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1. Bilici A, Ustaalioglu BB, Seker M, Kayahan S: Case report: soft tissue metastasis from immature teratoma of the testis: second case report and review of the literature. Clin Orthop Relat Res; 2010 Sep;468(9):2541-4
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  • [Title] Case report: soft tissue metastasis from immature teratoma of the testis: second case report and review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Testicular cancer, like other histopathologic types, commonly metastasizes to the lungs, liver, and brain.
  • Spread to soft tissue, however, is rare with only four cases with seminoma reported.
  • However, one case with metastasis of testicular immature teratoma to soft tissue was documented previously.
  • CASE DESCRIPTION: We report the case of a 38-year-old man with recurrent immature teratoma of the testis who presented with a painless soft tissue mass in the left thigh previously treated with standard chemotherapy.
  • After removal of the soft tissue mass, his serum alpha-fetoprotein level had returned to the normal range.
  • LITERATURE REVIEW: To our knowledge, this is the second case of immature teratoma of the testis metastasized to soft tissue.
  • PURPOSES AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: We suggest that for a man with testicular cancer who has a soft tissue mass, metastasis of soft tissue from testicular cancer and other solid malignancies should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a soft tissue mass together with primary soft tissue sarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Soft Tissue Neoplasms / secondary. Teratoma / secondary. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biopsy. Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / blood. Cranial Irradiation. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / therapy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Orchiectomy. Thigh. Treatment Outcome. alpha-Fetoproteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19937408.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1132
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical orthopaedics and related research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AFP protein, human; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
  • [Number-of-references] 17
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2919860
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2. Shoji S, Shima M, Usui Y, Nagata Y, Uchida T, Terachi T: [A case report: simultaneous bilateral testicular tumors with different cell types--complete response after combination chemotherapy of cisplatin and irrinotecan hydrochloride--]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2006 Apr;52(4):303-6
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  • [Title] [A case report: simultaneous bilateral testicular tumors with different cell types--complete response after combination chemotherapy of cisplatin and irrinotecan hydrochloride--].
  • On examination, the patient was found to have bilateral testicular tumors with jugular chain lymph node and para-aortic lymph node metastasis.
  • Histopathological examination of the excised tumors revealed seminoma, embryonal carcinoma, yolk sac tumor and immature teratoma in the right testis and seminoma in the left testis.
  • The patient was treated postoperatively with two courses of BEP (bleomycin, etoposide, cisplatin) therapy and two courses of EP (etoposide, cisplatinum) therapy.
  • The patient had lung metastasis during the follow-up period and we treated him with salvage combination chemotherapy of cisplatin and irinotecan hydrochloride (CPT-11).
  • After the third course of cisplatin and CPT-11 chemotherapy the lung metastasis disappeared and we performed retroperitoneal lymph node dissection.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Salvage Therapy. Seminoma / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Camptothecin / administration & dosage. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Administration Schedule. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymph Node Excision. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Remission Induction

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  • (PMID = 16686361.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 7673326042 / irinotecan; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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3. Funahashi M, Tuchiya F, Makiyama K, Sugiura S, Miyoshi Y, Kishida T, Ogawa T, Uemura H, Yao M, Kubota Y: [Two cases of testicular tumors with high alpha-fetoprotein levels: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2005 Feb;51(2):133-7
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  • [Title] [Two cases of testicular tumors with high alpha-fetoprotein levels: a case report].
  • Two patients with testicular tumors whose serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) persisted to show an abnormally high concentration are reported.
  • Case 1 : A 42-year-old male who had been suffering from chronic hepatitis, underwent left high orchiectomy for a left testicular tumor in 1998.
  • Diagnosis was an authentic stage I seminoma.
  • In 2002, chemotherapy was performed for a metastatic seminoma revealed as a solitary mass in the mediastinum by radiographic studies, and histologically confirmed to be a metastatic seminoma.
  • Case 2: In 2002, a 30-year-old male underwent left high orchiectomy for a left testicular tumor, and histological examination revealed seminoma, immature and mature teratoma, embryonal carcinoma.
  • Diagnosis was authentic stage I.
  • After 2 courses of chemotherapy, the serum AFP remained at an abnormally high concentration.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Carcinoma, Embryonal / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Seminoma / diagnosis. Teratoma / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis. alpha-Fetoproteins / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Disease-Free Survival. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Mediastinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Mediastinal Neoplasms / secondary. Orchiectomy

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  • (PMID = 15773370.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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4. McGuire MS, Rabbani F, Mohseni H, Bains M, Motzer R, Sheinfeld J: The role of thoracotomy in managing postchemotherapy residual thoracic masses in patients with nonseminomatous germ cell tumours. BJU Int; 2003 Apr;91(6):469-73
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  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical outcome and identify prognostic variables in patients with nonseminomatous germ cell tumours undergoing postchemotherapy thoracotomy for residual masses, as the role of this procedure is controversial.
