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1. Nass R, Boyce L, Leventhal F, Levine B, Allen J, Maxfield C, Salsberg D, Sarno M, George A: Acquired aphasia in children after surgical resection of left-thalamic tumors. Dev Med Child Neurol; 2000 Sep;42(9):580-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Acquired aphasia in children after surgical resection of left-thalamic tumors.
  • Five children (three males, two females; four right-, one left-handed; age range 6 to 14 years) who developed aphasia after gross-total excision of left predominantly thalamic tumors are reported.
  • In the months after surgery, three children improved while receiving radiation and/or chemotherapy, although none recovered completely.
  • Two patients with malignant tumors developed worsening aphasia when the tumor recurred, and later died.
  • The wide range of deficits in these children highlights the importance of the thalamus and other subcortical structures in developing cognition.
  • [MeSH-major] Aphasia / etiology. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Postoperative Complications. Thalamic Diseases / surgery


2. Uchino M, Kitajima S, Miyazaki C, Shibata I, Miura M: Bilateral thalamic glioma--case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2002 Oct;42(10):443-6
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  • [Title] Bilateral thalamic glioma--case report.
  • A 35-year-old woman presented with a bilateral thalamic glioma manifesting as dysesthesia over the left side of the body and mental deterioration.
  • Radiotherapy and chemotherapy failed to arrest tumor growth.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging and clinical findings support the view that bilateral thalamic gliomas represent a distinct clinicopathologic entity among thalamic tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Glioma / pathology. Thalamus / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Personality Disorders / diagnosis. Personality Disorders / etiology. Stereotaxic Techniques

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  • (PMID = 12416569.001).
  • [ISSN] 0470-8105
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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3. Saurez G, Cabanas R, Zaldívar M, Garnier T, Iglesias B, Piedra P, Castillo MR, Longchong M, Iznaga N, Lage A: Clinical experience with nimotuzumab in cuban pediatric patients with brain tumors, 2005 to 2007. MEDICC Rev; 2009 Jul;11(3):27-33
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  • [Title] Clinical experience with nimotuzumab in cuban pediatric patients with brain tumors, 2005 to 2007.
  • Introduction Nimotuzumab, developed in Cuba, is a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR).
  • It has been evaluated in malignant brain tumors in adults and children, and shown to be therapeutically safe and effective in terms of increased survival and improved quality of life.
  • Objective Describe nimotuzumab's safety profile and clinical benefits in terms of disease control and survival in pediatric patients with progressive or recurrent primary brain tumors who were included in an expanded access program.
  • Between December 2005 and December 2007, 22 patients were included, all of whom had an histological and/or radiological diagnosis of progressive or recurrent primary brain tumor, classified as high-grade malignant glioblastoma (n=6), diffuse brain stem glioma (n=6), ependymoblastoma (n=5), low-grade glioma (n=4), or thalamic tumor (n=1); life expectancy of at least 4 weeks; and a Karnofsky or Lansky Performance Status score of ≥50.
  • Therapeutic protocols were followed for administration as monotherapy or in combination with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy.
  • Results Nimotuzumab was well tolerated in all therapeutic modalities, even with prolonged exposure.

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  • (PMID = 21483304.001).
  • [ISSN] 1555-7960
  • [Journal-full-title] MEDICC review
  • [ISO-abbreviation] MEDICC Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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4. Song JH, Kong DS, Seol HJ, Shin HJ: Transventricular Biopsy of Brain Tumor without Hydrocephalus Using Neuroendoscopy with Navigation. J Korean Neurosurg Soc; 2010 Jun;47(6):415-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Transventricular Biopsy of Brain Tumor without Hydrocephalus Using Neuroendoscopy with Navigation.
  • OBJECTIVE: It is usually difficult to perform the neuroendoscopic procedure in patients without hydrocephalus due to difficulties with ventricular cannulation.
  • The purpose of this study was to find out the value of navigation guided neuroendoscopic biopsy in patients with peri- or intraventricular tumors without hydrocephalus.
  • METHODS: Six patients with brain tumors without hydrocephalus underwent navigation-guided neuroendoscopic biopsy.
  • The procedure was indicated for verification of the histological diagnosis of the neoplasm, which was planned to be treated by chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy as the first line treatment, or establishment of the pathological diagnosis for further choice of the most appropriate treatment strategy.
  • The histopathologic diagnosis was established in all of 6 patients : 2 germinomas, 2 astrocytomas, 1 dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor and 1 pineocytoma.
  • The tumor biopsy sites were pineal gland (n = 2), suprasellar area (n = 2), subcallosal area (n = 1) and thalamus (n = 1).
  • There were no operative complications related to the endoscopic procedure.
  • CONCLUSION: Endoscopic biopsy or resection of peri- or intraventricular tumors in patients without hydrocephalus is feasible.
  • Image-guided neuroendoscopic procedure improved the accuracy of the endoscopic approach and minimized brain trauma.
  • The absence of ventriculomegaly in patients with brain tumor may not be served as a contraindication to endoscopic tumor biopsy.

