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3. Lajer H, Daugaard G, Andersson AM, Skakkebaek NE: Clinical use of serum TRA-1-60 as tumor marker in patients with germ cell cancer. Int J Cancer; 2002 Jul 10;100(2):244-6
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  • [Title] Clinical use of serum TRA-1-60 as tumor marker in patients with germ cell cancer.
  • TRA-1-60 antigen has been related to the presence of embryonal germ cell carcinoma (EC) and carcinoma in situ.
  • Our study further investigated the clinical efficacy of TRA-1-60 as a serum tumor marker for germ cell cancer in the testis.
  • Three groups of patients with germ cell tumors were included: Group 1, 34 patients with disseminated disease (24 nonseminomatous germ cell tumors [NSGCT] and 10 seminomatous germ cell tumors [SGCT]); this group of patients were followed during the course of chemotherapy with measurements of TRA-1-60, HCG and AFP; Group 2, 28 patients with Stage I NSGCT (22 with embryonal carcinoma [EC]-component and 6 without EC-component, median follow-up 15 months); and Group 3, 40 patients with Stage I pure SGCT (median follow-up 15 months).
  • Seventy-eight percent of patients with disseminated EC-positive NSGCT had increased levels of TRA-1-60 before chemotherapy.
  • After chemotherapy, levels of TRA-1-60 had dropped significantly (p < 0.01).
  • Levels of TRA-1-60 did not normalize in 15% of NSGCT and 30% of SGCT patients after chemotherapy.
  • This was not associated with recurrent disease.
  • Contrary to earlier reports TRA-1-60 is not at present useful as a tumor marker in patients with germ cell tumors.
  • Although detecting a few early relapses the rate of false positive elevations in the tumor marker makes it unreliable in the clinical setting.
  • Our study did confirm that elevated levels of TRA-1-60 were present in approximately 80% of patients with disseminated EC-positive NSGCT before start of chemotherapy and chemotherapy induced a significant decrease in levels of TRA-1-60.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / blood. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Carcinoma, Embryonal / blood. Germinoma / blood. Glycoproteins / blood. Testicular Neoplasms / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, Surface. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Chorionic Gonadotropin / analysis. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Proteoglycans. alpha-Fetoproteins / analysis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 12115576.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Antigens, Surface; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Proteoglycans; 0 / TRA-1-60 antigen, human; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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4. Kollmannsberger C, Honecker F, Bokemeyer C: Pharmacotherapy of relapsed metastatic testicular cancer. Expert Opin Pharmacother; 2008 Sep;9(13):2259-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pharmacotherapy of relapsed metastatic testicular cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Patients with metastatic testicular cancer exhibit an excellent prognosis.
  • However, the outcome for patients with relapse after cisplatin-based chemotherapy remains unsatisfactory.
  • OBJECTIVE: To review the treatment of patients with testicular cancer after failure of first-line chemotherapy.
  • METHODS: A literature search was performed for studies investigating therapies for relapsed testicular cancer.
  • RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: The prognosis of patients relapsing after first-line cisplatin-based chemotherapy has improved with multimodality therapy, including conventional and high-dose chemotherapy, surgery and radiation.
  • Prognostic factors are increasingly used to guide treatment intensity.
  • High-dose chemotherapy has become an accepted treatment option, in particular in patients with poor risk factors at relapse.
  • The outcome of patients with multiply relapsed or cisplatin-refractory disease remains particularly poor.
  • Treatment of relapsed patients requires a close cooperation of medical oncologists, urologists, surgeons and radiation oncologists with extensive experience in this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Clinical Trials as Topic. Combined Modality Therapy. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis. Recurrence. Treatment Failure


5. Atanackovic D, Arfsten J, Cao Y, Gnjatic S, Schnieders F, Bartels K, Schilling G, Faltz C, Wolschke C, Dierlamm J, Ritter G, Eiermann T, Hossfeld DK, Zander AR, Jungbluth AA, Old LJ, Bokemeyer C, Kröger N: Cancer-testis antigens are commonly expressed in multiple myeloma and induce systemic immunity following allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Blood; 2007 Feb 1;109(3):1103-12
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  • [Title] Cancer-testis antigens are commonly expressed in multiple myeloma and induce systemic immunity following allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
  • Immunotherapies using cancer-testis (CT) antigens as targets represent a potentially useful treatment in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) who commonly show recurrent disease following chemotherapy.
  • Analyzing patients with MM (n=66) for antibody responses against MAGEA3, SSX2, and NY-ESO-1, we found strong antibody responses against CT antigens preferentially in patients who had received allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT).
  • Antibody responses against NY-ESO-1 correlated with NY-ESO-1-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses against peptide NY-ESO-1(51-62) and CD4+ responses against NY-ESO-1(121-140) in 1 of these patients.
  • These allogeneic immune responses were not detectable in pretransplantation samples and in the patients' stem cell donors, indicating that CT antigens might indeed represent natural targets for graft-versus-myeloma effects.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. Antigens, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. Graft vs Tumor Effect. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Membrane Proteins / biosynthesis. Multiple Myeloma / therapy. Transplantation, Homologous / immunology

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  • (PMID = 17023585.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Neoplasm; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / CTAG1B protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins
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6. Bhatia S, Abonour R, Porcu P, Seshadri R, Nichols CR, Cornetta K, Einhorn LH: High-dose chemotherapy as initial salvage chemotherapy in patients with relapsed testicular cancer. J Clin Oncol; 2000 Oct 01;18(19):3346-51
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  • [Title] High-dose chemotherapy as initial salvage chemotherapy in patients with relapsed testicular cancer.
  • PURPOSE: To assess the role of high-dose chemotherapy as initial salvage chemotherapy in patients with relapsed testicular cancer.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: From August 1992 to April 1998, 65 patients with testicular cancer were treated with high-dose carboplatin and etoposide followed by peripheral-blood stem-cell transplantation or autologous bone marrow transplantation rescue as initial salvage chemotherapy at Indiana University.
  • High-dose chemotherapy was associated with significant morbidity but no treatment-related mortality.
  • CONCLUSION: High-dose chemotherapy as initial salvage chemotherapy achieved impressive long-term survival with acceptable toxicity in patients with relapsed testicular cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Germinoma / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Bone Marrow Transplantation. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Carboplatin / adverse effects. Choriocarcinoma / drug therapy. Choriocarcinoma / pathology. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Etoposide / adverse effects. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Salvage Therapy. Seminoma / drug therapy. Seminoma / pathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11013274.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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7. Bilici A, Ustaalioglu BB, Seker M, Kayahan S: Case report: soft tissue metastasis from immature teratoma of the testis: second case report and review of the literature. Clin Orthop Relat Res; 2010 Sep;468(9):2541-4
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  • [Title] Case report: soft tissue metastasis from immature teratoma of the testis: second case report and review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Testicular cancer, like other histopathologic types, commonly metastasizes to the lungs, liver, and brain.