  • The clinical presentation, chemotherapy regimens, marker status, primary tumour histology, pathology of all resected masses, and clinical outcome of these 105 patients were analysed.
  • Independent prognostic factors for residual thoracic teratoma or cancer were teratoma (mature or immature) in the primary tumour or retroperitoneal teratoma or cancer.
  • CONCLUSION: Postchemotherapy thoracotomy yields important prognostic information, and is therapeutic for most patients with teratoma and a subset with residual viable cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Germinoma / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thoracic Neoplasms / surgery. Thoracotomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 12656895.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-4096
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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5. Zangana AM, Razak AB: A giant testicular teratoma. Saudi Med J; 2007 Mar;28(3):465-7
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  • [Title] A giant testicular teratoma.
  • We report a giant testicular in a 36-year-old farmer man, of 18-month duration admitted to the Surgical Department Erbil Teaching Hospital, Iraq.
  • Histological examination revealed mature and immature teratoma.
  • Six weeks later after a course of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, the patient underwent resection of metastatic lung lesion.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Penile Neoplasms / secondary. Teratoma / secondary. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Needle. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Iraq. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Assessment. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17334483.001).
  • [ISSN] 0379-5284
  • [Journal-full-title] Saudi medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Saudi Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
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6. Yang WP, Zou Y, Huang CS, Zhang SZ, Xiao Q, Dai KL, Zhong HS, Xiong XJ: [Clinicopathologic and prognostic study of pediatric immature teratoma]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2007 Oct;36(10):666-71
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  • [Title] [Clinicopathologic and prognostic study of pediatric immature teratoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the clinicopathologic features and biologic behavior of pediatric immature teratoma.
  • METHODS: The clinical data, pathologic features, immunohistochemical findings (for cyclin D1, P27 and Ki-67) and follow-up information of 39 cases of pediatric immature teratoma were analyzed.
  • RESULTS: Amongst the 39 cases studied, 12 arose in the sacrococcygeal region, 12 in testis, 5 in retroperitoneum, 4 in ovary, 4 in abdomen and 2 in mediastinum.
  • Immature neuroepithelial features used in histologic grading included the presence of primitive neural tubules, immature rosettes, undifferentiated neuroblastoma cells and primitive neuroectodermal structures.
  • The prognosis of immature teratoma in children is different from that in adults.
  • Sacrococcygeal immature teratoma occurring in patients younger than 1 year old and with low histologic grade do not require postoperative chemotherapy if the tumor is completely excised.
  • Similarly, for testicular immature teratoma occurring in patients below 1 year of age, regardless of tumor grading, need no adjunctive therapy.
  • On the other hand, ovarian immature teratoma with high histologic grade requires postoperative chemotherapy, regardless of age of the patients.
  • The presence of microscopic foci of yolk sac tumor is a useful predictor of recurrence in pediatric immature teratoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / pathology. Teratoma / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Cyclin D1 / metabolism. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / drug therapy. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / metabolism. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / surgery. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Mediastinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Mediastinal Neoplasms / metabolism. Mediastinal Neoplasms / pathology. Mediastinal Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / metabolism. Sacrococcygeal Region. Survival Rate. alpha-Fetoproteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18194599.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins; 0 / p27 antigen; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1
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7. Sundström J, Pelliniemi LJ, Salminen E, Pöllänen P, Abdelwahid E, Veräjänkorva E, Söderström KO: Effect of etoposide on experimental testicular teratoma in 129/SvJ mice. Virchows Arch; 2000 Jun;436(6):608-16
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  • [Title] Effect of etoposide on experimental testicular teratoma in 129/SvJ mice.
  • To study the effects of etoposide on experimental testicular teratoma in 129/SvJ mouse we analysed the tumour growth, differentiation, apoptosis and the localisation of mdr1 P-glycoprotein (mdr1-Pgp).
  • In this model the implanted gonadal ridges developed into testicular teratomas in 17 out of 56 implanted testes (30%) and in 14 out of 28 mice (50%).
  • The teratomas consisted mainly of neural tissue.
  • The decreased proportion of immature neuroectodermal tissue components was observed in all treated teratomas, converting the histology towards that of a mature teratoma.
  • In addition, a low proportion of immature tissue components was frequently combined with a low density of apoptotic cells.
  • In conclusion, etoposide decreased the immature tissue components of teratomas, while mature tissues remained unaffected.
  • These results may have clinical relevance in man, since they confirm that postchemotherapy mature teratomas cannot be treated with chemotherapy.
  • Despite benign histology, the human residual tumours have a significant malignant potential and require complete surgical excision and close surveillance.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Etoposide / therapeutic use. Teratoma / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apoptosis. DNA Fragmentation. Disease Models, Animal. Drug Resistance. Immunohistochemistry. Injections, Intraperitoneal. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred Strains. P-Glycoprotein / analysis

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  • (PMID = 10917177.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] GERMANY
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / P-Glycoprotein; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide
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8. Kume H, Kakutani S, Tomita K, Kitamura T: Salvage combination chemotherapy with docetaxel, ifosfamide and cisplatin (DIP): successful treatment of a case with metastatic testicular immature teratoma. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2008 Feb;38(2):143-5
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  • [Title] Salvage combination chemotherapy with docetaxel, ifosfamide and cisplatin (DIP): successful treatment of a case with metastatic testicular immature teratoma.
