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1. Matsumoto S, Matsuda H, Uejima S, Kurita T: [Secondary leukemia following ultra high-dose chemotherapy with peripheral blood stem cell autotransplantation for refractory testicular cancer]. Nihon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi; 2000 Oct-Nov;91(10-11):687-91
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  • [Title] [Secondary leukemia following ultra high-dose chemotherapy with peripheral blood stem cell autotransplantation for refractory testicular cancer].
  • Secondary leukemia following chemotherapy or radiotherapy for mediastinal germ cell tumors in a well-described entity.
  • It also may occur in patients with testicular germ cell tumors.
  • We report a case of secondary leukemia occurring in a 31-year-old man who received ultra high-dose chemotherapy with peripheral blood stem cell autotransplantation (PBSCT) for a refractory testicular cancer (pathology; Seminoma, Embryonal carcinoma, Yolk sac tumor, Choriocarcinoma) with IIIB2 under Japanese classification, poor-risk group under Indiana classification.
  • He received total 11 cycles of systemic chemotherapy (2 cycles of PVB regimen, 4 cycles of PEB regimen, 3 cycles of VIP regimen and 2 cycles of ultra high-dose chemotherapy with PBSCT for pulmonary and para-aortic lymph node metastasis following his initial orchiectomy.
  • Severe and persistent pancytopenia developed 25 months after his initial orchiectomy.
  • Therefore, he was diagnosed as secondary leukemia following high-dose chemotherapy.
  • He received total 6 cycles of systematic chemotherapy for the secondary leukemia in the internal department.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first reported case in the literature relevant to secondary leukemia following ultra high-dose chemotherapy with PBSCT in testicular tumor in Japan.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Carcinoma, Embryonal / drug therapy. Choriocarcinoma / drug therapy. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Leukemia / etiology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / etiology. Seminoma / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Bleomycin / adverse effects. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Combined Modality Therapy. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Etoposide / adverse effects. Humans. Male. Transplantation, Autologous

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  • (PMID = 11109821.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5287
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Hinyōkika Gakkai zasshi. The japanese journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] JAPAN
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; BEP protocol
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2. Hayashi N, Iguchi K, Sano F, Makiyama K, Nakaigawa N, Kubota Y: [Case of cytomegalovirus colitis during standard chemotherapy for testicular cancer]. Nihon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi; 2008 Mar;99(3):551-4
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  • [Title] [Case of cytomegalovirus colitis during standard chemotherapy for testicular cancer].
  • We report a case of cytomegalovirus enterocolitis during standard chemotherapy for testicular cancer.
  • He was diagnosed as left testicular tumor and underwent radical orchiectomy.
  • Pathological examination showed Mixed germ cell tumor (seminoma, yolk sac, embryonal).
  • During 3rd cycle of standard BEP chemotherapy, laboratory data showed severe bone marrow suppression and he subsequently presented prolonged spike fever with watery diarrhea.
  • One month later, the patient recovered with conservative treatment and serological data showed slightly elevated anti-CMV Ig-M, Ig-G antibody.
  • Significant immunosuppression leading to severe colitis by CMV infection or reactivation can occur after standard chemotherapy.
  • It is necessary to screen for CMV infection in patients with prolonged fever with diarrhea during chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Cytomegalovirus Infections. Enterocolitis / virology. Immunocompromised Host. Testicular Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Orchiectomy

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  • (PMID = 18404884.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5287
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Hinyōkika Gakkai zasshi. The japanese journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; BEP protocol
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3. Kuroda I, Ueno M, Mitsuhashi T, Nakagawa K, Yanaihara H, Tsukamoto T, Deguchi N: Testicular seminoma after the complete remission of extragonadal yolk sac tumor : a case report. BMC Urol; 2004 Nov 16;4:13
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  • [Title] Testicular seminoma after the complete remission of extragonadal yolk sac tumor : a case report.
  • Of extragonadal germ cell tumors, testicular carcinoma in situ (CIS) are present in 31-42% of cases, and CIS are reported to have low sensitivity to chemotherapy in spite of the various morphology and to have a high likelihood of developing into testicular tumors.
  • A testicular biopsy may thus be highly advisable when evaluating an extragonadal germ cell tumor.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: A 36-year-old man was diagnosed as having an extragonadal non-seminomatous germ cell tumor, that was treated by cisplatin-based chemotherapy, leading to a complete remission.
  • In the meantime, testicular tumors were not detected by means of ultrasonography.
  • About 4 years later, a right testicular tumor was found, and orchiectomy was carried out.
  • Microscopically, the tumor was composed of seminoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We herein report a case of metachronous occurrence of an extragonadal and gonadal germ cell tumor.
