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1. Uchino M, Kitajima S, Miyazaki C, Shibata I, Miura M: Bilateral thalamic glioma--case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2002 Oct;42(10):443-6
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  • [Title] Bilateral thalamic glioma--case report.
  • A 35-year-old woman presented with a bilateral thalamic glioma manifesting as dysesthesia over the left side of the body and mental deterioration.
  • Radiotherapy and chemotherapy failed to arrest tumor growth.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging and clinical findings support the view that bilateral thalamic gliomas represent a distinct clinicopathologic entity among thalamic tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Glioma / pathology. Thalamus / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Personality Disorders / diagnosis. Personality Disorders / etiology. Stereotaxic Techniques

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  • (PMID = 12416569.001).
  • [ISSN] 0470-8105
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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2. Nass R, Boyce L, Leventhal F, Levine B, Allen J, Maxfield C, Salsberg D, Sarno M, George A: Acquired aphasia in children after surgical resection of left-thalamic tumors. Dev Med Child Neurol; 2000 Sep;42(9):580-90
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  • [Title] Acquired aphasia in children after surgical resection of left-thalamic tumors.
  • Five children (three males, two females; four right-, one left-handed; age range 6 to 14 years) who developed aphasia after gross-total excision of left predominantly thalamic tumors are reported.
  • In the months after surgery, three children improved while receiving radiation and/or chemotherapy, although none recovered completely.
  • Two patients with malignant tumors developed worsening aphasia when the tumor recurred, and later died.
  • The wide range of deficits in these children highlights the importance of the thalamus and other subcortical structures in developing cognition.
  • [MeSH-major] Aphasia / etiology. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Postoperative Complications. Thalamic Diseases / surgery


3. Saurez G, Cabanas R, Zaldívar M, Garnier T, Iglesias B, Piedra P, Castillo MR, Longchong M, Iznaga N, Lage A: Clinical experience with nimotuzumab in cuban pediatric patients with brain tumors, 2005 to 2007. MEDICC Rev; 2009 Jul;11(3):27-33
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  • [Title] Clinical experience with nimotuzumab in cuban pediatric patients with brain tumors, 2005 to 2007.
  • Introduction Nimotuzumab, developed in Cuba, is a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR).
  • It has been evaluated in malignant brain tumors in adults and children, and shown to be therapeutically safe and effective in terms of increased survival and improved quality of life.
  • Objective Describe nimotuzumab's safety profile and clinical benefits in terms of disease control and survival in pediatric patients with progressive or recurrent primary brain tumors who were included in an expanded access program.
  • Between December 2005 and December 2007, 22 patients were included, all of whom had an histological and/or radiological diagnosis of progressive or recurrent primary brain tumor, classified as high-grade malignant glioblastoma (n=6), diffuse brain stem glioma (n=6), ependymoblastoma (n=5), low-grade glioma (n=4), or thalamic tumor (n=1); life expectancy of at least 4 weeks; and a Karnofsky or Lansky Performance Status score of ≥50.
  • Therapeutic protocols were followed for administration as monotherapy or in combination with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy.
  • Results Nimotuzumab was well tolerated in all therapeutic modalities, even with prolonged exposure.

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  • (PMID = 21483304.001).
  • [ISSN] 1555-7960
  • [Journal-full-title] MEDICC review
  • [ISO-abbreviation] MEDICC Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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4. Siffert J, Allen JC: Late effects of therapy of thalamic and hypothalamic tumors in childhood: vascular, neurobehavioral and neoplastic. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2000 Aug;33(2):105-11
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  • [Title] Late effects of therapy of thalamic and hypothalamic tumors in childhood: vascular, neurobehavioral and neoplastic.
  • The late effects in children with hypothalamic and thalamic tumors relate to the effects of the tumor on the surrounding brain, the effects of surgery, radiotherapy (RT) and, to a lesser extent, chemotherapy.
  • The prevention of late effects is an integral part of current treatment strategies.
  • Early diagnosis, a rational use of surgery, and deferral of RT are the mainstays of the modern treatment in these patients.
  • The improvement of RT techniques and the use of radioprotective compounds may further help spare normal brain tissue.
  • A better understanding of chemotherapy use and the development of newer agents may increase efficacy, reduce side effects and allow deferral of RT in a greater percentage of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Glioma / pathology. Hypothalamus / pathology. Hypothalamus / radiation effects. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / pathology. Thalamus / pathology. Thalamus / radiation effects. Visual Pathways / pathology. Visual Pathways / radiation effects

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 11070438.001).
  • [ISSN] 1016-2291
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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5. Yamada K, Takeshima H, Sakurama T, Kuratsu J: Secondary cervical dystonia following stereotactic radiosurgery in a patient with thalamic glioma. Surg Neurol; 2007 Dec;68(6):665-70
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  • [Title] Secondary cervical dystonia following stereotactic radiosurgery in a patient with thalamic glioma.
