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1. Korfel A, Fischer L, Foss HD, Koch HC, Thiel E: Testicular germ cell tumor with rhabdomyosarcoma successfully treated by disease-adapted chemotherapy including high-dose chemotherapy: case report and review of the literature. Bone Marrow Transplant; 2001 Oct;28(8):787-9
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  • [Title] Testicular germ cell tumor with rhabdomyosarcoma successfully treated by disease-adapted chemotherapy including high-dose chemotherapy: case report and review of the literature.
  • Treatment and prognosis have not been well characterized in germ cell tumors (GCT) with a malignant nongerm cell component.
  • We report a rare case of mixed GCT composed of seminoma, teratoma and rhabdomyosarcoma with the rhabdomyosarcomatous component metastasized into the liver and bone marrow (BM) causing hypercalcemia.
  • The patient was treated with differentiation-tailored chemotherapy (CHT) including a disease-adapted high-dose (HD) CHT regimen with purified autologous PBSCT (APBSCT) and pamidronate.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / drug therapy. Rhabdomyosarcoma / drug therapy. Seminoma / drug therapy. Teratoma / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Bone Marrow / pathology. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Cell Differentiation. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use. Epirubicin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Lumbar Vertebrae. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Orchiectomy. Remission Induction. Seizures / etiology. Spinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary. Spinal Neoplasms / therapy. Transplantation, Autologous

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  • (PMID = 11781632.001).
  • [ISSN] 0268-3369
  • [Journal-full-title] Bone marrow transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bone Marrow Transplant.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Diphosphonates; 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; OYY3447OMC / pamidronate; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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2. Clevenger JA, Foster RS, Ulbright TM: Differentiated rhabdomyomatous tumors after chemotherapy for metastatic testicular germ-cell tumors: a clinicopathological study of seven cases mandating separation from rhabdomyosarcoma. Mod Pathol; 2009 Oct;22(10):1361-6
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  • [Title] Differentiated rhabdomyomatous tumors after chemotherapy for metastatic testicular germ-cell tumors: a clinicopathological study of seven cases mandating separation from rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • To gain insight concerning prognosis, we investigated seven cases of post-chemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph-node dissections from patients with testicular germ-cell tumors that contained sizable nodules of differentiated skeletal muscle, but that lacked both a primitive cellular component and mitotic activity.
  • The patients were 18-28 years old at the time of retroperitoneal lymph-node dissection.
  • All had a previous non-seminomatous germ-cell tumor of the testis, five of which had a teratoma component.
  • In one the testicular tumor had foci of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • The retroperitoneal lymph-node dissections were performed 0.2-4.7 years after orchiectomy, all following cisplatin-based chemotherapy, and contained rhabdomyomatous tumors that ranged from 0.8-5 cm.
  • These consisted of nodular to diffuse aggregates of fetal-type rhabdomyocytes with central to peripheral nuclei and abundant, eosinophilic, fibrillary cytoplasm with occasional cross striations.
  • Follow-up in six patients showed three were disease free at 2.2-3.4 years; two developed recurrent teratoma at 1.3-3.7 years; and a sixth developed recurrent teratoma at 0.5 and 2 years, followed at 17 years by progressive tumor with elevated alpha-fetoprotein.
  • No patient with available follow-up developed progressive sarcoma.
  • We conclude that rhabdomyomatous tumors in retroperitoneal lymph-node dissection specimens after chemotherapy for metastatic testicular germ-cell tumors show clinical behavior similar to teratoma rather than rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • We believe the most likely explanation for the finding of pure rhabdomyomatous tumors in this setting, a phenomenon sometimes termed 'cytodifferentiation,' is selective persistence of differentiated tumor cells because of chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cell Differentiation / drug effects. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / secondary. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / secondary. Teratoma / secondary. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Orchiectomy. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19633644.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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3. Kita M, Sasaki Y, Okuyama M, Saga Y, Hashimoto H, Kaneko S, Yachiku S, Tokumitsu M, Inada F, Ishida H: [Pulmonary rhabdomyosarcoma generated during treatment of testicular tumor]. Nihon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi; 2003 Nov;94(7):696-700
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  • [Title] [Pulmonary rhabdomyosarcoma generated during treatment of testicular tumor].
  • He had undergone right high orchiectomy, chemotherapy with four courses of PEB regimen (cisplatin, etoposide, bleomycin) and retroperitoneal lymph node dissection the previous year.
  • The pathological findings showed mixed germ cell tumor (seminoma, yolk sac tumor, embryonal carcinoma) in the testis and mature teratoma in the draining lymph node.
  • Two courses of salvage chemotherapy using a VIP regimen (etoposide, ifosfamide, cisplatin) were performed after diagnosis of pulmonary metastases, but had no affect on tumor size.
  • Video-assisted excision of pulmonary metastases was then performed, giving a pathological diagnosis of rhabdomyosarcoma in all three resected tumors.
  • The operation was followed by three courses of CYVADIC (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, adriamycin, dacarbazin) chemotherapy and oral cyclophosphamide, as a small residual tumor was suspected.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Rhabdomyosarcoma / secondary. Testicular Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Carcinoma, Embryonal / pathology. Carcinoma, Embryonal / therapy. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Dacarbazine / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Drug Administration Schedule. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / therapy. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Orchiectomy. Pneumonectomy. Seminoma / pathology. Seminoma / therapy. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 14672002.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5287
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Hinyōkika Gakkai zasshi. The japanese journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide; CYVADIC protocol; ICE protocol 1
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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4. Cannon GM Jr, Polsky EG, Bellinger MF: Metastatic intratesticular alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma discovered after induction of systemic chemotherapy. Urology; 2007 May;69(5):982.e13-5
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  • [Title] Metastatic intratesticular alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma discovered after induction of systemic chemotherapy.
  • Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma is an aggressive cancer that can metastasize to a variety of organs.
  • We present what we believe to be the first reported case of metastatic intratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma in a patient presenting with testicular pain shortly after the induction of systemic chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / drug therapy. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / secondary. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Biopsy, Needle. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Orchiectomy. Remission Induction. Risk Assessment. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17482950.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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5. Haga K, Kashiwagi A, Nagamori S, Yamashiro K: Adult paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma. Nat Clin Pract Urol; 2005 Aug;2(8):398-402; quiz 403
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  • [Title] Adult paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • DIAGNOSIS: Paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma with lymph node metastasis.
  • MANAGEMENT: Inguinal radical orchiectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy for 48 weeks.
  • Radiotherapy and additional chemotherapy were administered following local recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Rhabdomyosarcoma. Testicular Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 16474737.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-4270
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Gow KW, Murphy JJ 3rd, Wu JK, Desa DJ: Metastatic testicular rhabdomyosarcoma--a report of two cases. J Pediatr Surg; 2003 Aug;38(8):E1-3
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  • [Title] Metastatic testicular rhabdomyosarcoma--a report of two cases.
  • Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common type of soft tissue sarcoma in children.