  • In the evaluation of an extragonadal germ cell tumor, a histological examination should be included since ultrasonography is not sufficient to detect CIS or minute lesions of the testis.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Second Primary / etiology. Seminoma / etiology. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Orchiectomy. Remission Induction

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  • [Cites] Histopathology. 1978 May;2(3):157-70 [27442.001]
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  • (PMID = 15546481.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2490
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC535804
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4. Castillo-Avila W, Piulats JM, Garcia Del Muro X, Vidal A, Condom E, Casanovas O, Mora J, Germà JR, Capellà G, Villanueva A, Viñals F: Sunitinib inhibits tumor growth and synergizes with cisplatin in orthotopic models of cisplatin-sensitive and cisplatin-resistant human testicular germ cell tumors. Clin Cancer Res; 2009 May 15;15(10):3384-95
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  • [Title] Sunitinib inhibits tumor growth and synergizes with cisplatin in orthotopic models of cisplatin-sensitive and cisplatin-resistant human testicular germ cell tumors.
  • PURPOSE: Germ cell tumors (GCT) of the testis are highly curable, but those patients who are refractory to cisplatin (CDDP)-based combination chemotherapy have a poor prognosis.
  • Therefore, identifying new alternatives for treatment remains a priority.
  • Several studies support an important role for angiogenesis in GCTs, suggesting that antiangiogenic treatment might be a good alternative.
  • In the present study, we evaluated the effect of sunitinib, CDDP, or the combination of both drugs using an orthotopic model of human testicular GCT.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Mice were implanted with four different testicular tumors: a yolk sac, two choriocarcinomas, and a CDDP-resistant choriocarcinoma variant induced in mice by continuous exposure to CDDP.
  • Mice were treated with vehicle, CDDP, sunitinib, or the combination of both drugs and their effects on tumors were analyzed.
  • RESULTS: We observed a significant inhibition in tumor growth accompanied by longer survival after sunitinib treatment.
  • Combination therapy with CDDP significantly enhanced these effects.
  • Sunitinib induced apoptosis, reduced tumor cell proliferation and tumor vasculature, and inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1, 2, and 3 and platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha phosphorylation without affecting phosphorylation of other tyrosine kinase receptors.
  • More importantly, tumor growth inhibition induced by sunitinib was also observed in the induced CDDP-resistant choriocarcinoma model.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these results suggest that sunitinib might be a new alternative for treatment of CDDP-refractory patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Indoles / therapeutic use. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Pyrroles / therapeutic use. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
  • [MeSH-minor] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / administration & dosage. Angiogenesis Inhibitors / pharmacology. Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Animals. Apoptosis / drug effects. Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cell Survival / drug effects. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / pharmacology. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Drug Synergism. Humans. Male. Mice. Mice, Nude. Neovascularization, Pathologic / genetics. Neovascularization, Pathologic / metabolism. Neovascularization, Pathologic / prevention & control. Receptors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor / genetics. Receptors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor / metabolism. Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor / genetics. Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Survival Analysis. Tumor Burden / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 19417025.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Indoles; 0 / Pyrroles; 0 / sunitinib; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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5. Minamide M, Hosoi I, Yanagi S: [CA19-9-producing testicular tumor: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2000 Jan;46(1):45-7
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  • [Title] [CA19-9-producing testicular tumor: a case report].
  • A rare case of CA19-9-producing testicular tumor is reported.
  • Ultrasonography and computed tomography demonstrated a right testicular tumor with right lung metastasis and aortocaval lymph node metastasis.
  • The histopathological diagnosis was mixed type of teratoma, yolk sac tumor, embryonal carcinoma and seminoma.
  • Immuno-histochemical analysis showed CA19-9 to be expressed in the cancer cells.
  • After 5 courses of combination chemotherapy, the operation for right lung metastasis was performed.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. CA-19-9 Antigen / analysis. Carcinoma, Embryonal / diagnosis. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Seminoma / diagnosis. Teratoma / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Orchiectomy. Treatment Outcome. Vinblastine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 10723665.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] JAPAN
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CA-19-9 Antigen; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; PVB protocol
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6. Chen YS, Kuo JY, Chin TW, Wei CF, Chen KK, Lin AT, Chang LS: Prepubertal testicular germ cell tumors: 25-year experience in Taipei Veterans General Hospital. J Chin Med Assoc; 2008 Jul;71(7):357-61
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  • [Title] Prepubertal testicular germ cell tumors: 25-year experience in Taipei Veterans General Hospital.
  • BACKGROUND: Due to the rarity of testicular tumors in the prepubertal population, adequate information about their biological course is difficult to document well in a single institution.