  • We report the first patient with secondary CD after stereotactic radiosurgery for thalamic glioma.
  • CASE DESCRIPTION: A 27-year-old woman complaining of headache and left motor weakness was found to have a thalamic tumor on the right side.
  • Histopathologically, tumor samples manifested features of anaplastic astrocytoma.
  • She underwent stereotactic radiosurgery in addition to the conventional radiation and chemotherapy.
  • Sixteen months postoperatively, the patient developed forced head tilting to the left side combined with chin lift.
  • Irregular-shaped lesion involving the thalamus, lenticular nuclei, midbrain, pons, and cerebellum was presented on magnetic resonance images.
  • Steroid therapy effectively diminished the lesion size, and her abnormal head posturing was gradually ameliorated (TWSTRS severity scale = 3).
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Glioma / surgery. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Radiosurgery / adverse effects. Torticollis / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Necrosis. Thalamus / pathology. Thalamus / surgery


6. Allen JC: Initial management of children with hypothalamic and thalamic tumors and the modifying role of neurofibromatosis-1. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2000 Mar;32(3):154-62
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  • [Title] Initial management of children with hypothalamic and thalamic tumors and the modifying role of neurofibromatosis-1.
  • Optic pathway/hypothalamus gliomas (OPG) arise primarily from a slower-growing juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma, and thalamic gliomas arise primarily from a fibrillary astrocytoma which can become clinically and histologically more aggressive.
  • The major therapeutic challenge for these patients is to maximize their quality of life by preserving visual and endocrine function while minimizing treatment-related morbidity.
  • Treatment is often initiated at diagnosis in infants and toddlers who have a major visual impairment or the diencephalic syndrome.
  • The judicious application of chemotherapy may serve to forestall the need for radiotherapy or surgery.
  • Tumors may grow more slowly or occasionally regress spontaneously.
  • However, over 90% of children with OPG without NF-1 will require some form of therapy.
  • Patients with thalamic gliomas present with a shorter history, often with hydrocephalus.
  • Surgical intervention is often required to relieve intracranial pressure and establish the histologic identity of the tumor.
  • Over 75% of these tumors will become locally aggressive.
  • Current multimodality therapy is relatively ineffective.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Hypothalamic Neoplasms / surgery. Neurofibromatosis 1 / surgery. Thalamic Diseases / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Child, Preschool. Humans. Hypothalamus / pathology. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Optic Nerve Glioma / diagnosis. Optic Nerve Glioma / surgery. Thalamus / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 10867564.001).
  • [ISSN] 1016-2291
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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7. Iwami K, Arima T, Ooka F, Asai T, Tambara M, Takaoka T: [Bilateral thalamic glioma in an adult: a case report and review of the literature]. No Shinkei Geka; 2009 Mar;37(3):285-90
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  • [Title] [Bilateral thalamic glioma in an adult: a case report and review of the literature].
  • We report a case of a 36-year-old woman who had a rare bilateral thalamic glioma (BTG).
  • BTG is a rare variant of thalamic neoplasms, which can be distinguished clinically and radiologically from other gliomas.
  • Death usually occurs within two years after onset, independently of adjuvant therapy such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • At the time of this writing (5 months after the consultation), there are no neurological symptoms, and no changes on neuroimaging.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Thalamus

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  • (PMID = 19306649.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2603
  • [Journal-full-title] No shinkei geka. Neurological surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] No Shinkei Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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8. Reddy AT, Janss AJ, Phillips PC, Weiss HL, Packer RJ: Outcome for children with supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors treated with surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Cancer; 2000 May 1;88(9):2189-93
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  • [Title] Outcome for children with supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors treated with surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy.
  • BACKGROUND: The outcome of a child with a primitive neuroectodermal tumors arising supratentorially (SPNET) is not well characterized and may differ from the outcome of a patient with a histologically similar cerebellar tumor (medulloblastoma [MB]).
  • Recently, 5-year progression free survival rates as high as 80% have been reported for children with MB treated with craniospinal radiation (CRT) and chemotherapy including cisplatin, lomustine (CCNU), and vincristine (VCR).
  • Tumor location included was 13 pineal, 6 cortical, and 3 thalamic or suprasellar.
  • Five patients had disease dissemination at diagnosis.
  • All patients underwent surgery and staging, followed by CRT and chemotherapy with cisplatin, CCNU, and VCR.
  • RESULTS: Of the 22 patients, 13 had developed disease progression and 10 had died at the time of last follow-up.
  • There was no statistical association between tumor location and survival.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results of the current study demonstrate that the outcome for children with SPNET treated with radiation and chemotherapy appears worse than for children with MB treated with identical therapy.