  • Rhabdomyosarcoma was found histologically in both the foot and the testicle.
  • A second boy 17 years of age had a primary tumor involving the left upper extremity treated with amputation, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy.
  • The authors discuss the implications and the management of this rare presentation of metastatic rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Rhabdomyosarcoma / secondary. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 12891513.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. Kawamura N, Kakuta Y, Fukuhara S, Imazui T, Hara T, Yamaguchi S, Adachi S, Nonomura N, Nagahara A: [A case of paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2008 Jun;54(6):431-3

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  • [Title] [A case of paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma].
  • We report a case of paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma in a 16-year-old male.
  • The patient with a mass in the right scrotum was at first diagnosed with testicular tumor.
  • Right orchiectomy revealed paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • Para-aortic lymph node metastasis was pointed out by abdominal computed tomography.
  • Although he received multidrug chemotherapy consisting of vincristine, adriamycin, cyclophosphamide, cisplatin, and actinomycin-D (IRS-III regimen 35 and IRS-IV regimen) without radiotherapy, he died twenty-one months after the operation.
  • [MeSH-major] Genital Neoplasms, Male / diagnosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / diagnosis. Scrotum
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Testis

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  • (PMID = 18634441.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 7
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8. Oottamasathien S, Thomas JC, Adams MC, DeMarco RT, Brock JW 3rd, Pope JC 4th: Testicular tumours in children: a single-institutional experience. BJU Int; 2007 May;99(5):1123-6
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  • [Title] Testicular tumours in children: a single-institutional experience.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report our experience of testicular and paratesticular tumours in children, as such tumours are rare, and historically yolk sac tumour has been described as the most common lesion in children, but recent reports suggest that benign testicular lesions might be more common.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed retrospectively the records of children treated for testicular tumours from 1998 to 2005.
  • The patients' age, clinical presentation, diagnostic procedures, treatment methods, histopathological findings, and outcome were recorded.
  • The most common clinical presentation was a painless testicular mass.
  • Depending on the clinical presentation and pathology, scrotal ultrasonography, tumour markers (alpha-fetoprotein and beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin), and/or staging computed tomography (CT) were obtained in eight patients.
  • CT revealed extensive mediastinal adenopathy in one patient with rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • Chemotherapy was administered to both patients with rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • As both malignant and paratesticular lesions occurred at a significant frequency, we would continue to advocate an initial radical inguinal approach at which time testis-sparing could be considered if the preoperative evaluation was favourable, and frozen-section analysis at the time of surgery confirms a benign lesion.
  • [MeSH-major] Orchiectomy / methods. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / metabolism. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Retrospective Studies. Rhabdomyosarcoma / drug therapy. Rhabdomyosarcoma / surgery. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. alpha-Fetoproteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17437431.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-4096
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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9. Mamveev BP, Gurariĭ LL, Volkova MI, Matveev VB, Khalaf'ian EA: [Paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma]. Urologiia; 2003 Mar-Apr;(2):18-21
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  • [Title] [Paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma].
  • Orchofuniculectomy is the first-line treatment in all the patients.
  • In disseminated PR, combined treatment is indicated including surgical removal of metastatic foci and adjuvant chemo- or chemoradiotherapy.
  • If surgical removal of all the tumor foci is infeasible, patients with disseminated PR undergo chemotherapy.
  • Prognosis of PR depends on the age, stage of the disease and treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Rhabdomyosarcoma / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 12811918.001).
  • [ISSN] 1728-2985
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologii︠a︡ (Moscow, Russia : 1999)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologiia
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia
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10. Donadio AC, Motzer RJ, Bajorin DF, Kantoff PW, Sheinfeld J, Houldsworth J, Chaganti RS, Bosl GJ: Chemotherapy for teratoma with malignant transformation. J Clin Oncol; 2003 Dec 1;21(23):4285-91
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  • [Title] Chemotherapy for teratoma with malignant transformation.
  • PURPOSE: Teratoma with malignant transformation (MT) is a well-described entity that refers to the MT of a somatic teratomatous component in a germ cell tumor (GCT) to a histology that is identical to a somatic malignancy (eg, rhabdomyosarcoma [RMS]).
  • Surgical resection has been the mainstay of therapy for localized transformed disease because these tumors are thought to be resistant to standard treatment.
  • We report that chemotherapy has a role in selected patients with MT, determined by cell type.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Chemotherapy was administered to 12 patients with MT of GCT limited to a single cell type (two patients with primitive neuroectodermal tumors, five with undifferentiated RMS, one with anaplastic small-cell tumor, two with adenocarcinoma, and two with leukemia); 10 patients had measurable disease.
  • Each patient received chemotherapy regimens based on the specific malignant cell observed in the transformed histology.
  • Three patients did not respond to treatment, and all of those patients died as a result of their disease.
  • CONCLUSION: Chemotherapy for MT limited to a single cell type may result in major responses and long-term survival in selected patients.
  • Local therapy after chemotherapy is an important component of treatment to achieve maximum response.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Mediastinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Teratoma / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cytogenetics. Humans. Leukemia, Mast-Cell / drug therapy. Leukemia, Mast-Cell / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / drug therapy. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma / drug therapy. Rhabdomyosarcoma / pathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 14645417.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Zaslau S, Perlmutter AE, Farivar-Mohseni H, Chang WW, Kandzari SJ: Rhabdomyosarcoma of tunica vaginalis masquerading as hydrocele. Urology; 2005 May;65(5):1001
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  • [Title] Rhabdomyosarcoma of tunica vaginalis masquerading as hydrocele.
  • Multimodal therapy with surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy provides the patient with an excellent long-term prognosis.
  • We report on the case of an 18-year-old man with a paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal / diagnosis. Testicular Hydrocele / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 15882748.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Medioni J, Fernandez-Bruno P, Meignin V, Bourrier P, Laurence V, Ramdani M, Dupuy-Grasset M, Cottu P: [Testicular metastasis of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma: clinical case of a 19-year-old man]. Prog Urol; 2003 Sep;13(4):700-2
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  • [Title] [Testicular metastasis of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma: clinical case of a 19-year-old man].
  • The authors report a case of a 19-year-old man with alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma with an unusual clinical presentation.
  • The diagnosis was established on lymph node biopsy performed on admission of the patient in a context simulating leukaemia.
  • The patient achieved complete remission in response to high-dose chemotherapy.
  • The authors present the radiological and histological findings and a molecular biology study of the testicular metastasis, eliminating a primary testicular tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Pulmonary Alveoli. Rhabdomyosarcoma / secondary. Testicular Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 14650311.001).
  • [ISSN] 1166-7087
  • [Journal-full-title] Progrès en urologie : journal de l'Association française d'urologie et de la Société française d'urologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prog. Urol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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13. Wiener ES, Anderson JR, Ojimba JI, Lobe TE, Paidas C, Andrassy RJ, Raney RB, Qualman SJ, Donaldson SS, Maurer HM, Link MP, Crist WM, Grier HE: Controversies in the management of paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma: is staging retroperitoneal lymph node dissection necessary for adolescents with resected paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma? Semin Pediatr Surg; 2001 Aug;10(3):146-52
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  • [Title] Controversies in the management of paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma: is staging retroperitoneal lymph node dissection necessary for adolescents with resected paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma?
