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1. Bacchetta J, Droz JP: [Practical use of o,p'DDD in adrenocortical carcinoma]. Bull Cancer; 2005 Mar;92(3):273-9
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  • [Transliterated title] Thérapeutique pratique par l'o,p'DDD dans le carcinome corticosurrénalien.
  • Adrenocortical carcinoma (AC) is a rare tumor of poor prognosis.
  • Its treatment by o,p'DDD remains a reference after initial surgery.
  • Its blood level must reach a therapeutic window (14-20 mg/l) to be effective and to limit toxicity.
  • It is given orally three times a day (3 grams a day for Lysodren and 6-12 grams a day for Mitotane.
  • Five patients (four with AC and one with a metastatic Leydig cell tumor of the testis) were treated by Lysodren.
  • Studies of combination with other treatments as chemotherapy and targeted drugs are warranted.
  • Surgery is an important part of metastatic disease treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / drug therapy. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Mitotane / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 15820922.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6917
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin du cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull Cancer
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane
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2. Suardi N, Strada E, Colombo R, Freschi M, Salonia A, Lania C, Cestari A, Carmignani L, Guazzoni G, Rigatti P, Montorsi F: Leydig cell tumour of the testis: presentation, therapy, long-term follow-up and the role of organ-sparing surgery in a single-institution experience. BJU Int; 2009 Jan;103(2):197-200
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  • [Title] Leydig cell tumour of the testis: presentation, therapy, long-term follow-up and the role of organ-sparing surgery in a single-institution experience.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report our single-centre experience of patients with Leydig cell tumour (LCT) of the testis, which represents the most frequent interstitial neoplasm of the testis, and for which the natural history and therapy are debated.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 1990 and 2006, 37 patients were treated for LCT of the testis.
  • All patients had testicular markers assessed and 21 (57%) had their hormonal profile assessed (total testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and oestradiol).
  • RESULTS: Medical referral was for a testicular mass in 32% of patients, gynaecomastia in 8%, testicular pain in 8%, infertility in 11%, and isosexual pseudo-puberty in 5%.
  • The mean (range) diameter of the tumour was 16.5 (6-68) mm.
  • Gynaecomastia was present in two of six patients at the follow-up, despite pharmacological treatment.
  • Surgical removal of the tumour is not always associated with resolution of symptoms and abnormal laboratory values.
  • [MeSH-major] Leydig Cell Tumor / surgery. Orchiectomy / methods. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery. Testis / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Gynecomastia / etiology. Humans. Luteinizing Hormone / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18990169.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-410X
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone
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3. Mosharafa AA, Foster RS, Bihrle R, Koch MO, Ulbright TM, Einhorn LH, Donohue JP: Does retroperitoneal lymph node dissection have a curative role for patients with sex cord-stromal testicular tumors? Cancer; 2003 Aug 15;98(4):753-7
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  • [Title] Does retroperitoneal lymph node dissection have a curative role for patients with sex cord-stromal testicular tumors?
  • BACKGROUND: Sex cord-stromal tumors account for < 5% of all adult testicular tumors, and 10% are malignant.
  • METHODS: Reviewing the Indiana University testis cancer registry revealed 17 patients who underwent RPLND for sex cord-stromal tumors.
  • The data examined included clinical and pathologic stage, surgical procedure, additional therapy received, and outcome.
  • RESULTS: Pathology included Leydig tumors in six patients, Sertoli tumors in four patients, sex cord-stromal tumors in five patients, a granulosa cell tumor in one patient, and a poorly differentiated non-germ cell tumor in one patient.
  • Of the eight patients with Stage II-III disease, six patients eventually died of metastatic disease despite additional radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy.
  • Although the therapeutic role of RPLND in patients with small-volume metastatic retroperitoneal tumors is unclear, RPLND remains an option to be performed immediately after orchiectomy, especially in patients who have tumors with malignant features and/or small-volume metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Node Excision. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 12910519.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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4. Ray-Coquard I, Pautier P, Pujade-Lauraine E, Méeus P, Morice P, Treilleux I, Duvillard P, Alexandre J, Lhommé C, Selle F, Guastalla J: [Rare ovarian tumours: therapeutic strategies in 2010, national website observatory for rare ovarian cancers and delineation of referent centers in France]. Bull Cancer; 2010 Jan;97(1):123-35
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  • [Title] [Rare ovarian tumours: therapeutic strategies in 2010, national website observatory for rare ovarian cancers and delineation of referent centers in France].
  • [Transliterated title] Les tumeurs rares de l'ovaire: stratégies thérapeutiques en 2010, Observatoire francophone des tumeurs rares de l'ovaire et émergence des centres de références.
  • Majorities of the rare ovarian cancers were represented by germ cell tumours and sex cords ovarian tumours with borderline tumours, clear cell carcinoma and mucinous carcinoma and are extremely rare malignant diseases of the ovaries.
  • Tumors of the stromal (Leydig cells) and/or sex cords (Sertoli cells) represent approximately 7% of ovarian cancers and develop from the conjunctive tissue (respectively, interstitial and nurse cells) of the ovaries.
  • Treatment of rare ovarian tumors is currently as follows.
  • Surgery is the same as that for ovarian adenocarcinoma, with one major difference: conservation of reproductive function in women of reproductive age is usual case for this type of tumor.
  • Chemotherapy for germ cell and sex cords tumors, based on data reported in the literature is the same as that prescribed for testicular germ-cell tumors.
  • For rare epithelial carcinoma, carboplatin plus paclitaxel remains the standard attitude with a well-known less efficiency than for other epithelial subtypes.
  • Surgery, chemotherapy and possible surgical intervention for residual lesions are highly complex.
