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1. Aisner SC, Dahlberg S, Hameed MR, Ettinger DS, Schiller JH, Johnson DH, Aisner J, Loehrer PJ: Epidermal growth factor receptor, C-kit, and Her2/neu immunostaining in advanced or recurrent thymic epithelial neoplasms staged according to the 2004 World Health Organization in patients treated with octreotide and prednisone: an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group study. J Thorac Oncol; 2010 Jun;5(6):885-92
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Epidermal growth factor receptor, C-kit, and Her2/neu immunostaining in advanced or recurrent thymic epithelial neoplasms staged according to the 2004 World Health Organization in patients treated with octreotide and prednisone: an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group study.
  • BACKGROUND: Advanced or recurrent nonresectable thymic epithelial tumors show only a modest response to standard chemotherapy.
  • A recent study using octreotide and prednisone in thymic tumors, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group study E1C97, was conducted to verify the activity of octreotide for thymic tumors.
  • The aim of this study was to determine whether epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) immunoreactivity correlated with outcomes and to identify new biologic markers for potential targeted therapy.
  • Three markers, EGFR, C-kit, and Her2/neu, were selected for evaluation in patients with advanced thymic epithelial tumors treated on E1C97.
  • METHODS: Of the 42 patients entered onto E1C97, 34 patients (World Health Organization [WHO] categories: type A = 1, type AB = 1, type B1 = 10, type B2 = 11 type B3 = 8, and type C = 3) had sufficient tissue available for immunohistologic study.
  • Each tumor was assessed to have 0, 1+, 2+, or 3+ immunoreactivity in the cytoplasm or membranes of the neoplastic cells for Her2/neu and EGFR and for the presence or absence of C-kit immunoreactivity.
  • RESULTS: EGFR immunoreactivity of 2+ or 3+ was associated with more aggressive thymic tumors (WHO types B2 and B3).
  • However, strong EGFR immunoreactivity was not consistently seen with thymic carcinoma.
  • The presence of EGFR within cells was associated with a significantly improved progression-free survival (PFS) and a trend for overall survival (OS).
  • CONCLUSIONS: High EGFR immunoreactivity is seen in more aggressive thymic neoplasms as classified according to the 2004 WHO, but regardless of classification, the presence of EGFR in tumor cells (1+, 2+, and 3+) is associated with improved performance free survival (PFS) and a trend for better OS.
  • These data suggest that EGFR and C-kit may be prognostic, and further studies of these markers in subcategories of thymic malignancies is warranted.

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  • (PMID = 20421818.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-1380
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Thorac Oncol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA021115-37; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA021115-37; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA66636; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA021115; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA107868; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA049883; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA107868; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA082709; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA066636; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA49957; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA016116; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA023318; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA049957; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA49883; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA21115; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U24 CA114737; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA23318; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA16116
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS269686; NLM/ PMC3061392
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2. Futamura K, Orihara K, Hashimoto N, Morita H, Fukuda S, Sagara H, Matsumoto K, Tomita Y, Saito H, Matsuda A: beta2-Adrenoceptor agonists enhance cytokine-induced release of thymic stromal lymphopoietin by lung tissue cells. Int Arch Allergy Immunol; 2010;152(4):353-61

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] beta2-Adrenoceptor agonists enhance cytokine-induced release of thymic stromal lymphopoietin by lung tissue cells.
  • BACKGROUND: Whilebeta(2)-adrenoceptor agonists (beta(2)-agonists) are widely used as bronchodilators in the treatment of asthma, there has been increasing concern that regular use of beta(2)-agonists may adversely affect the control of asthma.
  • In this study, we examined the effects of beta(2)-agonists on cytokine-induced production of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), an indispensable cytokine in the development of allergic diseases, by lung tissue cells.
  • METHODS: Normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE), smooth muscle cells (BSMC) and fibroblasts (NHLF) were stimulated with the IL-4 and TNF-alpha cytokines, alone and in combination, and their production of TSLP was examined by ELISA.
  • RESULTS: The following results were observed in all three types of lung tissue cells tested (that is, NHBE, BSMC and NHLF).
  • However, addition of a corticosteroid to the cytokines and beta(2)-agonist resulted in a marked decrease in TSLP production.
  • CONCLUSIONS: beta(2)-Agonists significantly enhanced the cytokine-induced TSLP production by primary human lung tissue cells.
  • This may be partly responsible for the undesirable clinical effects of continuous beta(2)-agonist monotherapy, and combination therapy with a corticosteroid might effectively inhibit TSLP-mediated allergic inflammation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenergic beta-Agonists / pharmacology. Bronchodilator Agents / pharmacology. Fibroblasts / drug effects. Myocytes, Smooth Muscle / drug effects. Respiratory Mucosa / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Androstadienes / pharmacology. Asthma / drug therapy. Cells, Cultured. Cyclic AMP / metabolism. Cytokines / biosynthesis. Cytokines / genetics. Drug Therapy, Combination. Fluticasone. Humans. Interleukin-4 / metabolism. Lung / metabolism. Lung / pathology. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 20185927.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] International archives of allergy and immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenergic beta-Agonists; 0 / Androstadienes; 0 / Bronchodilator Agents; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 0 / thymic stromal lymphopoietin; 207137-56-2 / Interleukin-4; CUT2W21N7U / Fluticasone; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP
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3. Chen G, Marx A, Chen WH, Yong J, Puppe B, Stroebel P, Mueller-Hermelink HK: New WHO histologic classification predicts prognosis of thymic epithelial tumors: a clinicopathologic study of 200 thymoma cases from China. Cancer; 2002 Jul 15;95(2):420-9
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  • [Title] New WHO histologic classification predicts prognosis of thymic epithelial tumors: a clinicopathologic study of 200 thymoma cases from China.
  • BACKGROUND: In 1999, a World Health Organization (WHO) committee published histologic criteria for distinct thymoma entities (labeled as Type A, AB, B1, B2, B3 thymomas) and for the heterogeneous group of thymic carcinomas, collectively called Type C thymomas.
  • Whether WHO-defined histologic thymoma subtypes are of independent prognostic relevance has yet to be proved.
  • METHODS: Two hundred thymomas from the Shanghai Chest Hospital with a mean follow-up time of 15 years (range, 1-246 months) were studied for the relevance of WHO histologic subtype and other factors (stage, therapy, and myasthenia gravis [MG]) for survival.
  • RESULTS: In order of frequency, 68 patients (34.0%) had Type AB, 39 (19.5%) had Type B2, 36 (18.0%) had Type C, 27 (13.5%) had Type B3, 17 (8.5%) had Type B1, and 8 (4.0%) had Type A thymoma.
  • Among patients with Type A and AB thymomas, none died of tumor; of the Type B1 thymoma patients, only one (5.9%) died at 22 months.
  • Type B2, B3, and C thymomas had a significantly worse prognosis with 5-year survival rates of 75.0%, 70.0%, and 48.0%, respectively.
  • However, histology was an independent predictive factor of survival in Stage I and II thymomas: Type B2, B3, and C thymomas had a worse prognosis than Type A, AB, and B1 thymomas (log rank test: P < 0.003).
  • MG was significantly more frequent in Type B2 and B3 than in Type A, AB, and B1 thymomas (P < 0.01).
  • Radiation or chemotherapy improved patients' survival at 5 and 10 years in Type B2, B3, and C thymomas (log rank test: P < 0.003).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Tumor stage is the most important determinant of survival in thymoma patients, but the WHO histologic subtype is an independent prognostic factor in Stage I and II thymomas, among which WHO Type A, AB, and B1 thymomas form a low-risk group.
  • [MeSH-major] Thymoma / classification. Thymus Neoplasms / classification
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Survival Rate. World Health Organization