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  • (PMID = 20617084.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-7876
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Korean Neurosurg Soc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2899026
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Navigation / Neuroendoscopy / Without hydrocephalus
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5. Allen JC: Initial management of children with hypothalamic and thalamic tumors and the modifying role of neurofibromatosis-1. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2000 Mar;32(3):154-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Initial management of children with hypothalamic and thalamic tumors and the modifying role of neurofibromatosis-1.
  • Optic pathway/hypothalamus gliomas (OPG) arise primarily from a slower-growing juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma, and thalamic gliomas arise primarily from a fibrillary astrocytoma which can become clinically and histologically more aggressive.
  • The major therapeutic challenge for these patients is to maximize their quality of life by preserving visual and endocrine function while minimizing treatment-related morbidity.
  • Treatment is often initiated at diagnosis in infants and toddlers who have a major visual impairment or the diencephalic syndrome.
  • The judicious application of chemotherapy may serve to forestall the need for radiotherapy or surgery.
  • Tumors may grow more slowly or occasionally regress spontaneously.
  • However, over 90% of children with OPG without NF-1 will require some form of therapy.
  • Patients with thalamic gliomas present with a shorter history, often with hydrocephalus.
  • Surgical intervention is often required to relieve intracranial pressure and establish the histologic identity of the tumor.
  • Over 75% of these tumors will become locally aggressive.
  • Current multimodality therapy is relatively ineffective.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Hypothalamic Neoplasms / surgery. Neurofibromatosis 1 / surgery. Thalamic Diseases / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Child, Preschool. Humans. Hypothalamus / pathology. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Optic Nerve Glioma / diagnosis. Optic Nerve Glioma / surgery. Thalamus / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 10867564.001).
  • [ISSN] 1016-2291
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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6. Sasayama T, Mizukawa K, Sakagami Y, Mizowaki T, Tanaka K, Ohbayashi C, Mori K, Kitazawa S, Kohmura E: Glioblastoma multiforme associated with klinefelter syndrome. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2009 Nov;49(11):532-5
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  • Magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple heterogeneously enhanced tumors in the bilateral frontal lobes.
  • Angiography showed no tumor stain or arteriovenous shunt.
  • The tumor was partially removed through a right craniotomy.
  • The histological diagnosis was glioblastoma.
  • Postoperative local radiotherapy (60 Gy/30 fractions) combined with temozolomide (75 mg/m(2) x 42 days) and interferon-beta (3,000,000 U, 3 times/week) was performed.
  • The patient's clinical status rapidly deteriorated during chemoradiotherapy, and he died of tumor progression 3.5 months after the surgery.
  • Postmortem examination revealed widespread glioblastoma infiltrating the basal ganglia and thalamus.
  • Klinefelter syndrome is associated with increased cancer predisposition, especially for male breast cancer and germ cell tumors, but glioma is extremely rare.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Glioblastoma / genetics. Glioblastoma / pathology. Klinefelter Syndrome / complications. Klinefelter Syndrome / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Basal Ganglia / pathology. Craniotomy. Disease Progression. Drug Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Frontal Lobe / pathology. Frontal Lobe / surgery. Genetic Predisposition to Disease / genetics. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / genetics. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neurosurgical Procedures. Paraparesis / etiology. Radiotherapy. Thalamus / pathology. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 19940404.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-8029
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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7. Packer RJ: Chemotherapy: low-grade gliomas of the hypothalamus and thalamus. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2000 May;32(5):259-63
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  • [Title] Chemotherapy: low-grade gliomas of the hypothalamus and thalamus.
  • Chemotherapy is an increasing component of the management of diencephalic gliomas.
  • It can result in tumor shrinkage and significant disease control in some patients.
  • However, decisions concerning the institution of treatment should be based on the goals of treatment.
  • (2) whether the child has neurofibromatosis type 1;.
  • (3) tumor size and location;.
  • The erratic natural history of diencephalic tumors confounds evaluation of efficacy of the regimen chosen.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Glioma / drug therapy. Hypothalamic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Supratentorial Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Clinical Trials as Topic. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Patient Selection. Severity of Illness Index

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  • (PMID = 10965273.001).
  • [ISSN] 1016-2291
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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8. Coelho Neto M, Ramina R, de Meneses MS, Arruda WO, Milano JB: Peritoneal dissemination from central neurocytoma: case report. Arq Neuropsiquiatr; 2003 Dec;61(4):1030-4
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  • OBJECTIVE: Central neurocytoma is a low grade tumor of neuroglial origin and a relatively new histological entity.
  • CASE: A six years-old boy with recurrent neurocytoma of III ventricle and left thalamus showed fast growth of tumor rest and ascites three and a half years after subtotal removal of the lesion.
  • Tumor cells were identified in the ascitic fluid and implanted in the peritoneum.
  • Chemotherapy was initiated immediately after diagnosis of peritoneal dissemination (etoposide, carboplatin, doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide).
  • The patient developed metabolic imbalance and respiratory failure due to rapid formation of ascitic fluid and died 3 days after the diagnosis of peritoneal dissemination was established.
  • CONCLUSION: Central neurocytoma is a low grade tumor with low values of the proliferative index in the majority of cases.
  • In spite of that, some tumors may present a very aggressive behavior and extraneural dissemination.
  • Evaluation of proliferative index may be a guideline parameter for planning adjuvant therapies after surgical treatment in selected cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / pathology. Neurocytoma / pathology. Peritoneal Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm, Residual. Peritoneum. Reoperation. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 14762613.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-282X
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos de neuro-psiquiatria
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Neuropsiquiatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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9. Iwami K, Arima T, Ooka F, Asai T, Tambara M, Takaoka T: [Bilateral thalamic glioma in an adult: a case report and review of the literature]. No Shinkei Geka; 2009 Mar;37(3):285-90
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  • [Title] [Bilateral thalamic glioma in an adult: a case report and review of the literature].
  • We report a case of a 36-year-old woman who had a rare bilateral thalamic glioma (BTG).
  • BTG is a rare variant of thalamic neoplasms, which can be distinguished clinically and radiologically from other gliomas.
  • Death usually occurs within two years after onset, independently of adjuvant therapy such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • At the time of this writing (5 months after the consultation), there are no neurological symptoms, and no changes on neuroimaging.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Thalamus

