX / Sulfadimethoxine; 4J072HB2ND / diisopropanolnitrosamine
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18. Paulino AC, Fowler BZ: Secondary neoplasms after radiotherapy for a childhood solid tumor. Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2005 Mar;22(2):89-101
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  • From 1956 to 1998, 429 children with a malignant solid tumor were treated at a single radiation oncology facility.
  • The medical records and radiotherapy charts were reviewed to determine if the patient developed a secondary neoplasm after treatment for malignancy.
  • Twenty-three (5.4%) patients developed a secondary neoplasm.
  • There were 12 males and 11 females with a median age at RT of 6.6 years (range, 2 months to 20 years).
  • The types of initial solid tumors treated with RT were Ewing sarcoma in 6, Wilms tumor in 6, medulloblastoma in 5, neuroblastoma in 3, and other in 3.
  • Median RT dose was 45 Gy (range, 12.3 to 60 Gy) using 4 MV in 9, 1.25 MV in 8, 250 KV in 4, and 6 MV photons in 1 patient.
  • Fourteen had chemotherapy.
  • For the 14 malignant neoplasms, the median time interval from initial tumor to second malignancy was 10.1 years.
  • The 14 second malignant neoplasms (SMN) were osteosarcoma in 3, breast carcinoma in 2, melanoma in 2, malignant fibrous histiocytoma in 1, dermatofibrosarcoma in 1, leiomyosarcoma in 1, mucoepidermoid carcinoma in 1, colon cancer in 1, chronic myelogenous leukemia in 1, and basal cell carcinoma in 1.
  • The 5- and 10-year overall survival rate after diagnosis of an SMN was 69.2%; it was 70% for children with a SMN at the edge or inside the RT field and 66.7% for those outside of the RT field.
  • The 14 benign neoplasms appeared at a median time of 16.9 years and included cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in 3, osteochondroma in 3, thyroid adenoma in 1, duodenal adenoma in 1, lipoma in 1, cherry angioma in 1, uterine leiomyoma in 1, ovarian cystadenofibroma in 1, and giant cell tumor in 1.
  • More than two-thirds of children with a radiation-induced malignancy are alive 10 years after the diagnosis of a SMN.

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  • (PMID = 15804994.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-0018
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric hematology and oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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19. Broecker-Preuss M, Sheu SY, Worm K, Feldkamp J, Witte J, Scherbaum WA, Mann K, Schmid KW, Schott M: Expression and mutation analysis of the tyrosine kinase c-kit in poorly differentiated and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Horm Metab Res; 2008 Oct;40(10):685-91
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  • [Title] Expression and mutation analysis of the tyrosine kinase c-kit in poorly differentiated and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • Poorly differentiated and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma are aggressive tumors failing to res-pond to conventional therapy.
  • Imatinib mesylate offers an effective therapeutic option in patients with various types of malignancies by inhibiting tyrosine kinases such as c-kit.
  • In this study we investigated c-kit expression in anaplastic and poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma compared to differentiated carcinoma and adenoma and the presence of c-kit mutations.
  • In total, 224 thyroid tissues were analyzed by immunohistochemistry.
  • Mutation analysis of exon 9, 11, 13, and 17 of the c-kit gene was performed in anaplastic and poorly differentiated carcinoma. c-Kit expression was negative in all anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, while c-kit expression of poorly differentiated carcinoma showed a high variability with a more intense staining in tumors showing obvious differentiated malignant follicular tumor areas.
  • Differentiated carcinoma showed a slight, but not significantly stronger c-kit expression than poorly differentiated carcinoma.
  • All tumors revealed wild type sequences of c-kit gene in exons 9, 11, 13, and 17.
  • The low or lacking c-kit expression in undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma together with the lack of mutations argue against a crucial role of c-kit in thyroid carcinoma cell proliferation.
  • Further molecular targets of imatinib mesylate have to be analyzed to estimate a potential benefit of this drug for patients with dedifferentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / enzymology. Carcinoma / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / enzymology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18622894.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-5043
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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20. Liu W, Asa SL, Ezzat S: Vitamin D and its analog EB1089 induce p27 accumulation and diminish association of p27 with Skp2 independent of PTEN in pituitary corticotroph cells. Brain Pathol; 2002 Oct;12(4):412-9
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  • [Title] Vitamin D and its analog EB1089 induce p27 accumulation and diminish association of p27 with Skp2 independent of PTEN in pituitary corticotroph cells.