  • We present a case of metastatic testicular immature teratoma that was successfully treated despite resistance to standard chemotherapy and unsuccessful salvage surgery.
  • At first, BEP (bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin) treatment was performed but failed.
  • By the time of the referral lung and mediastinal lymph node metastasis had appeared and para-aortic lymph node metastasis had grown larger.
  • We administered the DIP (docetaxel, ifosfamide and cisplatin) regimen as a second line chemotherapy, which was effective with 82% reduction of para-aortic lymph nodes, 88% of mediastinal lymph nodes and 85% of lung metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Salvage Therapy / methods. Teratoma / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Mediastinum. Taxoids / administration & dosage. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18250203.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3621
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide
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9. Rezk Y, Sheinfeld J, Chi DS: Prolonged survival following salvage surgery for chemorefractory ovarian immature teratoma: a case report and review of the literature. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Mar;96(3):883-7
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  • [Title] Prolonged survival following salvage surgery for chemorefractory ovarian immature teratoma: a case report and review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Data regarding salvage surgery for ovarian immature teratoma (IT) are lacking despite its established role in the management of chemorefractory testicular germ cell tumors.
  • In this report, a case of advanced IT that was salvaged by secondary cytoreduction following failure of both primary therapy and salvage chemotherapy is described, and the available literature is reviewed.
  • CASE: A 28-year-old patient underwent primary cytoreductive surgery followed by platinum-based chemotherapy for stage IIIC, grade 3, ovarian IT.
  • Second-line chemotherapy was administered after residual disease was identified at second-look surgery.
  • Following failure of salvage chemotherapy, aggressive secondary debulking resulted in long-term disease-free survival of over 48 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Teratoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Humans. Salvage Therapy

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  • (PMID = 15721445.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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10. Hasegawa T, Maeda K, Kamata N, Okita Y: A case of immature teratoma originating in intra-abdominal undescended testis in a 3-month-old infant. Pediatr Surg Int; 2006 Jun;22(6):570-2
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  • [Title] A case of immature teratoma originating in intra-abdominal undescended testis in a 3-month-old infant.
  • Teratomas in an undescended testis are rare in infants.
  • This report was the youngest case of immature teratoma originating in intra-abdominal undescended testis.
  • Ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed a multicystic large tumor with focal calcifications in the right side and serum tumor markers within normal limits.
  • Complete resection of the tumor was performed and the histopathological diagnosis was made as immature teratoma of the right testis.
  • Because retroperitoneal lymph nodes metastasis was observed in 3-month follow-up postoperatively, retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy and chemotherapy including bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin were performed.
  • We suggest that nonpalpable testis should undergo a careful evaluation and prompt resolution and that the subsequent finding of an intra-abdominal mass should make us think on the possibility of intra-abdominal testicular germ cell tumor.
  • Postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy in combination with complete resection of the tumor is necessary for pediatric immature teratomas originating in intra-abdominal undescended testis.
  • [MeSH-major] Cryptorchidism / pathology. Teratoma / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Etoposide / therapeutic use. Humans. Infant. Male

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  • (PMID = 16736229.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric surgery international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Surg. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; BEP protocol
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11. Dimov ND, Zynger DL, Luan C, Kozlowski JM, Yang XJ: Topoisomerase II alpha expression in testicular germ cell tumors. Urology; 2007 May;69(5):955-61
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  • [Title] Topoisomerase II alpha expression in testicular germ cell tumors.
  • OBJECTIVES: Inhibitors of topoisomerase II alpha (TopoIIalpha), an enzyme with a crucial role in DNA maintenance, are included in the chemotherapy protocols for testicular germ cell tumors (GCTs).
  • Despite the success of current chemotherapy regimens, a significant number of patients experience relapse.
  • We analyzed TopoIIalpha expression in primary and metastatic testicular GCTs because this enzyme is a target for some antineoplastic agents.
  • METHODS: Primary GCT specimens from 109 patients, including 57 seminomas and 52 mixed GCTs (41 embryonal carcinomas, 23 yolk sac tumors, 19 seminomas, 8 choriocarcinomas, 17 teratomas with immature elements, and 16 teratomas with mature elements), were obtained from our archives.
  • The metastatic lesions from 11 of the patients with mixed GCTs included seven teratomas with mature components, five embryonal carcinomas, one yolk sac tumor, one choriocarcinoma, and one teratoma with immature components.
  • None of the teratoma specimens with mature elements expressed TopoIIalpha.
  • Teratomas with mature and immature elements expressed low levels of TopoIIalpha, which might contribute to their chemoresistance.