  • PURPOSE: Use of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) in paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma (PTRMS) is controversial and has changed over the past 2 decades.
  • The Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group (IRSG) required ipsilateral RPLND (IRPLND) for all patients with PTRMS treated on IRS-III (1984-91), but changed to clinical evaluation of RPLNs using computerized tomography (CT) in IRS-IV (1991 through 1997).
  • Nodal radiation therapy was administered only to patients with RPLNs recognized as positive; such patients received more intensive chemotherapy as well.
  • Furthermore, adolescents with recognized group II tumors experienced better 3-year FFS than those with group I tumors on IRS-IV (100% versus 68%, P =.06), most likely as a result of receiving radiotherapy and intensified chemotherapy.
  • Furthermore, adolescent boys with group I tumors experienced worse FFS than those with Group II tumors on IRS-IV, probably because some patients with group II tumors were not identified by CT imaging and thus received less effective therapy.
  • These data suggest that adolescents should have ipsilateral RPLN dissection as part of their routine staging, and those with positive lymph nodes require intensified chemotherapy as well as nodal irradiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Node Excision. Neoplasm Staging. Retroperitoneal Space / surgery. Rhabdomyosarcoma / drug therapy. Rhabdomyosarcoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Humans. Male. Survival Rate / trends. Testicular Neoplasms. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company
  • (PMID = 11481652.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-8586
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA24507; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA72989
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. El Mesbahi O, Terrier-Lacombe MJ, Rebischung C, Theodore C, Vanel D, Fizazi K: Chemotherapy in patients with teratoma with malignant transformation. Eur Urol; 2007 May;51(5):1306-11; discussion 1311-2
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  • [Title] Chemotherapy in patients with teratoma with malignant transformation.
  • The only published series of patients with TMT treated with chemotherapy comprised 10 patients.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sarcoma was identified in 10 of 14 patients, with rhabdomyosarcoma ranking first (n=4).
  • Other histological types included adenocarcinoma (n=3) and bronchoalveolar carcinoma (n=1).
  • RESULTS: Primary treatment consisted of surgery alone in 4 patients.
  • The remaining 10 patients received first-line cisplatin-based chemotherapy with resection of residual masses (n=5): 4 patients had a complete response and 5 had a partial response.
  • Overall, 9 patients developed a relapse with a median time of 84 mo (range: 6-168).
  • At relapse, 8 patients received a chemotherapy regimen directed to the non-GCT component.
  • CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is by far the largest reported European series of chemotherapy in TMT.
  • Although TMT has a poor prognosis compared to GCT, its management may be improved by adapted chemotherapy associated with surgical resection of residual masses.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Teratoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Humans. Male. Mediastinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Mediastinal Neoplasms / pathology. Middle Aged. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / pathology. Sarcoma / drug therapy. Sarcoma / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17081678.001).
  • [ISSN] 0302-2838
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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15. Amin RM, Kokubo T, Hiroshima K, Narita M, Itou K, Kuroki M, Tanizawa T, Nakatani Y: Metastatic germ cell tumor of the lung masquerading as primary rhabdomyosarcoma. Pathol Int; 2005 Oct;55(10):649-54
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  • [Title] Metastatic germ cell tumor of the lung masquerading as primary rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • Two years after testicular resection was carried out in a 40-year-old man that revealed mixed germ cell tumor of more than one histological type (seminoma, embryonal cell carcinoma, and yolk sac tumor), he presented with an asymptomatic pulmonary nodule in his left lower lobe.
  • Video-assisted thoracoscopic partial resection of the tumor revealed a 24 x 20 mm teratoma with somatic-type malignancy in which pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma was a major element.
  • One year later, asymptomatic tumor recurrence occurred at both edges of the stapler line as 22 x 20 mm and 10 x 5 mm nodules composed only of pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • Throughout the course there was no abdominal lymph node swelling detected by computed tomography (CT) and tumor markers were normal.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy was started after the tumor recurrence.
  • Currently, the patient is still undergoing chemotherapy 5 months after the tumor recurrence.
  • In conclusion, despite the fact that primary pulmonary rhabdromyosarcoma is a rare neoplasm, metastatic pulmonary germ cell tumor with somatic-type malignancy showing predominantly rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation should be considered in the differential diagnosis of such lesions of the lung.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16185296.001).
  • [ISSN] 1320-5463
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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16. Gupta P, Singh U, Singh SK, Kapoor R, Gupta V, Das A: Bilateral symmetrical metastasis to all extraocular muscles from distant rhabdomyosarcoma. Orbit; 2010 Jun;29(3):146-8
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  • [Title] Bilateral symmetrical metastasis to all extraocular muscles from distant rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • INTRODUCTION: Rhabdomyosarcoma arising in the inguinal region has high potential of metastasis.
  • This case report describes a patient with inguinal rhabdomyosarcoma, which metastasized to both orbits to all the extraocular muscles.
  • The patient underwent high inguinal orchiectomy with hemiscrotectomy for the mass and histopathology revealed rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • After 2 weeks of initial surgery the patient developed bilateral axial proptosis and radiological imaging revealed bilateral extraocular muscle thickening involving all the extraocular muscles.
  • A biopsy of right superior rectus muscle confirmed rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • COMMENT: Although rhabdomyosarcoma is the commonest primary orbital malignant mass developing in young patients, it is an uncommon metastasis.
  • Metastasis from inguinal rhabdomyosarcoma to extraocular muscles bilaterally involving all the muscles has not been reported in the literature.
  • The present report describes one such patient with favorable initial response to chemotherapy and muscle thickness reverting to normal.
  • Metastasis from a distant site should be considered in differential diagnosis when evaluating a patient with bilateral enlargement of all extraocular muscles.
  • [MeSH-major] Muscle Neoplasms / secondary. Rhabdomyosarcoma / secondary. Scrotum / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Disease Progression. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Oculomotor Muscles. Orbital Neoplasms / drug therapy. Orbital Neoplasms / secondary. Orchiectomy / methods. Risk Assessment

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  • (PMID = 20497080.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-5108
  • [Journal-full-title] Orbit (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orbit
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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17. Crist WM, Anderson JR, Meza JL, Fryer C, Raney RB, Ruymann FB, Breneman J, Qualman SJ, Wiener E, Wharam M, Lobe T, Webber B, Maurer HM, Donaldson SS: Intergroup rhabdomyosarcoma study-IV: results for patients with nonmetastatic disease. J Clin Oncol; 2001 Jun 15;19(12):3091-102
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  • [Title] Intergroup rhabdomyosarcoma study-IV: results for patients with nonmetastatic disease.