  • We have previously shown that 1,25-vitamin D3 (VD) hypophosphorylates p27 and interferes with the degradation of this CDKI in thyroid carcinoma cells.
  • Our findings highlight p27 and VD analogs as targets for manipulation and drug development respectively in the treatment of inoperable corticotroph adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. CDC2-CDC28 Kinases. Calcitriol / analogs & derivatives. Cell Cycle Proteins / agonists. Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism. Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / agonists. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism. Vitamin D / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / metabolism. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / secretion. Animals. Cell Cycle / drug effects. Cell Cycle / physiology. Cells, Cultured. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27. Cyclin-Dependent Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Cyclin-Dependent Kinases / metabolism. Cysteine Endopeptidases / drug effects. Cysteine Endopeptidases / metabolism. Humans. Multienzyme Complexes / drug effects. Multienzyme Complexes / metabolism. PTEN Phosphohydrolase. Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism. S-Phase Kinase-Associated Proteins. Up-Regulation / drug effects. Up-Regulation / physiology

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  • (PMID = 12408227.001).
  • [ISSN] 1015-6305
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Multienzyme Complexes; 0 / S-Phase Kinase-Associated Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 1406-16-2 / Vitamin D; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.22 / CDC2-CDC28 Kinases; EC 2.7.11.22 / CDK2 protein, human; EC 2.7.11.22 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2; EC 2.7.11.22 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinases; EC 3.1.3.- / Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase; EC 3.4.22.- / Cysteine Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.25.1 / Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex; FXC9231JVH / Calcitriol; Q0OZ0D9223 / seocalcitol
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21. Colao A, Dorato M, Pulcrano M, Rossi FW, Auriemma RS, Lombardi G, Lastoria S: [Somatostatin analogs in the clinical management of pituitary neoplasms]. Minerva Endocrinol; 2001 Sep;26(3):181-91
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  • The medical approach to patients with secreting or clinically non-functioning pituitary adenoma as made considerable progress thanks to the use of new somatostatin analogs.
  • Good results were obtained using slow-release analog treatment also in TSH-secreting adenomas, whereas the therapeutic efficacy of these peptides in clinically non-functioning adenomas is still controversial.
  • Treatment with somatostatin analogs improves symptoms, normalises hormone secretion and in some cases may induce a reduction in the volume of pituitary adenomas.
  • Scintigraphy with octreotide may help to select patients who respond to this form of treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Octreotide / analogs & derivatives. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Pentetic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Peptides, Cyclic / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Somatostatin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Acromegaly / drug therapy. Adolescent. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma / radionuclide imaging. Humans. Indium Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / secretion. Kidney Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Melanoma / radionuclide imaging. Middle Aged. Pheochromocytoma / radionuclide imaging. Predictive Value of Tests. Prolactinoma / drug therapy. Radiopharmaceuticals / therapeutic use. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thymoma / radionuclide imaging. Thymus Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Thyrotropin / secretion. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11753242.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Indium Radioisotopes; 0 / Peptides, Cyclic; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 118992-92-0 / lanreotide; 142694-57-3 / SDZ 215-811; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; 7A314HQM0I / Pentetic Acid; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
  • [Number-of-references] 95
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22. Niruthisard S, Chatrkaw P, Laornual S, Sunthornyothin S, Prasertsri S: Anesthesia for one-stage bilateral pheochromocytoma resection in a patient with MEN type IIa: attenuation of hypertensive crisis by magnesium sulfate. J Med Assoc Thai; 2002 Jan;85(1):125-30
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  • [Title] Anesthesia for one-stage bilateral pheochromocytoma resection in a patient with MEN type IIa: attenuation of hypertensive crisis by magnesium sulfate.
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type IIa, manifesting as an autosomal dominant trait, consists of medullary thyroid carcinoma, parathyroid adenoma or hyperplasia, and pheochromocytoma.
  • We report our experience of a 42-year-old woman, MEN type IIa with a large bilateral pheochromocytoma, who underwent one-stage bilateral tumor resection under a combined continuous epidural technique with 0.25 per cent bupivacaine and general anesthesia using vecuronium, fentanyl, nitrous oxide, and isoflurane.
