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1. Marini F, Falchetti A, Del Monte F, Carbonell Sala S, Gozzini A, Luzi E, Brandi ML: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Orphanet J Rare Dis; 2006;1:38
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  • [Title] Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1.
  • Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is a rare autosomal dominant hereditary cancer syndrome presented mostly by tumours of the parathyroids, endocrine pancreas and anterior pituitary, and characterised by a very high penetrance and an equal sex distribution.
  • Other endocrine and non-endocrine lesions, such as adrenal cortical tumours, carcinoids of the bronchi, gastrointestinal tract and thymus, lipomas, angiofibromas, collagenomas have been described.
  • MEN1 syndrome is caused by inactivating mutations of the MEN1 tumour suppressor gene.
  • Treatment consists of surgery and/or drug therapy, often in association with radiotherapy or chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / diagnosis. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / therapy. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / therapy. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Angiofibroma / diagnosis. Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Child. Facial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Female. Gastrinoma / diagnosis. Genetic Testing / methods. Humans. Insulinoma / diagnosis. Lipoma / diagnosis. Male. Meningioma / diagnosis. Middle Aged. Prolactinoma / diagnosis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide / blood. Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide / secretion. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 17014705.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-1172
  • [Journal-full-title] Orphanet journal of rare diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orphanet J Rare Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MEN1 protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 37221-79-7 / Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide
  • [Number-of-references] 64
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1594566
  • [General-notes] NLM/ Original DateCompleted: 20070618
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2. Takahashi T, Hatao K, Yamashita Y, Tanizawa Y: Ectopic ACTH syndrome due to thymic atypical carcinoid treated with combination chemotherapy of cisplatin and etoposide. Intern Med; 2003 Dec;42(12):1197-201
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  • [Title] Ectopic ACTH syndrome due to thymic atypical carcinoid treated with combination chemotherapy of cisplatin and etoposide.
  • A 21-year-old woman with Cushing's syndrome presented with a mediastinal tumor.
  • Ectopic ACTH syndrome was diagnosed and the tumor was resected.
  • The histopathological diagnosis was thymic atypical carcinoid.
  • Despite all tumor lesions having been resected, the tumor relapsed and multiple metastatic lesions grew aggressively.
  • Combination chemotherapy with cisplatin and etoposide (VP16) was administered to control tumor progression, and achieved marked therapeutic effects.
  • Maintenance chemotherapy with carboplatin and VP16 achieved long-term tumor control.
  • This case indicates that some patients with atypical carcinoid tumor are good responders to chemotherapy with platinum agents and VP16.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH Syndrome, Ectopic / etiology. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Thymus Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 14714958.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-2918
  • [Journal-full-title] Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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3. Kunitoh H, Tamura T, Shibata T, Nakagawa K, Takeda K, Nishiwaki Y, Osaki Y, Noda K, Yokoyama A, Saijo N, JCOG Lung Cancer Study Group, Tokyo, Japan: A phase-II trial of dose-dense chemotherapy in patients with disseminated thymoma: report of a Japan Clinical Oncology Group trial (JCOG 9605). Br J Cancer; 2009 Nov 3;101(9):1549-54
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  • [Title] A phase-II trial of dose-dense chemotherapy in patients with disseminated thymoma: report of a Japan Clinical Oncology Group trial (JCOG 9605).
  • BACKGROUND: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of dose-dense weekly chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced thymoma.
  • METHODS: Subjects comprised patients with histologically documented chemotherapy-naïve thymoma with stage-IVa or IVb disease.
  • Thymic carcinoma, carcinoid or lymphoma cases were excluded.
  • Patients received 9 weeks of chemotherapy: cisplatin (25 mg m(-2)) on weeks 1-9; vincristine (1 mg m(-2)) on weeks 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8; and doxorubicin (40 mg m(-2)) and etoposide (80 mg m(-2)) on days 1-3 of weeks 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9.
  • Chemotherapy courses were supported by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor.
  • Post-protocol local therapy was allowed.
  • Chemotherapy-associated toxicity was mainly haematological and was well tolerated, with no deaths due to toxicity, and 87% of patients completed the planned 9-week regimen.