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002 American Cancer Society.DOI 10.1002/cncr.10665
  • (PMID = 12124843.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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4. Pedersini R, Vattemi E, Lusso MR, Mazzoleni G, Ebner H, Graiff C: Erlotinib in advanced well-differentiated thymic carcinoma with overexpression of EGFR: a case report. Tumori; 2008 Nov-Dec;94(6):849-52
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  • [Title] Erlotinib in advanced well-differentiated thymic carcinoma with overexpression of EGFR: a case report.
  • AIMS AND BACKGROUND: Advanced chemorefractory epithelial thymic tumors are still a challenge in clinical oncology.
  • A therapeutic approach targeting a key molecular pathway could be the ideal solution in a neoplasm that can overexpress epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in the epithelial component.
  • METHODS: A patient with metastatic heavily pretreated thymic carcinoma was evaluated for EGFR expression in the primary tumor.
  • The patient received erlotinib therapy but had obtained no response after four months of treatment.
  • CONCLUSION: This preliminary experience suggests that erlotinib may not be a useful therapeutic choice in advanced pretreated thymic carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Quinazolines / therapeutic use. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism. Thymoma / drug therapy. Thymus Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cell Differentiation. Erlotinib Hydrochloride. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques

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  • (PMID = 19267104.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Quinazolines; DA87705X9K / Erlotinib Hydrochloride; EC 2.7.10.1 / EGFR protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
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5. Magois E, Guigay J, Blancard PS, Margery J, Milleron B, Lher P, Jounieaux V: Multimodal treatment of thymic carcinoma: Report of nine cases. Lung Cancer; 2008 Jan;59(1):126-32
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  • [Title] Multimodal treatment of thymic carcinoma: Report of nine cases.
  • Thymic carcinoma (TC) is thymic epithelial tumor which differs from thymoma because of its rarity, agressiveness and poor prognosis.
  • Six patients received VIP chemotherapy comprising cisplatin, ifosfamide, uromitexan and etoposide.
  • Five patients underwent surgical resection, preceded by neoadjuvant chemotherapy for four patients.
  • The survival time ranged from 1 to 54 months with a median survival of 20 months for the group as a whole.
  • Our descriptive study, based on nine stages III and IV TC, shows a documented efficacy of multimodal treatment (neoadjuvant chemotherapy, surgery and adjuvant treatment).
  • VIP protocol was used for neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Surgical resection remains the main step in the treatment of TC and the modalities of adjuvant treatment must be defined in further studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Thymoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 17614156.001).
  • [ISSN] 0169-5002
  • [Journal-full-title] Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide
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6. Jacot W, Quantin X, Valette S, Khial F, Pujol JL: Multimodality treatment program in invasive thymic epithelial tumor. Am J Clin Oncol; 2005 Feb;28(1):5-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Multimodality treatment program in invasive thymic epithelial tumor.
  • Little is known regarding malignant thymoma and thymic carcinoma optimal therapy, and a multimodality approach could therefore be proposed in an attempt to improve the survival of patients.
  • We report our experience with 8 cases of malignant thymoma or thymic carcinoma.
  • These patients took part in a multimodality treatment program including neoadjuvant chemotherapy, surgery, and postoperative radiotherapy in our center between December 1995 and June 2001.
  • The induction chemotherapy consisted of 4 courses of the CAP regimen (cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m2 day 1, doxorubicin 50 mg/m2 day 1, and cisplatin 80 mg/m2 day 2), every 3 weeks.
  • Patients underwent surgical resection after complete hematological recovery pending sufficient tumor response with a postchemotherapy resectable status.
  • Adjuvant radiotherapy up to 60 Gy in 30 fractions was attempted postsurgically or after best chemotherapeutic response in nonsurgical patients.
  • Among the 8 patients, 3 had a thymic carcinoma and 5 a malignant thymoma; 5 had a stage IV and 3 a stage III disease (Masaoka).
  • Six patients partially responded to the chemotherapy regimen.
  • Four patients are still alive without evidence of tumor activity (23-77 months from the diagnosis) and 1 patient is alive with relapse at 56 months.
  • The high proportion of thymic carcinoma and advanced disease in our limited series might be an explanation for this unsatisfactory result.
  • Optimal multimodality treatment of epithelial thymic tumor remains to be defined in multicenter trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / therapy. Thymoma / therapy. Thymus Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Dose Fractionation. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Thymectomy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15685027.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-453X
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; CISCA protocol
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7. Nagata Y, Ohno K, Utsumi T, Sasaki Y, Suzuki Y: Large cell neuroendocrine thymic carcinoma coexisting within large WHO type AB thymoma. Jpn J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2006 Jun;54(6):256-9
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  • [Title] Large cell neuroendocrine thymic carcinoma coexisting within large WHO type AB thymoma.
  • Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) is a rare type of thymic epithelial tumor.
  • It is recognized as a different entity from other thymic tumors on account of it having a more aggressive biologic behavior and poor prognosis.
  • We report an extremely rare case of a very small, "large cell neuroendocrine thymic carcinoma" coexisting within a large thymoma that could not be detected by usual biopsy.
  • Surgery as the initial treatment has the significance of definitive diagnosis and curative treatment for LCNEC of the thymus.
  • To make a successful differential diagnosis, application of detailed immunohistochemical stains may be of aid, since thymic epithelial tumor is not always morphologically homogenous.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Thymoma / pathology. Thymus Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Thymectomy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16813109.001).
  • [ISSN] 1344-4964
  • [Journal-full-title] The Japanese journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery : official publication of the Japanese Association for Thoracic Surgery = Nihon Kyōbu Geka Gakkai zasshi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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8. Kondo K: Optimal therapy for thymoma. J Med Invest; 2008 Feb;55(1-2):17-28
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Optimal therapy for thymoma.
  • Thymoma is the most common tumor of the anterior mediastinum.
  • This tumor is associated with unique paraneoplastic syndromes (myasthenia gravis, pure red cell aplasia, hypogammaglobulinemia, and other autoimmune diseases).
  • The rarity of this tumor has somewhat obscured the optimal treatment.
  • Although the histologic classification of thymoma has remained a subject of controversy for many years, the WHO classification system, published in 1999, appeared to be an advance in our understanding of thymoma.
  • The optimal treatment for thymoma depends on its clinical stage.
  • Surgery remains the mainstay of treatment for thymic epithelial tumors.
  • Thymomas also have a high response rate to chemotherapy or radiotherapy.
  • Only surgical resection is performed for patients with stage I (non-invasive) thymoma.
  • Multimodality therapy involving surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy appears to increase the rate of complete resection and survival in advanced (stage III and IV) thymomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Thymoma / therapy. Thymus Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Thymectomy. World Health Organization