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  • (PMID = 19306649.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2603
  • [Journal-full-title] No shinkei geka. Neurological surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] No Shinkei Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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10. Siffert J, Allen JC: Late effects of therapy of thalamic and hypothalamic tumors in childhood: vascular, neurobehavioral and neoplastic. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2000 Aug;33(2):105-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Late effects of therapy of thalamic and hypothalamic tumors in childhood: vascular, neurobehavioral and neoplastic.
  • The late effects in children with hypothalamic and thalamic tumors relate to the effects of the tumor on the surrounding brain, the effects of surgery, radiotherapy (RT) and, to a lesser extent, chemotherapy.
  • The prevention of late effects is an integral part of current treatment strategies.
  • Early diagnosis, a rational use of surgery, and deferral of RT are the mainstays of the modern treatment in these patients.
  • The improvement of RT techniques and the use of radioprotective compounds may further help spare normal brain tissue.
  • A better understanding of chemotherapy use and the development of newer agents may increase efficacy, reduce side effects and allow deferral of RT in a greater percentage of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Glioma / pathology. Hypothalamus / pathology. Hypothalamus / radiation effects. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / pathology. Thalamus / pathology. Thalamus / radiation effects. Visual Pathways / pathology. Visual Pathways / radiation effects

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 11070438.001).
  • [ISSN] 1016-2291
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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11. Yurtseven T, Erşahin Y, Demirtaş E, Mutluer S: Neuroendoscopic biopsy for intraventricular tumors. Minim Invasive Neurosurg; 2003 Oct;46(5):293-9
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  • [Title] Neuroendoscopic biopsy for intraventricular tumors.
  • Neuroendoscopy has been shown to be an effective and minimally invasive method in the management of intraventricular tumors.
  • Endoscopic tumor biopsy with or without additional endoscopic procedures such as third ventriculostomy and septostomy can be performed at the same session.
  • Neuroendoscopic tumor biopsy was performed in 18 patients in our department.
  • Location of the tumors were as follows: pineal region in 7, hypothalamus and 3rd ventricle in 4, lateral ventricle in 4, thalamus in 2, and tectal in 1 patient.
  • Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was collected at the beginning of the procedure for cytological analysis and for pineal tumor markers.
  • Biopsy forceps were used to obtain tissue from the lesion.
  • The third ventriculostomy was performed in all patients with a pineal tumor, in addition to the tumor biopsy.
  • Subsequent mode of treatment such as radiation therapy, chemotherapy or radical surgery was determined on the basis of pathological diagnosis.
  • Neuroendoscopic tumor biopsy is a less invasive method than open surgery and has some advantages such as treating the hydrocephalus at the same surgical session and the availability of CSF cytology.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy / methods. Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / pathology. Neuroendoscopy

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  • (PMID = 14628246.001).
  • [ISSN] 0946-7211
  • [Journal-full-title] Minimally invasive neurosurgery : MIN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minim Invasive Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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12. Wong ST, Yuen SC, Fong D: Pathophysiological mechanism of ipsilateral cerebral and brainstem hemiatrophy in basal ganglia germ cell tumors: case report. Childs Nerv Syst; 2009 Jun;25(6):693-9
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  • [Title] Pathophysiological mechanism of ipsilateral cerebral and brainstem hemiatrophy in basal ganglia germ cell tumors: case report.
  • INTRODUCTION: The basal ganglia is an uncommon location for germ cell tumors.
  • It has been reported that basal ganglia germinomas and mixed germ cell tumors are associated with ipsilateral cerebral and brainstem hemiatrophy on presentation.
  • Several pathophysiological mechanisms including autoimmune process and direct tumor infiltration of the thalamus or the internal capsule have been postulated to explain this association.
  • CASE REPORTS: The authors report two boys, aged 7 and 10, with basal ganglia germ cell tumors.
  • They underwent chemotherapy followed by reduced dose radiotherapy with good response.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Stem / pathology. Cerebrum / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Atrophy. Cerebral Angiography. Child. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Functional Laterality. Gadolinium. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Positron-Emission Tomography