  • These findings imply that the variable chemoresponsiveness of testicular GCTs could have an underlying molecular basis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. DNA Topoisomerases, Type II / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / enzymology. Testicular Neoplasms / enzymology. Topoisomerase II Inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biopsy, Needle. Carcinoma, Embryonal / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Embryonal / enzymology. Carcinoma, Embryonal / pathology. Choriocarcinoma / drug therapy. Choriocarcinoma / enzymology. Choriocarcinoma / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / drug therapy. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / enzymology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Sampling Studies. Seminoma / drug therapy. Seminoma / enzymology. Seminoma / pathology. Sensitivity and Specificity. Teratoma / drug therapy. Teratoma / enzymology. Teratoma / pathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17482942.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Topoisomerase II Inhibitors; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA topoisomerase II alpha
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12. Göbel U, Calaminus G, Schneider DT, Koch S, Teske C, Harms D: The malignant potential of teratomas in infancy and childhood: the MAKEI experiences in non-testicular teratoma and implications for a new protocol. Klin Padiatr; 2006 Nov-Dec;218(6):309-14
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  • [Title] The malignant potential of teratomas in infancy and childhood: the MAKEI experiences in non-testicular teratoma and implications for a new protocol.
  • Since 1982, mature and immature teratomas have been recruited into the MAHO and MAKEI protocols of the German Society for Pediatric Oncology and Hematology (GPOH) for testicular and non-testicular germ cell tumors in order to study the epidemiology and clinical behaviour of teratomas.
  • Patients with immaturity grade 2 and 3 according to Gonzales-Crussi were eligible for adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • 4) In MAKEI 83/86/89 four newborns with teratoma died due to perioperative complications and nine children as a result of tumor progression, whereas in MAKEI 96 no newborn died, only one child died from tumor progression, and another child died during long time observation for another reason (meningitis).
  • 5) In accordance to the experience of the MAKEI 83/86/89 studies, no child of the MAKEI 96 study presented with yolk sac tumor at recurrence if adjuvant chemotherapy was administered during first-line treatment because of immaturity.
  • In contrast, more than half of the children with tumor recurrence after watch and wait strategy had yolk sac tumor in addition to teratoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms. Teratoma
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Chi-Square Distribution. Child. Child, Preschool. Data Interpretation, Statistical. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Ovary / pathology. Prospective Studies. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Sacrococcygeal Region. Sex Factors. Treatment Outcome. World Health Organization

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  • (PMID = 17080332.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8630
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinische Pädiatrie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Padiatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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13. Schmidt P, Haas RJ, Göbel U, Calaminus G: [Results of the German studies (MAHO) for treatment of testicular germ cell tumors in children--an update]. Klin Padiatr; 2002 Jul-Aug;214(4):167-72
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  • [Title] [Results of the German studies (MAHO) for treatment of testicular germ cell tumors in children--an update].
  • [Transliterated title] Risikoadaptierte Therapie-Strategie bei malignen Hodentumoren im Kindesalter - Die MAHO-Studien: Rückblick und aktueller Stand.
  • BACKGROUND: The MAHO studies for treatment of testicular germ cell tumors in childhood and adolescence registered between 1982 and 1/2001 260 patients (pts.).
  • Delay of chemotherapy in YST of stage I A. 2. Delay of modified lymphadenectomy for staging in I A tumors.
  • 3. Stepwise reduction of therapy in low stage tumors but increasing therapy in tumors of metastatic pattern.
  • Standard therapy consisted of 4 courses of vinblastine, bleomycin and cisplatin.
  • In stage II C or higher chemotherapy included cisplatin, VP 16 and bleomycin.
  • As salvage therapy VP16, ifosfamide and cisplatin was given.
  • RESULTS: According to histology and stage only 75/260 pts. needed chemotherapy.
  • 16 of these patients (13 %) needed a delayed standard chemotherapy 6 - 60 weeks after orchiectomy.
  • Patients with mature (40 pts.) and immature (19 pts.) teratoma were cured by orchiectomy alone.
  • 59 pts. suffered from other malignant non-seminomatous tumors (EC, chorio, mixed tumors).
  • 20 of these had a clinical stage I including 5 with a pathologic stage I A. 15 received adjuvant chemotherapy and all 20 pts. survived relapse-free.
  • 22 pts. had stage II, 8 of these received salvage therapy in addition to standard chemotherapy, 21 of 22 pts. survived.
  • 17 pts. had stage III or IV, 5 of these died despite receiving salvage therapy, 9 pts. survived in complete remission, 3 pts. had partial remission.
  • In summary, the probability of disease free survival of 260 pts. is 97 % after a median observation time of 60 months.
  • Only about 13 % of these patients had to be treated by chemotherapy at a later time point and thus could be cured.