  • The purpose of this study was to focus on prepubertal males in an attempt to evaluate clinical features and optimal management among various testicular germ cell tumors with long-term follow-up.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of children younger than 12 years of age with primary testicular germ cell tumors between February 1981 and December 2005 at Taipei Veterans General Hospital.
  • Mean follow-up time was 139 months (range, 2-283 months).
  • The mean age of the patients at diagnosis ranged from 6 months to 84 months (mean, 20.5 months).
  • All patients underwent radical orchiectomy as an initial treatment.
  • Twenty-nine (85.3%) patients had yolk sac tumors, and 5 (14.7%) had mature teratomas.
  • Of the 29 patients with yolk sac tumor, 26 (89.7%) were diagnosed as stage I, 1 (3.4%) as stage III, and 2 (7.0%) as stage IV.
  • Five (19.2%) of the 26 stage I yolk sac tumors progressed to metastasis after radical orchiectomy, and all of these 5 patients later received chemotherapy.
  • One patient initially with stage III yolk sac tumor and 2 patients with stage IV yolk sac tumor were also treated with chemotherapy.
  • Eventually, 1 patient with stage IV yolk sac tumor died due to tumor progression; the remaining 28 patients with yolk sac tumor all survived without tumor relapse after appropriate treatment.
  • In the 5 patients with teratomas, there was no tumor relapse after radical orchiectomy with a mean follow-up time of 139.1 months.
  • The 5-year survival rates for yolk sac tumor and teratomas were 96.5% and 100%, respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: The most common prepubertal malignant testicular tumor is yolk sac tumor, and the most common benign testicular tumor is teratoma.
  • Children with testicular germ cell tumors have excellent long-term survival rates after appropriate treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18653399.001).
  • [ISSN] 1726-4901
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Chinese Medical Association : JCMA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chin Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
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7. Tatokoro M, Kawakami S, Sakura M, Kobayashi T, Kihara K, Akamatsu H: Successful management of life-threatening choriocarcinoma syndrome with rupture of pulmonary metastatic foci causing hemorrhagic shock. Int J Urol; 2008 Mar;15(3):263-4
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  • We report a case of a man with testicular cancer metastatic to the lung and retroperitoneal lymph node, with significant elevation of serum levels of human chorionic gonadotropin, 534,000 mIU/mL.
  • Just after the initiation of chemotherapy, life-threatening hemothorax occurred and hemorrhagic shock ensued.
  • The pulmonary tumor had broken off, and lower lobectomy was carried out.
  • Pathologic examination of the specimen revealed choriocarcinoma and yolk sac tumor.
  • Through multimodal treatments he achieved complete remission.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first case report of choriocarcinoma syndrome with life-threatening hemorrhage caused by rupture of pulmonary metastases, resulting in complete remission through multimodal treatments.
  • [MeSH-major] Choriocarcinoma / complications. Choriocarcinoma / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / complications. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Shock, Hemorrhagic / etiology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Emergency Treatment. Humans. Male. Remission Induction. Rupture, Spontaneous

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  • (PMID = 18304226.001).
  • [ISSN] 1442-2042
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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8. Ye YL, Qin ZK, Zhou FJ, Han H, Liu ZW, Yu SL, Li YH, Chen ZF: [Clinical analysis of stage I pediatric testicular yolk sac tumors: a report of ten cases]. Ai Zheng; 2008 Nov;27(11):1226-8
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  • [Title] [Clinical analysis of stage I pediatric testicular yolk sac tumors: a report of ten cases].
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: At present, pediatric testicular yolk sac tumor is hard to be diagnosed at early stage, and the treatment strategy for this disease after radical inguinal orchiectomy is uncertain.
  • This study was to summarize our experience in diagnosing and treating clinical stage I pediatric testicular yolk sac tumors.
  • METHODS: Clinical data of ten patients with clinical stage I pediatric testicular yolk sac tumors treated from July 2001 to June 2007 were analyzed.
  • RESULTS: Testicular masses with low or uneven echoes were detected by B ultrasound in 11 testes of ten patients.
  • Radical inguinal orchiectomy (RIO) was performed for all patients whereas chemotherapy was not administered preoperatively.
  • Pathology examination was used to confirm the diagnosis of yolk sac tumor.
  • One patient with vascular invasion and another one with bilateral testicular yolk sac tumor received cisplatin-based adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • The patient with bilateral testicular tumor had retroperitoneal and lung metastases at 23 months after adjuvant chemotherapy, and achieved complete remission again after salvage chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: With the combination of B ultrasound and serum AFP level, we can assess and diagnose stage I pediatric testicular yolk sac tumor.