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  • (PMID = 19139902.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0350
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; AU0V1LM3JT / Gadolinium
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13. Walter AW, Gajjar A, Reardon DA, Thompson SJ, Langston JW, Jones-Wallace D, Kun LE, Heideman RL: Tamoxifen and carboplatin for children with low-grade gliomas: a pilot study at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2000 May-Jun;22(3):247-51
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  • PURPOSE: The authors conducted a single-arm, prospective study using tamoxifen and carboplatin for the treatment of children with progressive or symptomatic low-grade gliomas.
  • One patient was excluded after induction chemotherapy because of the diagnosis of a nonmalignant condition.
  • RESULTS: The median age at diagnosis was 5.3 years, the median age at initiation of chemotherapy was 8.3 years.
  • Eight patients had tumors of the hypothalamus/optic pathway, two patients had thalamic tumors, and one patient each had tumors in the temporal lobe, tectum, and brain stem.
  • Tumor histologic findings included fibrillary astrocytoma (n = 2), juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma (n = 6), and oligodendroglioma (n = 1).
  • The best response to therapy was a partial response in two patients, stable disease in nine patients, and progressive disease in two patients.
  • Tamoxifen and carboplatin chemotherapy did not result in a significant number of objective responses in children with low-grade gliomas.
  • Nonmyelosuppressive agents such as tamoxifen deserve additional evaluation in the treatment of children with low-grade gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Oligodendroglioma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Enzyme Inhibitors / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Life Tables. Male. Prospective Studies. Protein Kinase C / antagonists & inhibitors. Survival Analysis. Survival Rate. Tamoxifen / administration & dosage. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 10864056.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA-20180; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA-23099; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA-21765
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; EC 2.7.11.13 / Protein Kinase C
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14. Wagner S, Csatary CM, Gosztonyi G, Koch HC, Hartmann C, Peters O, Hernáiz-Driever P, Théallier-Janko A, Zintl F, Längler A, Wolff JE, Csatary LK: Combined treatment of pediatric high-grade glioma with the oncolytic viral strain MTH-68/H and oral valproic acid. APMIS; 2006 Oct;114(10):731-43
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  • [Title] Combined treatment of pediatric high-grade glioma with the oncolytic viral strain MTH-68/H and oral valproic acid.
  • The case of a 12-year-old boy with anaplastic astrocytoma of the left thalamus is reported.
  • Postoperative irradiation and chemotherapy could not repress tumor progression; therefore, treatment was undertaken with an oncolytic virus, MTH-68/H, an attenuated strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), and valproic acid (VPA), an antiepileptic drug, which also has antineoplastic properties.
  • This treatment resulted in a far-reaching regression of the thalamic glioma, but 4 months later a new tumor manifestation, an extension of the thalamic tumor, appeared in the wall of the IVth ventricle, which required a second neurosurgical intervention.
  • Under continuous MTH-68/H - VPA administration the thalamic tumor remained under control, but the rhombencephalic one progressed relentlessly and led to the fatal outcome.
  • In the final stage, a third tumor manifestation appeared in the left temporal lobe.
  • The possible reasons for the antagonistic behavior of the three manifestations of the same type of glioma to the initially most successful therapy are discussed.
  • The comparative histological study of the thalamic and rhombencephalic tumor manifestations revealed that MTH-68/H treatment induces, similar to in vitro observations, a massive apoptotic tumor cell decline.
  • In the rhombencephalic tumor, in and around the declining tumor cells, NDV antigen could be demonstrated immunohistochemically, and virus particles have been found in the cytoplasm of tumor cells at electron microscopic investigation.
  • These findings document that the oncolytic effect of MTH-68/H treatment is the direct consequence of virus presence and replication in the neoplastic cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Anticonvulsants / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Astrocytoma / therapy. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Valproic Acid / therapeutic use. Viral Vaccines / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Antigens, Viral / analysis. Antigens, Viral / metabolism. Brain / virology. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Cytoplasm / virology. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male. Newcastle disease virus / immunology. Recurrence. Thalamus / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17004977.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticonvulsants; 0 / Antigens, Viral; 0 / Newcastle disease virus vaccine MTH-68-H; 0 / Viral Vaccines; 614OI1Z5WI / Valproic Acid
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15. Shibata K, Tokunaga K, Imai Y, Tono T, Masutani S, Ukei T, Kobayashi T: [Brain infarction related to hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2001 Oct;28(11):1554-7