  • This suggests that there may be biologic differences between supratentorial and infratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors, thus requiring refinements in treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cranial Irradiation. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / surgery. Supratentorial Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Cerebral Cortex / drug effects. Cerebral Cortex / radiation effects. Cerebral Cortex / surgery. Child. Child, Preschool. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Linear Models. Lomustine / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Staging. Pinealoma / drug therapy. Pinealoma / radiotherapy. Pinealoma / surgery. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Thalamic Diseases / drug therapy. Thalamic Diseases / radiotherapy. Thalamic Diseases / surgery. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 10813733.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7BRF0Z81KG / Lomustine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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9. Oberfield SE, Garvin JH Jr: Thalamic and hypothalamic tumors of childhood: endocrine late effects. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2000 May;32(5):264-71
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  • [Title] Thalamic and hypothalamic tumors of childhood: endocrine late effects.
  • Children who have received chemotherapy and radiation therapy for treatment of thalamic/hypothalamic tumors are at risk for late effects, specifically endocrine dysfunction.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Endocrine System Diseases / etiology. Radiation Injuries / etiology. Supratentorial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Supratentorial Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenal Insufficiency / etiology. Body Height / radiation effects. Child. Child, Preschool. Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation. Female. Growth Disorders / etiology. Growth Hormone / deficiency. Hormone Replacement Therapy. Humans. Hyperlipidemias / etiology. Hypothalamic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Hypothalamic Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Hypothyroidism / etiology. Infant. Male. Puberty, Precocious / etiology. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant / adverse effects

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 10965274.001).
  • [ISSN] 1016-2291
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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10. Moshel YA, Link MJ, Kelly PJ: Stereotactic volumetric resection of thalamic pilocytic astrocytomas. Neurosurgery; 2007 Jul;61(1):66-75; discussion 75
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  • [Title] Stereotactic volumetric resection of thalamic pilocytic astrocytomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the surgical approaches, the radiographic and clinical outcomes, and the long-term follow-up of patients harboring thalamic pilocytic astrocytomas after radical resection by means of a stereotactic volumetric technique.
  • METHODS: Seventy-two patients with thalamic pilocytic astrocytomas underwent stereotactic volumetric resection by the senior author (PJK) at the Mayo Clinic between 1984 and 1993 (44 patients) and at New York University Medical Center between 1993 and 2005 (28 patients).
  • Postoperative imaging demonstrated gross total resection in 58 patients and minimal (<6 mm) residual tumor in 13 patients.
  • Tumor resection was aborted in one patient.
  • After 13 to 20 years of follow-up in the Mayo group (mean, 15 +/- 3 yr) and 1 to 13 years of follow-up in the New York University group (mean, 8 +/- 3 yr), 67 patients were recurrence/progression-free, one had tumor recurrence, and three had progression of residual tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: Gross total removal of thalamic pilocytic astrocytomas with low morbidity and mortality can be achieved by computer-assisted stereotactic volumetric resection techniques.
  • Gross total resection of these lesions confers a favorable long-term prognosis without adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy and leads to the improvement of neurological deficits.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Paresis / prevention & control. Stereotaxic Techniques. Thalamic Diseases / surgery. Thalamus / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17621020.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Moshel YA, Elliott RE, Monoky DJ, Wisoff JH: Role of diffusion tensor imaging in resection of thalamic juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma. J Neurosurg Pediatr; 2009 Dec;4(6):495-505
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  • [Title] Role of diffusion tensor imaging in resection of thalamic juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma.
  • OBJECT: The choice of surgical approach during resection of a thalamic juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma (JPA) is dictated by the location of the displaced normal thalamus and posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC).
  • Diffusion tensor (DT) imaging and white matter tractography can identify the location of the PLIC in relation to the tumor and may be useful in planning the operative trajectory.
  • METHODS: Diffusion tensor imaging was used to localize the PLIC on preoperative MR imaging in 6 children undergoing resection of thalamic JPAs.
  • This result was compared with the location of the PLIC determined by a blinded radiologist with the use of DT imaging.
  • The utility of DT imaging in determining the surgical approach to a thalamic JPA, degree of resection, and neurological outcomes were all evaluated.
  • Gross-total resection of all cystic and solid tumor components was confirmed on postoperative imaging in all cases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Diffusion tensor imaging and white matter tractography successfully identified the white matter fibers emanating from the precentral gyrus within the PLIC in children with thalamic JPAs prior to surgery.
  • Diffusion tensor imaging served as a valuable tool for stereotactic planning of operative approaches to thalamic JPAs.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Diffusion Tensor Imaging / standards. Microsurgery. Thalamus / pathology. Thalamus / surgery


12. Mitchell AE, Elder JE, Mackey DA, Waters KD, Ashley DM: Visual improvement despite radiologically stable disease after treatment with carboplatin in children with progressive low-grade optic/thalamic gliomas. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2001 Dec;23(9):572-7
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  • [Title] Visual improvement despite radiologically stable disease after treatment with carboplatin in children with progressive low-grade optic/thalamic gliomas.
  • BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the clinical and radiologic response to carboplatin by children with progressive optic/thalamic gliomas.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between July 1997 and July 1999, 12 consecutive children were treated with monthly carboplatin for progressive optic/thalamic gliomas.
  • RESULTS: Five children have completed 12 cycles of carboplatin and five children are currently receiving treatment.
  • Nine children have stable radiologic disease and one child has had a partial radiologic response to chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the clinical response of optic/thalamic gliomas to carboplatin, as measured by visual acuity and visual fields, may be better than predicted by radiologic assessment.
  • These data suggest that a prospective clinical study is warranted of the role of carboplatin in children with progressive optic/thalamic gliomas and visual impairment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carboplatin / therapeutic use. Glioma / drug therapy. Optic Chiasm. Optic Nerve Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thalamus. Vision Disorders / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Anemia / chemically induced. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Male. Neurofibromatosis 1 / complications. Neutropenia / chemically induced. Remission Induction. Retrospective Studies. Thrombocytopenia / chemically induced. Treatment Outcome. Visual Acuity. Visual Fields

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  • (PMID = 11902299.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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13. Walter AW, Gajjar A, Reardon DA, Thompson SJ, Langston JW, Jones-Wallace D, Kun LE, Heideman RL: Tamoxifen and carboplatin for children with low-grade gliomas: a pilot study at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2000 May-Jun;22(3):247-51
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  • PURPOSE: The authors conducted a single-arm, prospective study using tamoxifen and carboplatin for the treatment of children with progressive or symptomatic low-grade gliomas.
  • One patient was excluded after induction chemotherapy because of the diagnosis of a nonmalignant condition.
  • RESULTS: The median age at diagnosis was 5.3 years, the median age at initiation of chemotherapy was 8.3 years.
  • Eight patients had tumors of the hypothalamus/optic pathway, two patients had thalamic tumors, and one patient each had tumors in the temporal lobe, tectum, and brain stem.
  • Tumor histologic findings included fibrillary astrocytoma (n = 2), juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma (n = 6), and oligodendroglioma (n = 1).
  • The best response to therapy was a partial response in two patients, stable disease in nine patients, and progressive disease in two patients.
  • Tamoxifen and carboplatin chemotherapy did not result in a significant number of objective responses in children with low-grade gliomas.
  • Nonmyelosuppressive agents such as tamoxifen deserve additional evaluation in the treatment of children with low-grade gliomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Oligodendroglioma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Enzyme Inhibitors / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Life Tables. Male. Prospective Studies. Protein Kinase C / antagonists & inhibitors. Survival Analysis. Survival Rate. Tamoxifen / administration & dosage. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 10864056.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-4114
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA-20180; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA-23099; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA-21765
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; EC 2.7.11.13 / Protein Kinase C
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14. Wagner S, Csatary CM, Gosztonyi G, Koch HC, Hartmann C, Peters O, Hernáiz-Driever P, Théallier-Janko A, Zintl F, Längler A, Wolff JE, Csatary LK: Combined treatment of pediatric high-grade glioma with the oncolytic viral strain MTH-68/H and oral valproic acid. APMIS; 2006 Oct;114(10):731-43
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  • [Title] Combined treatment of pediatric high-grade glioma with the oncolytic viral strain MTH-68/H and oral valproic acid.
  • The case of a 12-year-old boy with anaplastic astrocytoma of the left thalamus is reported.
  • Postoperative irradiation and chemotherapy could not repress tumor progression; therefore, treatment was undertaken with an oncolytic virus, MTH-68/H, an attenuated strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), and valproic acid (VPA), an antiepileptic drug, which also has antineoplastic properties.
  • This treatment resulted in a far-reaching regression of the thalamic glioma, but 4 months later a new tumor manifestation, an extension of the thalamic tumor, appeared in the wall of the IVth ventricle, which required a second neurosurgical intervention.
  • Under continuous MTH-68/H - VPA administration the thalamic tumor remained under control, but the rhombencephalic one progressed relentlessly and led to the fatal outcome.
  • In the final stage, a third tumor manifestation appeared in the left temporal lobe.
  • The possible reasons for the antagonistic behavior of the three manifestations of the same type of glioma to the initially most successful therapy are discussed.
  • The comparative histological study of the thalamic and rhombencephalic tumor manifestations revealed that MTH-68/H treatment induces, similar to in vitro observations, a massive apoptotic tumor cell decline.
  • In the rhombencephalic tumor, in and around the declining tumor cells, NDV antigen could be demonstrated immunohistochemically, and virus particles have been found in the cytoplasm of tumor cells at electron microscopic investigation.