  • CONCLUSION: In stage-IV thymoma patients, weekly dose-dense chemotherapy offers similar activity to conventional regimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Thymoma / drug therapy. Thymus Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Japan. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 19809436.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2778526
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4. Amano H, Yamada T, Jujoh T, Kuroda F, Sakao S, Tada Y, Kurosu K, Kasahara Y, Tanabe N, Takiguchi Y, Tatsumi K: [Case of thymic carcinoid associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type I treated effectively with chemotherapy]. Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi; 2010 Nov;48(11):855-9
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  • [Title] [Case of thymic carcinoid associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type I treated effectively with chemotherapy].
  • He had a past history of hyperparathyroidism, for which he underwent surgery in 1994, and also had a family history in that his sister had multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1).
  • He was given a diagnosis of MEN I on genetic testing.
  • Chest CT revealed a mediastinal mass 4 cm in maximum dimension, and an atypical carcinoid was diagnosed according to mediastinal biopsy findings.
  • The tumor decreased in size by 30%, and was evaluated as showing partial response.
  • Although there are some cases of MEN-related thymoma treated by surgery, a case which successfully responded to chemotherapy alone is thought to be extremely rare.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / complications. Thymus Neoplasms / complications. Thymus Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome


5. Sato H, Kajiya H, Kanai G, Hirukawa T, Tanaka H, Kakuta T, Inomoto C, Osamura RY: Atypical thymic carcinoid associated with Cushing's syndrome. Tokai J Exp Clin Med; 2010 Jul;35(2):78-84
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  • [Title] Atypical thymic carcinoid associated with Cushing's syndrome.
  • A 56-year-old Japanese woman with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-dependent Cushing's syndrome (CS) was admitted to hospital, where she was diagnosed as having a mediastinal tumor with ectopic ACTH production.
  • The tumor and associated lymph node metastases were resected endoscopically, and the pathological diagnosis was atypical thymic carcinoid.
  • Radiation therapy and administration of metyrapone, an inhibitor of 11b-hydroxylase to decrease the cortisol level, were attempted, but the levels of ACTH and cortisol were unresponsive.
  • She subsequently developed multiple vertebral metastases, but was unwilling to undergo chemotherapy.
  • Immunostaining for ACTH, chromogranin A, synaptophysin, and neuron-specific enolase was positive in the carcinoid cells.
  • Since somatostatin (SS) and SS analogues inhibit the growth of carcinoid via the SS receptor (SSTR) 2, we evaluated the expression of SSTR2 in the carcinoid cells using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and this confirmed the expression of SSTR2 in the carcinoid cells.
  • Our experience of this patient with CS due to an ectopic ACTH-producing atypical thymic carcinoid suggests that SS analogues may be useful for treatment of carcinoid showing expression of SSTR2.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Mediastinal Neoplasms. Thymus Neoplasms


6. Simsek I, Pay S, Dinc A, Erdem H, Kurt B: Atypical carcinoid tumor of the thymus with ectopic ACTH production developed during the course of etanercept treatment--case report. Clin Rheumatol; 2007 Sep;26(9):1561-2
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  • [Title] Atypical carcinoid tumor of the thymus with ectopic ACTH production developed during the course of etanercept treatment--case report.
  • Ever since the introduction of anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents, concerns have been raised regarding their potential for developing malignancy.
  • We report the development of thymic atypical carcinoid tumor 9 months after the initiation of etanercept therapy in a patient having refractory spondylarthritis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / adverse effects. Carcinoid Tumor / chemically induced. Immunoglobulin G / adverse effects. Thymus Neoplasms / chemically induced. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / antagonists & inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Etanercept. Humans. Male. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / etiology. Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor. Spondylarthritis / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17061154.001).
  • [ISSN] 0770-3198
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical rheumatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Rheumatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Immunoglobulin G; 0 / Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; OP401G7OJC / Etanercept
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7. Dham A, Truskinovsky AM, Dudek AZ: Thymic carcinoid responds to neoadjuvant therapy with sunitinib and octreotide: a case report. J Thorac Oncol; 2008 Jan;3(1):94-7
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  • [Title] Thymic carcinoid responds to neoadjuvant therapy with sunitinib and octreotide: a case report.
  • Carcinoids are malignant neuroendocrine tumors consisting of a spectrum of neoplasms from low-grade typical carcinoid to high-grade small cell carcinoma.
  • We report a case of atypical thymic carcinoid that responded to neoadjuvant therapy with octreotide and sunitinib, an oral multikinase inhibitor.