  • Chemotherapy is recommended to treat patients with high-risk of relapse.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor. Testicular Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child, Preschool. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Etoposide / therapeutic use. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Orchiectomy / methods. Remission Induction. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / secondary. alpha-Fetoproteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19000459.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; BEP protocol
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9. Lee JK, Kim SH, Kim JH, Kim IY, Kim TS, Jung S, Kang SS, Lee JH, Lee MC: Metastatic spinal cord compression of testicular yolk sac tumor. Childs Nerv Syst; 2002 Apr;18(3-4):171-4
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  • [Title] Metastatic spinal cord compression of testicular yolk sac tumor.
  • INTRODUCTION: Pediatric testicular tumors are rare.
  • Spinal metastasis of testicular yolk sac tumor (YST) is extremely rare, with only one reported case.
  • CASE REPORT: We report a rare case of metastatic spinal cord compression of testicular YST in a 14-month-old boy who presented with progressive paraparesis and neurological bladder dysfunction.
  • Two months prior to admission, he underwent a left radical orchiectomy for YST of the testis.
  • Emergency surgical resection was performed for tissue diagnosis and spinal decompression.
  • Histopathological features of the epidural mass indicated metastasis of the testicular YST.
  • CONCLUSION: Although spinal involvement with metastatic YST is rare, it must be considered in children with testicular YST exhibiting evidence of pain or weakness, and surgical decompression followed by adjuvant chemotherapy should not be delayed.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor / complications. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / secondary. Spinal Cord Compression / etiology. Spinal Neoplasms / complications. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 11981629.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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10. Albers P: Resection of retroperitoneal residual tumor after chemotherapy for testicular cancer indication and surgical techniques. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol; 2004 Apr;50(1):79-85
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  • [Title] Resection of retroperitoneal residual tumor after chemotherapy for testicular cancer indication and surgical techniques.
  • The standard therapeutic approach to patients with advanced germ cell tumors is a combination of systemic chemotherapy with surgical removal of the residual disease.
  • The indication of residual tumor resection (RTR) has changed during the last 10 years.
  • Surgery is not longer recommended after chemotherapy of pure seminoma and surveillance of the residual tumor is the favored option.
  • In nonseminomatous tumors, surgery after chemotherapy is recommended in most of the cases since large studies have shown that a considerable proportion of patients with complete radiological remission after chemotherapy harbor vital carcinoma or teratoma.
  • Prediction models of necrosis after chemotherapy in order to avoid RTR are not generally accepted since the accuracy of most models is too low.
  • RTR is indicated in patients with elevated markers after two different chemotherapy regimens (including salvage chemotherapy) either to resect teratoma or cystic residual disease or to remove chemorefractory disease.
  • In patients with marker normalisation after chemotherapy and necrotic tissue in frozen section histology, the surgical field may be reduced to the left- or right-sided template, respectively.
  • However, especially in patients with teratoma, yolk sac or non germ cell tumors after chemotherapy, the surgical removal of the residual tumor should follow the formal ipsilateral template in order to avoid late relapse of chemorefractory disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Male. Surgical Procedures, Operative

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  • (PMID = 15094161.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8428
  • [Journal-full-title] Critical reviews in oncology/hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 50
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11. Lipphardt ME, Albers P: Late relapse of testicular cancer. World J Urol; 2004 Apr;22(1):47-54
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  • [Title] Late relapse of testicular cancer.
  • Due to its unique biological behavior, late relapse (LR) of testicular cancer has recently been described as an own tumor entity.
  • It is currently defined as tumor recurrence more than 2 years after complete remission following primary treatment including chemotherapy.
  • The incidence ranges from 2 to 6%, with a median relapse-free interval of 5.4-7.1 years from the initial treatment.
  • Although histology shows a germ cell tumor (GCT) origin, the clinical biology is different.
  • The dominant characteristics are slow tumor growth and chemoresistance.
  • Molecular analysis currently focuses on the mechanisms of drug resistance.
  • The initial response to chemotherapy is less than 30% and in most cases complete surgical resection remains the only treatment option with favorable long-term results.
  • The most common site of LR is the retroperitoneum, with undifferentiated cancer (yolk sac) being the most frequent histology.
  • The overall cure rate is only about 50%, hence, adequate treatment of the primary tumor is essential to prevent the development of LR.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Testicular Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Cytogenetic Analysis. Follow-Up Studies. Germinoma / diagnosis. Germinoma / therapy. Humans. Male. Prognosis. Seminoma / diagnosis. Seminoma / therapy. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 15064970.001).
  • [ISSN] 0724-4983
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 37
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12. van de Geijn GJ, Hersmus R, Looijenga LH: Recent developments in testicular germ cell tumor research. Birth Defects Res C Embryo Today; 2009 Mar;87(1):96-113
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  • [Title] Recent developments in testicular germ cell tumor research.