  • An initial intra-operative hypertensive response was acceptably controlled by nitroprusside and a beta-blocker but during tumor handling the hypertensive crisis worsened and she developed acute pulmonary edema despite a continuing high dose of nitroprusside infusion.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / surgery. Anesthesia / methods. Bupivacaine / administration & dosage. Hypertension / drug therapy. Intraoperative Complications / drug therapy. Magnesium Sulfate / administration & dosage. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy / methods. Adult. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / complications. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / diagnosis. Treatment Outcome


23. Pennell NA, Daniels GH, Haddad RI, Ross DS, Evans T, Wirth LJ, Fidias PH, Temel JS, Gurubhagavatula S, Heist RS, Clark JR, Lynch TJ: A phase II study of gefitinib in patients with advanced thyroid cancer. Thyroid; 2008 Mar;18(3):317-23
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  • [Title] A phase II study of gefitinib in patients with advanced thyroid cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of gefitinib in patients with advanced thyroid cancer.
  • DESIGN: In this open-label phase II trial, 27 patients with radioiodine-refractory, locally advanced, or metastatic thyroid cancer were treated with 250 mg of daily gefitinib.
  • After 3, 6, and 12 months of treatment, 48%, 24%, and 12% of patients had stable disease (SD), respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although gefitinib therapy did not result in any tumor responses, 32% of patients had reductions in tumor volume that did not meet criteria for partial response rate.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Quinazolines / administration & dosage. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / drug therapy. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Aged. Carcinoma, Medullary / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Severity of Illness Index. Thyroglobulin / blood. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Thyroid. 2008 Mar;18(3):279-80 [18341374.001]
  • (PMID = 17985985.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Quinazolines; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin; S65743JHBS / gefitinib
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24. Camacho CP, Latini FR, Oler G, Hojaij FC, Maciel RM, Riggins GJ, Cerutti JM: Down-regulation of NR4A1 in follicular thyroid carcinomas is restored following lithium treatment. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2009 Mar;70(3):475-83
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  • [Title] Down-regulation of NR4A1 in follicular thyroid carcinomas is restored following lithium treatment.
  • INTRODUCTION: The identification of follicular thyroid adenoma-associated transcripts will lead to a better understanding of the events involved in pathogenesis and progression of follicular tumours.
  • Using Serial Analysis of Gene Expression, we identified five genes that are absent in a malignant follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) library, but expressed in follicular adenoma (FTA) and normal thyroid libraries.
  • METHODS: NR4A1, one of the five genes, was validated in a set of 27 normal thyroid tissues, 10 FTAs and 14 FTCs and three thyroid carcinoma cell lines by real time PCR.
  • NR4A1 can be transiently increased by a variety of stimuli, including lithium, which is used as adjuvant therapy of thyroid carcinoma with (131)I.
  • To this end, lithium was used at different concentration (10 mm or 20 mm) and time (2 h and 24 h) and the level of expression was tested by quantitative PCR.
  • RESULTS: We observed that NR4A1 expression was under-expressed in most of the FTCs investigated, compared with expression in normal thyroid tissues and FTAs.
  • These findings may explain a possible molecular mechanism of lithium's therapeutic action.

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  • (PMID = 18727708.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2265
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA113461-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA113461-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA113461; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA113461; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R33 CA113461
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CCND1 protein, human; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / FOSB protein, human; 0 / Lithium Compounds; 0 / NR4A1 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 4, Group A, Member 1; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos; 0 / Receptors, Steroid; 0 / Wnt Proteins; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS93432; NLM/ PMC2742303
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25. Gessl A, Vierhapper H, Feichtinger H: Non-suppressible TSH in a patient thyroidectomized due to follicular thyroid carcinoma. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2006 Jul;114(7):389-92
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  • [Title] Non-suppressible TSH in a patient thyroidectomized due to follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • Poor compliance or drug malabsorption are the most common reasons why an adequate TSH suppression is not achieved with oral levothyroxin in patients with hypothyroidism or thyroid carcinoma.
  • We report a female patient with follicular thyroid carcinoma in whom, under intended levothyroxin suppression therapy, a TSH-PRL-producing pituitary adenoma manifested by failure to achieve adequate TSH suppression, subtle signs of hyperthyroidism,and finally symptoms of elevated PRL.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / blood. Thyroidectomy. Thyrotropin / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / blood. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Adult. Female. Humans. Pituitary Gland / pathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16915543.001).
  • [ISSN] 0947-7349
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
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