  • For YST pts. of stages greater than stage I A and all other malignant testicular tumors in childhood effective chemotherapy exists with an overall cure rate of about 95 %.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Administration Schedule. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Orchiectomy. Salvage Therapy. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 12165897.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8630
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinische Pädiatrie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Padiatr
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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14. Amsalem H, Nadjari M, Prus D, Hiller N, Benshushan A: Growing teratoma syndrome vs chemotherapeutic retroconversion: case report and review of the literature. Gynecol Oncol; 2004 Jan;92(1):357-60
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  • [Title] Growing teratoma syndrome vs chemotherapeutic retroconversion: case report and review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Immature ovarian teratoma is the third most common germ cell tumor (GCT) following dysgerminoma and endodermal sinus tumor.
  • The treatment of choice during childbearing age for immature teratoma composes of unilateral oophorectomy and in case of metastatic disease postoperative chemotherapy (BEP).
  • Latter, Logothetis described what seems to be a similar phenomenon in testicular non-seminomatous germ cell tumor (NSGCT) that he called the "growing teratoma syndrome".
  • CASE: We present a case of a 12-year-old girl treated for growing teratoma syndrome after primary ovarian GCT.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / secondary. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Pelvic Neoplasms / secondary. Teratoma / drug therapy. Teratoma / secondary

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  • (PMID = 14751185.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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15. Laiyemo AO, Jack M, Dawkins FW, Smoot DT: Upper gastrointestinal bleeding from metastatic testicular cancer. J Natl Med Assoc; 2009 Aug;101(8):808-9
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  • [Title] Upper gastrointestinal bleeding from metastatic testicular cancer.
  • His medical history was significant for testicular cancer for which he had undergone orchiectomy, lymphadenectomy, and platinum-based chemotherapy.
  • Biopsy revealed mixed germ cell tumor with immature teratoma, the same histology as his testicular cancer.
  • His chemotherapy was changed to an ifosphamide-based regimen and a repeat upper endoscopic examination 5 months later revealed complete resolution of previously noted polypoid duodenal mass lesions.
  • This also demonstrates the effectiveness of ifosphamide as second-line therapy in the setting of resistance to platinum-based therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Duodenal Neoplasms / secondary. Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / etiology. Testicular Neoplasms / complications. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biopsy. Endoscopy, Digestive System. Humans. Male


16. Kusumakumary P, Mathew BS, Hariharan S, Priyakumari T, Rajan B: Testicular germ cell tumors in prepubertal children. Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2000 Jan-Feb;17(1):105-11
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  • [Title] Testicular germ cell tumors in prepubertal children.
  • Pediatric testicular germ cell tumors are rare.
  • Histologically, 9 patients had pure endodermal sinus tumor, 1 had endodermal sinus tumor with embryonal carcinoma, 1 had embryonal carcinoma alone, 2 had immature teratoma, and 2 had mature teratoma.
  • All others received chemotherapy with cisplatin, bleomycin, and vinblastine.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma. Testicular Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / therapeutic use. Child, Preschool. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Humans. Infant. Male. Survival Analysis. Vinblastine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 10689721.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-0018
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric hematology and oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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17. Lo Curto M, D'Angelo P, Cecchetto G, Klersy C, Dall'Igna P, Federico A, Siracusa F, Alaggio R, Bernini G, Conte M, De Laurentis T, Di Cataldo A, Inserra A, Santoro N, Tamaro P, Indolfi P: Mature and immature teratomas: results of the first paediatric Italian study. Pediatr Surg Int; 2007 Apr;23(4):315-22
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  • [Title] Mature and immature teratomas: results of the first paediatric Italian study.
  • Teratoma is the most common germ cell tumour in childhood; mature (MT) and immature teratomas (IT) are benign tumours, but if they recur, they can be in some cases malignant.
  • Clinical data, treatment and results were all analysed.
  • Chemotherapy (CT) with Vinblastine, D: -actinomycin and cyclophosphamide was indicated for extra-testicular IT grade 2 or 3.
  • MT was diagnosed in 127 patients (93 F and 34 M, age 1-192 months, median 24): 58 patients had gonadic tumour (23 testicular, 35 ovaric), 69 extragonadic (45 sacrococcygeal, 11 mediastinic, 7 retroperitoneal, 6 in other sites).
  • The T grading was 1 in 14 cases, 2 in 26, 3 in 16; 28 had gonadic T (17 ovary, 11 testis), 28 extragonadic (sacrococcygeal 19, mediastinic 3, retroperitoneal 2, other sites 4).
  • CT was administered in eight patients; 15/182 patients relapsed (1 in a metastatic site) and in 5/15 the relapse showed malignant histology.
  • Seven MT (5.5%) relapsed (five sacrococcygeal, one retroperitoneal, one mediastinic): surgery at diagnosis had been complete in five and with residual in two; the relapse was malignant in two patients with sacrococcygeal (sc) tumours, who had a complete resection and a partial resection respectively.
  • A malignant recurrence occurred in two patients with sc tumours (after partial resection in one and after biopsy + CT in one) and in one patient with ovarian IT after a partial resection.