  • Spread to soft tissue, however, is rare with only four cases with seminoma reported.
  • However, one case with metastasis of testicular immature teratoma to soft tissue was documented previously.
  • CASE DESCRIPTION: We report the case of a 38-year-old man with recurrent immature teratoma of the testis who presented with a painless soft tissue mass in the left thigh previously treated with standard chemotherapy.
  • After removal of the soft tissue mass, his serum alpha-fetoprotein level had returned to the normal range.
  • LITERATURE REVIEW: To our knowledge, this is the second case of immature teratoma of the testis metastasized to soft tissue.
  • PURPOSES AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: We suggest that for a man with testicular cancer who has a soft tissue mass, metastasis of soft tissue from testicular cancer and other solid malignancies should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a soft tissue mass together with primary soft tissue sarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Soft Tissue Neoplasms / secondary. Teratoma / secondary. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biopsy. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / blood. Cranial Irradiation. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / therapy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Orchiectomy. Thigh. Treatment Outcome. alpha-Fetoproteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19937408.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1132
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical orthopaedics and related research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AFP protein, human; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
  • [Number-of-references] 17
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2919860
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8. Mezvrishvili Z, Managadze L: Three cycles of etoposide and cisplatin chemotherapy in clinical stage IS nonseminomatous testicular cancer. Int Urol Nephrol; 2006;38(3-4):621-4
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  • [Title] Three cycles of etoposide and cisplatin chemotherapy in clinical stage IS nonseminomatous testicular cancer.
  • PURPOSE: To assess the efficacy of three cycles of etoposide and cisplatin (EP) chemotherapy in the patients with serological disease only after orchiectomy.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen patients with nonseminomatous germ cell tumors of the testis and elevated serum tumor markers as the only evidence of persistent disease following radical orchiectomy (clinical stage IS cancer), were treated at our institution from March 1995 to February 2003.
  • All patients received three cycles of EP chemotherapy.
  • One patient required subsequent surgery for recurrent retroperitoneal mature teratoma.
  • In patients receiving EP chemotherapy less number of treatment cycles was associated with grade IV leukopenia compared to control group (p=0.04).
  • CONCLUSIONS: A treatment program that consists of three cycles of EP caused complete disease control in all patients.
  • The applied regimen may be considered as a therapeutic option with reduced toxicity in clinical stage IS nonseminomatous testicular cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Drug Administration Schedule. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 17111082.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-1623
  • [Journal-full-title] International urology and nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Urol Nephrol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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9. Hartmann JT, Einhorn L, Nichols CR, Droz JP, Horwich A, Gerl A, Fossa SD, Beyer J, Pont J, Schmoll HJ, Kanz L, Bokemeyer C: Second-line chemotherapy in patients with relapsed extragonadal nonseminomatous germ cell tumors: results of an international multicenter analysis. J Clin Oncol; 2001 Mar 15;19(6):1641-8
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  • [Title] Second-line chemotherapy in patients with relapsed extragonadal nonseminomatous germ cell tumors: results of an international multicenter analysis.
  • PURPOSE: Relapsed extragonadal germ cell tumors patients (EGGCT) are treated with identical salvage chemotherapy regimens, as are patients with metastatic testicular cancer.
  • This investigation evaluates the results of second-line chemotherapy in nonseminomatous EGGCT and tries to identify prognostic factors for survival.
  • All had received cisplatin-containing regimens as induction treatment.
  • Median follow-up since start of salvage treatment was 11 months (range, 1 to 157) for all patients and 45 months (range, 6 to 157) for surviving patients.
  • Forty-eight patients (34%) received high dose chemotherapy with autologous bone marrow transplant at relapse, and 10 of these patients (21%) are continuously disease-free.
  • CONCLUSION: Although current salvage strategies will cure between 20% and 50% of recurrent metastatic testicular cancer, relapsed nonseminomatous EGGCT patients appear to have an inferior survival rate, in particular in case of primary mediastinal location.
  • Mediastinal primary tumor and inadequate response to cisplatin-based induction chemotherapy have been identified as independent negative prognostic factors, both associated with an approximately two-fold higher risk for failure of salvage treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Mediastinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Salvage Therapy. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11250992.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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10. Mezvrishvili Z, Managadze L: Is bleomycin necessary in adjuvant chemotherapy of clinical stage I non-seminomatous testicular cancer? Georgian Med News; 2006 May;(134):25-8
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  • [Title] Is bleomycin necessary in adjuvant chemotherapy of clinical stage I non-seminomatous testicular cancer?
  • The aim of our study was to assess the feasibility of bleomycin omission from two cycles of adjuvant bleomycin, etoposide and cysplatin (BEP) chemotherapy in patients with clinical stage I non-seminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCT).
  • A total of 41 patients with high risk clinical stage I NSGCT of the testis were treated with adjuvant chemotherapy at our center from October 1994 to June 2005.
  • The criteria for high risk were lymphatic and/or vascular tumor invasion in the primary tumor.
  • 24 patients underwent adjuvant chemotherapy with two standard cycles of BEP (I group) and 17 patients received two alternative cycles of EP (II group).
  • Toxicity was analyzed on a per treatment cycle basis.
  • One patient from group 1 required subsequent retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for recurrent mature teratoma.
  • All the patients were alive and relapse-free at a median follow-up time of 75 and 49 months for groups 1 and 2 respectively.
  • In patients from group 1 more number of treatment cycles was associated with grade 2-3 leukopenia compared to group 2 (p=0,043).
  • The results of this study show that two cycles of EP regimen is as effective as two cycles of BEP chemotherapy in patients with clinical stage I NSGCT and may be suggested as a less toxic alternative approach to standard adjuvant treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / adverse effects. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Etoposide / therapeutic use. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16783058.001).
  • [ISSN] 1512-0112
  • [Journal-full-title] Georgian medical news
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Georgian Med News
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Georgia (Republic)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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11. Napoletano C, Bellati F, Tarquini E, Tomao F, Taurino F, Spagnoli G, Rughetti A, Muzii L, Nuti M, Benedetti Panici P: MAGE-A and NY-ESO-1 expression in cervical cancer: prognostic factors and effects of chemotherapy. Am J Obstet Gynecol; 2008 Jan;198(1):99.e1-7
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  • [Title] MAGE-A and NY-ESO-1 expression in cervical cancer: prognostic factors and effects of chemotherapy.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of cancer testis tumor-associated antigens MAGE-A and NY-ESO-1 in cervical cancer and correlate expression patterns with clinicopathologic parameters and prognosis.