  • Too rare to be included in randomized studies, treatment of these tumors has benefited from the therapeutic advancements made against testicular germ-cell tumors or with publications using retrospective data.
  • Because of the rarity of these tumours a specialized website (www.ovaire-rare.org) was developed in France in 2002.
  • The other new scientific data concern surgical procedures for sex cords tumors, evidence for presence of FOXL2 mutation in adult granulosa cell tumors, the use of paclitaxel plus carboplatin for sex cords tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Cancer Care Facilities / organization & administration. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / therapy. Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Female. France. Humans. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy. Rare Diseases / pathology. Rare Diseases / therapy. Sarcoma / pathology. Sarcoma / therapy. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / therapy

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  • (PMID = 20007069.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6917
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin du cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull Cancer
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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5. Mikola MK, Rahman NA, Paukku TH, Ahtiainen PM, Vaskivuo TE, Tapanainen JS, Poutanen M, Huhtaniemi IT: Gonadal tumors of mice double transgenic for inhibin-alpha promoter-driven simian virus 40 T-antigen and herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase are sensitive to ganciclovir treatment. J Endocrinol; 2001 Jul;170(1):79-90
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  • [Title] Gonadal tumors of mice double transgenic for inhibin-alpha promoter-driven simian virus 40 T-antigen and herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase are sensitive to ganciclovir treatment.
  • The mice develop gonadal somatic cell tumors at the age of 5-7 months; the ovarian tumors originate from granulosa cells, and those of the testes from Leydig cells.
  • Crossbreeding of the two TG mouse lines resulted in double TG mice (Inhalpha/TK-Inhalpha/Tag), which also developed gonadal tumors.
  • During GCV treatment, the total gonadal volume including the tumor, decreased in double TG mice by an average of 40% (P<0.05), while in single TG mice, there was a concomitant increase of 60% in gonadal size (P<0.05).
  • Peroral treatment with ACV was less effective, it did not reduce significantly the gonadal volume.
  • We also analyzed the in vitro efficacy of ACV and GCV treatments in transiently HSV-TK-transfected KK-1 murine granulosa tumor cells, originating from a single-positive Inhalpha/Tag mouse.
  • These results prove the principle that targeted expression of the HSV-TK gene in gonadal somatic cell tumors is potentially useful for tumor ablation by antiherpes treatment.
  • The findings provide a lead for further development of somatic gene therapy for gonadal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Ganciclovir / therapeutic use. Genetic Therapy / methods. Granulosa Cell Tumor / drug therapy. Leydig Cell Tumor / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Acyclovir / therapeutic use. Animals. Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming / genetics. Apoptosis. Breeding. Female. Gene Expression. Inhibins / genetics. Male. Mice. Mice, Transgenic. Promoter Regions, Genetic. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Simplexvirus / enzymology. Thymidine Kinase / genetics

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  • (PMID = 11431140.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-0795
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming; 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / inhibin-alpha subunit; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins; EC 2.7.1.21 / Thymidine Kinase; P9G3CKZ4P5 / Ganciclovir; X4HES1O11F / Acyclovir
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6. Rubio Tortosa I, Rodrigo Guanter V, García Torrelles M, Verges Prosper A, Planelles Gómez J, San Juan de Laorden C: [Leydig cell tumor: our experience. Bibliographic review]. Arch Esp Urol; 2006 Jun;59(5):467-72
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  • [Title] [Leydig cell tumor: our experience. Bibliographic review].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumor de células de Leydig: nuestros casos y revisión de la literatura.
  • OBJECTIVES: To report the case-series of Leydig cell tumors diagnosed at our center, and to perform a bibliographic review on the topic.
  • METHODS: Retrospective review of the clinical records of all patients with the diagnosis of Leydig cell tumor in our center over the last 12 years.
  • We evaluated the clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic features, as well as outcomes.
  • Mean patient age of the time of diagnosis was 51 years.
  • Seventy-five percent of the cases showed ultrasound signs compatible with testicular neoplasia.
  • In all of them surgical treatment was undertaken (inguinal orchyectomy); one of the patients underwent chemotherapy due to metastasis, having a good response.
  • CONCLUSIONS: It is a rare testicular tumor.
  • Inguinal orchyectomy is the treatment of choice.
  • [MeSH-major] Leydig Cell Tumor. Testicular Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 16903547.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0614
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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7. Cánovas Ivorra JA, Castillo Gimeno JM, Michelena Barcena J, Alberto Ramírez D, Vera Román J: [Leydig cell tumor. Case report and review of the literature]. Arch Esp Urol; 2006 Apr;59(3):293-6
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  • [Title] [Leydig cell tumor. Case report and review of the literature].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumor de células de Leydig. A propósito de un nuevo caso y revisión de la literatura.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report a new case of the rare Leydig cell tumor, and to perform bibliographic review.
  • METHODS: We report the case of a 38-year-old male with the clinical and ultrasound diagnosis of testicular tumor, and normal hormonal and extension studies.
  • He underwent inguinal radical orchyectomy and the pathology report of the specimen showed a Leydig cell tumor.
  • It was staged as T1N0M0, not receiving any further treatment with chemotherapy or radiotherapy.
  • RESULTS: The patient does not show evidence of recurrence after chest x-rays, abdominal-pelvic CT scan, ultrasound of the contralateral testis, and tumor markers.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We recommend a long-term follow-up with contralateral testicle ultrasound, CT scan, chest x-ray, and tumor markers.
  • [MeSH-major] Leydig Cell Tumor. Testicular Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 16724717.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0614
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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8. Bhat GM, Lone MI, Alsolami S, Iqbal QM: Recurrent malignant Leydig cell tumor of testis: a case report with review of literature. Gulf J Oncolog; 2010 Jan;(7):42-5
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  • [Title] Recurrent malignant Leydig cell tumor of testis: a case report with review of literature.