  • After 3 weeks of treatment, tumor size significantly decreased to allow for a safe surgical resection with clear margins.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Carcinoid Tumor / drug therapy. Indoles / therapeutic use. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Pyrroles / therapeutic use. Thymus Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Needle. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Lymphatic Diseases / pathology. Male. Necrosis / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Pneumonectomy. Positron-Emission Tomography. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / metabolism. Radiography, Thoracic. Synaptophysin / metabolism. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18166847.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-1380
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Thorac Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Indoles; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Pyrroles; 0 / Synaptophysin; 0 / sunitinib; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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8. Andrés R, Mayordomo JI, Ramón y Cajal S, Tres A: Paraneoplastic Cushing's syndrome associated to locally advanced thymic carcinoid tumor. Tumori; 2002 Jan-Feb;88(1):65-7
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  • [Title] Paraneoplastic Cushing's syndrome associated to locally advanced thymic carcinoid tumor.
  • BACKGROUND: Thymic carcinoid is a frequent cause of Cushing's syndrome due to ectopic adrenocorticotropin secretion.
  • Histology and immunohistochemistry allow differential diagnosis from other epithelial thymic tumors, such as thymomas and thymic carcinomas.
  • The term used to name this tumor is confusing, since it is a malignant neuroendocrine neoplasm, and therapeutic approaches need to bear that in mind.
  • CASE REPORT: Unlike most cases of thymic carcinoid associated to Cushing's syndrome that had distant metastases at diagnosis, we report a 50-year-old male who presented with Cushing's syndrome and was diagnosed with thymic carcinoid without distant metastases.
  • Multimodal treatment with surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy (cisplatin plus etoposide) induced a complete clinical and biochemical remission lasting for 46 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Cushing Syndrome / complications. Paraneoplastic Syndromes / complications. Thymus Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / metabolism. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chromogranin A. Chromogranins / metabolism. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy Dosage


9. Talton CC, Hopkins JO, Walley BD, Kincaid EH: Metastatic thymic carcinoid: a case report. Am Surg; 2005 Jul;71(7):578-80
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  • [Title] Metastatic thymic carcinoid: a case report.
  • Thymic neuroendocrine carcinomas (carcinoid) are rare tumors.
  • They have malignant potential, the capacity for distant metastasis, and often present with associated endocrinopathies.
  • This report describes a patient who was diagnosed with thymic carcinoid and Cushing syndrome at age 19 that, despite complete surgical excision of his tumor, developed local recurrence with distant metastases to his brain, lungs, and bone.
  • We discuss the evolution of this patient's illness as well as the therapies used in his care.
  • We also discuss the role of adjuvant therapy, which in our case consisted of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and several new therapies including an antiangiogenesis agent and a tyrosine kinase inhibitor.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / secondary. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Palliative Care / methods. Thymus Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Needle. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Bone Neoplasms / therapy. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Disease Progression. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / therapy. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Thymectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 16089122.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Tiffet O, Nicholson AG, Ladas G, Sheppard MN, Goldstraw P: A clinicopathologic study of 12 neuroendocrine tumors arising in the thymus. Chest; 2003 Jul;124(1):141-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A clinicopathologic study of 12 neuroendocrine tumors arising in the thymus.
  • STUDY OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the new classification system for thymic carcinoid tumors/neuroendocrine carcinomas provides prognostic data, and to study the presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and prognostic factors of these rare tumors.
  • Postoperative staging revealed two stage I tumors, two stage II tumors, three stage III tumors, one stage IVA tumor, and four stage IVB tumors.
  • Distant metastasis developed in nine patients (82%).
  • Initial aggressive treatment, including complete surgical excision and adjuvant radiotherapy, appears to offer the best hope for prolonged survival.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy also should be considered, since the incidence of distant relapse is high.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Thymus Gland / pathology. Thymus Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Time Factors

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  • [CommentIn] Chest. 2004 Jun;125(6):2368-9 [15189969.001]
  • (PMID = 12853516.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-3692
  • [Journal-full-title] Chest
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chest
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Fujiwara K, Segawa Y, Takigawa N, Kishino D, Ida M, Eguchi K, Nakata M, Saeki H, Mandai K: Two cases of atypical carcinoid of the thymus. Intern Med; 2000 Oct;39(10):834-8
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  • [Title] Two cases of atypical carcinoid of the thymus.
  • We describe two cases of atypical carcinoid of the thymus.
  • Computed tomography scans of the chest in both cases revealed a large mass in the anterior mediastinum.