  • STUDY DESIGN: One hundred sixty-two cervical cancer samples from 109 patients who were treated with radical hysterectomy, neoadjuvant chemotherapy, or pelvic disease recurrence were analyzed by immunohistochemistry.
  • RESULTS: MAGE-A was expressed by 32/94 (34%) and 7/15 (47%) previously untreated and recurrent tumors, respectively.
  • NY-ESO-1 was expressed by 46/94 (49%) and 6/15 (40%) previously untreated and recurrent tumors, respectively.
  • MAGE-A in early stage tumors was correlated to tumor size and lymph node metastases (P = .024 and P = .046, respectively) whereas NY-ESO-1 to tumor grading (P = .039).
  • CONCLUSION: Cervical cancer frequently expresses cancer testis tumor-associated antigens.
  • MAGE-A and NY-ESO-1 expression rates are not influenced by systemic therapies.
  • Cancer testis tumor-associated antigens are correlated to common prognostic factors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Membrane Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / drug therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Needle. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy / methods. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Probability. Prognosis. Sensitivity and Specificity. Survival Analysis. Tissue Culture Techniques. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18166319.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6868
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of obstetrics and gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CTAG1B protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins
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12. Kuczyk M, Horstmann M, Merseburger A, Beyer J: [Therapy for recurrent testicular cancer]. Urologe A; 2005 Apr;44(4):352-7
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  • [Title] [Therapy for recurrent testicular cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Therapie des Rezidivs beim Hodentumor.
  • In the case of an insufficient response to primary treatment or a tumor relapse, regardless of an initially complete remission, conventional as well as high dose chemotherapy regimens are available as salvage therapy for metastatic germ cell tumors.
  • A multimodal approach should include the radiation of simultaneously occurring brain metastases as well as the surgical resection of residual tumour masses still detectable after completion of chemotherapy.
  • However, a recurrence-free survival of 50% is worse when compared with that observed after primary chemotherapy.
  • Salvage therapy should be reserved for specialized centres due to the increased complexity of a salvage approach and a significantly increased therapy-induced morbidity.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Germinoma / secondary. Germinoma / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Salvage Therapy / methods. Terminal Care / methods. Testicular Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Male. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Practice Patterns, Physicians'. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15756533.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-2592
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Urologe. Ausg. A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologe A
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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13. Ehrlich Y, Baniel J: Late relapse of testis cancer. Urol Clin North Am; 2007 May;34(2):253-8; abstract x-xi
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  • [Title] Late relapse of testis cancer.
  • Most relapses of germ-cell tumors occur within 2 years of initial treatment.
  • These tumors are highly resistant to chemotherapy.
  • Surgical resection is the preferred treatment.
  • If the recurrent disease is inoperable, chemotherapy may be instituted, followed by resection of residual masses.
  • Patients successfully managed for testis cancer need lifelong surveillance.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / prevention & control. Testicular Neoplasms / prevention & control
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Clinical Trials as Topic. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Male. Recurrence. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17484930.001).
  • [ISSN] 0094-0143
  • [Journal-full-title] The Urologic clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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14. Suzuki T, Yoshida K, Wada Y, Hamai Y, Sentani K, Oue N, Yasui W: Melanoma-associated antigen-A1 expression predicts resistance to docetaxel and paclitaxel in advanced and recurrent gastric cancer. Oncol Rep; 2007 Aug;18(2):329-36
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  • [Title] Melanoma-associated antigen-A1 expression predicts resistance to docetaxel and paclitaxel in advanced and recurrent gastric cancer.
  • Melanoma-associated antigen (MAGE) genes are cancer-testis antigen genes that serve as immunotherapy targets in several human cancers.
  • In the present study, we examined whether the expression of MAGE-A1 could predict the response of advanced and recurrent gastric cancers (GCs) to taxan (doce-taxel or paclitaxel)-based chemotherapy.
  • DNA demethylation was assessed by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction and the effect of the forced expression of MAGE-A1 on drug resistance to taxan drugs was monitored by MTT assay.
  • There was no association between MAGE-A1 gene demethylation and response to chemotherapy (P=0.7245).
  • The forced MAGE-A1 expression in the TMK-1 GC cell line increased the sensitivity to paclitaxel and docetaxel.
  • These results suggest that although MAGE-A1 does not participate directly in the drug-resistant phenotype, the expression of MAGE-A1 could be a marker for the prediction of resistance to taxan-based chemotherapies in patients with GC.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use. Stomach Neoplasms / drug therapy. Taxoids / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, Neoplasm. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. DNA Methylation. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Transfection

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  • (PMID = 17611652.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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17. McQueen AL, Baroletti SA: Adjuvant ketamine analgesia for the management of cancer pain. Ann Pharmacother; 2002 Oct;36(10):1614-9
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  • [Title] Adjuvant ketamine analgesia for the management of cancer pain.
  • OBJECTIVE: To review the clinical literature evaluating the utilization of intravenous ketamine for the management of cancer-related pain, to summarize the data that suggest ketamine is an appropriate adjuvant method of providing analgesia and to report a case of successful pain management using ketamine in a patient with recurrent testicular cancer at our institution.
  • DATA SYNTHESIS: The available data suggest that supplementation of morphine with ketamine improves analgesia in patients with cancer, and also provides insight to the controversy regarding the efficacy and adverse effects of various ketamine doses.
  • CASE SUMMARY: A 34-year-old white man with recurrent testicular cancer was admitted with radiating neuropathic pain of the legs and lower back.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Ketamine is an adjuvant analgesic for the treatment of cancer-related pain when other agents either fail or are intolerable.
  • [MeSH-major] Analgesics / therapeutic use. Ketamine / therapeutic use. Neoplasms / complications. Pain / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Germinoma / complications. Humans. Injections, Intravenous. Male. Testicular Neoplasms / complications

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  • [ErratumIn] Ann Pharmacother. 2003 Sep;37(9):1346
  • (PMID = 12243612.001).
  • [ISSN] 1060-0280
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of pharmacotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pharmacother
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Analgesics; 690G0D6V8H / Ketamine
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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18. Houck W, Abonour R, Vance G, Einhorn LH: Secondary leukemias in refractory germ cell tumor patients undergoing autologous stem-cell transplantation using high-dose etoposide. J Clin Oncol; 2004 Jun 1;22(11):2155-8
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  • [Title] Secondary leukemias in refractory germ cell tumor patients undergoing autologous stem-cell transplantation using high-dose etoposide.