  • PURPOSE: The study goal was to improve outcome in children with rhabdomyosarcoma by comparing risk-based regimens of surgery, radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eight hundred eighty-three previously untreated eligible patients with nonmetastatic rhabdomyosarcoma entered the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study-IV (IRS-IV) (1991 to 1997) after surgery and were randomized treatment by primary tumor site, group (1 to 3), and stage (I to III).
  • Overall, patients with embryonal tumors benefited from intensive three-drug chemotherapy in IRS-IV (3-year FFS, 83%).
  • The improvement was seen for patients with stage I or stage II/III, group 1/2 disease, many of whom received VA chemotherapy on IRS-III.
  • CONCLUSION: VAC and VAI or VIE with surgery (with or without RT), are equally effective for patients with local or regional rhabdomyosarcoma and are more effective for embryonal tumors than therapies used previously.
  • Younger patients with group 1 paratesticular embryonal tumors and all patients with group 1/2 orbit or eyelid tumors can usually be cured with VA chemotherapy along with postoperative RT for group 2 disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Radiotherapy / methods. Rhabdomyosarcoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Disease-Free Survival. Dose Fractionation. Eyelid Neoplasms / mortality. Eyelid Neoplasms / pathology. Eyelid Neoplasms / therapy. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Orbital Neoplasms / mortality. Orbital Neoplasms / pathology. Orbital Neoplasms / therapy. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Testicular Neoplasms / mortality. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 11408506.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-13539; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-24507; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-29139; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-30138; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-30969
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Ferrari A, Bisogno G, Casanova M, Meazza C, Piva L, Cecchetto G, Zanetti I, Pilz T, Mattke A, Treuner J, Carli M: Paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma: report from the Italian and German Cooperative Group. J Clin Oncol; 2002 Jan 15;20(2):449-55
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  • [Title] Paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma: report from the Italian and German Cooperative Group.
  • PURPOSE: We report the experience of the German-Italian Cooperative Group with 216 pediatric patients with paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma treated over 20 years.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: At diagnosis, 198 patients had localized disease and 18 had distant metastases.
  • All patients received chemotherapy, which was reduced in intensity and duration for patients with low-risk features in subsequent protocols.
  • RESULTS: Among 72 patients with a negative retroperitoneal computed tomography (CT) scan, surgical assessment detected nodal involvement in only one case.
  • Retroperitoneal nodal recurrence was the major cause of treatment failure.
  • CONCLUSION: The outcome for patients with localized paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma is excellent, despite the reduction in chemotherapy over the years: an alkylating agent-free and anthracycline-free regimen is adequate treatment for low-risk patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Rhabdomyosarcoma / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 11786573.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Kourda N, El Atat R, Derouiche A, Bettaib I, Baltagi S, Zermani R: [Paratesticular pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma in an adult: diagnosis and management]. Cancer Radiother; 2007 Sep;11(5):280-3
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  • [Title] [Paratesticular pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma in an adult: diagnosis and management].
  • A paratesticular pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma occurring in a 63-year old man is reported.
  • CT-scan and histological examination with immunohistochemical study were necessary for the diagnosis and stadification of this cancer.
  • The patient developed a local recurrence, which was treated by radiotherapy, and subsequently developed metastases two years later, which were treated by chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Rhabdomyosarcoma. Testicular Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / radiography. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy. Orchiectomy. Radiotherapy Dosage. Testis / pathology. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17611140.001).
  • [ISSN] 1278-3218
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer radiothérapie : journal de la Société française de radiothérapie oncologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Radiother
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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20. Grüschow K, Kyank U, Stuhldreier G, Fietkau R: Surgical repositioning of the contralateral testicle before irradiation of a paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma for preservation of hormone production. Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2007 Jul-Aug;24(5):371-7
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  • [Title] Surgical repositioning of the contralateral testicle before irradiation of a paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma for preservation of hormone production.
  • A then 16-year-old boy developed a right paratesticular embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma in 2003.
  • Initial treatment consisted of orchiectomy and chemotherapy.
  • Hyperfractionated, accelerated radiation therapy was administered to a total dose of 44.0 Gy.
  • [MeSH-major] Hormones / biosynthesis. Radiotherapy / methods. Rhabdomyosarcoma / therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Male. Testis / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17613883.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-0669
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric hematology and oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hormones
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21. Tomaszewski JJ, Sweeney DD, Kavoussi LR, Ost MC: Laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for high-risk pediatric patients with paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma. J Endourol; 2010 Jan;24(1):31-4
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for high-risk pediatric patients with paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) is recommended in children 10 years or older with paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma (PTRMS).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Three patients, mean age 13.6 years (range 10-16 yrs), underwent modified template LRPLND after radical orchiectomy for preoperative rhabdomyosarcoma stage T(1a)N(0)M(0), T(1b)N(0)M(0), and T(2b)N(0)M(0), respectively.
  • RESULTS: Average operative time was 382 minutes (range 245-656 minutes).
  • All patients received adjuvant chemotherapy with vincristine, actinomycin, and cyclophosphamide.
  • CONCLUSION: LRPLND for high-risk pediatric patients with PTRMS is a safe diagnostic and therapeutic procedure with the benefit of rapid convalescence, enabling early commencement of adjuvant chemotherapy.

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  • (PMID = 19839782.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-900X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endourology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endourol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Cao Avellaneda E, Alarcón Martínez H, Fuster Soler JL, López Cubillana P, Llinares Riestra E, Pérez Albacete M: [Testicular and paratesticular prepuberal tumors: our experience and update on the topic]. Actas Urol Esp; 2005 Apr;29(4):355-9
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  • [Title] [Testicular and paratesticular prepuberal tumors: our experience and update on the topic].
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the importance of testicular and paratesticular prepubertal tumors in our center and to make an update on the topic.
  • METHODS AND PATIENTS: Data from all patients diagnosed of testicular and paratesticular prepubertal tumors and treated in our pediatric oncology unit from January 1st 1998 to December 31st 2003 have been revised.
  • RESULTS: Seven cases are reported among one hundred and ninety patients (represents 3,68 percent of all treated tumors): five tumors affecting the testis and two cases of paratesticular tumors.
  • Pathology classification was as follows: one yolk sack tumor, one mature teratoma, two nongerminomatous testicular tumors (one Sertoli cell tumor and one unclassifiable), one Burkitt's lymphoma and two paratesticular rhabdomyosarcomas.
  • Primary approach was inguinal radical orchiectomy in all cases except neoadjuvant chemotherapy in the case of lymphoma and partial escrotectomy in one patient previously managed with transcrotal orchiectomy.
  • Rhabdomyosarcoma cases received adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Testicular and paratesticular prepubertal tumors are rare.
  • Except for one patient affected of lymphoma, surgical primary approach have been essential for treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Humans. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Orchiectomy. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15981422.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-4806
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas urologicas espanolas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Urol Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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23. Yang GS, Jiang H, Xia D, Fan LX, Liu BC, Zhong RL, Luo YH, Zhou SY: [Paratesticular embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma: report of 5 cases and review of the literature]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue; 2010 Sep;16(9):840-3
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  • [Title] [Paratesticular embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma: report of 5 cases and review of the literature].