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  • [Title] [Brain infarction related to hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy].
  • We examined the occurrence of brain infarction with hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy for liver cancer.
  • One hundred and eighty-one cases of hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy were carried out for liver cancer patients in 4 hospitals associated with Osaka University 2nd Dept. of Surgery.
  • These included metastatic (n = 103) and primary (n = 78) liver tumors.
  • The medication was mainly 5-FU with/without CDDP and IFN.
  • Occlusions were found in the cerebellum (n = 3), thalamus (n = 1), brain stem (n = 1) and TIA (n = 2).
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Hepatic Artery. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 11707978.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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16. Lustig RH, Post SR, Srivannaboon K, Rose SR, Danish RK, Burghen GA, Xiong X, Wu S, Merchant TE: Risk factors for the development of obesity in children surviving brain tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2003 Feb;88(2):611-6
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  • [Title] Risk factors for the development of obesity in children surviving brain tumors.
  • Hypothalamic obesity, a syndrome of intractable weight gain due to hypothalamic damage, is an uncommon but devastating complication for children surviving brain tumors.
  • We undertook a retrospective evaluation of the body mass index (BMI) curves for the St. Jude Children's Research Hospital brain tumor population diagnosed between 1965 and 1995 after completion of therapy to determine risk factors for the development of obesity.
  • Inclusion criteria were: diagnosis less than 14 yr of age, no spinal cord involvement, ambulatory, no supraphysiologic hydrocortisone therapy (>12 mg/m(2) x d), treatment and follow-up at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, and disease-free survival greater than 5 yr (n = 148).
  • Risk factors examined were age at diagnosis, tumor location, histology, extent of surgery, hydrocephalus requiring ventriculoperitoneal shunting, initial high-dose glucocorticoids, cranial radiation therapy, radiation dosimetry to the hypothalamus, intrathecal chemotherapy, and presence of endocrinopathy.
  • Risk factors were: age at diagnosis (P = 0.04), radiation dosimetry to the hypothalamus (51-72 Gy, P = 0.002 even after hypothalamic and thalamic tumor exclusion), and presence of any endocrinopathy (P = 0.03).
  • In addition, risk factors when compared with BMI slope for the general American pediatric population included: tumor location (hypothalamic, P = 0.001), tumor histology (craniopharyngioma, P = 0.009; pilocytic astrocytoma, P = 0.043; medulloblastoma, P = 0.039); and extent of surgery (biopsy, P = 0.03; subtotal resection, P = 0.018).
  • These results verify hypothalamic damage, either due to tumor, surgery, or radiation, as the primary cause of obesity in survivors of childhood brain tumors.
  • In particular, hypothalamic radiation doses of more than 51 Gy are permissive.
  • These results reiterate the importance of the hypothalamus in energy balance, provide risk assessment criteria for preventative measures before the development of obesity in at-risk patients, and suggest therapeutic strategies to reduce the future development of obesity.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / epidemiology. Craniopharyngioma / epidemiology. Obesity / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Astrocytoma / epidemiology. Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Cerebellar Neoplasms / drug therapy. Cerebellar Neoplasms / epidemiology. Cerebellar Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Hypothalamus / physiology. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy. Medulloblastoma / epidemiology. Medulloblastoma / radiotherapy. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 12574189.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R25 CA023944; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30CA12765
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Broniscer A, Chintagumpala M, Fouladi M, Krasin MJ, Kocak M, Bowers DC, Iacono LC, Merchant TE, Stewart CF, Houghton PJ, Kun LE, Ledet D, Gajjar A: Temozolomide after radiotherapy for newly diagnosed high-grade glioma and unfavorable low-grade glioma in children. J Neurooncol; 2006 Feb;76(3):313-9
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  • Chemotherapy is commonly used in the treatment of children with high-grade glioma, although its usefulness is uncertain.
  • Optional window therapy of intravenous irinotecan (10 doses of 20 mg/m2 per cycle x 2) was given over 6 weeks.
  • Tumors most commonly involved cerebral hemispheres (n = 13, 42%) and thalamus (n = 14, 45%).
  • Twenty-seven patients received radiotherapy (median dose: 59.4 Gy), including craniospinal irradiation in 3 because of leptomeningeal spread.
  • Four patients did not receive radiotherapy in this study because of consent withdrawn (n = 2), toxicity during window therapy (n = 1), or at the physician's discretion (n = 1).
  • Twenty-three patients received 112 cycles of temozolomide therapy.
  • Although the heterogeneity of prognostic factors in our patients made assessment of treatment outcome more difficult, the addition of 6 cycles of temozolomide after radiotherapy did not seem to alter the poor outcome of these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives. Glioma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Camptothecin / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16200343.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA21765
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0H43101T0J / irinotecan; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin; YF1K15M17Y / temozolomide
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18. Schmid I, Stachel D, Graubner UB, Elsner R, Schulze S, Pöllinger B, Goetz C, Haas RJ: [Supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor: a single center experience and comparison with the literature]. Klin Padiatr; 2005 May-Jun;217(3):153-7
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  • [Title] [Supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor: a single center experience and comparison with the literature].
  • [Transliterated title] Supratentorieller primitiver neuroektodermaler Tumor: Erfahrungen in einem Zentrum im Vergleich zur Literatur.
  • Supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (stPNETs) are malignant tumors.
  • All had craniospinal irradiation and chemotherapy according to the HIT-91 protocol.
  • The two children with incomplete resection died due to tumor progression after 7 and 10 months.
  • Two of the 4 children with complete tumor resection had local relapses 8 months after diagnosis and died after 14 and 18 months.
  • One child had a diffuse meningeal relapse 12 months after diagnosis.
  • Despite (high-dose) systemic chemotherapy and intraventricular mafosfamide, he died 21 months after diagnosis due to tumor although remission could be achieved.
  • Only one child is still in remission 86 months after diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms. Cerebellar Nuclei. Corpus Callosum. Frontal Lobe. Neuroectodermal Tumors. Occipital Lobe. Parietal Lobe. Temporal Lobe. Thalamus
  • [MeSH-minor] Brain Stem Neoplasms / secondary. Cerebellar Neoplasms / mortality. Cerebellar Neoplasms / surgery. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Humans. Male. Mesencephalon. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis. Remission Induction. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 15858707.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8630
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinische Pädiatrie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Padiatr
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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19. Karami KJ, Poulik J, Rabah R, Krass J, Sood S: Simultaneous choroid plexus carcinoma and pilocytic astrocytoma in a pediatric patient. J Neurosurg Pediatr; 2010 Jan;5(1):104-12
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  • Simultaneous primary brain tumors in pediatric patients without prior chemotherapy or radiotherapy, phacomatosis, or known familial history are a rare occurrence.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed diffuse heterogeneously enhancing left intraventricular and posterior fossa tumors initially believed most consistent with multicentric choroid plexus carcinomas.
  • A multiple staged resection was carried out for each tumor and gross-total resection was achieved.
  • Upon gross inspection intraoperatively as well as postoperative histological analysis, 2 distinct simultaneous tumors were identified: choroid plexus carcinoma and pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • To the authors' knowledge this is the first case report published identifying 2 distinct tumor types with similar radiological appearances in a pediatric patient with no prior history of radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or phacomatosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / diagnosis. Astrocytoma / surgery. Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / surgery. Choroid Plexus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Choroid Plexus Neoplasms / surgery. Fourth Ventricle / surgery. Lateral Ventricles / surgery. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery. Neuronavigation. Thalamus / surgery. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