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  • (PMID = 18319541.001).
  • [ISSN] 1343-1420
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of medical investigation : JMI
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Med. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Number-of-references] 75
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9. Tsukada H, Koike J, Osada H: [Clinical outcome of epithelial tumors of the thymus]. Kyobu Geka; 2002 Oct;55(11):936-41
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  • [Title] [Clinical outcome of epithelial tumors of the thymus].
  • OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed treatment and clinical outcome of thymic epithelial tumors of 64 patients over a 20-year period.
  • Clinical staging of the tumor was done by according to Masaoka classification.
  • Histological diagnosis of the tumors was done by according to the second edition of the WHO histologic classification system for thymic epithelial tumors.
  • Stage III to IV patients had postoperative cisplatin (CDDP) based chemotherapy.
  • There were 5 type A tumors, 8 type AB tumors, 11 type B1 tumors, 11 type B2 tumors, 9 type B3 tumors, 11 type C tumors, the respect 5-year survival rates were 100%, 100%, 87.5%, 60%, 85.7% and 90%.
  • Masaoka stage II to IV patients classified in B2, B3 and C type except one case.
  • CONCLUSION: Histologic type B2, B3 and C tumors may reflect the invasive nature.
  • Masaoka staging system and the WHO histologic classification may help the assessment and treatment of patients with thymic epithelial tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / surgery. Thymoma / surgery. Thymus Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Thymectomy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12391689.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5252
  • [Journal-full-title] Kyobu geka. The Japanese journal of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kyobu Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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10. Gripp S, Bölke E, Orth K: [Thymoma]. Wien Klin Wochenschr; 2005 Sep;117(18):620-7
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  • [Title] [Thymoma].
  • Thymoma is a rare epithelial tumor of the thymus, but the most common malignancy in the anterior mediastinum.
  • According to the WHO classification 6 histologic types of thymic epithelial tumors can be discriminated.
  • Tumor stage according to MASAOKA is the most important prognostic factor.
  • Non-invasive tumors (stage I) are usually completely resected and no further therapy is warranted.
  • For incompletely resected tumors and locally advanced invasive thymomas (stage Ill-IV) postoperative radiotherapy with 50-60 Gy is advisable.
  • Chemotherapy, preferably with Cisplatinum, is indicated with inoperable thymomas or metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Drug Therapy / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Radiotherapy / methods. Thymoma / diagnosis. Thymoma / therapy. Thymus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thymus Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16416343.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-5325
  • [Journal-full-title] Wiener klinische Wochenschrift
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Wien. Klin. Wochenschr.
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Number-of-references] 99
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11. Kondo K, Monden Y: [Thymic carcinoma]. Kyobu Geka; 2002 Jul;55(8 Suppl):701-8
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  • [Title] [Thymic carcinoma].
  • Thymic epithelial tumors are mainly consisted of thymoma, thymic carcinoma, and thymic carcinoid.
  • And thymic carcinoma is very rare neoplasm.
  • The classification of thymic carcinoma has remained a subject of controversy for many years.
  • The outline of thymic carcinoma has been clarified by "Atlas of Tumor Pathology: Tumors of the Mediastium (AFIP)" and "Histrogical Typing of Tumours of the Thymus (WHO)" published recently.
  • Thymic carcinoma is a predilection for male.
  • Thymic carcinoma already had contiguous invasion around neighbor organs, dissemination, and lymph node metastases or distant metastases at diagnosis.
  • Two third of patients with thymic carcinoma performed surgery, and most of them performed adjuvant radiotherapy or chemotherapy.
  • 5-year survival of thymic carcinoma was 33-50%.
  • Histologic tumor type, type of tumor margin, growth pattern, nuclear atypia, necrosis and mitotic activity were correlated with survival.
  • In this paper thymic carcinoma is reviewed mainly based on recently literatures and results obtained from a questionnaire on thymic epithelial tumors in Japan.
  • [MeSH-major] Thymoma. Thymus Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Sex Factors. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 12174662.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5252
  • [Journal-full-title] Kyobu geka. The Japanese journal of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kyobu Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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12. Adachi K, Hosaka N, Takao M, Fujinaga K: [Clinicopathologic study of thymic epithelial tumors]. Kyobu Geka; 2005 Feb;58(2):119-22
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  • [Title] [Clinicopathologic study of thymic epithelial tumors].
  • OBJECTIVE: We analyzed clinicopathologic characters and long-term results of 11 thymic epithelial tumors.
  • METHODS: Five cases of thymic carcinoma and 6 cases of thymoma treated in our hospital from September 1991 to June 2002 were retrospectively analyzed.
  • RESULTS: The histological subtypes of thymic carcinoma were basaloid carcinoma in 2 cases, epidermoid non-keratinizing carcinoma in 1 case, undifferentiated carcinoma in 1 case and sarcomatoid carcinoma in 1 case.
  • Four cases underwent chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • Three cases underwent midsternal thoracotomy, 1 had total resection and 2 had exploratory thoracotomy due to tumor invasion of the right upper lobe and cardiac sac.
  • The histological subtypes of thymoma were 1, 2, 1, 1 and 1 cases with type A, AB, B 1, B 2 and B 3.
  • Strong immunoreactivity for bcl-2 and p 53 expression of epidermoid non-keratinizing carcinoma and undifferentiated carcinoma were seen. ki-67 labeling index of epidermoid non-keratinizing carcinoma and undifferentiated carcinoma and type B 3 thymoma were higher than those of the other carcinomas and thymomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Thymoma / pathology. Thymus Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15724473.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5252
  • [Journal-full-title] Kyobu geka. The Japanese journal of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kyobu Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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13. Andrés R, Mayordomo JI, Ramón y Cajal S, Tres A: Paraneoplastic Cushing's syndrome associated to locally advanced thymic carcinoid tumor. Tumori; 2002 Jan-Feb;88(1):65-7
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  • [Title] Paraneoplastic Cushing's syndrome associated to locally advanced thymic carcinoid tumor.
  • BACKGROUND: Thymic carcinoid is a frequent cause of Cushing's syndrome due to ectopic adrenocorticotropin secretion.
  • Histology and immunohistochemistry allow differential diagnosis from other epithelial thymic tumors, such as thymomas and thymic carcinomas.
  • The term used to name this tumor is confusing, since it is a malignant neuroendocrine neoplasm, and therapeutic approaches need to bear that in mind.
  • CASE REPORT: Unlike most cases of thymic carcinoid associated to Cushing's syndrome that had distant metastases at diagnosis, we report a 50-year-old male who presented with Cushing's syndrome and was diagnosed with thymic carcinoid without distant metastases.
  • Multimodal treatment with surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy (cisplatin plus etoposide) induced a complete clinical and biochemical remission lasting for 46 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / complications. Cushing Syndrome / complications. Paraneoplastic Syndromes / complications. Thymus Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / metabolism. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chromogranin A. Chromogranins / metabolism. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy Dosage