  • Testicular germ cell tumors of adolescents and adults (TGCTs; the so-called type II variant) are the most frequent malignancies found in Caucasian males between 20 and 40 years of age.
  • TGCTs are divided into seminomas and nonseminomas, the latter consisting of the subgroups embryonal carcinoma, yolk-sac tumor, teratoma, and choriocarcinoma.
  • The developmental capacity of their cell of origin, the primordial germ cells/gonocyte, is demonstrated by the different tumor histologies of the invasive TGCTs.
  • Somatic differentiation is seen in the teratomas (all lineages), whereas yolk-sac tumors and choriocarcinoma represent extra-embryonal differentiation.
  • Seminomas are highly sensitive to irradiation and (DNA damaging) chemotherapy, whereas most nonseminomatous elements are less susceptible to radiation, although still sensitive to chemotherapy, with the exception of teratoma.
  • To allow early diagnosis and follow up, appropriate markers are mandatory to discriminate between the different subgroups.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / metabolism. Seminoma / metabolism. Testicular Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19306344.001).
  • [ISSN] 1542-9768
  • [Journal-full-title] Birth defects research. Part C, Embryo today : reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Birth Defects Res. C Embryo Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / MicroRNAs
  • [Number-of-references] 235
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13. Mann JR, Raafat F, Robinson K, Imeson J, Gornall P, Sokal M, Gray E, McKeever P, Hale J, Bailey S, Oakhill A: The United Kingdom Children's Cancer Study Group's second germ cell tumor study: carboplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin are effective treatment for children with malignant extracranial germ cell tumors, with acceptable toxicity. J Clin Oncol; 2000 Nov 15;18(22):3809-18
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  • [Title] The United Kingdom Children's Cancer Study Group's second germ cell tumor study: carboplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin are effective treatment for children with malignant extracranial germ cell tumors, with acceptable toxicity.
  • Stage I testicular and some ovarian GCTs were resected and monitored with alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) ("watch-and-wait" approach).
  • Chemotherapy toxicities were assessed using World Health Organization or Brock grading.
  • Eight were excluded because either there was no histologic diagnosis (n = 3) or chemotherapy was given off-study (n = 5).
  • The remaining 184 patients had germinoma (n = 20), malignant teratoma (n = 55), embryonal carcinoma (n = 1), yolk sac tumor (n = 107), or choriocarcinoma (n = 1).
  • The median follow-up after JEB treatment was 53 months (range, 0 to 109 months); the median number of courses was five (range, three to eight).
  • One child died of a thoracic tumor and bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and another died of acute myeloid leukemia.
  • CONCLUSION: Conservative surgery, a watch-and-wait approach after complete excision, and JEB for those requiring chemotherapy produced high cure rates and few serious complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Germinoma / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Bleomycin / adverse effects. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Carboplatin / adverse effects. Child. Child, Preschool. Chorionic Gonadotropin / blood. Combined Modality Therapy. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Etoposide / adverse effects. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Prognosis. Survival Analysis. alpha-Fetoproteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 11078494.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; JEB protocol
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14. Piulats JM Sr, Nadal M, Martinez-Iniesta M, Puertas S, Gonzalez S, Vidal A, Condom E, Germa-Lluch J, Garcia Del Muro X, Villanueva A: Nude mice model of primary human nonseminoma germ cell tumors to study biology and resistance to cisplatin treatment. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e16143

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  • [Title] Nude mice model of primary human nonseminoma germ cell tumors to study biology and resistance to cisplatin treatment.
  • : e16143 Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are the most common malignancy in young men.
  • Recently, our group has reported the development of a model of human nonseminoma (NSE) after orthotopic nude mice implantation (Piulats et al, Amer Assoc Cancer Res. 2006).
  • Xenografts mimic distal dissemination patterns and cisplatin (CDDP) tumor behavior responses.
  • This model has been useful for the study of antiangiogenic therapies (Piulats et al, ASCO.
  • We have generated in vivo five tumors showing increased resistance to CDDP by exposition to repetitive cycles and increasing the dose applied through different passages (1 yolk-sac; 1 choriocarcinoma; 2 embrional carcinoma; 1 mix tumor).
  • A shortness time elipse between pasajes was observed for each tumor through CDDP treatments.
  • To confirm increasin resistance, a parallel assay of chemotherapy response was performed between nontreated and CDDP resistant tumors.
  • Whole genome analysis of tour xenografted tumors and their paired CDDP resistant tumor (#3 and #5 passage) were analyzed by CGH NimbeGen arrays using 60 Kb average windows.
  • In one tumour showing strong CDDP resistance compared with its sensitive counterpart it occur in absence of new genomic changes.
  • Our data suggest that acquisition of tumor resistance to CDDP in TGCTs may proably depend of a combination of different mechanisms, including cromosomal imbalances.