20. Hill MD, Mackenzie I, Mason WP: Radiation-induced glioma presenting as diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis: a case report. J Neurooncol; 2001 Nov;55(2):113-6
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  • He later developed an enhancing thalamic tumor arising within the treatment field of a remotely irradiated pituitary adenoma.
  • Subsequent management included chemotherapy and further radiotherapy with transient response, before death from leptomeningeal and parenchymal tumor progression 16 months after diagnosis.
  • Our patient's course is novel in that symptomatic relief was achieved with CSF diversion and a combination of chemotherapy and focal radiation allowed prolonged survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radiotherapy. Glioma / diagnosis. Meningeal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunts. Combined Modality Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male

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  • (PMID = 11817701.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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21. Hadjipanayis CG, Kondziolka D, Flickinger JC, Lunsford LD: The role of stereotactic radiosurgery for low-grade astrocytomas. Neurosurg Focus; 2003 May 15;14(5):e15
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  • METHODS: During a 13-year interval, 49 patients underwent stereotactic radiosurgery as part of multimodal treatment of their recurrent or unresectable low-grade astrocytomas.
  • Tumors involved the brainstem in 22 cases, cerebellum in four, thalamus in six, temporal lobe in five, frontal lobe in four, and parietal lobe in three, as well as the hypothalamus, corpus callosum, insular cortex, optic tract, and third ventricle in one patient each.
  • Each diagnosis was confirmed with the aid of stereotactic biopsy sampling in 17 patients, open biopsy sampling in five, partial resection in 13, and near-total resection in 14.
  • Multimodal treatment included fractionated radiotherapy in 14 patients, stereotactic intracavitary irradiation in five, chemotherapy in two, cyst drainage in eight, ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement in five, and additional cytoreductive surgery in five.
  • Tumor volumes ranged from 0.42 to 45.1 cm3.
  • The median radiosurgical dose to the tumor margin was 15 Gy (range 9.6-22.5 Gy).
  • After radiosurgery, serial neuroimaging demonstrated complete tumor resolution in 11 patients, reduced tumor volume in 12, stable tumor volume in 10, and delayed tumor progression in 16.
  • No procedure-related death was encountered.
  • Forty-five of 49 patients are alive at a median follow-up period of 32 months after radiosurgery and 63 months after diagnosis.
  • Three patients died of local tumor progression.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Stereotactic radiosurgery is a potential alternative or adjunctive intervention in the management of selected patients with pilocytic or WHO Grade II fibrillary astrocytomas, usually performed for small-volume tumors in an attempt to avoid larger-field fractionated radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Radiosurgery / methods