  • These findings document that the oncolytic effect of MTH-68/H treatment is the direct consequence of virus presence and replication in the neoplastic cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Anticonvulsants / therapeutic use. Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Astrocytoma / therapy. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Valproic Acid / therapeutic use. Viral Vaccines / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Antigens, Viral / analysis. Antigens, Viral / metabolism. Brain / virology. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Cytoplasm / virology. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male. Newcastle disease virus / immunology. Recurrence. Thalamus / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17004977.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticonvulsants; 0 / Antigens, Viral; 0 / Newcastle disease virus vaccine MTH-68-H; 0 / Viral Vaccines; 614OI1Z5WI / Valproic Acid
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15. Lustig RH, Post SR, Srivannaboon K, Rose SR, Danish RK, Burghen GA, Xiong X, Wu S, Merchant TE: Risk factors for the development of obesity in children surviving brain tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2003 Feb;88(2):611-6
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  • [Title] Risk factors for the development of obesity in children surviving brain tumors.
  • Hypothalamic obesity, a syndrome of intractable weight gain due to hypothalamic damage, is an uncommon but devastating complication for children surviving brain tumors.
  • We undertook a retrospective evaluation of the body mass index (BMI) curves for the St. Jude Children's Research Hospital brain tumor population diagnosed between 1965 and 1995 after completion of therapy to determine risk factors for the development of obesity.
  • Inclusion criteria were: diagnosis less than 14 yr of age, no spinal cord involvement, ambulatory, no supraphysiologic hydrocortisone therapy (>12 mg/m(2) x d), treatment and follow-up at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, and disease-free survival greater than 5 yr (n = 148).
  • Risk factors examined were age at diagnosis, tumor location, histology, extent of surgery, hydrocephalus requiring ventriculoperitoneal shunting, initial high-dose glucocorticoids, cranial radiation therapy, radiation dosimetry to the hypothalamus, intrathecal chemotherapy, and presence of endocrinopathy.
  • Risk factors were: age at diagnosis (P = 0.04), radiation dosimetry to the hypothalamus (51-72 Gy, P = 0.002 even after hypothalamic and thalamic tumor exclusion), and presence of any endocrinopathy (P = 0.03).
  • In addition, risk factors when compared with BMI slope for the general American pediatric population included: tumor location (hypothalamic, P = 0.001), tumor histology (craniopharyngioma, P = 0.009; pilocytic astrocytoma, P = 0.043; medulloblastoma, P = 0.039); and extent of surgery (biopsy, P = 0.03; subtotal resection, P = 0.018).
  • These results verify hypothalamic damage, either due to tumor, surgery, or radiation, as the primary cause of obesity in survivors of childhood brain tumors.
  • In particular, hypothalamic radiation doses of more than 51 Gy are permissive.
  • These results reiterate the importance of the hypothalamus in energy balance, provide risk assessment criteria for preventative measures before the development of obesity in at-risk patients, and suggest therapeutic strategies to reduce the future development of obesity.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / epidemiology. Craniopharyngioma / epidemiology. Obesity / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Astrocytoma / drug therapy. Astrocytoma / epidemiology. Astrocytoma / radiotherapy. Cerebellar Neoplasms / drug therapy. Cerebellar Neoplasms / epidemiology. Cerebellar Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Hypothalamus / physiology. Medulloblastoma / drug therapy. Medulloblastoma / epidemiology. Medulloblastoma / radiotherapy. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 12574189.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R25 CA023944; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30CA12765
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Buhl R, Stark AM, Hugo HH, Rohr A, Mehdorn HM: Gliosarcoma: clinical experiences and additional information with MR spectroscopy. Neurol Res; 2009 Oct;31(8):873-7
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  • Six tumors were in the frontal lobe, four in the temporal lobe, three parietal, two in the thalamic area and one in the occipital lobe.
  • Median survival time in our patient group was 7 months (2-11 months).
  • On histological examination, we found glial fibrillary acid protein positive cells surrounded by sarcomatous tissue and reticular fibers.
  • MR spectroscopy and location of the tumor adjacent to the dura with inhomogeneous contrast enhancement might give hints pre-operatively for the differential diagnosis of gliosarcoma.
  • Further works with adjuvant chemotherapy are necessary.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Gliosarcoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cell Proliferation. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / metabolism. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Male. Middle Aged. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19215667.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-6412
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurological research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein
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17. Hill MD, Mackenzie I, Mason WP: Radiation-induced glioma presenting as diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis: a case report. J Neurooncol; 2001 Nov;55(2):113-6
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  • He later developed an enhancing thalamic tumor arising within the treatment field of a remotely irradiated pituitary adenoma.
  • Subsequent management included chemotherapy and further radiotherapy with transient response, before death from leptomeningeal and parenchymal tumor progression 16 months after diagnosis.