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  • (PMID = 27963427.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Göbel U, Calaminus G, Schneider DT, Koch S, Teske C, Harms D: The malignant potential of teratomas in infancy and childhood: the MAKEI experiences in non-testicular teratoma and implications for a new protocol. Klin Padiatr; 2006 Nov-Dec;218(6):309-14
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  • [Title] The malignant potential of teratomas in infancy and childhood: the MAKEI experiences in non-testicular teratoma and implications for a new protocol.
  • Since 1982, mature and immature teratomas have been recruited into the MAHO and MAKEI protocols of the German Society for Pediatric Oncology and Hematology (GPOH) for testicular and non-testicular germ cell tumors in order to study the epidemiology and clinical behaviour of teratomas.
  • Patients were registered in the epidemiologic German Childrens Cancer Registry and the GPOH Childrens Tumor Registry for pathological review.
  • Patients with immaturity grade 2 and 3 according to Gonzales-Crussi were eligible for adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • 1) EFS after complete tumor resection has been estimated to 0.96 +/- 0.01 in both observation periods.
  • 2) Incomplete tumor resection remains the main risk factor for relapse (EFS 0.55 +/- 0.09).
  • 4) In MAKEI 83/86/89 four newborns with teratoma died due to perioperative complications and nine children as a result of tumor progression, whereas in MAKEI 96 no newborn died, only one child died from tumor progression, and another child died during long time observation for another reason (meningitis).
  • 5) In accordance to the experience of the MAKEI 83/86/89 studies, no child of the MAKEI 96 study presented with yolk sac tumor at recurrence if adjuvant chemotherapy was administered during first-line treatment because of immaturity.
  • In contrast, more than half of the children with tumor recurrence after watch and wait strategy had yolk sac tumor in addition to teratoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Chi-Square Distribution. Child. Child, Preschool. Data Interpretation, Statistical. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Ovary / pathology. Prospective Studies. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Sacrococcygeal Region. Sex Factors. Treatment Outcome. World Health Organization

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  • (PMID = 17080332.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8630
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinische Pädiatrie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Padiatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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16. Kandori S, Kawai K, Fukuhara Y, Joraku A, Miyanaga N, Shimazui T, Akaza H: A case of metastatic testicular cancer complicated by pulmonary hemorrhage due to choriocarcinoma syndrome. Int J Clin Oncol; 2010 Dec;15(6):611-4
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  • [Title] A case of metastatic testicular cancer complicated by pulmonary hemorrhage due to choriocarcinoma syndrome.
  • A 40-year-old man was referred to our hospital for treatment of metastatic testicular cancer.
  • Computerized tomography revealed multiple lung, liver, and retroperitoneal lymph node metastases.
  • Induction chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin was started the day after a high orchiectomy.
  • The pathological diagnosis of the surgical specimen was yolk sac carcinoma.
  • Physicians who treat advanced testicular tumors should be aware of the potential complication of acute pulmonary hemorrhage, called choriocarcinoma syndrome, in cases with a high hCG level, which indicates a rapidly progressive and high-volume choriocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Choriocarcinoma / complications. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Hemorrhage / etiology. Lung Diseases / etiology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Testicular Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Prognosis. Syndrome


17. Carver BS, Bianco FJ Jr, Shayegan B, Vickers A, Motzer RJ, Bosl GJ, Sheinfeld J: Predicting teratoma in the retroperitoneum in men undergoing post-chemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection. J Urol; 2006 Jul;176(1):100-3; discussion 103-4
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  • [Title] Predicting teratoma in the retroperitoneum in men undergoing post-chemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection.
  • We evaluated patients undergoing post-chemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for nonseminomatous germ cell tumors to determine predictors of teratomatous elements in the retroperitoneum.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified 532 patients from 1989 to 2003 who underwent retroperitoneal lymph node dissection following chemotherapy for nonseminomatous germ cell tumors at our institution.
  • RESULTS: Of the 532 patients in our series 450 (85%) received only induction chemotherapy and 82 (15%) required salvage chemotherapy.
  • By multivariate analysis testicular yolk sac tumor (p = 0.046), teratoma in the orchiectomy specimen (p <0.005), relative change in nodal size before and after chemotherapy (p <0.005), and no requirement for salvage chemotherapy (p = 0.03) were independent predictors for the presence of teratoma in the retroperitoneum.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Teratoma remains a common histological finding in the retroperitoneal lymph nodes following chemotherapy.