  • All the patients underwent surgical excision of the recurred mass; CT according to Protocol for Malignant GCT was administered to those who had malignant recurrence; 122/126 patients with MT and 53/56 with IT are alive without disease with a follow up of 8-144 months (median 56).
  • Two patients with malignant relapse (one with sc MT, one with sc IT) died because of the progression of the disease.
  • The number of patients treated with CT is not sufficient to evaluate the efficacy of CT in avoiding malignant relapse.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / epidemiology. Teratoma / epidemiology. Testicular Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Distribution. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Incidence. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Italy / epidemiology. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17333214.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-0358
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric surgery international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Surg. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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18. Carver BS, Shayegan B, Serio A, Motzer RJ, Bosl GJ, Sheinfeld J: Long-term clinical outcome after postchemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection in men with residual teratoma. J Clin Oncol; 2007 Mar 20;25(9):1033-7
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  • [Title] Long-term clinical outcome after postchemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection in men with residual teratoma.
  • PURPOSE: The histologic finding of teratoma occurs in approximately 40% of all postchemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissections (PC-RPLND).
  • We evaluated patients at our institution undergoing initial PC-RPLND for teratoma to determine their clinical outcome.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We identified 210 patients from 1989 to 2003 with nonseminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCT) who underwent initial PC-RPLND and were found to have only teratoma in the retroperitoneum.
  • RESULTS: Of the 210 patients in our series, 192 (92%) received only induction chemotherapy, and 18 (9%) required additional chemotherapy regimens.
  • PC-RPLND pathology revealed mature teratoma in 178 patients (85%), immature teratoma in 15 patients (7%), and teratoma with malignant transformation in 17 patients (8%).
  • With a median follow-up time for survivors of 37 months, disease recurred in 30 patients.
  • Of the 30 patients with disease recurrence, 10 (33%) had recurrence with teratoma, five (17%) had recurrence with teratoma with malignant transformation, and 15 (50%) had recurrence with viable germ cell tumor.
  • Patients found to have teratoma at PC-RPLND have a 10-year probability of freedom from recurrence of 80%.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Lymph Node Excision. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Teratoma / secondary. Teratoma / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymph Nodes / surgery. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasm, Residual. New York City / epidemiology. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Registries. Retroperitoneal Space. Risk Assessment. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] J Clin Oncol. 2007 Mar 20;25(9):1024-5 [17261852.001]
  • (PMID = 17261854.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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19. Porcaro AB, Antoniolli SZ, Martignoni G, Brunelli M, Curti P: Adult primary teratoma of the testis--report on 5 cases in clinical stage I disease. Int Urol Nephrol; 2001;33(4):657-9
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  • [Title] Adult primary teratoma of the testis--report on 5 cases in clinical stage I disease.
  • OBJECTIVES: Testis pure teratoma accounts for 2.7% to 3% of all germ cell tumors in adult where it behaves as a malignant neoplasm.
  • Pure teratoma of the testis presents in clinical stage I disease in 44% of the patients whose risk of having pathological stage II disease is 16.7% to 19.2%.
  • Herein we report on 5 cases of adult pure teratoma of the testis presenting itself in clinical stage I disease.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: From September 1976 to February 2000, 75 patients underwent orchidectomy for clinical stage I nonseminomatous germ cell cancer of the testis.
  • Testis pure teratoma was detected in 5 patients (7%).
  • Testis tumor markers were evaluated in all cases.
  • Treatment options after orchidectomy included retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) in 4 patients and surveillance in 1.
  • Histopathology detected the following subtypes: mature teratoma in 3 cases (60%), immature teratoma in 1 (20%) and teratoma with malignant transformation in (20%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Primary pure teratoma of the testis does not respond to chemotherapy nor does it to radiation therapy.
  • The disease treatment options after orchidectomy for patients with clinical stage I disease include RPLND or surveillance with their relative risks and benefits.
  • RPLND is the chosen treatment because it is both staging and treating.
  • A close a long term follow up is required since pure teratoma metastatic disease may clinically develop after more than 10 years.
  • [MeSH-major] Orchiectomy. Teratoma / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 12452623.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-1623
  • [Journal-full-title] International urology and nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Urol Nephrol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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20. Emerson RE, Ulbright TM, Zhang S, Foster RS, Eble JN, Cheng L: Nephroblastoma arising in a germ cell tumor of testicular origin. Am J Surg Pathol; 2004 May;28(5):687-92
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  • [Title] Nephroblastoma arising in a germ cell tumor of testicular origin.
  • We report a nephroblastoma arising in a germ cell tumor of testicular origin occurring in a 22-year-old man.
  • Orchiectomy demonstrated a malignant mixed germ cell tumor composed of mature and immature teratoma with nephroblastoma and rhabdomyosarcoma.
  • Following chemotherapy, the patient developed supraclavicular and retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy.