  • PURPOSE: To quantify the risk of secondary leukemias in relapsed testicular cancer patients undergoing autologous stem-cell transplantation with high-dose etoposide.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Single institution, retrospective study of germ cell tumor patients who underwent autologous transplantation using high-dose etoposide from 1987 to 2001.
  • RESULTS: One hundred thirteen patients received high-dose etoposide and carboplatin followed by autologous stem-cell transplantations for germ cell tumors.
  • Three patients (2.6%; 95% CI, 0.55% to 7.50%) subsequently developed leukemia at an average of 16 months post-autologous transplantation (range, 11 to 21 months).
  • Following autologous transplantation, all three patients exhibited refractory cytopenias before developing overt leukemia.
  • One patient developed an M2 with a t(8,21) chromosomal translocation; another, an M5 with a t(11,19); and one patient exhibited an unclassified leukemia with cytogenetic abnormalities resulting in monosomy for 7p and partial monosomy of 7q.
  • Treatment of the leukemias involved allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.
  • CONCLUSION: High-dose chemotherapy using high-dose etoposide as therapy for relapsed germ cell tumors was associated with a 2.6% risk of developing a secondary myeloid leukemia.
  • This figure was not significantly different from the expected rate of secondary leukemias when patients receive additional cycles of standard-dose etoposide as salvage chemotherapy for germ cell tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / adverse effects. Etoposide / adverse effects. Germinoma / drug therapy. Leukemia / chemically induced. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Stem Cell Transplantation
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Incidence. Indiana / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Salvage Therapy / adverse effects. Transplantation, Autologous

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  • (PMID = 15169802.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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19. Heidenreich A, Krege S, Flasshove M: [Interdisciplinary cooperation in the treatment of complex patients with advanced testicular germ cell tumor]. Urologe A; 2004 Dec;43(12):1521-30
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  • [Title] [Interdisciplinary cooperation in the treatment of complex patients with advanced testicular germ cell tumor].
  • [Transliterated title] Interdisziplinäre Kooperation in der Therapie von komplexen Patienten mit fortgeschrittenem testikulärem Keimzelltumor.
  • Testicular germ cell tumors represent the classic example of a curable solid cancer even in the metastatic stage.
  • Cure rates are as high as 95% and 80-85% in patients with good and intermediate prognosis; even in patients with poor prognosis cure rates of 50% have been achieved by interdisciplinary collaboration of all specialties involved in the management of testis cancer.
  • Standardization of diagnosis and therapy should be further optimized due to the recently published interdisciplinary national and European guidelines.
  • Besides realization of standardized guidelines, treatment of patients with extensive primary disease or recurrent germ cell tumors following standard therapy requires comprehensive knowledge in conservative and surgical management, which is basically only available at specialized cancer centers.
  • When treating these patients, one has to consider that inadequately administered chemotherapy (dosage, length of cycles, number of cycles) cannot be compensated for by surgery and that inadequately performed retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy or residual tumor resection cannot be compensated for by chemotherapy.
  • In any case, suboptimal primary therapy will result in inferior cure rates and an unnecessarily increased mortality rate.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Node Excision / methods. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / secondary. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy. Patient Care Team / organization & administration. Practice Patterns, Physicians' / organization & administration. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Cooperative Behavior. European Union. Germany. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Peritoneal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Peritoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Peritoneal Neoplasms / surgery. Peritoneum / surgery. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Severity of Illness Index. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15592709.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-2592
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Urologe. Ausg. A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologe A
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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20. Albers P, Melchior D, Müller SC: Surgery in metastatic testicular cancer. Eur Urol; 2003 Aug;44(2):233-44
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  • [Title] Surgery in metastatic testicular cancer.
  • Surgery in advanced testicular tumors is an integral part of the multimodality treatment.
  • However, the indications for surgery in testis cancer have changed over the last 10 years.
  • Patients with advanced seminoma only rarely will need surgery after chemotherapy whereas patients with advanced non-seminoma need to undergo the resection of residual disease in most of the cases.
  • Surgery in metastatic disease may even be beneficial for patients with recurrent tumors, patients with persisting marker elevations during chemotherapy, or patients with late relapse of the disease.
  • This review will update the current indications and recommendations for post-chemotherapy surgery in advanced testis cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / secondary. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Protocols. Aorta / surgery. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Humans. Intestinal Neoplasms / secondary. Intestinal Neoplasms / surgery. Kidney Neoplasms / secondary. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Male. Neoplasm, Residual. Postoperative Complications. Preoperative Care / methods. Seminoma / drug therapy. Seminoma / secondary. Seminoma / surgery. Spine / surgery. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome. Ureteral Neoplasms / secondary. Ureteral Neoplasms / surgery. Vascular Neoplasms / secondary. Vascular Neoplasms / surgery. Venae Cavae / surgery

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  • (PMID = 12875944.001).
  • [ISSN] 0302-2838
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 52
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21. Basu S, Rubello D: PET imaging in the management of tumors of testis and ovary: current thinking and future directions. Minerva Endocrinol; 2008 Sep;33(3):229-56
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  • [Title] PET imaging in the management of tumors of testis and ovary: current thinking and future directions.
  • The role of fluoro-D-deoxyglucose positron-emission tomography (FDG-PET) in testicular malignancies has been examined in various studies primarily in three specific settings:.
  • 1) differentiation of active disease from fibrosis/mature teratoma in patients with residual mass following chemotherapy and evaluation of the response to treatment;.
  • 2) initial staging and disease assessment after orchidectomy identification of suspected recurrences in the context of elevated circulating serum markers; and 3) predicting response to treatment.
  • Of these, the area where FDG-PET imaging has been examined the most in testicular tumors is the evaluation of postchemotherapy residual mass in both seminoma and nonseminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCT) of the testis, a critical step in determining the subsequent management approach of these tumors that vary amongst various centers.
  • From the available data, this should be the test of choice for the assessment of a computed tomography (CT)-visualized residual mass following chemotherapy.
  • In patients with residual masses or raised marker levels following therapy, positron-emission tomography (PET) appears sensitive and specific for detecting recurrent disease, at suspected and unsuspected sites.
  • With regard to its role in ovarian carcinoma, it appears to be particularly useful for the diagnosis of recurrence when CA125 levels are rising and conventional imaging is inconclusive or negative.
  • The role of fluoro-D-deoxyglucose (FDG)-PET/CT for the detection of recurrent ovarian cancer appears very promising and has the potential to replace the current surveillance techniques in detecting recurrent disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Testicular Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Clinical Trials as Topic. Combined Modality Therapy. Cost-Benefit Analysis. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Forecasting. Humans. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / radionuclide imaging. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / radionuclide imaging. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy. Paraneoplastic Cerebellar Degeneration / radionuclide imaging. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Radiopharmaceuticals. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18846028.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals
  • [Number-of-references] 83
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22. McKeage MJ: Lobaplatin: a new antitumour platinum drug. Expert Opin Investig Drugs; 2001 Jan;10(1):119-28
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  • [Title] Lobaplatin: a new antitumour platinum drug.