14. Edwards MJ: Therapy directed against thymic stromal lymphopoietin. Drug News Perspect; 2008 Jul-Aug;21(6):312-6
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  • [Title] Therapy directed against thymic stromal lymphopoietin.
  • Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is an interleukin (IL)-7-like cytokine and has been shown to be one of the factors released by epithelial cells following allergen contact with an important role instructing dendritic cells (DCs) to induce a T-helper type 2 (Th2) response.
  • Recently, evidence has also accumulated that TSLP could play a role in enhancement of the effector stages of the allergic response, with TSLP in synergy with IL-1 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha shown to amplify cytokine secretion from mast cells.
  • Also, the clinical relevance of TSLP has been demonstrated by both high levels of TSLP in skin biopsies from lesional atopic dermatitis patients and also increased expression of TSLP in asthmatic airway epithelial cells which correlated with reduced lung function.
  • These studies suggest a critical role for TSLP as a driving factor in the emerging concept of tissue-specific control of immunity with TSLP secretion at the epithelial-DC interface acting as an initial factor in the proallergic cascade.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Allergic Agents / pharmacology. Anti-Asthmatic Agents / pharmacology. Cytokines / antagonists & inhibitors. Epithelial Cells / drug effects. Hypersensitivity / drug therapy. Signal Transduction / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Asthma / drug therapy. Asthma / immunology. CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / drug effects. CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology. Dendritic Cells / drug effects. Dendritic Cells / immunology. Humans

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2008 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 18836588.001).
  • [ISSN] 0214-0934
  • [Journal-full-title] Drug news & perspectives
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drug News Perspect.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Allergic Agents; 0 / Anti-Asthmatic Agents; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / thymic stromal lymphopoietin
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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15. Elkiran ET, Abali H, Aksoy S, Altundag K, Erman M, Kars A, Turker A, Tekuzman G, Ozisik Y: Thymic epithelial neoplasia: a study of 58 cases. Med Oncol; 2007;24(2):197-201
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Thymic epithelial neoplasia: a study of 58 cases.
  • Primary thymic epithelial neoplasms (PTENs) are uncommon tumors of anterior mediastinum with a broad range of biological characteristics.
  • We retrospectively reviewed 58 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of PTENs that were confirmed pathologically during 28 yr.
  • There were 58 patients, 31 males (53.4%) and 27 females (46.6%), with a mean age of 43.6 +/-13.8 yr (range, 17-73 yr).
  • Eleven (19.0%) out of 58 who presented at advanced stages (at least III) received chemotherapy.
  • Five patients (29.4%) died of tumor-related causes, and the remaining 12 patients died of other causes (cardiovascular diseases [n = 1, 5.9%], sepsis [n = 4, 23.5%], and MG-related respiratory insufficiency [n = 7, 41.2%]).
  • Tumor-related survival rates at 5 yr and 10 yr were 89.0% and 83.2%, respectively.
  • In our series, disease stage, presence or absence of myasthenia gravis, and tumor size did not affect survival (p> 0.05), either.
  • Complete resection of the tumor seems to be the best predictive factor for long-term survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / pathology. Thymus Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • [Cites] Cancer. 2001 Jun 1;91(11):2010-5 [11391579.001]
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  • (PMID = 17848744.001).
  • [ISSN] 1357-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical oncology (Northwood, London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Aisner SC, Hameed MR, Wang W, Schiller JH, Johnson DH, Ettinger DS, Loehrer PJ: EGFR and C-Kit immunostaining in advanced or recurrent thymic epithelial neoplasms staged according to the WHO: An Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Study. J Clin Oncol; 2004 Jul 15;22(14_suppl):9637

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] EGFR and C-Kit immunostaining in advanced or recurrent thymic epithelial neoplasms staged according to the WHO: An Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Study.
  • : 9637 Background: Advanced or recurrent non-resectable thymic epithelial tumors have shown modest responses to standard chemotherapy.
  • Two markers, EGFR and c-kit, were selected for evaluation in patients with advanced thymic epithelial tumors.
  • METHODS: 34 cases of thymic tumors (WHO 1 A, 1 AB, 10 B1, 11 B2, 8 B3, 3C) had available tissue for immunhistologic study.
  • Each tumor was assessed as to having 0, 1+, 2+ or 3+ immunoreactivity.
  • RESULTS: Strong EGFR immunoreactivity (+2, +3) was associated with more aggressive thymic tumors (B2, B3).
  • However strong EGFR immunoreactivity was not consistently seen with type C thymic neoplasms (thymic carcinoma).
  • C-kit immunoreactivity was minimal and did not correlate with WHO tumor type.
  • The response rate to octreotide +/- prednisone was significantly higher for the EGFR+ vs. EGFR- patients (10/26 vs. 1/8; p=0.044) with a positive trend for overall survival(p=0.064).
  • CONCLUSIONS: EGFR demonstrated higher immunoreactivity in more aggressive thymic neoplasms as staged according to the WHO.
  • C-kit immunoreactivity appears to be minimal in thymoma.
  • Anti-EGFR antibody treatment should be studied in patients with EFGR positive advanced thymic malignancies.