  • Malignant Testicular Leydig Cell tumors (leydigomas) are extremely rare to occur and mostly carry a bad prognosis.
  • Here we describe the disease course of a middle aged patient with recurrent / metastatic Leydig cell tumor of testes, who needed repeated oncosurgical intervention and chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Leydig Cell Tumor / secondary. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20164008.001).
  • [ISSN] 2078-2101
  • [Journal-full-title] The Gulf journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gulf J Oncolog
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Kuwait
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9. Farkas LM, Székely JG, Pusztai C, Baki M: High frequency of metastatic Leydig cell testicular tumours. Oncology; 2000 Aug;59(2):118-21
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  • [Title] High frequency of metastatic Leydig cell testicular tumours.
  • 690 patients were treated for testicular tumour in the course of 18 years.
  • The histology of 7 cases showed Leydig cell tumour.
  • At the time of diagnosis, 5 patients were found to have low stage, whereas 2 of the patients had advanced lymphatic involvement.
  • The hematogenous and lymphatic metastases proved to be resistant to chemotherapy.
  • Contrary to the major part of the literature, retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy should be performed with this histological type for the exact pathological staging immediately following orchiectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Leydig Cell Tumor. Testicular Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Bleomycin / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Vinblastine / therapeutic use

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 10971169.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-2414
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; PVB protocol
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10. Peschel R, Gettman MT, Steiner H, Neururer R, Bartsch G: Management of adult Leydig-cell testicular tumors: assessing the role of laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection. J Endourol; 2003 Nov;17(9):777-80
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  • [Title] Management of adult Leydig-cell testicular tumors: assessing the role of laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Leydig-cell tumors represent <5% of malignant testicular tumors in adults.
  • Orchiectomy is curative in approximately 90% of cases; however, the remaining men can develop metastases refractory to chemotherapy and radiation.
  • We evaluated the role of laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) in adult Leydig-cell tumors.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 1999 and 2001, laparoscopic RPLND was performed with four transperitoneal ports within a unilateral template for six patients with pure Leydig-cell tumors.
  • Presenting signs and symptoms, operative time, blood loss, intraoperative complications, postoperative complications, length of hospitalization, pathology reports, ejaculatory function, and survival were reviewed retrospectively.
  • Postoperatively, one patient developed erysipelas, but no other postoperative complications were recorded.
  • The mean operative time was 190 minutes, and the mean length of hospitalization was 4.3 days.
  • Pathologic analysis of lymph nodes revealed no evidence of metastatic Leydig-cell tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic RPLND is a safe, minimally invasive procedure for Leydig-cell tumors.
  • Additional clinical experience is required to evaluate its effectiveness for pathologic stage II tumors and to determine if a therapeutic advantage can be realized with a protocol employing laparoscopic RPLND for adult Leydig-cell tumors.

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  • (PMID = 14642042.001).
  • [ISSN] 0892-7790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endourology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endourol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Mukherjee S, Diver M, Weston PJ: Non islet cell tumor hypoglycaemia in a metastatic Leydig cell tumor. Acta Oncol; 2005;44(7):761-3
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  • [Title] Non islet cell tumor hypoglycaemia in a metastatic Leydig cell tumor.
  • Non islet cell tumour hypoglycaemia (NICTH) is a rare cause of hypoglycaemia associated with malignancy and can be considered as a paraneoplastic syndrome.
  • Treatment options are either surgical removal of the tumour, administration of growth hormone, glucocorticoids or combination of treatments.
  • A case of metastatic Leydig cell tumour causing NICTH has been discussed and the mechanism of NICTH hypoglycaemia and the treatment is outlined.
  • [MeSH-major] Glucocorticoids / therapeutic use. Hypoglycemia / etiology. Leydig Cell Tumor / secondary. Pancreatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 16227169.001).
  • [ISSN] 0284-186X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / C-Peptide; 0 / Glucocorticoids; 0 / Insulin; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; 67763-97-7 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor II
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12. Iwamoto I, Yanazume S, Fujino T, Yoshioka T, Douchi T: Leydig cell tumor in an elderly patient with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Mar;96(3):870-2
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  • [Title] Leydig cell tumor in an elderly patient with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome.
  • Testicular tumors often develop in patients with AIS, Sertoli cell tumor and seminoma being the most common types.
  • Leydig cell tumor in AIS is extremely rare.
  • CASE: A large abdominal tumor developed in a 73-year-old female patient.
  • The patient underwent the extirpation of bilateral gonads including the tumor, pelvic lymph nodes, omentum and appendix vermiformis.
  • The pathological diagnosis was malignant Leydig cell tumor of the left testis.
  • There was no adjuvant radiation or chemotherapy performed.
  • CONCLUSION: We reported an extremely rare case of malignant Leydig cell tumor developing in an elderly AIS patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Androgen-Insensitivity Syndrome / complications. Leydig Cell Tumor / complications. Ovarian Neoplasms / complications


13. Froehner M, Beuthien-Baumann B, Dittert DD, Schuler U, Wirth MP: Lack of efficacy of imatinib in a patient with metastatic Leydig cell tumor. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol; 2006 Nov;58(5):716-8
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  • [Title] Lack of efficacy of imatinib in a patient with metastatic Leydig cell tumor.
  • Imatinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor with activity in gastrointestinal stromal tumor and a variety of other solid and hematological malignancies.
  • Studies in vitro and in a mouse model suggested that the imatinib might also be active in malignant Leydig cell tumor.