  • Its antitumour activity results from the formation of DNA-drug adducts, mainly as GG and AG intra-strand cross-links.
  • Lobaplatin influences the expression of the c-myc gene, which is involved in oncogenesis, apoptosis and cell proliferation.
  • In Phase II trials, lobaplatin showed activity in patients with a variety of tumour types.
  • Many of the patients who responded to lobaplatin may also have responded to cisplatin and carboplatin because they had had no prior chemotherapy or had a prolonged remission after earlier treatment.
  • In conclusion, lobaplatin is a new platinum drug, which overcomes some forms of cisplatin resistance in preclinical tumour models.
  • Several potential clinical applications remain unexplored, such as its use in relapsed testicular cancer and in combination with other cancer chemotherapeutic agents and ionising radiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cyclobutanes / therapeutic use. Organoplatinum Compounds / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 11116285.001).
  • [ISSN] 1354-3784
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert opinion on investigational drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Opin Investig Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Cyclobutanes; 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; OX5XK1JD8C / lobaplatin
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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23. Game X, Houlgatte A, Fournier R, Duhamel P, Baranger B, Khoury S: [Dedifferentiation of mature teratomas secondary to testicular cancer: report of 2 cases]. Prog Urol; 2001 Feb;11(1):73-6; discussion 76-7
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  • [Title] [Dedifferentiation of mature teratomas secondary to testicular cancer: report of 2 cases].
  • [Transliterated title] Dédifférenciation des tératomes matures secondaires à un cancer du testicule: à propos de deux cas.
  • The authors report two cases of adenocarcinomatous dedifferentiation of a recurrent mature teratoma arising 3 and 20 years after the initial resection.
  • However, PET scan suggests the diagnosis of malignant teratoma in the presence of increased uptake by the lesion.
  • Treatment consists of complete resection of the tumour mass.
  • The possibility of long-term malignant dedifferentiation of a teratoma therefore requires prolonged and regular life-long surveillance of patients presenting a mature teratoma after chemotherapy for non-seminomatous germ cell tumour of the testis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / pathology. Teratoma / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 11296651.001).
  • [ISSN] 1166-7087
  • [Journal-full-title] Progrès en urologie : journal de l'Association française d'urologie et de la Société française d'urologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prog. Urol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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24. Thijssens K, Vaneerdeweg W, Schrijvers D, Eyskens E, Van Oosterom A: Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection as adjuvant therapy in the treatment of non-seminomatous testicular cancer. Acta Chir Belg; 2003 Nov-Dec;103(6):599-602
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  • [Title] Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection as adjuvant therapy in the treatment of non-seminomatous testicular cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess the results of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) of residual masses in patients with disseminated non-seminomatous germ cell tumour treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy, both in terms of extension of surgery, morbidity and survival.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospectively, all patients treated for non-seminomatous germ cell tumour at the University Hospital of Antwerp were studied from January 1987 till December 1997.
  • In patients with non-seminomatous testicular cancer more than stage I, the 'wait and see' strategy changed and patients were treated with chemotherapy.
  • Patients were assessed at the end of chemotherapy and if a residual masses persisted, a RPLND was performed.
  • RESULTS: Sixty patients had a non-seminomatous germ cell tumor of the testis and were analysed.
  • Thirteen patients with stage I disease were treated with orchiectomy only and none of these patients had recurrent disease.
  • Forty-seven patients were treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy.
  • In two patients malignant cells or fibrotic tissue were found above the renal trunk and bilateral.
  • The survival of the patients treated with a RPLND was 97% and in the whole group of patients with a non-seminomatous testicular cancer 98%.
  • CONCLUSION: RPLND has a place in the treatment of patients with non-seminomatous testicular cancer after chemotherapy in case of residual masses.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma / secondary. Germinoma / surgery. Lymph Node Excision. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Belgium. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cohort Studies. Disease-Free Survival. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymph Nodes / surgery. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Sensitivity and Specificity. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 14743567.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5458
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir. Belg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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25. Pohar KS, Rabbani F, Bosl GJ, Motzer RJ, Bajorin D, Sheinfeld J: Results of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for clinical stage I and II pure embryonal carcinoma of the testis. J Urol; 2003 Oct;170(4 Pt 1):1155-8
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  • [Title] Results of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for clinical stage I and II pure embryonal carcinoma of the testis.
  • PURPOSE: We determined the pathological findings and clinical outcome of patients with pure embryonal carcinoma (EC) of the testis managed by primary retroperitoneal lymph node dissection.
  • Only 1 of 9 (11%) patients with pN1 treated without adjuvant chemotherapy has had relapse.
  • Of 24 patients with pN2/N3 disease only 3 (12%) have required more than 2 cycles of postoperative chemotherapy for persistent or recurrent disease despite complete resection of the retroperitoneum.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with low stage pure EC of the testis are at high risk for retroperitoneal disease.
  • However these patients do not appear to be at increased risk for high volume (pN2/N3) retroperitoneal disease, systemic relapse in pN0 or pN1 disease managed without adjuvant chemotherapy (although the number of evaluable patients in this subset is somewhat small), or persistent or recurrent disease in completely resected high volume (pN2/N3) retroperitoneal disease compared to patients with mixed nonseminomatous germ cell tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Embryonal / pathology. Carcinoma, Embryonal / surgery. Lymph Node Excision. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [CommentIn] J Urol. 2003 Oct;170(4 Pt 1):1168 [14501717.001]
  • (PMID = 14501714.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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26. Montironi R: Intratubular germ cell neoplasia of the testis: testicular intraepithelial neoplasia. Eur Urol; 2002 Jun;41(6):651-4
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  • [Title] Intratubular germ cell neoplasia of the testis: testicular intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • The observations of Skakkebaek and the evolution of the concept of intratubular germ cell neoplasia (or testicular intraepithelial neoplasia (TIN)) indicate that most, but not all, germ cell tumors of the testis evolve from a common neoplastic precursor lesion: intratubular germ cell neoplasia, unclassified type (IGCNU).
  • It is defined as the presence of malignant germ cells within the seminiferous tubules.
  • At 5 years about 50% of patients with a testicular biopsy positive for IGCNU have developed invasive germ cell tumors, and only a small fraction remain free of invasive tumors by 7 years.