  • OBJECTIVE: To improve the diagnosis and treatment of paratesticular embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (PER).
  • METHODS: We retrospectively studied the clinical data of 5 cases of PER treated from 1997 to 2009 and reviewed the relevant literature, focusing on its clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment.
  • RESULTS: The 5 cases of PER, 2 involving the spermatic cord, 2 the testis and 1 the tunica vaginalis, were all treated by radical orchiectomy.
  • Postoperatively, 2 of the patients received chemotherapy and the other 3 refused adjunctive therapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Early diagnosis, radical orchiectomy and adjunctive chemo- or radio-therapy are effective means to the treatment of PER.
  • [MeSH-major] Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal. Testicular Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 21171272.001).
  • [ISSN] 1009-3591
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua nan ke xue = National journal of andrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
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24. Merguerian PA, Chang B: Pediatric genitourinary tumors. Curr Opin Oncol; 2002 May;14(3):273-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Each year advances are made in the clinical evaluation and treatment of genitourinary tumors in children.
  • In addition, information is accumulating about the long-term outcome and complications associated with treatment modalities.
  • This article reviews the 2001 literature on pediatric Wilms tumor, other renal tumors, rhabdomyosarcoma of the pelvis, paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma, and testicular tumors.
  • Long-term complications of treatment are also discussed, including short stature and leukemia.
  • The Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group reported on the results of treatment for nonmetastatic disease and the goals of the upcoming Study V, reduction of chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Clinical Trials as Topic. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / therapy. Male. Rhabdomyosarcoma / diagnosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma / therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / therapy. Treatment Outcome. Wilms Tumor / diagnosis. Wilms Tumor / pathology. Wilms Tumor / therapy

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  • (PMID = 11981271.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8746
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 43
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25. Stewart RJ, Martelli H, Oberlin O, Rey A, Bouvet N, Spicer RD, Godzinski J, Stevens MC, International Society of Pediatric Oncology: Treatment of children with nonmetastatic paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma: results of the Malignant Mesenchymal Tumors studies (MMT 84 and MMT 89) of the International Society of Pediatric Oncology. J Clin Oncol; 2003 Mar 1;21(5):793-8
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  • [Title] Treatment of children with nonmetastatic paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma: results of the Malignant Mesenchymal Tumors studies (MMT 84 and MMT 89) of the International Society of Pediatric Oncology.
  • PURPOSE: To report the results of the Malignant Mesenchymal Tumors studies (MMT 84 and 89) of the International Society of Pediatric Oncology (SIOP) in males with nonmetastatic paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • Treatment was stratified by stage.
  • In the MMT 89 study, males with completely resected tumors at diagnosis received less chemotherapy (vincristine and dactinomycin) than patients in the MMT 84 study (ifosfamide, vincristine, and dactinomycin).
  • RESULTS: Median age at diagnosis was 65 months.
  • OS and EFS were significantly worse for males with tumors greater than 5 cm and for males older than 10 years at diagnosis.
  • Intensified chemotherapy incorporating alkylating agents for this subgroup may be preferred to the use of systematic lymphadenectomy to improve survival while minimizing the burden of therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Dactinomycin / therapeutic use. Ifosfamide / therapeutic use. Mesenchymoma / drug therapy. Rhabdomyosarcoma / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy. Vincristine / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Infant. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm Staging. Salvage Therapy. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12610176.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 1CC1JFE158 / Dactinomycin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide; IVA protocol; SIOP protocol
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26. Opot EN, Magoha GA: Testicular cancer at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J; 2000 Feb;77(2):80-5
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  • [Title] Testicular cancer at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence, clinical characteristics, management methods and prognosis of testicular cancer at Kenyatta National Hospital.
  • DESIGN: Retrospective case study of testicular cancer patients over a fifteen year period.
  • PARTICIPANTS: All histologically confirmed testicular cancer patients recorded at the Histopathology Department of Kenyatta National Hospital between 1983 and 1997.
  • Thirty one patients (79.49%) presented with painless testicular swellings, eleven (28.08%) with pain, nine (23.08%) with scrotal heaviness, six (15.38%) with abdominal swellings and one (2.56%) each with gynaecomastia and eye swelling.
  • On examination 32 patients (82.05%) had testicular masses, ten (25.64%) had abdominal masses, seven (17.91%) had supraclavicular and cervical lymphadenopathy, and one each (2.56%) had gynaecomastia and eye mass respectively.
  • More than eighty nine per cent had germ cell cancers with seminoma accounting for 67.35%, teratoma 12.24%, embroyonal carcinoma 8.16%, rhabdomyosarcoma 6.12% and malignant germ cell tumour, orchioblastoma and dysgerminoma each accounted for 2.04%.
  • Three patients (7.7%) had orchidectomy and radiotherapy and chemotherapy, sixteen (41.03%) had orchidectomy and radiotherapy, six (15.38%) had orchidectomy and chemotherapy, ten (25.64%) had radiotherapy and chemotherapy, three (7.7%) and two (5.13%) had only chemotherapy and radiotherapy respectively.
  • No cisplastin based chemotherapy regime was used.
  • Cisplastin based chemotherapy with up to 90% cure rates should be included as a component of testicular cancer management at Kenyatta National Hospital.
  • This retrospective study was undertaken to determine the prevalence, clinical characteristics, management methods and prognosis of testicular cancer at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.
  • All histologically confirmed testicular cancer patients recorded at the Histopathology Department between 1993 and 1997 were analyzed.
  • The clinical symptoms presented were painless testicular swelling (n = 31, 79.49%), testicular pain (n = 11, 28.08%), scrotal heaviness (n = 9, 23.08%), abdominal swelling (n = 6, 15.38%), gynecomastia (n = 1, 2.56%), and eye swelling (n = 1, 2.56%).
  • On examination, 32 patients (82.05%) had testicular masses, 10 (25.64%) had abdominal masses, 7 (17.91%) had supraclavicular and cervical lymphadenopathy, 1 had gynecomastia, and 1 had an orbital mass.
  • More than 89% of patients had germ cell cancers with seminoma accounting for 67.35%, teratoma for 12.24%, embryonal carcinoma for 8.16%, rhabdomyosarcoma for 6.12%, and malignant germ cell tumor, orchioblastoma, and dysgerminoma each accounting for 2.04%.
  • The various methods of treatment include orchidectomy and radiotherapy and chemotherapy in 3 patients (7.7%), orchidectomy and radiotherapy in 16 patients (41.03%), orchidectomy and chemotherapy in 6 patients (15.38%), and radiotherapy and chemotherapy in 10 patients (25.64%).
  • No cisplatin-based chemotherapy was used.
  • Hence, cisplatin-based chemotherapy with up to 90% cure rates should be included in the testicular cancer management in this hospital.