  • We report on the--to our knowledge--first treatment experiment with imatinib in a patient with metastatic Leydig cell tumor.
  • Unfortunately, the tumor progressed during treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Leydig Cell Tumor / drug therapy. Piperazines / therapeutic use. Pyrimidines / therapeutic use. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Benzamides. Disease Progression. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Humans. Imatinib Mesylate. Male. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 16450163.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-5704
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Pyrimidines; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
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14. Efstathiou E, Logothetis CJ: Review of late complications of treatment and late relapse in testicular cancer. J Natl Compr Canc Netw; 2006 Nov;4(10):1059-70
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  • [Title] Review of late complications of treatment and late relapse in testicular cancer.
  • With testicular cancer, a disease with a cure rate of 95%, the challenge is to restore quality of life to pretreatment levels and sustain it long-term.
  • Although the implementation of guidelines and optimization of treatment modalities over the past years have served this purpose, some complications remain inevitable and experts are still challenged with late complications of outdated treatment standards.
  • This article focuses on the late complications of cisplatin-based chemotherapy without disregarding those of currently applied infradiaphragmatic radiation.
  • The most serious long-term complications of chemotherapy or radiotherapy are cardiovascular toxicity and second malignancies, as each has a 25-year risk of approximately 16%.
  • Compared with the general population, risk for second malignancies remains significantly increased for at least 35 years after treatment.
  • Chemotherapy-related cardiovascular toxicity is probably a result of both direct endothelial damage induced by cisplatin and indirect hormonal and metabolic changes.
  • Cisplatin-based chemotherapy affects not only Leydig cells but also Sertoli and germ cells, resulting in infertility in 30% to 50% of testicular cancer patients treated with chemotherapy.
  • Although current treatment of advanced disease has changed its natural course, we are challenged by an increasing incidence of late relapse, an entity with a distinct tumor biology characterized by latency and chemoresistance.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Cohort Studies. Humans. Male. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy. Radiation Injuries / etiology. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 17112453.001).
  • [ISSN] 1540-1405
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network : JNCCN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Natl Compr Canc Netw
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Number-of-references] 101
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15. Antón L, Pérez-Etchepare E, Soriano D, Gómez M, Barrientos G, Tracchia R: [Testicular tumors: wide spectrum in our short casuistics]. Cir Pediatr; 2010 Oct;23(4):222-4
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  • [Title] [Testicular tumors: wide spectrum in our short casuistics].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumores testiculares: amplio espectro en nuestra breve casuística.
  • Testicular tumors occur in 0.5 to 2 per 100,000 children.
  • The clinical history, testicular and abdominal ultrasonography, alpha-fetoprotein and human chorionic gonadotropin, estrogens and androgen levels, FSH and LH determine the diagnosis.
  • The pathology determines the specific cell.
  • We report seven cases, three germ cell tumors: a Yolk sac tumor in a child of 18 months and two mature teratomas in children between 2 and 11 years presenting as a painless testicular mass without other symptoms.
  • Three tumors estrumales: one derived from Leydig cells and two of the granulosa cells, a palpable testicular mass was added precocious puberty in stage II-III of Tanner in the first, second gynecomastia in Tanner stage III and the third only with testicular mass.
  • The seventh case, Lipoma para-testicular mass palpable.
  • The treatment was radical orchiectomy in five cases.
  • Testis-sparing surgery in Leydig cell tumor and resection of the paratesticular mass was performed through scrotal.
  • The Yolk sac tumor requiring chemotherapy with good outcome.
  • Historically prepubertal testicular tumors have been treated in adults.
  • Recent testicular preservation algorithms optimize and minimize the morbidity of adjuvant therapies.
  • Many are benign and can be treated with preservation of the testis.
  • [MeSH-major] Testicular Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 21520554.001).
  • [ISSN] 0214-1221
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía pediátrica : organo oficial de la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Pediátrica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Pediatr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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16. Schneider DT, Calaminus G, Wessalowski R, Pathmanathan R, Harms D, Göbel U: Therapy of advanced ovarian juvenile granulosa cell tumors. Klin Padiatr; 2002 Jul-Aug;214(4):173-8
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  • [Title] Therapy of advanced ovarian juvenile granulosa cell tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: Gonadal sex cord-stromal tumors are rare tumors that develop from the gonadal non-germ cell component such as granulosa, Sertoli or Leydig cells.
  • Among these, juvenile granulosa cell tumors (JGCT) constitute the largest subgroup of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors during childhood and adolescence.
  • In local disease (FIGO stage I), the beneficial role of tumor-ovarectomy is well established.
  • In contrast, life expectancy in patients with advanced JGCT (FIGO stage >/= II) is short even after complete tumor resection.
  • The current literature provides only limited and inconclusive data regarding the value of adjuvant chemotherapy in such patients with advanced disease.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Therefore, we analyzed the patients with FIGO stage >/= II JGCT who were prospectively documented as follow-up patients of the German MAKEI trials for non-testicular germ cell tumors and received the recommended cisplatin-based chemotherapy in an adjuvant setting.
  • Two patients received laparoscopic tumor resection, which was incomplete in both.
  • All patients received 4 or 6 cycles of adjuvant cisplatin-based three-agent chemotherapy in analogy to the current therapeutic concept applied in malignant germ cell tumors.
  • One patient with a large tumor and multiple peritoneal metastases additionally received 40 Gy abdominal irradiation.
  • RESULTS: All patients achieved complete clinical remission after initial surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • One patient developed a metachronous tumor of the contralateral ovary after 126 months follow-up and is still alive but currently in therapy of another recurrence.
  • Another patient suffered a tumor recurrence after 12 months but achieved a second complete remission with cisplatin chemotherapy after a follow-up of currently 4 months.