  • We have identified several pre-retroperitoneal lymph node dissection variables that predict the finding of teratoma in the retroperitoneum for men treated with chemotherapy for metastatic nonseminomatous germ cell tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Lymph Node Excision. Teratoma / secondary. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Logistic Models. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Multivariate Analysis. Retroperitoneal Space. Salvage Therapy

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  • (PMID = 16753380.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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18. Subramanian VS, Gilligan T, Klein EA: A case of spermatic cord teratoma in low-stage testicular cancer managed by surveillance. Nat Clin Pract Urol; 2008 Apr;5(4):220-3
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  • [Title] A case of spermatic cord teratoma in low-stage testicular cancer managed by surveillance.
  • BACKGROUND: A 25-year-old male presented to his local urologist with new-onset right testicular pain and swelling detected on self examination.
  • A scrotal ultrasound scan showed a right testicular mass, suspicious for neoplasm.
  • The patient underwent right inguinal orchiectomy and was diagnosed with nonseminomatous germ cell tumor of the right testis, composed of yolk sac tumor, teratoma, and embryonal carcinoma with no evidence of metastatic disease.
  • He opted to remain under surveillance rather than undergo primary chemotherapy or retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for his clinical stage I disease.
  • Serologic relapse at 4 months after orchiectomy was successfully treated with bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin (BEP) chemotherapy.
  • Pathology of the testicular mass was reviewed.
  • DIAGNOSIS: A 1.7 cm nodule anterior to the right psoas muscle suspicious for metastatic disease that was seen on CT 16 months after orchiectomy was pathologically confirmed as recurrent mature teratoma in the spermatic cord.
  • The patient has since remained disease-free, with normal levels of serum tumor markers and no evidence of metastasis on chest X-ray and abdominal CT.
  • [MeSH-major] Genital Neoplasms, Male / therapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Spermatic Cord / pathology. Teratoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chorionic Gonadotropin / blood. Disease Management. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Orchiectomy. alpha-Fetoproteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 18268549.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-4289
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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19. Beck SD, Foster RS, Bihrle R, Cheng L, Donohue JP: Does the histology of nodal metastasis predict systemic relapse after retroperitoneal lymph node dissection in pathological stage B1 germ cell tumors? J Urol; 2005 Oct;174(4 Pt 1):1287-90; discussion 1290
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  • PURPOSE: We evaluated the prognostic significance of the histology of metastatic lymph nodes to predict postoperative relapse in pathological stage B1 nonseminomatous germ cell tumor (NSGCT).
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of the testicular cancer database was performed to identify all patients with clinical stage A NSGCT who underwent primary retroperitoneal lymph node dissection and were found to have pathological stage B1 disease.
  • No patient received adjuvant chemotherapy and minimal followup was 24 months.
  • Embryonal cell carcinoma was identified in 92 of 118 (77%) surgical specimens, which was significantly greater than the presence of teratoma (22%), seminoma (16%) and yolk sac (14.4%, p < or = 0.001) with no difference in 5-year DFS comparing the presence or absence of each histology.
  • Embryonal cell carcinoma was the most common single histology identified at surgery at 64 of 88 (73%), with the incidence of seminoma, teratoma and yolk sac being 12.5%, 9.0% and 5.5%, respectively (p < or = 0.001).
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16145394.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Porcaro AB, Zecchini Antoniolli S, Novella G, Martignoni G, Bassetto MA, Poli A, Schiavone D, Tallarigo C, D'Amico A, Ficarra V, Curti P: [Histopathologic risk factors in patients with non-seminomatous germ tumors of the testis in clinical stage 1. Retrospective study of 75 patients]. Arch Ital Urol Androl; 2001 Dec;73(4):177-80
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  • [Title] [Histopathologic risk factors in patients with non-seminomatous germ tumors of the testis in clinical stage 1. Retrospective study of 75 patients].
  • [Transliterated title] Fattori istopatologici di rischio in pazienti con tumore germinale non seminomatoso del testicolo in stadio clinico 1. Uno studio retrospettivo su 75 pazienti.
  • OBJECTIVES: This retrospective study was performed to evaluate histopathologic prognostic risk factors in 75 patients on clinical stage 1 nonseminomatous germ cell cancer of the testis (NSGCTT).
  • After orchiectomy, therapeutic options included retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RLND) for 44 patients (58.6%), surveillance for 26 (34.6%) and neoadjuvant chemotherapy for 5 (6.6%).
  • Testis primary tumor samples were assessed for studying prognostic risk factors that included vascular and/or lymphatic invasion (IV/IL+), percentage of embryonal carcinoma (%EC) and absence of yolk sac tumor (YS-).
  • CONCLUSIONS: EC% > 80 is a prognostic risk factor for disease relapse in patients with clinical stage 1 NSGCT who are selected in a high risk group requiring RPLND or neoadjuvant chemotherapy as therapeutical option.

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  • (PMID = 11822063.001).