  • [MeSH-major] Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Hospitals, Teaching. Humans. Incidence. Kenya / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Orchiectomy. Prognosis. Referral and Consultation. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 10774080.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-835X
  • [Journal-full-title] East African medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] East Afr Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] KENYA
  • [Other-IDs] PIP/ 149564; POP/ 00296083
  • [Keywords] PIP ; Cancer (major topic) / Clinical Research (major topic) / Prevalence (major topic) / Research Report (major topic) / Retrospective Studies (major topic) / Signs And Symptoms (major topic) / Testis (major topic) / Treatment (major topic) / Africa / Africa South Of The Sahara / Biology / Developing Countries / Diseases / Eastern Africa / English Speaking Africa / Genitalia / Genitalia, Male / Kenya / Measurement / Neoplasms / Physiology / Research Methodology / Studies / Urogenital System
  • [General-notes] PIP/ TJ: EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL.
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27. Abd El-Aal HH, Habib EE, Mishrif MM: Rhabdomyosarcoma: the experience of the pediatric unit of Kasr El-Aini Center of Radiation Oncology and Nuclear Medicine (NEMROCK) (from January 1992 to January 2001). J Egypt Natl Canc Inst; 2006 Mar;18(1):51-60

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Rhabdomyosarcoma: the experience of the pediatric unit of Kasr El-Aini Center of Radiation Oncology and Nuclear Medicine (NEMROCK) (from January 1992 to January 2001).
  • Our present study is a retrospective analysis of the treatment results of new rhabdomyosarcoma pediatric patients who had attended the pediatric unit clinic of Kasr El-Aini Center of Radiation Oncology and Nuclear Medicine (NEMROCK) from January 1992 to January 2001).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-five new cases of pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma attended the pediatric unit outpatient clinic of (NEMROCK) from the period of January 1992 until January 2001.
  • Stage I, II orbital and stage I para-testicular embryonal rhabdomyosarcomas received 32 weeks of vincristine and actinomycin- D (vincristine 1.5 mg/m2 weekly, actinomycin-D 0.015 mg/Kg/day day 1 to day 5).
  • Other pathologies, sites and stages received 52 weeks of chemotherapy.
  • Chemotherapy regimens included VAC (vincristine 1.5 mg/m2 weekly, actinomycin-D 0.015 mg/Kg/day day 1 to day 5 and endoxan 2.2 gm/m2 I.V with mesna every 21 days), VAI (vincristine, actinomycin-D and ifosfamide 1.8 gm/m2 I.V day 1 to day 5 with mesna) or VIE (vincristine, ifosfamide and vepesid 100 mg/m2 I.V day 1 to day 5) [11,12].
  • Stages I and II received conventional fractionation radiotherapy 4140 cGy on week 13, stages III and IV received conventional fractionation radiation therapy 5040 cGy also, on week 13.
  • Relapsing cases received palliative radiation therapy and chemotherapy (cisplatinum I.V 100 mg/m2 divided over 2 days and vepesid 100 mg/m2 I.V day 1 to day 3 to be recycled every 21 days).
  • Overall survival, disease free survival, treatment response, and complications of treatment were assessed and statistically analyzed.
  • RESULTS: Fifty-five new cases of pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma attended the pediatric unit outpatient clinic of (NEMROCK) and were evaluated.
  • Pathologically, embryonal type was the commonest statistically (48/55, i.e.
  • 87.3%) compared to the alveolar type (7/55, i.e. 12.7%).
  • CONCLUSION: Despite the advances in the therapy of rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • Nearly 30% of the pediatric cases with rhabdomyosarcoma experience progressive or relapsing disease, which has a fatal end.
  • The factors determining the 5-year survival after relapse at the time of initial diagnosis include histological subtype, and disease cluster.
  • These findings will form the basis of a multi-institutional risk adapted relapse protocol for childhood rhabdomyosarcoma patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Rhabdomyosarcoma / mortality. Rhabdomyosarcoma / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 17237856.001).
  • [ISSN] 1110-0362
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Egypt Natl Canc Inst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
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28. Guo CC, Punar M, Contreras AL, Tu SM, Pisters L, Tamboli P, Czerniak B: Testicular germ cell tumors with sarcomatous components: an analysis of 33 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Aug;33(8):1173-8
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  • [Title] Testicular germ cell tumors with sarcomatous components: an analysis of 33 cases.
  • The development of sarcomatous component (SC) in testicular germ cell tumor (GCT) is an uncommon phenomenon.
  • We searched our surgical pathology files from 1985 to 2007 and identified 33 cases of testicular GCTs with SC.
  • All patients underwent radical orchiectomy, which demonstrated a GCT in all patients except for 3 patients who had received neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • All testicular GCTs contained a teratomatous component.
  • The SC was observed in primary testicular tumor (n=19), in metastasis (n=11), or in both primary testicular tumor and metastasis (n=3).
  • The average percentage of the SC in the primary testicular GCT was 32% (range: 5% to 99%).
  • The most common histologic type of SC was rhabdomyosarcoma (n=24), followed by high-grade unclassified sarcoma (n=5), rhabdomyosarcoma admixed with high-grade unclassified sarcoma (n=2), angiosarcoma (n=1), and low-grade myxoid sarcoma (n=1).
  • Of the 13 patients whose SC was limited to the testicular GCT, 2 patients died of GCT not otherwise specified at 37 and 68 months, respectively; and 11 patients were free of disease at a mean of 46 months.
  • These results suggest that patients with a SC confined to the primary testicular GCT may not have a higher risk of mortality than those at a comparable stage without a SC.

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  • (PMID = 19561445.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA091846; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA091846-100006; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA085078-10; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA085078-10; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA085078; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA091846-100006
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS229448; NLM/ PMC3812063
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29. Skolarus TA, Bhayani SB, Chiang HC, Brandes SB, Kibel AS, Landman J, Figenshau RS: Laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for low-stage testicular cancer. J Endourol; 2008 Jul;22(7):1485-9
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for low-stage testicular cancer.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Current management options for low-stage mixed malignant germ-cell testicular tumors (MMGCT) after radical orchiectomy include surveillance, chemotherapy, or retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND).
  • The open RPLND is the surgical gold standard and has been duplicated laparoscopically with confirmed diagnostic effectiveness; however, its therapeutic oncologic value in MMGCT has never been proven.
  • We present our laparoscopic RPLND (L-RPLND) data for low-stage MMGCT and paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective chart reviews were performed for patients who underwent L-RPLND at our institution for low clinical stage MMGCT and paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma from May 2003 to December 2007.
  • RESULTS: A total of 26 L-RPLND procedures were completed, 3 for paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • Mean operative time was 250 minutes (range 176-369 min); estimated blood loss was 145 mL (range 50-500 mL); lymph node count was 23.8 (range 8-48); and hospital stay was 1.5 days (range 1-3 d).
  • There were no conversions to an open procedure, blood transfusions, or operative complications.
  • Chemotherapy was instituted in five of six patients with pathologic stage II disease.