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  • (PMID = 28016206.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Ströbel P, Bauer A, Puppe B, Kraushaar T, Krein A, Toyka K, Gold R, Semik M, Kiefer R, Nix W, Schalke B, Müller-Hermelink HK, Marx A: Tumor recurrence and survival in patients treated for thymomas and thymic squamous cell carcinomas: a retrospective analysis. J Clin Oncol; 2004 Apr 15;22(8):1501-9
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  • [Title] Tumor recurrence and survival in patients treated for thymomas and thymic squamous cell carcinomas: a retrospective analysis.
  • PURPOSE: Thymic epithelial tumors (TET) are rare epithelial neoplasms of the thymus with considerable histologic heterogeneity.
  • This retrospective study focused on the correlation of WHO-defined TET histotypes with survival and tumor recurrence in a large cohort of patients receiving different modes of treatment.
  • Forty-two patients received adjuvant radiotherapy (mean dose, 53 Gy), and 33 patients received adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • RESULTS: Seventy-six (88%) of 86 patients with WHO type A, AB, and B1 thymomas were treated by surgery alone, with three tumor relapses after 3 to 10 years (median, 3.4 years).
  • Twelve of 67 patients with WHO type B2 and B3 thymomas in Masaoka stages I and II were treated by adjuvant radiotherapy without evidence of tumor recurrence after 1 to 12 years (median, 4 years).
  • Among 75 patients with B2 and B3 thymomas with incomplete resection or a tumor stage III or higher, the recurrence rate was 34% (n = 23) after 0.5 to 17 years (median, 5 years) in patients receiving adjuvant radiochemotherapy, compared to 78% (seven of nine patients) in patients without adjuvant radiochemotherapy.
  • Incomplete tumor resection was associated with a high recurrence rate (65%) and a poor prognosis (P <.01).
  • CONCLUSION: The long-term outcome of TET patients is related to tumor stage, WHO histotype, completeness of surgical removal, and type of treatment.
  • Prospective trials are warranted to formally address the efficacy of adjuvant therapy in the treatment of localized and advanced malignant TETs.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Thymoma / pathology. Thymus Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15084623.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. D'Angelillo RM, Trodella L, Ramella S, Cellini N, Balducci M, Mantini G, Cellini F, Ciresa M, Fiore M, Evoli A, Sterzi S, Russo P, Grozio A, Cesario A, Granone P: Novel prognostic groups in thymic epithelial tumors: assessment of risk and therapeutic strategy selection. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2008 Jun 1;71(2):420-7
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  • [Title] Novel prognostic groups in thymic epithelial tumors: assessment of risk and therapeutic strategy selection.
  • PURPOSE: To assess the role of multimodality treatment on patients with thymic epithelial tumors (TETs) (i.e., thymomas and thymic squamous cell carcinoma) and to define the prognostic classes according to the Masaoka and World Health Organization histologic classification systems.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Primary surgery was the mainstay of therapy.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy was administered in selected cases.
  • RESULTS: We reviewed the records of 120 patients with TETs, with a mean follow-up of 13.8 years.
  • Local recurrence, distant recurrence, and tumor-related deaths were also evaluated.
  • CONCLUSION: The analysis of our experience singled out three novel prognostic classes and the assessment of risk identified treatment selection criteria.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Thymoma / therapy. Thymus Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Esophagus / radiation effects. Female. Humans. Lung / radiation effects. Male. Middle Aged. Myasthenia Gravis / epidemiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis. Radiation Injuries / pathology. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. World Health Organization

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  • (PMID = 18164843.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Funakoshi Y, Shiono H, Inoue M, Kadota Y, Ohta M, Matsuda H, Okumura M, Eimoto T: Glucocorticoids induce G1 cell cycle arrest in human neoplastic thymic epithelial cells. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol; 2005 May;131(5):314-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Glucocorticoids induce G1 cell cycle arrest in human neoplastic thymic epithelial cells.
  • PURPOSE: Glucocorticoids exert anti-proliferative effects in various cell types and have long been known to induce apoptosis in thymocytes.
  • Although a few reports have described the regression of human thymoma with glucocorticoid therapy, its effects on neoplastic thymic epithelial cells (TECs) have not been reported.
  • In the present study, we investigated glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression on neoplastic TECs and the effects of glucocorticoids in vitro on the cell cycle progression of tumor cells.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thymoma specimens were obtained during surgery from 21 patients.
  • Three of the specimens with glucocorticoid therapy were examined using the TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labeling method.
  • Primary tumor specimens from ten untreated thymomas were examined for GR expression by immunohistochemistry.
  • [MeSH-major] G1 Phase / drug effects. Glucocorticoids / pharmacology. Glucocorticoids / therapeutic use. Thymoma / pathology. Thymoma / surgery. Thymus Neoplasms / pathology. Thymus Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Apoptosis. Cell Cycle / drug effects. Female. Humans. In Situ Nick-End Labeling. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 15703942.001).
  • [ISSN] 0171-5216
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids
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20. Bodey B, Siegel SE, Kaiser HE: Restoration of the thymic cellular microenvironment following autologous bone marrow transplantation. In Vivo; 2002 Mar-Apr;16(2):127-40
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  • [Title] Restoration of the thymic cellular microenvironment following autologous bone marrow transplantation.
  • Mammalian thymic histogenesis can be morphologically divided into three consecutive stages:.
  • 1) epithelial;.
  • 2) lymphopoietic or lympho-epithelial; and 3) differentiated cellular microenvironmental, with formation of Hassall's bodies (HBs).
  • The marked reduction of the thymic cellular microenvironment (TCM) is a well-controlled physiological process and is presumably under both local and global regulation by the cells of the RE meshwork and by the neuroendocrine axis, respectively.
  • The influences of other hormones on the thymic involution have also been characterized: testosterone, estrogen and hydrocortisone treatment results in marked involution, cortisone and progesterone administration causes slight to moderate, while use of desoxycorticosterone has no effect.
  • Since the thymus is the primary T-lymphopoietic organ during mammalian ontogenesis, its age-related involution with the typical immunomorphological alterations can be held responsible only for a decline in antigen-specific T-lymphocyte immune functions.
  • Thymic involution and diminished T-lymphocyte proliferation can be partially restored by thymic tissue transplantation or administration of thymic hormones.
  • The stimulus for thymic cell proliferation and differentiation is genetically determined within the organ implant.
  • The only partial reconstitution of CD4+ T-helper-lymphocyte subset after anti-neoplastic chemotherapy and autologous BTM represents a significant, therapy-complicating, clinical problem.
  • After high-dose chemotherapy, the restoration of thymus-dependent CD4+ T-lymphocyte genesis was reported only in children.
  • Our radiation, stem cell transplantation, and hormone treatment experiments in animals resulted in age- and time-dependent regeneration of the cytoarchitecture of the TCM, as well as intrathymic lymphopoiesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow Transplantation. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / therapy. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / analysis. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Transplantation, Autologous