  • Excision demonstrated metastatic teratoma at both sites.
  • Using tissue microdissection and loss of heterozygosity analysis, we investigated the clonality of the mature teratoma, immature teratoma, nephroblastoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma components of the primary tumor and of the metastatic mature teratoma at the two separate distant sites.
  • Loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 17p13 (TP53) was detected in metastatic mature teratoma, but not in the primary tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology. Wilms Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17 / genetics. Clone Cells. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Humans. Loss of Heterozygosity. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymph Nodes / surgery. Male. Microsatellite Repeats / genetics. Orchiectomy. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Teratoma / genetics. Teratoma / pathology. Teratoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15105660.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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21. Bakaris S, Resim S, Tunali N: Testicular mixed germ cell tumor with polyembryoma component in brothers. Pediatr Dev Pathol; 2005 Jan-Feb;8(1):92-7
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  • [Title] Testicular mixed germ cell tumor with polyembryoma component in brothers.
  • We report the case of a 17-year-old male with a testicular tumor and high serum levels of alpha-fetoprotein.
  • The patient was treated with surgery followed by combination chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin.
  • Histologic examination showed features of a mixed germ cell tumor composed of mature teratoma, immature teratoma, embryonal carcinoma, yolk sac tumor, and polyembryoma.
  • He is currently well, and his serum levels of alpha-fetoprotein have been normal more than 5 months after treatment.
  • His brother, aged 17 years at the time, had a similar tumor removed from the right testicle 5 years previously.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Siblings. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. alpha-Fetoproteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15803215.001).
  • [ISSN] 1093-5266
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric and developmental pathology : the official journal of the Society for Pediatric Pathology and the Paediatric Pathology Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Dev. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; BEP protocol
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22. Yanagihara Y, Sawada Y, Ozaw A, Nishid T, Kikugawa T, Ikeda T, Shimamoto K, Aoki K, Tanji N, Iio S, Yokoyam M: [Case report: simultaneous bilateral testicular tumors with different cell types]. Nihon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi; 2010 Mar;101(3):574-8
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  • [Title] [Case report: simultaneous bilateral testicular tumors with different cell types].
  • A 29-year-old man was admitted to our hospital due to bilateral testicular tumors.
  • The bilateral testicular tumors were palpated and visualized by ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (right 8 cm, left 6 cm in diameter).
  • Pathological examination revealed seminoma and immature teratoma in the right testis and seminoma in the left testis.
  • Three months later, computed tomography (CT) showed multiple metastatic lung nodules.
  • In addition, positron emission tomography (PET)-CT examination revealed peri-caval lymph node metastasis together with the lung metastases.
  • Lung metastases disappeared, but the lymph node metastasis reduced and remained after 3 courses of combination chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin.
  • The postoperative course was good and uneventful at 10 months under androgen replacement therapy without disease recurrences.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Seminoma / diagnosis. Teratoma / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Androgens / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnostic Imaging. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Hormone Replacement Therapy. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / therapy. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20387519.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5287
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Hinyōkika Gakkai zasshi. The japanese journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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23. De Backer A, Madern GC, Wolffenbuttel KP, Oosterhuis JW, Hakvoort-Cammel FG, Hazebroek FW: Testicular germ cell tumors in children: management and outcome in a series of 20 patients. J Pediatr Urol; 2006 Jun;2(3):197-201

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Testicular germ cell tumors in children: management and outcome in a series of 20 patients.
  • Testicular germ cell tumors occurring during childhood are extremely rare.
  • This study reports the clinical presentation, pathological diagnosis, treatment methods and outcome in a series of 20 boys, aged between 3.5 months and 16 years (median: 1.5 years; 19 were prepubertal), who were treated between 1963 and 2003.
  • Histologically, mature teratoma was present in seven, immature teratoma in four and yolk sac tumor in nine.
  • Of the 11 teratomas, 10 were treated by orchiectomy and one by testis-sparing tumor excision only.
  • The nine patients with yolk sac tumor were managed by orchiectomy, in two plus retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy, and in eight plus chemotherapy.
  • One patient is in remission for 10 months, seven are alive with no evidence of disease for 5.5-23 years, and one patient died from a T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 2 years after the end of treatment of the testicular tumor.
  • A gradual switch towards less invasive treatment has been observed over the years.
  • This study confirms the excellent cure rates obtained in children with testicular germ cell tumor, provided diagnosis is prompt and treatment accurate.

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  • (PMID = 18947609.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4898
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pediatr Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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24. Brandes AA, Pasetto LM, Monfardini S: The treatment of cranial germ cell tumours. Cancer Treat Rev; 2000 Aug;26(4):233-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The treatment of cranial germ cell tumours.
  • Germ cell tumours of the central nervous system (CNS) include many subtypes whose response to treatment varies, even though the symptoms and radiological appearances are similar.
  • Five-year survival rates are 96% for germinomas, 100% for mature teratomas, 67% for immature teratomas and 69% for immature teratomas mixed with germinomas; for beta-HCG secreting germinomas the rate is only 38%.