  • One patient achieved complete clinical remission but suffered a diffuse peritoneal tumor recurrence with massive ascites and finally died as a result of tumor progression.
  • In summary, at the time of this report 6 of 7 patients are alive after a median of 47 (15 - 138) months.
  • CONCLUSION: This analysis clearly demonstrates that advanced JGCT can be successfully treated with surgery followed by adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy.
  • Therefore, this study reveals encouraging therapeutic perspectives in these otherwise fatal tumors that merit further investigation in a prospective cooperative trial.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Granulosa Cell Tumor / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Germany. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 12165898.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8630
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinische Pädiatrie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Padiatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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17. Wasniewska M, Raiola G, Teresa A, Galati MC, Zirilli G, Catena MA, Ascenti G, Arasi S, De Luca F: Gynecomastia disclosing diagnosis of Leydig cell tumour in a man with thalassemia, secondary hypogonadism and testis microlithiasis. Acta Biomed; 2009;80(3):286-8
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  • [Title] Gynecomastia disclosing diagnosis of Leydig cell tumour in a man with thalassemia, secondary hypogonadism and testis microlithiasis.
  • Aim of this paper is to report about a 35-year old man suffering from beta-Thalassemia major and longstanding untreated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, who was referred because of a recent onset and painful bilateral gynecomastia, with no palpable testicular masses.
  • Due to the finding of a solid mass at left testis ultrasonography, monolateral testicular exeresis was performed and histology revealed a Leydig Cell Tumour and testicular microlithiasis.
  • Post-surgical restoration of testosterone/estradiol ratio under testosterone therapy was followed by a very rapid reduction of gynecomastia.
  • Our report confirms the usefulness of scrotal ultrasonography for finding an occult testicular tumour in a patient with painful and recent onset bilateral gynecomastia and underlines: a) the important role of testosterone/estradiol ratio in the pathophysiology of gynecomastia;.
  • b) the questionable significance of testicular microlithiasis as marker of testis tumours;.
  • [MeSH-major] Gynecomastia / etiology. Leydig Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Heptanoates / therapeutic use. Humans. Hypogonadism / drug therapy. Hypogonadism / epidemiology. Lithiasis / epidemiology. Male. Testicular Diseases / epidemiology. beta-Thalassemia / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 20578425.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-4203
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta bio-medica : Atenei Parmensis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Biomed
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Heptanoates
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18. Buse S, Lurati G, Schmid HP: [Testicular tumors--a current review]. Praxis (Bern 1994); 2003 Nov 19;92(47):1989-97
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  • [Title] [Testicular tumors--a current review].
  • Only 1% of all male tumors are testicular origin, but it is the most frequent neoplasia in younger men.
  • Risk factors include cryptorchism and a positive personal history of testicular cancer.
  • Testicular cancer is divided in germ cell cancer and non germ cell cancer, the latter accounting for about 5%.
  • Germ cell cancer is classified in seminoma and nonseminoma.
  • Afterwards ultrasonography is indicated and tumor markers should be analysed.
  • The first therapeutic step is always a radical inguinal orchiectomy.
  • The following treatment depends on the staging: wait and see, radiotherapy or chemotherapy.
  • Testicular cancer is characterised by a good cure rate (98-100% early stages) or recurrence free survival (80-90% late stages).
  • [MeSH-major] Leydig Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Lymphoma / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Seminoma / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Testis / pathology. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 14669500.001).
  • [ISSN] 1661-8157
  • [Journal-full-title] Praxis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Praxis (Bern 1994)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 65
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19. Wang YB, Song L, Cui LB, Hong X, Zhang ZD, Wang XR: Monobutyl phthalate inhibits steroidogenesis by downregulating steroidogenic acute regulatory protein expression in mouse Leydig tumor cells (MLTC-1). J Toxicol Environ Health A; 2007 Jun;70(11):947-55
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  • [Title] Monobutyl phthalate inhibits steroidogenesis by downregulating steroidogenic acute regulatory protein expression in mouse Leydig tumor cells (MLTC-1).
  • Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and its active metabolite, monobutyl phthalate (MBP), display no binding affinity for the androgen receptor, yet exert antiandrogenic effects by altering steroid biosynthesis.
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the site of MBP action on steroidogenesis in vitro using mouse Leydig tumor cells (MLTC-1).
  • [MeSH-major] Endocrine Disruptors / toxicity. Leydig Cell Tumor / drug therapy. Phosphoproteins / metabolism. Phthalic Acids / toxicity. Progesterone / metabolism. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] 8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate / pharmacology. Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival / drug effects. Cholera Toxin / pharmacology. Chorionic Gonadotropin / pharmacology. Cyclic AMP / metabolism. DNA Replication / drug effects. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Down-Regulation / drug effects. Drug Combinations. Humans. Hydroxycholesterols / pharmacology. Male. Mice. Mitochondria / drug effects. Mitochondria / metabolism. Pregnenolone / pharmacology. RNA, Messenger / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17479410.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-7394
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of toxicology and environmental health. Part A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Toxicol. Environ. Health Part A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin; 0 / Drug Combinations; 0 / Endocrine Disruptors; 0 / Hydroxycholesterols; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / Phthalic Acids; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; 131-70-4 / monobutyl phthalate; 17711-16-9 / 22-hydroxycholesterol; 23583-48-4 / 8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate; 4G7DS2Q64Y / Progesterone; 73R90F7MQ8 / Pregnenolone; 9012-63-9 / Cholera Toxin; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP
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20. Tröbs RB, Krauss M, Geyer C, Tannapfel A, Körholz D, Hirsch W: Surgery in infants and children with testicular and paratesticular tumours: a single centre experience over a 25-year-period. Klin Padiatr; 2007 May-Jun;219(3):146-51
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  • [Title] Surgery in infants and children with testicular and paratesticular tumours: a single centre experience over a 25-year-period.