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  • (PMID = 12073772.001).
  • [ISSN] 0258-851X
  • [Journal-full-title] In vivo (Athens, Greece)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] In Vivo
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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21. Tacyildiz N, Ugur H, Yavuz G, Unal E, Comba A, Okten I, Ciftci E, Dogru U, Heper AO, Sak SD: The coexistence of thymic carcinoma and multiple granulomas in a Turkish child. Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2007 Jun;24(4):301-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The coexistence of thymic carcinoma and multiple granulomas in a Turkish child.
  • Thymic carcinoma, which is a thymic epithelial neoplasm with obvious cytologic atypia, is a rare neoplasm.
  • Histological and immunohistochemical studies confirmed a lymphoepithelioma-like pattern thymic carcinoma.
  • In addition, evaluation of the specimen showed foci of caseation and multiple granulomas with extensive central necrosis within the thymic tissue.
  • The child received chemotherapy, followed by surgery and radiotherapy.
  • To rule out difficulties of tuberculosis he also received antituberculosis therapy.
  • Two years after cessation of treatment, he is still in remission for thymic carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Granuloma / complications. Thymoma / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Remission Induction / methods. Respiratory Insufficiency. Turkey

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  • (PMID = 17613873.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-0669
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric hematology and oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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22. Fujii Y: [Thymoma--clinical aspects and its biological function]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2006 Nov;33(11):1547-52
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  • [Title] [Thymoma--clinical aspects and its biological function].
  • Thymoma is a neoplasm of thymic epithelial cells.
  • The tumor grows relatively slowly, and the prognosis is very good after surgical resection.
  • However, therapy for advanced thymoma has not been established, and the effect of modern chemotherapy is being evaluated.
  • Thymoma is unique in that 25-30% of the patients have associated myasthenia gravis with autoantibodies to acetycholine receptor.
  • The malignant epithelial cells maintain the function of cortical epithelial cells and harbor non-neoplastic immature T cells of CD 3(low) CD 4(+)CD 8(+) phenotype.
  • Also, the presence of CD 3(low) CD 4(+)CD 8(+) T cells is diagnostic of thymoma and can be utilized for rapid diagnosis using needle biopsy specimen.
  • [MeSH-major] Thymectomy. Thymoma. Thymus Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Autoantibodies / biosynthesis. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Humans. Myasthenia Gravis / complications. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Receptors, Cholinergic / immunology

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  • (PMID = 17108716.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / Receptors, Cholinergic
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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23. Stéphan JL, Galambrun C, Boucheron S, Varlet F, Delabesse E, MacIntyre E: Epstein-Barr virus--positive undifferentiated thymic carcinoma in a 12-year-old white girl. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2000 Mar-Apr;22(2):162-6
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  • [Title] Epstein-Barr virus--positive undifferentiated thymic carcinoma in a 12-year-old white girl.
  • Thymic epithelial malignant diseases are extremely rare in children.
  • The authors report a 12-year-old white girl admitted for a polymetastatic tumor of the anterior mediastinum.
  • Tumor proliferation was typical of an undifferentiated thymic carcinoma.
  • A close link between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and the tumor was established by a high titer of anti-VCA IgA and the presence of EBV RNA and DNA in the tumor.
  • In addition, monoclonal viral episomes were present in tumor cells, indicating that EBV infection was an early event in the oncogenic process.
  • The patient died despite resection, irradiation, and chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / virology. Herpesvirus 4, Human. Thymoma / virology. Thymus Neoplasms / virology