  • CONCLUSION: L-RPLND as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool provides the benefits of a minimally invasive approach to MMGCT.
  • It is the procedure of choice at our institution for low-stage MMGCT and paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma.

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  • (PMID = 18613781.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-900X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endourology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endourol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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30. Emerson RE, Ulbright TM, Zhang S, Foster RS, Eble JN, Cheng L: Nephroblastoma arising in a germ cell tumor of testicular origin. Am J Surg Pathol; 2004 May;28(5):687-92
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  • [Title] Nephroblastoma arising in a germ cell tumor of testicular origin.
  • We report a nephroblastoma arising in a germ cell tumor of testicular origin occurring in a 22-year-old man.
  • Orchiectomy demonstrated a malignant mixed germ cell tumor composed of mature and immature teratoma with nephroblastoma and rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • Following chemotherapy, the patient developed supraclavicular and retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy.
  • Using tissue microdissection and loss of heterozygosity analysis, we investigated the clonality of the mature teratoma, immature teratoma, nephroblastoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma components of the primary tumor and of the metastatic mature teratoma at the two separate distant sites.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology. Wilms Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15105660.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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31. Tröbs RB, Krauss M, Geyer C, Tannapfel A, Körholz D, Hirsch W: Surgery in infants and children with testicular and paratesticular tumours: a single centre experience over a 25-year-period. Klin Padiatr; 2007 May-Jun;219(3):146-51
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  • [Title] Surgery in infants and children with testicular and paratesticular tumours: a single centre experience over a 25-year-period.
  • Testicular and even more paratesticular tumours in children are rare.
  • The aim of the study is to characterise the spectrum of these lesions with focus on the feasibility and effectiveness of testis sparing surgery.
  • The spectrum of testicular tumours comprised 13 germ cell tumours (6 yolk sac tumours, 6 teratomas, 1 embryonal carcinoma) and 4 sex cord stromal tumours (2 Leydig's cell, Sertoli's cell, granulosa cell).
  • Further on, we observed 3 boys with paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), and three with testicular and paratesticular metastases (Wilms' tumour, neuroblastoma, leukaemia).
  • Dependent on tumour histology, stage and the recommended treatment schedule postoperative chemotherapy was added.
  • Testis sparing surgery was performed in 3 boys with primary testicular tumours (2 Leydig's cell, mature cystic teratoma).
  • During a median follow up of 5 years all patients with primary testicular tumours survived event free.
  • Meta-analysis of the recent literature revealed that testis sparing surgery is feasible and save in prepubertal boys after exclusion of a malignant tumour.
  • If a testis sparing approach is planned, the following criteria are essential: 1.
  • 3. The presence of sufficient healthy testicular parenchyma.
  • However, the high rate of malignant or potentially malignant tumours suggests that high inguinal orchidectomy should remain the surgical standard of therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulosa Cell Tumor / surgery. Leydig Cell Tumor / surgery. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Sertoli Cell Tumor / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / blood. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnostic Imaging. Feasibility Studies. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Orchiectomy / methods. Retrospective Studies. alpha-Fetoproteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17525908.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8630
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinische Pädiatrie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Padiatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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32. Spiess PE, Pisters LL, Liu P, Pettaway CA, Kamat AM, Gomez JA, Tannir NM: Malignant transformation of testicular teratoma: a chemoresistant phenotype. Urol Oncol; 2008 Nov-Dec;26(6):595-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignant transformation of testicular teratoma: a chemoresistant phenotype.
  • RESULTS: Two patients presented with clinical stage I disease in which malignant transformation occurred within the primary testis tumor (rhabdomyosarcoma in 1 and adenocarcinoma in 1).
  • Of the remaining 7 patients, the clinical stages were IIA (N = 1), IIB (N = 3), and III (N = 3), and all were treated with chemotherapy followed by RPLND.
  • The MTT histology of these RPLND specimens consisted of adenocarcinoma (N = 3), rhabdomyosarcoma (N = 2), angiosarcoma (N = 1), and astrocytoma (N = 1).
  • Following preoperative chemotherapy, a significant radiologic response (defined as more than a 25% reduction in maximum tumor circumferential diameter) was demonstrated in 1 patient, and normalization of serum tumor markers was demonstrated in 6.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In our experience, MTT is significantly resistant to current chemotherapeutic regimens, as demonstrated by its poor radiologic response to treatment.
  • Alternative therapeutic strategies targeted to MTT are thus needed.
  • [MeSH-major] Teratoma / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Retroperitoneal Space

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  • [Cites] J Clin Oncol. 2005 Apr 20;23(12):2781-8 [15837993.001]
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  • (PMID = 18367105.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-1439
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS610854; NLM/ PMC4121060
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33. Oldenburg J, Alfsen GC, Lien HH, Aass N, Waehre H, Fossa SD: Postchemotherapy retroperitoneal surgery remains necessary in patients with nonseminomatous testicular cancer and minimal residual tumor masses. J Clin Oncol; 2003 Sep 1;21(17):3310-7
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  • [Title] Postchemotherapy retroperitoneal surgery remains necessary in patients with nonseminomatous testicular cancer and minimal residual tumor masses.
  • PURPOSE: To determine preoperative parameters that predict the histology of specimens obtained by retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) in patients with nonseminomatous germ cell cancer (NSGCT) whose residual mass was </= 20 mm in diameter after modern cisplatin-based induction chemotherapy.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eighty-seven patients with metastatic NSGCT underwent RPLND after having received cisplatin- or carboplatin-based induction chemotherapy.
  • In all patients, the largest diameter of the residual mass on the transaxial plane was </= 20 mm, as assessed by abdominal computed tomography (CT) immediately before RPLND.
  • RESULTS: Complete fibrosis or necrosis was found in 58 patients (67%), teratoma was found in 23 patients (26%), and vital malignant germ cell tumor was found in six patients (7%), including one patient with rhabdomyosarcoma in the RPLND specimen.
  • CONCLUSION: One third of retroperitoneal postchemotherapy lesions </= 20 mm contained residual vital tumor tissue, despite modern chemotherapy regimens.
  • Therefore, postchemotherapy RPLND remains necessary in patients with minimal-size residual lesions to facilitate easy and safe follow-up and initiate additional therapy as early as possible, thus avoiding recurrences.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Chi-Square Distribution. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Peritoneum. Statistics, Nonparametric. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] J Clin Oncol. 2005 Jun 1;23(16):3853 [15923581.001]
  • (PMID = 12947067.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide
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34. Castellino SM, McLean TW: Pediatric genitourinary tumors. Curr Opin Oncol; 2007 May;19(3):248-53
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  • RECENT FINDINGS: Survival continues to improve for primary renal, bladder/prostate and testicular tumors in childhood.
  • The addition of more intensive chemotherapy for anaplastic histology disease, recognition of loss of heterozygosity for chromosomes 1p and 16q as an adverse prognostic factor in favorable histology Wilms' tumor, and the utilization of molecular markers to better characterize all renal tumors will better enable individualized therapy.