  • Orchiectomy is the treatment of choice in patients with unilateral IGCNU, and low-dose radiation is efficacious in patients with bilateral IGCNU (although sterility is certain).
  • So far, there is only one published report of occurrence of two cases of germ cell cancer despite previous local radiotherapy to the testis.
  • A recent study demonstrated an estimated risk of recurrent IGCNU following chemotherapy of 21% and 42% at 5 and 10 years, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma in Situ. Testicular Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Chromosome Aberrations. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12. Germinoma / genetics. Germinoma / pathology. Germinoma / therapy. Humans. Male. Orchiectomy. Prognosis. Radiotherapy. Seminiferous Tubules. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 12074783.001).
  • [ISSN] 0302-2838
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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27. Melchior D, Müller SC, Albers P: Extensive surgery in metastatic testicular cancer. Aktuelle Urol; 2003 Jul;34(4):214-22
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  • [Title] Extensive surgery in metastatic testicular cancer.
  • Surgery remains an important component in the multimodal treatment of patients with advanced testicular cancer.
  • Recently, however, the indications for post-chemotherapy residual tumor resection have changed.
  • Patients with advanced seminoma very rarely need surgical resection of the residual disease after standard chemotherapy.
  • In contrast, patients with high stage non-seminomatous testis cancer must undergo post-chemotherapy surgery in most cases.
  • Surgical resection in metastatic disease may also be necessary in patients with recurrent tumors, patients with persisting marker elevation during chemotherapy and patients with late relapses.
  • Post-chemotherapy residual tumor resections, "redo"-retroperitoneal tumor operations and other salvage resections are often technically demanding procedures with unusual surgical approaches that require individualized perioperative planning in order to reduce morbidity.
  • This paper summarizes the current indications for post-chemotherapy surgery and discusses various surgical approaches and techniques, perioperative management recommendations, as well as complications of these extensive resection procedures.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Embryonal / surgery. Germinoma / surgery. Seminoma / surgery. Teratoma / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm, Residual / surgery. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 14566667.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-7868
  • [Journal-full-title] Aktuelle Urologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aktuelle Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 52
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28. Schnorrer M, Ondrus D, Vichova B, Oravský M: [Long-term results of surgical treatment of pulmonary metastases in germ cell testicular cancer patients]. Klin Onkol; 2009;22(3):104-7
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  • [Title] [Long-term results of surgical treatment of pulmonary metastases in germ cell testicular cancer patients].
  • [Transliterated title] Dlhodobé výsledky chirurgickej liecby pl'úcnych metastáz u pacientov s germinatívnymi nádormi testis.
  • BACKGROUND: Lung metastasectomy as a treatment option in pulmonary metastases has been discussed for a long time.Testicular cancer belongs to a group of tumours primarily treated with chemotherapy because of the high efficacy of anticancer chemotherapy.
  • Surgical treatment plays only a secondary role in the removal of residual pulmonary metastases.
  • Decision-making in the treatment of pulmonary metastases requires histological investigation.The aim of this prospective clinical study is to evaluate 20 years of experience with the surgical treatment of pulmonary metastases in germ-cell testicular cancer.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: In the period 1988-2008, 63 patients were surgically treated for residual pulmonary metastases of testicular germ-cell tumours.
  • All of the patients were indicated for surgery--pulmonary metastasectomy after the anticancer chemotherapy had been carried out.The survival rate of patients was evaluated according to the Kaplan-Meier method.
  • 9 patients underwent repeated thoracotomy due to recurrent metastases.
  • The histological result of metastasis determined a further procedure.
  • Patients in whom vital tumorous tissue was detected (16% of patients) were subsequently treated by second-line chemotherapy, while the rest of the patients were strictly followed-up.
  • CONCLUSION: Based on the long-term results, the authors consider surgical treatment of pulmonary metastases of testicular germ-cell tumours as the treatment fully indicated.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / secondary. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19708544.001).
  • [ISSN] 0862-495X
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinická onkologie : casopis Ceské a Slovenské onkologické spolecnosti
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Onkol
  • [Language] slo
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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29. Kratzik C, Schatzl G, Lackner J, Marberger M: Transcutaneous high-intensity focused ultrasonography can cure testicular cancer in solitary testis. Urology; 2006 Jun;67(6):1269-73
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  • [Title] Transcutaneous high-intensity focused ultrasonography can cure testicular cancer in solitary testis.
  • OBJECTIVES: To report the long-term results in 7 patients (including the 5-year results in 3 patients) after high-intensity focused ultrasonography (HIFU) combined with irradiation to treat testicular tumors in a solitary testis.
  • METHODS: Transcutaneous HIFU ablation of testicular tumors is based on a technique using a piezoceramic transducer operating at 4.0 MHz with a site intensity of 1600 to 2000 W/cm2.
  • In a Phase II trial, 7 patients with the typical sonographic pattern of a tumor in a solitary testis were treated with transcutaneous HIFU, as a minimally invasive organ-preserving approach, followed 6 weeks later by prophylactic testicular irradiation (range 18 to 20 Gy).
  • The aim was to ablate the entire cancer in a single therapeutic HIFU session.
  • In all 7 patients, the contralateral testis had previously been removed because of testicular cancer.
  • RESULTS: One patient received two cycles of chemotherapy for a single suspicious retroperitoneal lymph node diagnosed 6 months after HIFU.
  • The other 6 protocol-treated patients remained tumor free at a mean follow-up of 42 months (range 3 to 93).
  • One patient, who had refused postoperative irradiation, developed a recurrent tumor within 6 months.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Despite the lack of tumor histologic examination, transcutaneous HIFU followed by irradiation permits a minimally invasive, organ-preserving, curative treatment for tumors in a solitary testis.
  • [MeSH-major] Testicular Neoplasms / therapy. Ultrasonic Therapy / methods

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  • (PMID = 16678890.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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30. Jewett MA, Grabowski A, McKiernan J: Management of recurrence and follow-up strategies for patients with nonseminoma testis cancer. Urol Clin North Am; 2003 Nov;30(4):819-30
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  • [Title] Management of recurrence and follow-up strategies for patients with nonseminoma testis cancer.
  • The combination of reliable serum tumor markers, improved imaging techniques, effective cisplatin chemotherapy regimens, and application of meticulous surgical techniques has resulted in dramatic improvements in cure rates in NSGCT.
  • These factors have caused the incidence of recurrent NSGCT to decline substantially in the past 20 years.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma / therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Orchiectomy. Recurrence

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  • (PMID = 14680317.001).
  • [ISSN] 0094-0143
  • [Journal-full-title] The Urologic clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 74
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31. Wilson EM: Androgen receptor molecular biology and potential targets in prostate cancer. Ther Adv Urol; 2010 Jun;2(3):105-17
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  • [Title] Androgen receptor molecular biology and potential targets in prostate cancer.