  • Testicular and even more paratesticular tumours in children are rare.
  • The aim of the study is to characterise the spectrum of these lesions with focus on the feasibility and effectiveness of testis sparing surgery.
  • The spectrum of testicular tumours comprised 13 germ cell tumours (6 yolk sac tumours, 6 teratomas, 1 embryonal carcinoma) and 4 sex cord stromal tumours (2 Leydig's cell, Sertoli's cell, granulosa cell).
  • Both Leydig's cell tumours were endocrine active.
  • Further on, we observed 3 boys with paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), and three with testicular and paratesticular metastases (Wilms' tumour, neuroblastoma, leukaemia).
  • Dependent on tumour histology, stage and the recommended treatment schedule postoperative chemotherapy was added.
  • Testis sparing surgery was performed in 3 boys with primary testicular tumours (2 Leydig's cell, mature cystic teratoma).
  • During a median follow up of 5 years all patients with primary testicular tumours survived event free.
  • Meta-analysis of the recent literature revealed that testis sparing surgery is feasible and save in prepubertal boys after exclusion of a malignant tumour.
  • If a testis sparing approach is planned, the following criteria are essential: 1.
  • The presence of a well defined circumscribed nodule confirmed by imaging.
  • 3. The presence of sufficient healthy testicular parenchyma.
  • However, the high rate of malignant or potentially malignant tumours suggests that high inguinal orchidectomy should remain the surgical standard of therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulosa Cell Tumor / surgery. Leydig Cell Tumor / surgery. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Sertoli Cell Tumor / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / blood. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnostic Imaging. Feasibility Studies. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Orchiectomy / methods. Retrospective Studies. alpha-Fetoproteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17525908.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8630
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinische Pädiatrie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Padiatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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21. Salas S, Mercier C, Ciccolini J, Pourroy B, Fanciullino R, Tranchand B, Monjanel-Mouterde S, Baciuchka-Palmaro M, Dupuis C, Yang C, Balti M, Lacarelle B, Duffaud F, Durand A, Favre R: Therapeutic drug monitoring for dose individualization of Cisplatin in testicular cancer patients based upon total platinum measurement in plasma. Ther Drug Monit; 2006 Aug;28(4):532-9
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  • [Title] Therapeutic drug monitoring for dose individualization of Cisplatin in testicular cancer patients based upon total platinum measurement in plasma.
  • Cisplatin (CDDP) is an anticancer agent widely used in testicular cancer, for which pharmacokinetic (PK)/pharmacodynamic relationships have usually been based upon measurement of its unbound fraction in plasma.
  • Nineteen patients (66 therapeutic courses) were treated with platinum-based combinational therapy.
  • Plasma samples were analyzed to allow real-time Bayesian estimation of individual PK parameters with subsequent prospective dose adjustment in order to reach a target Cmax (Cend) of 1.95 mg/L of total platinum.
  • No statistically significant difference was observed between experimental and target values (P>0.05, t test), and Cend achievement was done with an overall 6.6% precision, a performance to be compared with the initial 54% interpatient variability observed in CDDP clearance.
  • It showed a good correlation (r=0.84, P=0.004) between total platinum clearance and therapeutic course number.
  • A weaker correlation (r=0.59) was found between BSA and total CDDP clearance and, importantly, no additional relationship was established with BSA when successive therapeutic courses, and not only the first one, were considered.
  • This highlights the critical importance of total drug accumulation on CDDP pharmacokinetics when several infusions are to be administered in a row and, therefore, the need for real-time dose individualization that takes into account the course number, rather than BSA.
  • Finally, doses of CDDP administered during each course were significantly higher (+20%, P<0.01) than the ones classically normalized with BSA, thus leading to an overall greater drug exposure in the patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Drug Monitoring / methods. Leydig Cell Tumor / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Algorithms. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacokinetics. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bayes Theorem. Body Surface Area. Digestive System Diseases / chemically induced. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Humans. Infusion Pumps. Kidney / drug effects. Kidney / metabolism. Kidney / physiopathology. Kidney Function Tests. Male. Metabolic Clearance Rate. Middle Aged. Models, Statistical. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16885721.001).
  • [ISSN] 0163-4356
  • [Journal-full-title] Therapeutic drug monitoring
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ther Drug Monit
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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22. Jain SH, Sadow PM, Nosé V, Dluhy RG: A patient with ectopic cortisol production derived from malignant testicular masses. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab; 2008 Dec;4(12):695-700
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  • [Title] A patient with ectopic cortisol production derived from malignant testicular masses.
  • BACKGROUND: A 65-year-old man presented to an oncology clinic with bilateral testicular masses, lower extremity edema, and cushingoid appearance.
  • INVESTIGATIONS: Measurements of serum cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone levels, testicular ultrasound and abdominal CT scans, and review of histopathology to identify the cellular origin of the ectopic cortisol production.
  • DIAGNOSIS: Cushing syndrome was diagnosed on the basis of a markedly elevated 24-hour urine free cortisol level and classic cushingoid features.
  • The etiology of Cushing syndrome was determined to be an adrenocortical carcinoma arising from testicular adrenal rest cells.
  • Nevertheless, the possibility of a malignant Leydig cell tumor with ectopic cortisol production could not be excluded.
  • Despite initial success with this regimen, the patient died as a result of tumor progression and complications of poorly controlled hypercortisolism.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Rest Tumor / complications. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / drug therapy. Hydrocortisone / blood. Testicular Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocortical Carcinoma / blood. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / diagnosis. Adrenocortical Carcinoma / pathology. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Aged. Humans. Male. Metyrapone / therapeutic use. Mitotane / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 18941436.001).