  • Recognition and treatment of anaplastic histology and bilateral Wilms' tumor remains a challenge.
  • In rhabdomyosarcoma, genitourinary site and embryonal histology confer a relatively favorable prognosis.
  • SUMMARY: Advances in molecular oncology, diagnostic imaging, surgical approaches and long-term follow-up of childhood cancer survivors drive risk-stratified therapy in pediatric genitourinary tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Urogenital Neoplasms / diagnosis. Urogenital Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Female. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / therapy. Loss of Heterozygosity. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Rhabdomyosarcoma / genetics. Rhabdomyosarcoma / metabolism. Wilms Tumor / diagnosis. Wilms Tumor / genetics. Wilms Tumor / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17414644.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8746
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 66
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35. Wu HY, Snyder HM 3rd: Pediatric urologic oncology: bladder, prostate, testis. Urol Clin North Am; 2004 Aug;31(3):619-27, xi
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  • [Title] Pediatric urologic oncology: bladder, prostate, testis.
  • Although treatment for bladder, prostate, and testis cancer comprises a large part of adult urologic practice, the tumors that affect these organs in children are rare.
  • Rhabdomyosarcoma,which affects the bladder, prostate, vaginal, and paratesticular areas,is treated with a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation.
  • Most transitional cell carcinomas of the bladder and prepubertal testis tumors are managed surgically owing to the low stage at presentation.
  • Application of the technical advances learned in adults with tumors of the bladder, prostate, and testis, combined with an understanding of the difference in tumor biology, helps urologists improve the treatment of these tumors in children.
  • [MeSH-major] Prostatic Neoplasms / therapy. Rhabdomyosarcoma. Testicular Neoplasms / therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Cystectomy. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / surgery. Female. Humans. Leydig Cell Tumor / surgery. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Orchiectomy. Risk Assessment. Uterine Neoplasms / therapy. Vaginal Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 15313070.001).
  • [ISSN] 0094-0143
  • [Journal-full-title] The Urologic clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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36. D'Antiga L, Baker A, Pritchard J, Pryor D, Mieli-Vergani G: Veno-occlusive disease with multi-organ involvement following actinomycin-D. Eur J Cancer; 2001 Jun;37(9):1141-8
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  • Between 1993 and 1998, we managed 6 patients, all male, median age 19 months (range 6-48 months) who received Act-D for Wilms' tumour (n=4), clear cell sarcoma (n=1) or rhabdomyosarcoma (n=1).
  • All six children developed encephalopathy, hepatomegaly, ascites, reversed portal flow and renal impairment.
  • The treatment was supportive.
  • Severe Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome developed in 3 patients, all of whom died.
  • Intravascular coagulopathy precedes and characterises severe VOD during Act-D treatment.
  • [MeSH-minor] Child, Preschool. Constriction, Pathologic. Humans. Infant. Kidney Neoplasms / drug therapy. Male. Rhabdomyosarcoma / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy. Wilms Tumor / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 11378345.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-8049
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 1CC1JFE158 / Dactinomycin
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37. Cecchetto G, Guglielmi M, Inserra A, Zanetti I, Dall'Igna P, Gigante C, Carli M, Italian Cooperative Group on Soft-tissue Sarcomas: Primary re-excision: the Italian experience in patients with localized soft-tissue sarcomas. Pediatr Surg Int; 2001 Sep;17(7):532-4

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary re-excision: the Italian experience in patients with localized soft-tissue sarcomas.
  • Primary re-excision (PRE) is a wide, non-mutilating procedure carried out in patients with soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) when microscopic residuals are left after initial excision or when there are insufficient data on its completeness.
  • Of the 53 patients, 45 had complete histologic excision of the tumor (residuals were found in 21/45 specimens) and subsequently received chemotherapy (CT) alone: 39/45 are in their first complete remission (CR) with a median follow-up of 53 months; 6/45 (3 RMS, 3 NRSTS) relapsed, 4 locally (2 extremities, 2 trunk), and 1 of these died of progressive disease, and 2 with metastatic spread died of their disease.
  • The histologic types and the presence of residuals at PRE did not predict the failures; PRE was effective especially in extremity, trunk, and paratesticular sites, whereas its role was uncertain in large sarcomas over 5 cm in size.
  • [MeSH-major] Rhabdomyosarcoma / surgery. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery. Humans. Infant. Italy. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 11666052.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric surgery international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Surg. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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38. Malagón HD, Valdez AM, Moran CA, Suster S: Germ cell tumors with sarcomatous components: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 46 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Sep;31(9):1356-62
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Testicular Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The SC included embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (29), angiosarcoma (6), leiomyosarcoma (4), undifferentiated sarcoma (3), myxoid liposarcoma (1), malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (1), malignant "triton" tumor (1), and epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (1).
  • All patients were treated by cisplatinum-based chemotherapy plus other agents followed by surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Immunohistochemistry. Mediastinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sarcoma / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Orchiectomy. Ovariectomy. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17721191.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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39. Tomobe M, Miyanaga N, Kawai K, Kikuchi K, Uchida K, Takeshima H, Hasegawa Y, Nagasawa T, Akaza H: [Intrascrotal tumors: a clinicopathologic study of 15 cases]. Nihon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi; 2000 Sep;91(9):618-22

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • PURPOSE: We reviewed cases of intrascrotal tumors treated at our institution except for germ cell testicular tumors.
  • Of these, 15 cases (12.5%) were not germ cell testicular tumors.
  • RESULTS: The most common complaint regarding symptoms was painless testicular enlargement.
  • The histological diagnoses of 15 patients were 8 malignant lymphomas, 2 paratesticular rhabdomyosarcomas, 2 metastatic tumors (origin; stomach and prostate), 1 epidermoid cyst, 1 cyst of tunica testis, and 1 adenomatoid tumor.
  • Five 8 patients died in spite of systemic chemotherapy after an orchiectomy, whereas 2 cases with metastatic tumors died of primary cancer, and two cases with paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma are still alive and have had no evidence of disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Intrascrotal tumors except for germ cell testicular tumors are not common, and consist of various diseases.
  • Therefore, accurate diagnosis and precise treatment is important in the patient with intrascrotal tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 11068425.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5287
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Hinyōkika Gakkai zasshi. The japanese journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] JAPAN
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40. Ferrari A, Casanova M, Bisogno G, Carli M, Treuner J: What chemotherapy should alveolar paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma receive? Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2004 Sep;43(3):295
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Testicular Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] What chemotherapy should alveolar paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma receive?
  • [MeSH-major] Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 15266417.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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41. Anderson JR, Meyer WH, Wiener ES: Favorable outcome for children with paratesticular alveolar history rhabdomysosarcoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2004 Aug;43(2):180
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Testicular Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Rhabdomyosarcoma, Alveolar / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Humans. Male. Survival Rate

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  • [CommentOn] Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2004 Feb;42(2):134-8 [14752876.001]
  • (PMID = 15236289.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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