  • The androgen receptor (AR) is a key transcriptional regulator and therapeutic target in prostate cancer.
  • During androgen deprivation therapy to treat metastatic prostate cancer, surviving cells acquire increased AR signaling through a variety of mechanisms, one of which is enhanced interactions with AR coactivators.
  • MAGE-11 increases AR transcriptional activity through direct interactions with AR and other coactivators, and its levels increase during prostate cancer progression to castration-recurrent growth.
  • The MAGE-11 gene is located at Xq28 on the human X chromosome as part of an X-linked MAGE gene family of cancer-testis antigens.
  • The evolutionary development and organization of the MAGE-11 gene within the cancer-testis antigen family suggests that MAGE-11 provides a gain-of-function to AR among primates in both normal physiology and cancer, and may serve as a therapeutic target in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer.

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  • (PMID = 21789088.001).
  • [ISSN] 1756-2880
  • [Journal-full-title] Therapeutic advances in urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ther Adv Urol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA077739; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD016910; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R37 HD016910
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3126091
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; MAGE-11 / MAGE-A11 / N/C interaction / X chromosome / X-linked genes / androgen receptor / cancer–testis antigens
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32. Lawatsch EJ, Datta MW, Van Tuinen P, Sudakoff GS, Davis NB, Langenstroer P: Intra-abdominal desmoid tumor following retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for testicular germ cell tumor. Int J Urol; 2006 Jan;13(1):84-6
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  • [Title] Intra-abdominal desmoid tumor following retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for testicular germ cell tumor.
  • In the testicular cancer post-treatment setting a rapidly growing retroperitoneal mass leads to a differential diagnosis including recurrent germ cell tumor, residual mature teratoma, or sarcomatoid degeneration.
  • We report the case of a 27-year-old man with a large abdominal mass occurring in the setting of a mixed germ cell tumor after radical orchiectomy with primary chemotherapy followed by retroperitoneal lymph node dissection.
  • Surgical excision of this mass followed by pathological review revealed an intra-abdominal desmoid tumor.
  • Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for isochromosome 12p failed to demonstrate a germ cell tumor origin.
  • This is the fourth such case of an intra-abdominal desmoid tumor after retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for testicular cancer in the urologic literature.
  • This case highlights the need for careful consideration of a desmoid tumor when a rapidly growing spindle cell tumor is encountered in a post-treatment testis cancer patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / complications. Fibromatosis, Aggressive / complications. Lymph Node Excision. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Laparotomy. Male. Orchiectomy / adverse effects. Retroperitoneal Space. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16448440.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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33. Grossfeld GD, Chaudhary UB, Reese DM, Carroll PR, Small EJ: Intermittent androgen deprivation: update of cycling characteristics in patients without clinically apparent metastatic prostate cancer. Urology; 2001 Aug;58(2):240-5
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  • [Title] Intermittent androgen deprivation: update of cycling characteristics in patients without clinically apparent metastatic prostate cancer.
  • OBJECTIVES: To update the cycling characteristics and patterns of treatment in patients receiving intermittent androgen deprivation (IAD) for clinically localized and recurrent prostate cancer.
  • Thirty-four patients had received no prior treatment, and 27 had developed recurrent disease after previous local therapy.
  • No patient had clinically apparent metastatic disease before the initiation of therapy.
  • The mean and median serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level before treatment was 25.3 ng/mL and 16.0 ng/mL, respectively (range 0.5 to 190 ng/mL).
  • Patients were then observed without treatment, and therapy was reinstituted after the serum PSA value reached a predetermined level.
  • Patients were no longer eligible to cycle off treatment when their serum PSA increased despite ongoing androgen deprivation or if any objective evidence of disease progression was present on imaging studies.
  • RESULTS: Follow-up ranged from 7 to 60 months (mean 30) from the start of treatment.
  • Patients received from one to five treatment cycles (median two), with a median cycle length of 14 months.
  • The median nadir serum PSA level during androgen deprivation was 0.01 ng/mL and was reached within an average of 6 months (range 4 to 9) after beginning treatment.
  • Patients spent an average of 45% of the time not receiving therapy, but the time off therapy decreased as the number of treatment cycles increased.
  • Five patients (8.1%) demonstrated progressive disease, with a median time to progression of 48 months.
  • CONCLUSIONS: IAD appears to be a viable treatment option in select patients with localized prostate cancer.
  • With each consecutive cycle, the amount of time the patient was not receiving therapy decreased, despite achieving a low nadir PSA.
  • [MeSH-major] Androgen Antagonists / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / administration & dosage. Leuprolide / administration & dosage. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Castration. Disease Progression. Drug Administration Schedule. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Injections, Intramuscular. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Testis / metabolism. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11489710.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen; EFY6W0M8TG / Leuprolide
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34. Akhavizadegan H: Benefit of sperm freezing before radical orchiectomy. Clin Transl Oncol; 2009 Dec;11(12):849-50
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  • A patient with a unilateral testis tumour who had been treated with radical orchiectomy was referred to our centre.
  • He was oligospermic before orchiectomy and needed chemotherapy because of abnormal tumour markers after the aforementioned operation.
  • Because of a lack of information about the spermatogenic abilities in the other testis, it is advisable to freeze sperm prior to orchiectomy at least in patients with semen analysis disorders.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor / surgery. Freezing. Orchiectomy. Semen Preservation. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Male. Oligospermia / etiology. Oligospermia / therapy. Risk Assessment

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  • [Cites] Nat Clin Pract Urol. 2008 May;5(5):284-8 [18398407.001]
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  • (PMID = 20045792.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-3055
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & translational oncology : official publication of the Federation of Spanish Oncology Societies and of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Transl Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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35. Subramanian VS, Gilligan T, Klein EA: A case of spermatic cord teratoma in low-stage testicular cancer managed by surveillance. Nat Clin Pract Urol; 2008 Apr;5(4):220-3
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  • [Title] A case of spermatic cord teratoma in low-stage testicular cancer managed by surveillance.
  • BACKGROUND: A 25-year-old male presented to his local urologist with new-onset right testicular pain and swelling detected on self examination.
  • A scrotal ultrasound scan showed a right testicular mass, suspicious for neoplasm.
  • The patient underwent right inguinal orchiectomy and was diagnosed with nonseminomatous germ cell tumor of the right testis, composed of yolk sac tumor, teratoma, and embryonal carcinoma with no evidence of metastatic disease.
  • He opted to remain under surveillance rather than undergo primary chemotherapy or retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for his clinical stage I disease.