  • [ISSN] 1745-8374
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 78E4J5IB5J / Mitotane; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone; ZS9KD92H6V / Metyrapone
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23. Bodek G, Rahman NA, Zaleska M, Soliymani R, Lankinen H, Hansel W, Huhtaniemi I, Ziecik AJ: A novel approach of targeted ablation of mammary carcinoma cells through luteinizing hormone receptors using Hecate-CGbeta conjugate. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2003 May;79(1):1-10
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  • Recent studies have shown that human and animal mammary gland carcinoma cell line express luteinizing hormone receptors (LHRs).
  • We have examined the cytotoxic effect of Hecate-CGbeta conjugate, that is, fusion of a lytic peptide (Hecate) and a 15-amino acid fragment of the CGbeta-chain in vitro.
  • To test the hypothesis that the Hecate-CGbeta conjugate selectively abolishes cells possessing LHR, estrogen dependent and independent human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7; MDA-MB-231) and a mouse Leydig tumor cell line (BLT-1) were treated in vitro with Hecate-CGbeta conjugate and Hecate alone.
  • Cytotoxic effects of the Hecate-CGbeta conjugate and the Hecate alone was measured by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release immediately after treatment.
  • Using Western blot analysis we characterized the LHR on membranes of MDA-MB-231, MCF-7 and BLT-1 tumor cell lines.
  • We suggest further development of this novel approach for the treatment of breast cancer by the Hecate-CGbeta for in vivo trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / administration & dosage. Drug Delivery Systems / methods. Melitten / administration & dosage. Melitten / analogs & derivatives. Receptors, LH / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Binding, Competitive. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Humans. L-Lactate Dehydrogenase / drug effects. Leydig Cell Tumor / drug therapy. Leydig Cell Tumor / metabolism. Male. Mice. Peptide Fragments / administration & dosage. Peptide Fragments / metabolism. Peptide Fragments / toxicity. Recombinant Fusion Proteins / administration & dosage. Recombinant Fusion Proteins / metabolism. Recombinant Fusion Proteins / toxicity. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / metabolism. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 12779076.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-6806
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / Receptors, LH; 0 / Recombinant Fusion Proteins; 0 / hecate 1; 0 / hecate-chorionic gonadotropin beta-subunit conjugate; 20449-79-0 / Melitten; EC 1.1.1.27 / L-Lactate Dehydrogenase
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24. Houk CP, Pearson EJ, Martinelle N, Donahoe PK, Teixeira J: Feedback inhibition of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein expression in vitro and in vivo by androgens. Endocrinology; 2004 Mar;145(3):1269-75
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  • Müllerian-inhibiting substance (MIS) reduces testosterone synthesis in Leydig cells by inhibiting cytochrome P450C17 hydroxylase/C17-20 lyase expression.
  • However, in mouse Leydig MA-10 cells, MIS also enhances the cAMP-induced expression of mRNA for steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), which transports cholesterol to the inner mitochondrial membrane for conversion to pregnenolone.
  • We hypothesized that the MIS-induced StAR expression is the indirect result of reduced testosterone synthesis in Leydig cells caused by MIS.
  • Addition of MIS to cAMP-treated MA-10 cells transfected with a StAR-promoter luciferase reporter resulted in increased StAR promoter activity over cAMP alone; this effect was inhibited by dihydrotestosterone, suggesting that androgens inhibit StAR mRNA expression at the transcriptional level.
  • Androgen-mediated inhibition of StAR expression was also observed in primary Leydig cell culture and in vivo using both hypophysectomized mice and mice treated with the GnRH antagonist, acyline.
  • These findings may impact future treatment strategies aimed at reducing androgen; for example, in the treatment of prostatic cancer, antiandrogen treatment might benefit from adjuvant therapy to inhibit StAR expression.

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  • (PMID = 14630719.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-7227
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA079459-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R29 CA079459; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / F32-HD41835; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R29-CA79459; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R29 CA079459-05; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01-HD32112; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / U54 HD28138
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Androgens; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Testicular Hormones; 0 / steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; 08J2K08A3Y / Dihydrotestosterone; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 76W6J0943E / Flutamide; 80497-65-0 / Anti-Mullerian Hormone
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25. Wu HY, Snyder HM 3rd: Pediatric urologic oncology: bladder, prostate, testis. Urol Clin North Am; 2004 Aug;31(3):619-27, xi
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pediatric urologic oncology: bladder, prostate, testis.
  • Although treatment for bladder, prostate, and testis cancer comprises a large part of adult urologic practice, the tumors that affect these organs in children are rare.
  • Rhabdomyosarcoma,which affects the bladder, prostate, vaginal, and paratesticular areas,is treated with a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation.
  • Most transitional cell carcinomas of the bladder and prepubertal testis tumors are managed surgically owing to the low stage at presentation.
  • Application of the technical advances learned in adults with tumors of the bladder, prostate, and testis, combined with an understanding of the difference in tumor biology, helps urologists improve the treatment of these tumors in children.
  • [MeSH-major] Prostatic Neoplasms / therapy. Rhabdomyosarcoma. Testicular Neoplasms / therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Cystectomy. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / surgery. Female. Humans. Leydig Cell Tumor / surgery. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Orchiectomy. Risk Assessment. Uterine Neoplasms / therapy. Vaginal Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 15313070.001).