  • Histological examination of their tumors revealed that the tumor cells were arranged in a nested, trabecular, or pseudorosette pattern, with increased numbers of mitoses, nuclear pleomorphism, and presence of necrosis.
  • Combination chemotherapy consisting of carboplatin and etoposide was performed as initial chemotherapy in the former case and as adjuvant therapy in the latter.
  • It is important to differentiate atypical carcinoid from other thymic tumors, since such tumors including thymoma have a much better prognosis than does atypical carcinoid.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Thymus Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Chromogranin A. Chromogranins / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Phosphopyruvate Hydratase / analysis. Synaptophysin / analysis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 11030210.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-2918
  • [Journal-full-title] Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] JAPAN
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Synaptophysin; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
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12. Kondo K, Monden Y: [Thymic carcinoma]. Kyobu Geka; 2002 Jul;55(8 Suppl):701-8
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  • [Title] [Thymic carcinoma].
  • Thymic epithelial tumors are mainly consisted of thymoma, thymic carcinoma, and thymic carcinoid.
  • And thymic carcinoma is very rare neoplasm.
  • The classification of thymic carcinoma has remained a subject of controversy for many years.
  • The outline of thymic carcinoma has been clarified by "Atlas of Tumor Pathology: Tumors of the Mediastium (AFIP)" and "Histrogical Typing of Tumours of the Thymus (WHO)" published recently.
  • Thymic carcinoma is a predilection for male.
  • Thymic carcinoma already had contiguous invasion around neighbor organs, dissemination, and lymph node metastases or distant metastases at diagnosis.
  • Two third of patients with thymic carcinoma performed surgery, and most of them performed adjuvant radiotherapy or chemotherapy.
  • 5-year survival of thymic carcinoma was 33-50%.
  • Histologic tumor type, type of tumor margin, growth pattern, nuclear atypia, necrosis and mitotic activity were correlated with survival.
  • In this paper thymic carcinoma is reviewed mainly based on recently literatures and results obtained from a questionnaire on thymic epithelial tumors in Japan.
  • [MeSH-major] Thymoma. Thymus Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 12174662.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5252
  • [Journal-full-title] Kyobu geka. The Japanese journal of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kyobu Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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13. Kondo K, Monden Y: Therapy for thymic epithelial tumors: a clinical study of 1,320 patients from Japan. Ann Thorac Surg; 2003 Sep;76(3):878-84; discussion 884-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Therapy for thymic epithelial tumors: a clinical study of 1,320 patients from Japan.
  • BACKGROUND: Surgery remains the mainstay of treatment for thymic epithelial tumors, and radiation and chemotherapy also have been applied widely as adjuvant and palliative procedures.
  • METHODS: We compiled records of 1,320 patients with thymic epithelial tumors who were treated from 1990 to 1994 in 115 institutes certified as special institutes for general thoracic surgery by The Japanese Association for Chest Surgery.
  • RESULTS: Patients with stage I thymoma were treated with only surgery, and patients with stage II and III thymoma and thymic carcinoid underwent surgery and additional radiotherapy.
  • Patients with stage IV thymoma and thymic carcinoma were treated with radiation or chemotherapy.
  • The Masaoka clinical stage is an excellent predictor of the prognosis of thymoma and thymic carcinoma, but not thymic carcinoid.
  • On the other hand, in thymic carcinoma, the 5-year survival rates of total resection, subtotal resection, and inoperable groups were 67%, 30%, and 24%, respectively.
  • Adjuvant therapy including radiation or chemotherapy did not improve the prognosis in patients with totally resected III and VI thymoma and thymic carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Total resection is the most important factor in the treatment of thymic epithelial tumors.
  • There is value in debulking surgery in invasive thymoma, but not in thymic carcinoma.
  • We doubt that adjuvant therapy is valuable for patients with totally resected invasive thymoma and thymic carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / therapy. Thymus Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Japan. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasm Staging. Surveys and Questionnaires. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 12963221.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4975
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Thorac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Miller Q, Moulton MJ, Pratt J: Surgical treatment of thymoma. Curr Surg; 2002 Jan-Feb;59(1):101-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgical treatment of thymoma.
  • A subsequent computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a mass in the right anterolateral mediastinum.
  • Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) revealed tumor cells positive for cytokeratin and negative for leukocyte common antigen.
  • RESULTS: The differential diagnosis at that time included thymoma versus thymic carcinoid.