  • Our patient's course is novel in that symptomatic relief was achieved with CSF diversion and a combination of chemotherapy and focal radiation allowed prolonged survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radiotherapy. Glioma / diagnosis. Meningeal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunts. Combined Modality Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male

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  • (PMID = 11817701.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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18. Tang J, Ma Z, Luo S, Zhang Y, Jia G, Zhang J: The germinomas arising from the basal ganglia and thalamus. Childs Nerv Syst; 2008 Mar;24(3):303-6
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  • [Title] The germinomas arising from the basal ganglia and thalamus.
  • OBJECTIVE: To introduce the features of germinomas arising from the basal ganglia (BG) and thalamus.
  • METHOD: Retrospective analysis was done with the clinical cases of germinomas in BG and thalamus from 1996 to 2000.
  • The data included the symptoms, signs, neuroimaging findings, treatment, and outcomes.
  • Eight cases underwent only postoperative radiotherapy, one underwent only chemotherapy, and two underwent both.
  • One case died of complication 6 months after chemotherapy, the rest lived good life.
  • CONCLUSION: Germinoma in BG and thalamus predominate in a boy.
  • The neuroimaging features are very informative for diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Basal Ganglia / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / epidemiology. Germinoma / epidemiology. Thalamus / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Basal Ganglia Diseases / epidemiology. Basal Ganglia Diseases / pathology. Child. China / epidemiology. Female. Humans. Male. Retrospective Studies. Sex Distribution. Thalamic Diseases / epidemiology. Thalamic Diseases / pathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17882439.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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19. Klein O, Grignon Y, Civit T, Pinelli C, Auque J, Marchal JC: [Childhood diencephalic pilocytic astrocytoma. A review of seven observations]. Neurochirurgie; 2006 Feb;52(1):3-14
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  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is a WHO grade I tumor of the central nervous system mostly arising in children and young adults.
  • Surgical treatment has to cope with both the difficulties of deep location and eloquent area tumors.
  • Opto-chiasmatic tumors were excluded from the series.
  • Mean age at diagnosis was 108 months (9 years) (range: 4 month-18 years), median age was 111 months.
  • Tumor locations were as followed: right thalamus: 2, both thalami: 1, hypothalamus: 3, and right basal ganglia: 1.
  • The delay in diagnosis ranged from 48 hours up to 6 years.
  • TREATMENT: a shunting procedure was performed in 3 patients, a direct surgical approach in 5 patients (gross total removal: 2; partial removal: 3) and one patient had only a biopsy.
  • Chemotherapy was delivered for 4 children.
  • Three children died, two by tumor progression and one death related to late side-effects of RT.
  • We observed tumor regression in two patients at 1 and 17 years after the beginning of treatment.
  • Correct diagnosis was only made for two cases at the initial pathological examination.
  • The tumor can be controlled by a partial surgical removal, and a residual tumor can sometimes decrease in size after surgery.
  • Gross total removal of these tumors, although difficult, may be performed.
  • Pathological diagnosis is sometimes difficult to assess.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / surgery. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Hypothalamic Neoplasms / surgery. Thalamic Diseases / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Dominance, Cerebral / physiology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hypothalamus / pathology. Hypothalamus / surgery. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Quality of Life. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Reoperation. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Thalamus / pathology. Thalamus / surgery. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16609655.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3770
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-Chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurochirurgie
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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20. Rushing EJ, Sandberg GD, Judkins AR, Vezina G, Kadom N, Myseros JS, Packer RJ, Santi M: Germinoma: unusual imaging and pathological characteristics. Report of two cases. J Neurosurg; 2006 Feb;104(2 Suppl):143-8
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  • Primary germ cell neoplasms of the central nervous system typically develop as midline mass lesions during the first three decades of life.
  • The authors present two cases with atypical clinicopathological features that stimulate discussion on the diagnosis and management of these tumors.
  • A biopsy performed on the left thalamic lesion in the first patient revealed a germinoma.
  • The patient was treated with chemotherapy and died 2 years later.
  • Despite the lack of a mass on MR images in this child, the need for a tissue diagnosis prompted the authors to perform an anterior temporal lobectomy.
  • The diagnosis of diffuse germinoma was confirmed, and the patient was treated with adjunctive chemotherapy.
  • Although uncommon, germ cell tumors can present outside the midline and exhibit a multifocal growth pattern.
  • [MeSH-major] Basal Ganglia / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Germinoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male

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  • (PMID = 16506503.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Scrigni A, Nastri M, Rodríguez de Schiavi S, Czornyj L, Felice M, Mantese B: Leptomeningeal lymphoma in a child with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Neuropediatrics; 2006 Jun;37(3):121-5
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  • We report a seven-year-old HIV-infected boy, in stage C3 of the disease, who developed non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the central nervous system with a leptomeningeal location.