  • [ISSN] 0094-0143
  • [Journal-full-title] The Urologic clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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26. Cecchetto G, Alaggio R, Bisogno G, Virgone C, Dall'Igna P, Terenziani M, Boldrini R, D'Onofrio V, Ferrari A, Bernini G: Sex cord-stromal tumors of the testis in children. A clinicopathologic report from the Italian TREP project. J Pediatr Surg; 2010 Sep;45(9):1868-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sex cord-stromal tumors of the testis in children. A clinicopathologic report from the Italian TREP project.
  • PURPOSE: Testicular sex cord-stromal tumors (SCSTs) are very rare in children and include a variety of neoplasms with different clinical features and biologic behavior.
  • Aim of the study was to report the clinical findings and results observed in a series of patients with testicular SCST, registered in a multi-institutional Italian network on rare tumors in children and adolescents.
  • Chemotherapy was recommended in patients with incomplete surgery or metastatic disease.
  • RESULTS: A testicular mass was the most common symptom.
  • All patients underwent primary removal of the tumor; orchiectomy with high ligation of spermatic cord was performed in 7 and tumor enucleation in 4.
  • At histology, 4 patients had Leydig cell tumors, 4 juvenile granulosa cell tumors, 1 Sertoli cell tumor, 1 incompletely differentiated SCST, and 1 SCST with an intermediate pattern Sertoli cell tumor/mixed form.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our experience confirmed the rarity of testicular SCST.
  • They have to be considered in the differential diagnosis of testicular solid masses, taking into account that hormonal signs are present in a minority of cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Humans. Infant. Italy. Male. Orchiectomy. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20850634.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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27. Wołuń-Cholewa M, Warchoł JB: The influence of photodynamic reaction on R2C cells. Folia Histochem Cytobiol; 2002;40(2):109-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Photodynamic therapy (PDT) represents a therapeutic approach in which photosensitised neoplastic cells undergo destruction under effect of light.

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  • (PMID = 12056602.001).
  • [ISSN] 0239-8508
  • [Journal-full-title] Folia histochemica et cytobiologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Folia Histochem. Cytobiol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / Protein Synthesis Inhibitors; 0 / Protoporphyrins; 553-12-8 / protoporphyrin IX; 98600C0908 / Cycloheximide
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28. Donahoe PK, Clarke T, Teixeira J, Maheswaran S, MacLaughlin DT: Enhanced purification and production of Müllerian inhibiting substance for therapeutic applications. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2003 Dec 15;211(1-2):37-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Enhanced purification and production of Müllerian inhibiting substance for therapeutic applications.
  • His experiments clearly showed that a testicular product other than testosterone, a Müllerian inhibitor, was responsible for Müllerian duct regression.
  • MIS functions by interacting with two receptors; a type II binds the hormone and at type I that initiates downstream signaling.
  • The MIS type II receptor has been cloned and functionally confirmed as distinct from that of other members of the TGFbeta superfamily.
  • MIS can employ a number of type I receptors (ALK2, ALK3, ALK6) and BMP receptor specific SMADS 1, 5, and 8 in various tissue specific contexts.
  • Cell lines derived from human ovarian, breast, and prostate tumors, and from rodent Leydig cell tumors, which respond to MIS in growth inhibition assays, all express the MIS type II receptor.
  • For example, breast and prostate cancer cell lines use a MIS-mediated NFkappaB pathway leading to G1 arrest and apoptosis.
  • The ovarian cancer cell lines employ a pathway which enhances p16, modulates the E2Fs, and induces apoptosis.
  • These signal transduction events can establish new rational treatment strategies to complement the growth inhibitory effects mediated by MIS.
  • [MeSH-major] Glycoproteins / biosynthesis. Glycoproteins / therapeutic use. Testicular Hormones / biosynthesis. Testicular Hormones / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Activin Receptors, Type I / physiology. Animals. Anti-Mullerian Hormone. Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type I. Cell Division / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / physiology. Female. Fibrinolysin / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Mice. Neoplasms / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / physiology. Receptors, Growth Factor / physiology. Receptors, Peptide / physiology. Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta. Recombinant Proteins / biosynthesis. Recombinant Proteins / pharmacology. Recombinant Proteins / therapeutic use. Sex Differentiation / physiology

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  • (PMID = 14656474.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-7207
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Receptors, Growth Factor; 0 / Receptors, Peptide; 0 / Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 0 / Testicular Hormones; 0 / anti-Mullerian hormone receptor; 80497-65-0 / Anti-Mullerian Hormone; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.30 / Activin Receptors, Type I; EC 2.7.11.30 / BMPR1B protein, human; EC 2.7.11.30 / Bmpr1a protein, mouse; EC 2.7.11.30 / Bmpr1b protein, mouse; EC 2.7.11.30 / Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type I; EC 3.4.21.7 / Fibrinolysin
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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29. Jacobeit JW, Kliesch S: [Gynecomastia: diagnosis and therapy]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr; 2008 Dec;133(49):2567-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Gynecomastia: diagnosis and therapy].
  • [Transliterated title] Gynäkomastie: Diagnostik und Therapie.
  • [MeSH-major] Gynecomastia / diagnosis. Gynecomastia / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anabolic Agents / adverse effects. Androgen Antagonists / adverse effects. Breast Neoplasms, Male / diagnosis. Cardiovascular Agents / adverse effects. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Klinefelter Syndrome / complications. Leydig Cell Tumor / complications. Leydig Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Lipectomy. Male. Mastectomy, Subcutaneous. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / complications. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Prostatic Neoplasms / complications. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Puberty. Risk Factors. Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators / therapeutic use. Tamoxifen / therapeutic use. Testicular Neoplasms / complications. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19039712.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-4413
  • [Journal-full-title] Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift (1946)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr.
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anabolic Agents; 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Cardiovascular Agents; 0 / Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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