  • Serologic relapse at 4 months after orchiectomy was successfully treated with bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin (BEP) chemotherapy.
  • Pathology of the testicular mass was reviewed.
  • DIAGNOSIS: A 1.7 cm nodule anterior to the right psoas muscle suspicious for metastatic disease that was seen on CT 16 months after orchiectomy was pathologically confirmed as recurrent mature teratoma in the spermatic cord.
  • The patient has since remained disease-free, with normal levels of serum tumor markers and no evidence of metastasis on chest X-ray and abdominal CT.
  • [MeSH-major] Genital Neoplasms, Male / therapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Spermatic Cord / pathology. Teratoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chorionic Gonadotropin / blood. Disease Management. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Orchiectomy. alpha-Fetoproteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 18268549.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-4289
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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36. Schertl S, Hartmann RW, Batzl-Hartmann C, Spruss T, Maucher A, von Angerer E, Schiller CD, Schneider MR, Gust R, Schönenberger H: Platinum(II) complexes interfering with testicular steroid biosynthesis: drugs for the therapy of advanced or recurrent prostate cancers? Preclinical studies. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol; 2007 Mar;133(3):153-67
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  • [Title] Platinum(II) complexes interfering with testicular steroid biosynthesis: drugs for the therapy of advanced or recurrent prostate cancers? Preclinical studies.
  • [Meso-1,2-bis(2,6-dihalo-3/4-hydroxyphenyl)ethylenediamine]platinum(II) complexes (meso-1-PtLL': 2,6-F(2),3-OH; meso-2-PtLL': 2,6-F(2),4-OH; meso-3-PtLL': 2,6-Cl(2),3-OH; meso-4-PtLL': 2,6-Cl(2),4-OH; L = OH(2), L' = OSO(3) or L,L' = Cl(2)) were designed with the aim to get drugs comprising both cytotoxic and testosterone level lowering potencies.
  • It is assumed that such compounds are more efficient than the established endocrine therapeutic measures and can affect the development of hormone refractory prostate cancer (PC).
  • However, in the test on the Dunning R3327 PC of the rat only cisplatin and meso-4-PtLL' showed a significant anti-tumor activity at well-tolerated dose ranges.
  • Meso-4-PtLL' also significantly extended the time to disease progression in comparison with orchiectomy in this tumor model.
  • Interestingly, the relapsed tumor, too, responded to meso-4-PtLL' as demonstrated in a long-term study on orchiectomized rats bearing Dunning R3327 PC grafts.
  • This effect cannot be ascribed to cytotoxic effects of meso-4-PtLL' because of its inactivity on the human LNCaP/FGC PC cell line.
  • Therefore, the contribution of an additional mechanism to the anti-prostate cancer activity of meso-4-PtLL', presumably owing to its estrogenic potency, must be considered.
  • This assumption was supported by test results with diethylstilbestrol (DES) (non-steroidal estrogen) on the Dunning R3327 PC of the rat relapsed after orchiectomy.
  • This tumor model was strongly inhibited by DES.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / pharmacology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Testis / drug effects. Testis / metabolism. Testosterone / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Androgen Antagonists / pharmacology. Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival / drug effects. Diethylstilbestrol / pharmacology. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Furans / pharmacology. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Organ Size / drug effects. Organoplatinum Compounds / pharmacology. Pyrones / pharmacology. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley

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  • (PMID = 17024493.001).
  • [ISSN] 0171-5216
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / (1,2-bis(2, 6-difluoro-3-hydroxyphenyl)ethylene-diamine)platinum(II); 0 / (1,2-bis(2,6-difluoro-4-hydroxyphenyl)ethylenediamine)sulfatoplatinum(II); 0 / 2,6-dimethyldifuro-8-pyrone; 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Furans; 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 0 / Pyrones; 117773-99-6 / (1,2-bis(2,6-dichloro-4-hydroxyphenyl)ethylenediamine)dichloroplatinum (II); 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 731DCA35BT / Diethylstilbestrol
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37. Wehrschütz M, Stöger H, Ploner F, Hofmann G, Wolf G, Höfler G, Krippl P, Samonigg H: Seminoma metastases mimicking primary pancreatic cancer. Onkologie; 2002 Aug;25(4):371-3
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  • [Title] Seminoma metastases mimicking primary pancreatic cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: A case of seminoma clinical stage III, arising from the right testis and mimicking a primary pancreatic malignancy is reported.
  • He suffered from recurrent abdominal pain and significant weight loss over the past 4 months.
  • Abdominal CT scan showed a tumor in the head of the pancreas and multiple pathologically enlarged peripancreatic lymph nodes.
  • Further laboratory findings showed an elevation of the human placental alkaline phosphatase (HPLAP) and urological examination revealed a suspect right testis.
  • The patient underwent castration of the right testis and histopathological examination confirmed a seminoma.
  • 4 cycles of chemotherapy including cisplatinum, etoposide and bleomycin led into complete response that is still ongoing.
  • It provides an example of the possibility of an uncommon clinical appearance of seminoma metastases and again underlines the importance of exact radiological and histopathological examination to distinguish between curable and incurable tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Pancreatic Neoplasms / secondary. Seminoma / secondary. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Pancreas / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


38. Svatek RS, Spiess PE, Sundi D, Tu SM, Tannir NM, Brown GA, Kamat AM, Wood CG, Pisters LL: Long-term outcome for men with teratoma found at postchemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection. Cancer; 2009 Mar 15;115(6):1310-7
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  • The objectives of this study were to determine the disease-related outcomes of patients who had pure teratoma identified at the time of PC-RPLND and to examine the prognostic value of clinical variables that were identified previously as important predictors of disease recurrence in these patients.
  • METHODS: Between 1980 and 2003, 97 patients with metastatic nonseminomatous germ cell tumor and pure teratoma histology at the time of PC-RPLND were identified.
  • The medical records of these patients were reviewed retrospectively for pertinent clinical and treatment-related outcomes.
  • RESULTS: At a median follow-up of 7.4 years, 21 patients (22%) developed recurrent disease after PC-RPLND.
  • Nine of 97 patients (9.3%) died from testis cancer, and 4 patients died from other causes.
  • Patients who had teratoma at the time of PC-RPLND remained at considerable risk for disease progression because of the unpredictable nature of teratoma and the presence of unrecognized, active germ cell disease outside the retroperitoneum.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Teratoma / drug therapy. Teratoma / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Disease Progression. Humans. Male. Prognosis. Recurrence. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2009 American Cancer Society.
  • [CommentIn] Cancer. 2009 Mar 15;115(6):1138-41 [19165804.001]
  • (PMID = 19156903.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] United States
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