  • Patients with choriocarcinoma, embryonal carcinoma, or yolk sac tumour have the lowest survival rates; patients with germinoma or mature teratoma have longer survival rates.
  • Beside the delayed injury induced by radiotherapy, the late injury induced by chemotherapy is becoming increasingly evident.
  • Cisplatin is considered an indispensable drug, but it may cause renal damage, ototoxicity, peripheral neuropathy and sterility, while etoposide is associated with an excess frequency of second neoplasms.
  • Taking into account all of the published literature, the following therapeutic options are suggested: in pure germinoma tumours (GT) radiotherapy alone will usually ensure adequate control of the disease, and the long-term sequelae may be limited by reducing the dose delivered, as was proposed for germ cell testicular tumours, to 30 Gy to limited fields plus 25-30 Gy to the spinal axis if there is disseminated disease.
  • In cases of recurrence, which should be uncommon, patients may be rescued with both radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • In NGGC tumours, the prognosis is more unfavourable and there is often dissemination to the spine at diagnosis; however, the tumour's high chemosensitivity suggests neoadjuvant treatment chemotherapy with cisplatin and etoposide for three cycles followed by consolidation radiotherapy with 40 Gy to the limited fields plus 30 Gy to the spinal axis if disseminated.
  • In our opinion, a higher dose of radiotherapy in cases in which chemotherapy does not achieve a radiological complete remission is not advisable, because very often the residual radiological abnormality does not represent biologically active tumour but differentiated forms such as mature teratoma.
  • The challenge for 2000 is to both cure these patients, and avoid the late and permanent sequelae of radiation and/or chemotherapy that may subsequently impair quality of life.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Cranial Irradiation. Drug Therapy. Humans. Neurosurgical Procedures. Prognosis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Survival Rate

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.
  • (PMID = 10913379.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-7372
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer treatment reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Treat. Rev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Number-of-references] 59
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25. Roeleveld TA, Horenblas S, Meinhardt W, van de Vijver M, Kooi M, ten Bokkel Huinink WW: Surveillance can be the standard of care for stage I nonseminomatous testicular tumors and even high risk patients. J Urol; 2001 Dec;166(6):2166-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surveillance can be the standard of care for stage I nonseminomatous testicular tumors and even high risk patients.
  • Patients with relapse were treated with cisplatin based chemotherapy.
  • Computerized tomography located all but 1 relapse.
  • Vascular invasion (p = 0.0001), tumor size (p = 0.0341) and presence of immature teratoma (p = 0.0154) were significantly predictive of relapse with the multivariate analysis, percentage embryonal carcinoma only by univariate analysis (p = 0.032).
  • CONCLUSIONS: With surveillance for stage I nonseminomatous germ cell tumors, excellent treatment results can be achieved that are comparable to primary retroperitoneal lymph node dissection.
  • Tumor markers and computerized tomography are highly reliable for detecting relapse.
  • Pathological factors may influence the choice of adjuvant treatment.
  • However, relapse risks of 50% to 60% are maximally achieved with presently available prognostic factors, and so sparing morbidity of adjuvant treatment by a surveillance protocol remains a feasible option even in these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 11696728.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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26. Sarkar S, Kundu AK, Chakrabarti S: Lungs: victim of synchronous double malignancies. J Assoc Physicians India; 2007 Mar;55:235-7
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  • CT-guided FNAC from the mass lesion was consistent with the diagnosis of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC).
  • A lump in his left testis was detected during clinical examination.
  • Both FNAC and excisional biopsy of the testicular mass confirmed the diagnosis of immature teratoma with choriocarcinoma, a form of non-seminomatous germ cell tumour (NSGCT).
  • With chemotherapy all metastatic lesions of lung and SVC syndrome disappeared, and the tumour-marker levels decreased.
  • However, the opacity in RUZ progessed to involve right recurrent laryngeal nerve at thoracic inlet, metastasized to the brain, and the patient expired after 4th cycle of chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Choriocarcinoma / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Teratoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17598338.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-5772
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Assoc Physicians India
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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27. Malagón HD, Valdez AM, Moran CA, Suster S: Germ cell tumors with sarcomatous components: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 46 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Sep;31(9):1356-62
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  • The germ cell component consisted of pure mature or immature teratoma (23 cases), teratoma mixed with other seminomatous or nonseminomatous components (17), pure seminoma (2), intratubular germ cell neoplasia (1), and yolk sac tumor (1).
  • The SC included embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (29), angiosarcoma (6), leiomyosarcoma (4), undifferentiated sarcoma (3), myxoid liposarcoma (1), malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (1), malignant "triton" tumor (1), and epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (1).
  • All patients were treated by cisplatinum-based chemotherapy plus other agents followed by surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Immunohistochemistry. Mediastinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sarcoma / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Orchiectomy. Ovariectomy. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17721191.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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