  • [ISSN] 1124-3562
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivio italiano di urologia, andrologia : organo ufficiale [di] Societa italiana di ecografia urologica e nefrologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Ital Urol Androl
  • [Language] ITA
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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21. Ross JH, Kay R: Prepubertal testis tumors. Rev Urol; 2004;6(1):11-8
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  • [Title] Prepubertal testis tumors.
  • Because prepubertal testis tumors are rare, their management has historically been based on experience with the more common adult testis tumors.
  • However, recent studies highlighting the natural history of these tumors and their response to therapy have resulted in a modern management algorithm that optimizes testicular preservation and minimizes the morbidity of adjuvant therapies.
  • Many prepubertal testis tumors are benign and can be managed with testis-sparing tumor excision.
  • Localized malignant tumors (yolk sac tumors) may be managed with excision alone.
  • Recurrent tumors and metastatic disease can almost always be treated successfully with platinum-based chemotherapy.

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  • (PMID = 16985566.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-6161
  • [Journal-full-title] Reviews in urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1472674
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22. Berney DM, Shamash J, Gaffney J, Jordan S, Oliver RT: DNA topoisomerase I and II expression in drug resistant germ cell tumours. Br J Cancer; 2002 Sep 9;87(6):624-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] DNA topoisomerase I and II expression in drug resistant germ cell tumours.
  • A small number of testicular germ cell tumours are refractory to current chemotherapy regimens.
  • DNA topoisomerase I is the target for several new drugs and a potential candidate treatment for chemorefractory germ cell tumours.
  • DNA topoisomerase II alpha is the target for etoposide, which is currently used regularly in germ cell tumour treatment.
  • The expression of DNA topoisomerase I and II alpha were therefore assessed immunohistochemically in a range of testicular tumours, especially those with persistent malignant elements on retroperitoneal lymph node dissection.
  • Pre-chemotherapy orchidectomy specimens were matched with post-chemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissections to examine changes in expression.
  • There was considerable variation in the expression of topoisomerase I in different tumour types.
  • Both yolk sac tumours and teratoma, mature showed universal expression of topoisomerase I, while 38% of seminomas and 30% of embryonal carcinomas were positive.
  • There was a negative correlation between topoisomerase I and II alpha expression (P=0.004) and downregulation of topoisomerase II alpha after chemotherapy (P=0.02).
  • These results suggest that topoisomerase I inhibitors may be useful in chemorefractory germ cell tumours, especially yolk sac tumours and where there are unresectable residual teratoma, mature deposits.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Embryonal / metabolism. DNA Topoisomerases, Type I / metabolism. DNA Topoisomerases, Type II / metabolism. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Seminoma / metabolism. Teratoma / metabolism. Testicular Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Case-Control Studies. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Down-Regulation. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Testis / chemistry. Testis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 12237772.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; EC 5.99.1.2 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type I; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2364243
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23. Robertson KA, Bullock HA, Xu Y, Tritt R, Zimmerman E, Ulbright TM, Foster RS, Einhorn LH, Kelley MR: Altered expression of Ape1/ref-1 in germ cell tumors and overexpression in NT2 cells confers resistance to bleomycin and radiation. Cancer Res; 2001 Mar 1;61(5):2220-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • In a pilot study, we have examined Ape1/ref-1 expression by immunohistochemistry in sections of germ cell tumors (GCTs) from 10 patients with testicular cancer of various histologies including seminomas, yolk sac tumors, and malignant teratomas.
  • Ape1/ref-1 was expressed at relatively high levels in the tumor cells of nearly all sections.
  • We hypothesized that elevated expression of Ape1/ref-1 is responsible in part for the resistance to therapeutic agents.
  • (b) elevated expression of Ape1/ref-1 in testicular cancer cell lines results in resistance to certain therapeutic agents; and (c) Ape1/ref-1 expression in GCT cell lines determined by immunohistochemistry and repair activity assays parallels the level of protection from bleomycin.
  • We further hypothesize that elevated Ape1/ref-1 levels observed in human testicular cancer may be related to their relative resistance to therapy and may serve as a diagnostic marker for refractory disease.
  • [MeSH-minor] DNA Repair. DNA-(Apurinic or Apyrimidinic Site) Lyase. Deoxyribonuclease IV (Phage T4-Induced). Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Gene Transfer Techniques. Humans. Retroviridae / genetics. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 11280790.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA76643; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS38506; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R43 CA83507; etc
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; EC 3.1.21.2 / Deoxyribonuclease IV (Phage T4-Induced); EC 4.2.- / Carbon-Oxygen Lyases; EC 4.2.99.18 / APEX1 protein, human; EC 4.2.99.18 / DNA-(Apurinic or Apyrimidinic Site) Lyase
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