  • The diagnosis was based on brain biopsy, immunophenotypic studies of B cells, and Epstein-Barr virus serology of the cerebrospinal fluid.
  • The boy was treated with intrathecal and systemic chemotherapy.
  • Fifteen months after diagnosis he had clinically improved, but he then relapsed with a thalamic tumor.
  • In the present article, we discuss diagnostic difficulties, evolution, treatment, and the association of this neoplasm with the Epstein-Barr virus.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / etiology. Meningeal Neoplasms / etiology


22. Arai M, Kashihara K, Kaizaki Y, Taguchi M, Kitamura Y: [Gliomatosis cerebri: report of 3 cases and review of recent literatures]. No To Shinkei; 2003 Oct;55(10):890-7
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  • Gliomatosis cerebri is a rare tumor of the central nervous system characterized by widespread diffuse infiltration of the brain and spinal cord by neoplastic glial cells.
  • The diagnosis of gliomatosis cerebri with MR imaging remains difficult.
  • Case 1 showed transformation from type 1 gliomatosis cerebri to type 2.
  • Case 2 showed that the initial thalamic lesion extended into brain stem, cerebellar hemisphere and right cerebral hemisphere.
  • After radiation therapy, the right cerebral cortex demonstrated hyperintensity on T1- and hypointensity on T2-weighted image.
  • Case 3 improved in response to radiotherapy and chemotherapy using procarbazine/MCNU/vincristine (MVP).
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Neuroepithelial / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Procarbazine / administration & dosage. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 14635518.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-8969
  • [Journal-full-title] Nō to shinkei = Brain and nerve
  • [ISO-abbreviation] No To Shinkei
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 35S93Y190K / Procarbazine; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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23. Sterzing F, Grehn C, Dinkel J, Krempien R, Hartung G, Debus J, Harms W: Severe reversible toxic encephalopathy induced by cisplatin in a patient with cervical carcinoma receiving combined radiochemotherapy. Strahlenther Onkol; 2007 Sep;183(9):487-9
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  • After a cumulative dose of 240 mg/m(2) the patient suddenly became somnolent and developed a severe tetraparesis and generalized seizures.
  • After symptomatic treatment on the intensive care unit all symptoms were completely reversible.
  • CONCLUSION: Toxic encephalopathy is a rare but dramatic complication of various cytostatic drugs.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Neurotoxicity Syndromes / etiology. Radiation-Sensitizing Agents / adverse effects. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / drug therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Brachytherapy / adverse effects. Caudate Nucleus / drug effects. Caudate Nucleus / pathology. Combined Modality Therapy. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Epilepsy, Generalized / chemically induced. Epilepsy, Generalized / diagnosis. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Midline Thalamic Nuclei / drug effects. Midline Thalamic Nuclei / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Neurologic Examination / drug effects. Occipital Lobe / drug effects. Occipital Lobe / pathology. Radioisotope Teletherapy / adverse effects. Remission, Spontaneous. Thalamus / drug effects. Thalamus / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


24. Darmoul M, Habib Bouhaouala M, Smida H, Hedi Dougui M: [Pseudo-tumoral neuro-Behçet's disease]. Rev Neurol (Paris); 2006 May;162(5):643-7
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  • Neuroradiological investigations showed a pseudo tumoral lesion in the left capsulo-thalamic region extending to the homolateral peduncle.
  • The patient improved with steroid and immunosuppresseur therapy.
  • CONCLUSION: The clinical and radiological presentation of neuro-Behçet's disease can mimic a brain tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Behcet Syndrome / diagnosis. Brain Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adult. Anti-Inflammatory Agents / administration & dosage. Aphasia / etiology. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Consciousness Disorders / diagnosis. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Dominance, Cerebral / physiology. Drug Therapy, Combination. Headache / etiology. Hemiplegia / etiology. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / administration & dosage. Internal Capsule / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Mesencephalon / pathology. Methylprednisolone / administration & dosage. Thalamus / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16710132.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-3787
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue neurologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev. Neurol. (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; X4W7ZR7023 / Methylprednisolone
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25. Sartori S, Laverda AM, Calderone M, Carollo C, Viscardi E, Faggin R, Perilongo G: Germinoma with synchronous involvement of midline and off-midline structures associated with progressive hemiparesis and hemiatrophy in a young adult. Childs Nerv Syst; 2007 Nov;23(11):1341-5
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  • INTRODUCTION: Cerebral germinomas, the most common and least malignant intracranial germ cell tumors, usually arise in the pineal or suprasellar region and have characteristic clinical and radiological features.
  • Germinomas more rarely occur in the thalamus, basal ganglia, and internal capsule, causing sometimes cerebral hemiatrophy and hemiparesis.