  • The pathology revealed a large thymoma with microinvasion into the surrounding adipose tissue.
  • She had an uneventful postoperative course and later underwent adjuvant radiation therapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Surgical treatment of thymoma is discussed, with emphasis on diagnosis and treatment.
  • Prognosis is not based on histology, but on the tumor's gross characteristics at operation.
  • Radiation or chemotherapy should be instituted in more advanced tumors.

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  • (PMID = 16093116.001).
  • [ISSN] 0149-7944
  • [Journal-full-title] Current surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Hirai S, Hamanaka Y, Mitsui N, Kumagai H, Kobayashi T: Thymic carcinoids in multiple endocrine neoplasia-type 1. Jpn J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2001 Aug;49(8):525-7
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  • [Title] Thymic carcinoids in multiple endocrine neoplasia-type 1.
  • We report a case of a 45-year-old man with thymic carcinoids in multiple endocrine neoplasm-type 1.
  • Extended total thymectomy was performed through a median sternotomy, and the mediastinal regional lymph nodes and fibroadipose tissue were dissected.
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasm-type 1 related thymic carcinoids are rare and have a poor prognosis.
  • The efficacy of radiotherapy and chemotherapy for prolonging survival is limited, and an aggressive surgical approach with complete excision of the tumor with resection of the peripheral tissues and dissection of the mediastinal lymph nodes seems to be the best available treatment today.
  • We have found that this practice of thymectomy at an early stage in combination with genetic and effective radiological treatment can be effective for multiple endocrine neoplasm-type 1 patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / pathology. Thymus Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 11552282.001).
  • [ISSN] 1344-4964
  • [Journal-full-title] The Japanese journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery : official publication of the Japanese Association for Thoracic Surgery = Nihon Kyōbu Geka Gakkai zasshi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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16. Detterbeck FC, Parsons AM: Thymic tumors. Ann Thorac Surg; 2004 May;77(5):1860-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Thymic tumors.
  • Thymic tumors include thymic carcinoma, which exhibit aggressive behavior, and thymomas, which manifest a more indolent course.
  • Complete resection is the mainstay of treatment, and there appears to be little benefit to partial resection.
  • Preoperative chemotherapy appears to increase the rate of complete resection and survival of patients with a stage III or IVa thymoma and should strongly be considered in such cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Thymus Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoid Tumor / diagnosis. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Thymoma / diagnosis. Thymoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15111216.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4975
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Thorac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 91
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17. Petrella F, Leo F, Veronesi G, Solli P, Borri A, Galetta D, Gasparri R, Lembo R, Radice D, Scanagatta P, Spaggiari L: "Salvage" surgery for primary mediastinal malignancies: is it worthwhile? J Thorac Oncol; 2008 Jan;3(1):53-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: Mediastinal salvage surgery (MSS) was defined as surgical resection of persistent or recurrent primary mediastinal tumors after previous local treatments with curative intent or exclusive chemotherapy in case of bulky tumors.
  • Eleven patients suffered from thymic tumors (eight thymomas, three thymic carcinoma) whereas 10 patients suffered from nonthymic tumors (one lung adenocarcinoma + thymoma, two mediastinal monophasic sinovial sarcoma, one mediastinal neuroendocrine tumor, one mediastinal teratoblastoma, one mediastinal disgerminoma, one Hodgkin's lymphoma, one mediastinal atypic carcinoid, two medullary thyroid carcinoma).
  • Median operation time was 215 minutes (range 140-720).
  • Thymic neoplasms had a better prognosis (1-, 3-, and 5-year survival was 100, 87.5, 87.5%, respectively) when compared with others (1-, 3-, and 5-year survival was 77.8, 53.3, 26.7%, respectively--logrank p = 0.0128).
  • CONCLUSIONS: MSS can offer a chance of curative treatment in selected patients with an acceptable morbidity and mortality.
  • Thymic tumors obtain the best results in term of long-term survival.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / surgery. Dysgerminoma / pathology. Dysgerminoma / surgery. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Hodgkin Disease / pathology. Hodgkin Disease / surgery. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Morbidity. Mortality. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / surgery. Retrospective Studies. Salvage Therapy / methods. Sarcoma / pathology. Sarcoma / surgery. Survival Analysis. Teratoma / pathology. Teratoma / surgery. Thymoma / pathology. Thymoma / surgery. Thymus Neoplasms / pathology. Thymus Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18166841.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-1380
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Thorac Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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