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  • (PMID = 10779032.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / RNA, Viral
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24. Bodey B, Bodey B Jr, Siegel SE, Kaiser HE: Review of thymic hormones in cancer diagnosis and treatment. Int J Immunopharmacol; 2000 Apr;22(4):261-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Review of thymic hormones in cancer diagnosis and treatment.
  • The thymus is an endocrine organ.
  • The thymus is the major site of production of immunocompetent T lymphocytes from their hematopoietic stem cells.
  • This complex process required direct cell to cell, receptor based interactions, as well as in situ paracrine information via the numerous cytokines and thymic hormones produced by the cells of thymic microenvironment.
  • Thymic hormones induce in situ T-cell marker differentiation, expression and functions.
  • These polypeptide hormones have also been shown by means of immunocytochemistry to localize in the reticulo-epithelial (RE) cells of the thymic cellular microenvironment.
  • Due to the great complexity of the intrathymic maturation sequence of T lymphocytes and the diverse immunophenotypically unique subpopulations of T lymphocytes, it is quite unlikely that a single thymic humoral factor could control all of the molecular steps and cell populations involved.
  • It is much more likely that an extremely rich and diverse, but genetically determined, milieu is present within the thymus, and that thus the control of intrathymic T lymphocyte maturation and the functional maturation of T cells involves the orchestral interaction of various thymic-specific factors and other molecules during the differentiation process.
  • Recently, derivatives of thymic hormones, mostly of thymosins, have been detected as products of neoplastically transformed cells and employed in the early diagnosis of neoplasms.
  • In clinical trials, thymic hormones strengthen the effects of immunomodulators in immunodeficiencies, autoimmune diseases, and neoplastic malignancies.
  • Combined chemo-immunotherapeutical anti-cancer treatment seems to be more efficacious than chemotherapy alone, and the significant hematopoietic toxicity associated with most chemotherapeutical clinical trials can be reduced significantly by the addition of immunotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms / therapy. Thymus Hormones / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Humans. Oligopeptides / therapeutic use. Protein Precursors / analysis. Thymopentin / therapeutic use. Thymosin / analogs & derivatives. Thymosin / analysis. Thymosin / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 10689100.001).
  • [ISSN] 0192-0561
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of immunopharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Immunopharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Oligopeptides; 0 / Protein Precursors; 0 / Thymus Hormones; 0 / prothymosin alpha; 0 / thymalfasin; 0 / thymosin fraction 5; 107489-37-2 / thymic humoral factor gamma 2; 61512-21-8 / Thymosin; 87397-91-9 / thymosin beta(10); O3Y80ZF13F / Thymopentin
  • [Number-of-references] 118
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25. Hernandez-Ilizaliturri FJ, Tan D, Cipolla D, Connolly G, Debb G, Ramnath N: Multimodality therapy for thymic carcinoma (TCA): results of a 30-year single-institution experience. Am J Clin Oncol; 2004 Feb;27(1):68-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Multimodality therapy for thymic carcinoma (TCA): results of a 30-year single-institution experience.
  • SUMMARY: The aim of this study was to correlate the clinicopathologic features and therapeutic approaches with the outcome of patients with thymic carcinoma (TCA), an aggressive, uncommon malignancy of the anterior mediastinum.
  • TCA is morphologically distinct from thymoma, a cytologically bland, often encapsulated, locally invasive, rarely metastatic tumor.
  • The Roswell Park Cancer Institute tumor registry was used to identify patients with TCA or invasive thymic neoplasm of the epithelial type (TNET).
  • Postoperative cisplatin-based chemotherapy and radiation was administered to seven patients.
  • Incomplete surgical resection did not preclude long-term survival if multimodality platinum-based therapy was used.
  • [MeSH-major] Thymus Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • [ErratumIn] Am J Clin Oncol. 2004 Apr;27(2):127
  • (PMID = 14758136.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-453X
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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26. Iwata T, Nishiyama N, Izumi N, Tsukioka T, Suehiro S: Solitary fibrous tumor of the thymus with local invasiveness and pleural dissemination: report of a case. Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2007 Jun;13(3):198-202
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  • [Title] Solitary fibrous tumor of the thymus with local invasiveness and pleural dissemination: report of a case.
  • The patient underwent an extended thymectomy via median sternotomy on suspicion of a thymoma.
  • The tumor had arisen from the left half of the thymus without a pedicle and had directly invaded into the left lung and pericardium.
  • The tumor was resected with the entire thymic tissue, and the invaded lung and pericardium were resected en-bloc.
  • The size of the tumor was 5.3x4.0 cm.
  • Histopathologically, the lesion mainly consisted of non-atypical spindle-shaped tumor cells in a so-called "patternless pattern" with various densities of collagenous background.
  • Epithelial markers such as CAM 5.2 and AE1/AE3 were negative.
  • Solitary fibrous tumor of the thymus was diagnosed histologically.
  • Postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy was not undertaken because the benefits were uncertain.
  • [MeSH-major] Mesothelioma / pathology. Pleura / pathology. Thymus Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antigens, CD34 / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Vimentin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17592430.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-1098
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery : official journal of the Association of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeons of Asia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Vimentin
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27. Ríos Zambudio A, Torres Lanzas J, Galindo Fernández PJ, Roca Calvo MJ, Alonso Romero JL, Sola Pérez J, Parrilla Paricio P: [Primary non-lymphoid thymic neoplasms. A study of 58 cases]. Med Clin (Barc); 2004 May 8;122(17):664-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Primary non-lymphoid thymic neoplasms. A study of 58 cases].
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Primary non-lymphoid thymus tumors (PNLTT) are an uncommon though quite varied pathology.
  • Our objective was to identify the clinical, therapeutic and histologic variables with a prognostic value in these neoplasms.
  • PATIENTS AND METHOD: We studied 58 PNLTT cases, corresponding to 52 epithelial neoplams (PTEN), 4 thymolipomas (7%) and 2 neuroendocrine tumors (3%).
  • Four patients underwent a biopsy procedure alone.
  • 24 patients with PTEN, Masaoka degrees III and IV, and a patient with a lymphoepithelial carcinoma received adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy.
  • With a follow-up of 13 + 5 years, 12 PTEN patients and one patient with a neuroendrocrine tumor died as a consequence of the evolution of the disease.
  • Main prognostic factors are the histologic type and subtype and the clinical stage (p < 0.001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: In PNLTT early diagnosis is crucial in order to administer a correct treatment before the clinical stage is more advanced.
  • Main prognostic factors are the histologic type and subtype and the clinical stage.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / surgery. Thymus Neoplasms / pathology. Thymus Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Age of Onset. Biopsy, Needle. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Analysis. Survival Rate. Thoracic Surgical Procedures / adverse effects. Thoracic Surgical Procedures / methods. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15153347.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-7753
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina clínica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Clin (Barc)
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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28. Haga T, Nakajima Y, Kitamura A, Kuroda F, Takiguchi Y, Tatsumi K: [A rare case of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the thymus]. Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi; 2010 Oct;48(10):755-8
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  • [Title] [A rare case of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the thymus].
  • Chest computed tomography (CT) showed a 48-mm mass in the anterior mediastinum.
  • CT-guided percutaneous tumor biopsy demonstrated large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the thymus.
  • Because the tumor had already progressed to stage IVb according to the Masaoka classification of thymic epithelial tumors, the patient was treated with combination chemotherapy of cisplatin and irinotecan, which achieved a partial response.
  • However, the tumor relapsed in February 2008.
  • He died, despite 2 separate cycles of chemotherapy with docetaxel only and amrubicin only in August 2008.
  • We encountered a rare case of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the thymus treated with combination chemotherapy of cisplatin and irinotecan.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / drug therapy. Thymus Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Camptothecin / administration & dosage. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 21066864.001).
  • [ISSN] 1343-3490
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Kokyūki Gakkai zasshi = the journal of the Japanese Respiratory Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 7673326042 / irinotecan; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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29. Toretsky JA, Jenson J, Sun CC, Eskenazi AE, Campbell A, Hunger SP, Caires A, Frantz C, Hill JL, Stamberg J: Translocation (11;15;19): a highly specific chromosome rearrangement associated with poorly differentiated thymic carcinoma in young patients. Am J Clin Oncol; 2003 Jun;26(3):300-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Translocation (11;15;19): a highly specific chromosome rearrangement associated with poorly differentiated thymic carcinoma in young patients.
  • Thymic carcinoma is a rare epithelial neoplasm of the thymus.
  • The presence of a specific chromosomal abnormality may augment diagnosis and therapeutic stratification.
  • We report a 15-year-old boy diagnosed with thymic carcinoma who presented with a large anterior mediastinal mass, pleural effusion, and bone metastasis.
  • Histologic and immunohistochemical studies confirmed a poorly differentiated squamous cell type of thymic carcinoma.
  • The karyotype of the pleural fluid at the time of diagnosis revealed a complex three-way translocation t(11;15;19)(p15;q12;p13.3).
  • Despite aggressive multiagent chemotherapy, the patient's condition progressed with bone marrow disease and he died 6 months after diagnosis.
  • Several case reports of a similar chromosomal abnormality have been reported for thymic carcinoma in young patients with poor outcome.
  • This karyotypic abnormality appears to mark a cohort of patients with thymic carcinoma who have a poor prognosis despite aggressive chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Thymus Neoplasms / genetics. Thymus Neoplasms / pathology. Translocation, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 12796605.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-453X
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA88004-01
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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30. Uner AH, Abali H, Engin H, Akyol A, Ruacan S, Tan E, Güllü I, Altundağ K, Güler N: Myasthenia gravis and lymphoblastic lymphoma involving the thymus: a rare association. Leuk Lymphoma; 2001 Jul;42(3):527-31
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  • [Title] Myasthenia gravis and lymphoblastic lymphoma involving the thymus: a rare association.
  • An association between thymic epithelial neoplasms and MG is well known.
  • In particular, very few cases of lymphoblastic lymphoma involving the thymus and MG have been reported.
  • Here we report a case T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma involving the thymus who developed MG after the initial diagnosis.
  • The patient initially presented with a mediastinal mass which was diagnosed as lymphoblastic lymphoma.
  • The patient had a highly aggressive clinical course and was resistant to various chemotherapy regimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Myasthenia Gravis / etiology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / complications. Thymus Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bone Marrow Cells / pathology. Humans. Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating / pathology. Male. Thymectomy