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  • (PMID = 15669811.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgical focus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg Focus
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Sartori S, Laverda AM, Calderone M, Carollo C, Viscardi E, Faggin R, Perilongo G: Germinoma with synchronous involvement of midline and off-midline structures associated with progressive hemiparesis and hemiatrophy in a young adult. Childs Nerv Syst; 2007 Nov;23(11):1341-5
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  • INTRODUCTION: Cerebral germinomas, the most common and least malignant intracranial germ cell tumors, usually arise in the pineal or suprasellar region and have characteristic clinical and radiological features.
  • Germinomas more rarely occur in the thalamus, basal ganglia, and internal capsule, causing sometimes cerebral hemiatrophy and hemiparesis.
  • DISCUSSION: The literature is reviewed, and the pathogenesis, the clinical findings, the imaging, and the therapy are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Cerebrum / pathology. Germinoma / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Atrophy. Child. Functional Laterality. Humans. Male. Paresis / etiology. Thalamic Diseases / drug therapy. Thalamic Diseases / pathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17609967.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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23. Klein O, Grignon Y, Civit T, Pinelli C, Auque J, Marchal JC: [Childhood diencephalic pilocytic astrocytoma. A review of seven observations]. Neurochirurgie; 2006 Feb;52(1):3-14
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  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is a WHO grade I tumor of the central nervous system mostly arising in children and young adults.
  • Surgical treatment has to cope with both the difficulties of deep location and eloquent area tumors.
  • Opto-chiasmatic tumors were excluded from the series.
  • Mean age at diagnosis was 108 months (9 years) (range: 4 month-18 years), median age was 111 months.
  • Tumor locations were as followed: right thalamus: 2, both thalami: 1, hypothalamus: 3, and right basal ganglia: 1.
  • The delay in diagnosis ranged from 48 hours up to 6 years.
  • TREATMENT: a shunting procedure was performed in 3 patients, a direct surgical approach in 5 patients (gross total removal: 2; partial removal: 3) and one patient had only a biopsy.
  • Chemotherapy was delivered for 4 children.
  • Three children died, two by tumor progression and one death related to late side-effects of RT.
  • We observed tumor regression in two patients at 1 and 17 years after the beginning of treatment.
  • Correct diagnosis was only made for two cases at the initial pathological examination.
  • The tumor can be controlled by a partial surgical removal, and a residual tumor can sometimes decrease in size after surgery.
  • Gross total removal of these tumors, although difficult, may be performed.
  • Pathological diagnosis is sometimes difficult to assess.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Hypothalamic Neoplasms / surgery. Thalamic Diseases / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Dominance, Cerebral / physiology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hypothalamus / pathology. Hypothalamus / surgery. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Quality of Life. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Reoperation. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Thalamus / pathology. Thalamus / surgery. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16609655.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3770
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-Chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurochirurgie
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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24. Bowers DC, Krause TP, Aronson LJ, Barzi A, Burger PC, Carson BS, Weingart JD, Wharam MD, Melhem ER, Cohen KJ: Second surgery for recurrent pilocytic astrocytoma in children. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2001 May;34(5):229-34
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is the most common childhood brain tumor.
  • In cases where the tumor progresses or recurs following primary surgical resection, the appropriate treatment is unclear.
  • Options include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, surgical resection or a combination thereof.
  • Patients were excluded if they received adjuvant chemotherapy or radiation therapy.
  • Tumor locations included: cerebral hemisphere (3), cerebellum (7), optic pathway/hypothalamus (5), thalamus (1) and brainstem (4).
  • The indication for 4 surgeries included an enlarging tumor-associated cyst.
  • Two of 10 tumors after GTR, 0 of 2 tumors after NTR, and 7 of 8 tumors after STR had second recurrence/progression at a mean of 15 months (range 4-33 months) following second surgery.
  • Surgery for tumors or midline structures rarely resulted in a GTR (1 of 10 cases).
  • Surgery for tumors located in the cerebral hemispheres or cerebellum resulted in GTR or NTR in all cases and can result in long periods of progression-free survival without further adjuvant treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Humans. Infant. Reoperation / adverse effects. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome


25. Paulino AC, Cha DT, Barker JL Jr, Lo S, Manera RB: Patterns of failure in relation to radiotherapy fields in supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2004 Mar 15;58(4):1171-6
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  • [Title] Patterns of failure in relation to radiotherapy fields in supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor.
  • PURPOSE: Supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) accounts for 2-3% of all pediatric brain tumors.
  • The primary site location was the pineal region in 7 (28%), temporal lobe in 5 (20%), thalamus in 5 (20%), frontal lobe in 4 (16%), parietal lobe in 2 (8%), and suprasellar region in 2 (8%).
  • Five patients (20%) had neuraxis dissemination (M+ disease) at initial diagnosis.
  • The RT treatment volumes were craniospinal (CS) in 17 (68%), whole brain (WB) followed by a boost in 2 (8%), and primary site (PS) alone in 6 (24%).
  • The median dose to the primary site was 54 Gy (range, 31-55.8 Gy).
  • The median dose to patients receiving WB and spinal fields was 36 Gy (range, 23.4-39.6 Gy).
  • Sixteen patients (64%) received chemotherapy; the most common type was the "8 in 1" chemotherapy regimen in 9 children.
  • RESULTS: The 5-year and 10-year progression-free survival rate was 36% and 27%, respectively, and the median time to progression was 22 months.
  • The 5-year and 10-year progression-free survival rate for those with M0 disease was 40.0% and 30.0%, respectively; for those with M+ disease, the corresponding figures were 20.0% and 0%.
  • Four (80%) of 5 M+ children and 4 (33%) of 12 M0 children who underwent CSRT developed recurrence in the neuraxis (p = 0.1, Fisher's exact test).
  • Leptomeningeal dissemination was the main obstacle for cure even in patients receiving CSRT, regardless of M status.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Neuroectodermal Tumors / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Analysis of Variance. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Supratentorial Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Survival Rate. Treatment Failure


26. Dolendo MC, Lin TP, Tat OH, Chong QT, Timothy LK: Parkinsonism as an unusual presenting symptom of pineal gland teratoma. Pediatr Neurol; 2003 Apr;28(4):310-2
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  • Diagnostic evaluation revealed hydrocephalus and an immature teratoma of the pineal gland extending to the thalamus.
  • An urgent ventriculoperitoneal shunt was inserted, and chemotherapy was given to reduce the tumor size.
  • The tumor was completely excised 2 months after diagnosis with improvement of clinical signs and symptoms.
  • These were progressive pineal gland tumor enlargement documented on MRI without increase in previously elevated alpha-fetoprotein levels.
  • The tumor continued to enlarge despite gamma knife radiosurgery.
  • Secondary parkinsonism is a rare presentation of pineal gland tumors and has not been reported in association with the growing teratoma syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Parkinsonian Disorders / etiology. Pinealoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Equipment Failure. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hydrocephalus / diagnosis. Hydrocephalus / etiology. Image Enhancement. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt

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  • (PMID = 12849888.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-8994
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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27. Watanabe S, Sato S, Nagase S, Shimosato K, Ohkuma S: Chemotherapeutic targeting of etoposide to regions of the brain on the basis of polyamine level. J Drug Target; 2002 Sep;10(6):457-61
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  • The effects of etoposide on body weight, regional weights, and the concentrations of putrescine, spermidine and spermine in the cerebellum, hippocampus, corpus striatum, cortex, the combined regions of the thalamus and hypothalamus and the diencephalon of the brain were examined in rats.
  • Etoposide seems to be a better choice for management of cortical and hippocampal tumors because it reduces polyamines, which are associated with tumor cell growth, but not for the management of tumors of the diencephalon and corpus striatum because it increases polyamines.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / metabolism. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Drug Delivery Systems / methods. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Polyamines / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 12575735.001).
  • [ISSN] 1061-186X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of drug targeting
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Drug Target
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Polyamines; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide
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28. Yamada K, Takeshima H, Sakurama T, Kuratsu J: Secondary cervical dystonia following stereotactic radiosurgery in a patient with thalamic glioma. Surg Neurol; 2007 Dec;68(6):665-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Secondary cervical dystonia following stereotactic radiosurgery in a patient with thalamic glioma.
  • We report the first patient with secondary CD after stereotactic radiosurgery for thalamic glioma.
  • CASE DESCRIPTION: A 27-year-old woman complaining of headache and left motor weakness was found to have a thalamic tumor on the right side.
  • Histopathologically, tumor samples manifested features of anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • She underwent stereotactic radiosurgery in addition to the conventional radiation and chemotherapy.
  • Sixteen months postoperatively, the patient developed forced head tilting to the left side combined with chin lift.
  • Irregular-shaped lesion involving the thalamus, lenticular nuclei, midbrain, pons, and cerebellum was presented on magnetic resonance images.
  • Steroid therapy effectively diminished the lesion size, and her abnormal head posturing was gradually ameliorated (TWSTRS severity scale = 3).
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Glioma / surgery. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Radiosurgery / adverse effects. Torticollis / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Necrosis. Thalamus / pathology. Thalamus / surgery


29. Scrigni A, Nastri M, Rodríguez de Schiavi S, Czornyj L, Felice M, Mantese B: Leptomeningeal lymphoma in a child with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Neuropediatrics; 2006 Jun;37(3):121-5
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  • We report a seven-year-old HIV-infected boy, in stage C3 of the disease, who developed non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the central nervous system with a leptomeningeal location.
  • The diagnosis was based on brain biopsy, immunophenotypic studies of B cells, and Epstein-Barr virus serology of the cerebrospinal fluid.
  • The boy was treated with intrathecal and systemic chemotherapy.
  • Fifteen months after diagnosis he had clinically improved, but he then relapsed with a thalamic tumor.
  • In the present article, we discuss diagnostic difficulties, evolution, treatment, and the association of this neoplasm with the Epstein-Barr virus.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / etiology. Meningeal Neoplasms / etiology


30. Hadjipanayis CG, Kondziolka D, Gardner P, Niranjan A, Dagam S, Flickinger JC, Lunsford LD: Stereotactic radiosurgery for pilocytic astrocytomas when multimodal therapy is necessary. J Neurosurg; 2002 Jul;97(1):56-64
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  • [Title] Stereotactic radiosurgery for pilocytic astrocytomas when multimodal therapy is necessary.
  • OBJECT: The goal of this study was to examine the role of stereotactic radiosurgery in the treatment of patients with recurrent or unresectable pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • METHODS: During a 13-year interval, 37 patients (median age 14 years) required multimodal treatment of recurrent or unresectable pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • Tumors involved the brainstem in 18 patients, cerebellum in three, thalamus in five, temporal lobe in four, and parietal lobe in two, as well as the hypothalamus, optic tract, corpus callosum, insular cortex, and third ventricle in one patient each.
  • Diagnosis was confirmed with the aid of stereotactic biopsy in 12 patients, open biopsy in five, partial resection in eight, and near-total resection in 12.
  • Multimodal treatment included fractionated radiation therapy in 10 patients, stereotactic intracavitary irradiation of tumor in four, chemotherapy in two, cyst drainage in six, ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement in three, and additional cytoreductive surgery in four.
  • Tumor volumes varied from 0.42 to 25 cm3.
  • The median radiosurgical dose to the tumor margin was 15 Gy (range 9.6-22.5 Gy).
  • After radiosurgery, serial imaging demonstrated complete tumor resolution in 10 patients, reduced tumor volume in eight, stable tumor volume in seven, and delayed tumor progression in 12.
  • No procedure-related death was encountered.
  • Thirty-three (89%) of 37 patients are alive at a median follow-up period of 28 months after radiosurgery and 59 months after diagnosis.
  • Three patients died of local tumor progression.
  • Despite the favorable histological characteristics and prognosis usually associated with this neoplasm, an adverse location, recurrence, or progression of this disease requires alternative therapeutic approaches such as radiosurgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Astrocytoma / therapy. Brain Stem Neoplasms / surgery. Brain Stem Neoplasms / therapy. Radiosurgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Biopsy. Child. Child, Preschool. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Cysts / surgery. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Radiotherapy / adverse effects. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 12134933.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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