  • DISCUSSION: The literature is reviewed, and the pathogenesis, the clinical findings, the imaging, and the therapy are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Cerebrum / pathology. Germinoma / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Atrophy. Child. Functional Laterality. Humans. Male. Paresis / etiology. Thalamic Diseases / drug therapy. Thalamic Diseases / pathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17609967.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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26. Roux FX, Nataf F: Cerebral oligodendrogliomas in adults and children. Current data and perspectives. Neurochirurgie; 2005 Sep;51(3-4 Pt 2):410-4
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Childhood Brain Tumors.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Cerebral oligodendrogliomas represent more than 30% of glial tumors in adults.
  • Mean age at diagnosis is 41 for grade A and 45(1/2) for grade B, epilepsy being the main revealing symptom (91.5% of A, 76% of B).
  • It is influenced by age at diagnosis: median, before 40 years of age, is 12 years for A and 8(1/2) for B; between 40 and 60, is 12 years for A and 4(1/2) for B; over 60, is 4 years for A and 1(1/2) for B.
  • In children, they represent less than 2.5% of cerebral tumors and include 23% grade A and 77% grade B (48.5% WHO grade II and 51.5% WHO grade III).
  • The main differential diagnosis of grade A oligo is dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNT).
  • Inversely, thalamic locations, most often grade B, generally present with a motor deficit; complete removal can be achieved in only 15%.
  • The only efficient treatment is chemotherapy, requiring search for chemosensitivity (1p19q deletion, expression of MGMT gene, analysis by MR-spectroscopy and TEP).
  • Tumors presenting clinical and radiological progression should be removed.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Oligodendroglioma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Child. Chromosome Deletion. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1 / genetics. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 16292183.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3770
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-Chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurochirurgie
  • [Language] eng; fre
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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27. Kumar V, Chakrabarti S, Modi M, Sahoo M: Late-onset obsessive compulsive disorder associated with possible gliomatosis cerebri. World J Biol Psychiatry; 2009;10(4 Pt 2):636-9
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. CHOLINE CHLORIDE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The atypical presentation, lesions involving the cortical-basal ganglia-thalamic-cortical circuit and the association with neurological signs/symptoms, was characteristic.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Neuroepithelial / diagnosis. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Anticonvulsants / therapeutic use. Aspartic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Aspartic Acid / metabolism. Choline / metabolism. Corpus Callosum / pathology. Dominance, Cerebral / physiology. Drug Therapy, Combination. Epilepsy, Tonic-Clonic / diagnosis. Epilepsy, Tonic-Clonic / drug therapy. Epilepsy, Tonic-Clonic / psychology. Hippocampus / pathology. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Male. Parietal Lobe / pathology. Temporal Lobe / pathology


28. Fewel ME, Thompson BG Jr, Hoff JT: Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage: a review. Neurosurg Focus; 2003 Oct 15;15(4):E1
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Common causes include hypertension, amyloid angiopathy, coagulopathy, vascular anomalies, tumors, and various drugs.
  • Computerized tomography scanning is the initial diagnostic modality of choice in SICH, and angiography should be considered in all cases except those involving older patients with preexisting hypertension in thalamic, putaminal, or cerebellar hemorrhage.
  • Although definitive evidence favoring surgical intervention is lacking, there is good theoretical rationale for early surgical intervention.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Blood Coagulation Disorders / complications. Brain Neoplasms / complications. Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy / complications. Cerebrovascular Disorders / complications. Clinical Trials as Topic. Combined Modality Therapy. Craniotomy. Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Female. Humans. Hypertension / complications. Hypertension / drug therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Complications, Hematologic. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Risk Factors. Rupture, Spontaneous. Seizures / etiology. Seizures / prevention & control. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15344894.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgical focus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg Focus
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 138
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29. Kutluhan S, Kilbas S, Demirci S, Cekiç O, Bardak Y, Akhan G: Pheochromocytoma presenting with bithalamic infarction, dementia, and increased intraocular pressure. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging; 2007 May-Jun;38(3):245-7
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. TIMOLOL .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The patient received glaucoma treatment to suppress high intraocular pressure in addition to antihypertensive and antidiabetic medication for his complaints.
  • Adrenelectomy improved all complaints and all medications were stopped.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Infarction / diagnosis. Dementia / diagnosis. Intraocular Pressure. Ocular Hypertension / diagnosis. Pheochromocytoma / diagnosis. Thalamic Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antihypertensive Agents / therapeutic use. Drug Therapy, Combination. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Sulfonamides / therapeutic use. Thiophenes / therapeutic use. Timolol / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17552394.001).
  • [ISSN] 1542-8877
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic surgery, lasers & imaging : the official journal of the International Society for Imaging in the Eye
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antihypertensive Agents; 0 / Sulfonamides; 0 / Thiophenes; 817W3C6175 / Timolol; 9JDX055TW1 / dorzolamide
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