31. Sandhya T, Lathika KM, Pandey BN, Mishra KP: Potential of traditional ayurvedic formulation, Triphala, as a novel anticancer drug. Cancer Lett; 2006 Jan 18;231(2):206-14
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  • [Title] Potential of traditional ayurvedic formulation, Triphala, as a novel anticancer drug.
  • The cytotoxic effects of aqueous extract of Triphala, an ayurvedic formulation, were investigated on human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) and a transplantable mouse thymic lymphoma (barcl-95).
  • On the other hand, treatment of normal breast epithelial cells, MCF-10 F, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, mouse liver and spleen cells, with similar concentrations of Triphala did not affect their cytotoxicity significantly.
  • The drug treatment was found to induce apoptosis in MCF-7 and barcl-95 cells in vitro as determined by annexin-V fluorescence and proportion of apoptotic cells was found dependent on Triphala concentration.
  • In vivo, direct oral feeding of Triphala to mice (40 mg/kg body weight) transplanted with barcl-95 produced significant reduction in tumor growth as evaluated by tumor volume measurement.
  • It was also found that apoptosis was significantly higher in the excised tumor tissue of Triphala fed mice as compared to the control, suggesting the involvement of apoptosis in tumor growth reduction.
  • These results suggest that Triphala possessed ability to induce cytotoxicity in tumor cells but spared the normal cells.
  • The differential effect of Triphala on normal and tumor cells seems to be related to its ability to evoke differential response in intracellular ROS generation.
  • The differential response of normal and tumor cells to Triphala in vitro and the substantial regression of transplanted tumor in mice fed with Triphala points to its potential use as an anticancer drug for clinical treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Medicine, Ayurvedic. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Phyllanthus emblica. Phytotherapy. Plant Preparations / therapeutic use. Terminalia
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Annexin A5 / metabolism. Apoptosis / drug effects. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. DNA Damage. Female. Fluorescence. Humans. Liver / drug effects. Liver / metabolism. Lymphoma / drug therapy. Lymphoma / pathology. Mice. Mice, Nude. Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism. Spleen / drug effects. Spleen / metabolism. Thymus Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thymus Neoplasms / pathology. Transplantation, Heterologous. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 15899544.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-3835
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Annexin A5; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Plant Preparations; 0 / Reactive Oxygen Species
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32. Palmieri G, Marino M, Salvatore M, Budillon A, Meo G, Caraglia M, Montella L: Cetuximab is an active treatment of metastatic and chemorefractory thymoma. Front Biosci; 2007;12:757-61
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  • [Title] Cetuximab is an active treatment of metastatic and chemorefractory thymoma.
  • Advanced chemorefractory thymic epithelial tumors still represent a challenge in clinical oncology.
  • A rationale-based therapeutic approach targeting a key pathway should represent the ideal solution in a neoplasm that can over-express Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) in the epithelial component.
  • On the basis of these considerations, two patients with metastatic heavily pretreated disease were evaluated for EGFR expression in the primitive tumor, being considered this data as a basis for an anti EGFR treatment with the monoclonal antibody cetuximab which targets EGFR.
  • A strong EGFR expression was revealed by immunohistochemistry in the two cases considered, thus the patients received cetuximab and reported a partial response as assessed by Computed Tomography (CT), Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and fused PET-CT after three months of therapy.
  • Therefore, both patients are still on therapy.
  • This preliminary experience suggests that cetuximab may be a useful therapeutic choice in advanced pre-treated thymic tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Thymoma / drug therapy. Thymus Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Cetuximab. Female. Humans. Male. Positron-Emission Tomography. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / antagonists & inhibitors. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17127335.001).
  • [ISSN] 1093-9946
  • [Journal-full-title] Frontiers in bioscience : a journal and virtual library
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Front. Biosci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; PQX0D8J21J / Cetuximab
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