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1. Kubota Y, Ohji H, Itoh K, Sasagawa I, Nakada T: Changes in cellular immunity during chemotherapy for testicular cancer. Int J Urol; 2001 Nov;8(11):604-8
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  • [Title] Changes in cellular immunity during chemotherapy for testicular cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: The changes in vivo in immunocyte functions during chemotherapy that is administered in combination with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in humans have not been fully investigated.
  • This study was designed to examine neutrophil functions and the activities of natural killer (NK) cells, during the administration of chemotherapy and G-CSF for the treatment of testicular cancer.
  • Numbers and activities of neutrophils and NK cells were measured at various times during and after the first course of chemotherapy.
  • RESULTS: After BEP chemotherapy, CD16+ and CD56+ cell counts, and neutrophil granulocyte counts decreased while there were no significant changes in the number of lymphocytes.
  • The activity of NK cells was severely impaired after chemotherapy and did not change after administration of G-CSF.
  • CONCLUSIONS: After BEP chemotherapy for testicular cancer with G-CSF, neutrophil function was not at all inferior to those before treatment.
  • Natural killer cell activity was suppressed by the BEP chemotherapy and did not change after administration of G-CSF.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / therapeutic use. Immunity, Cellular. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Embryonal / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Embryonal / immunology. Choriocarcinoma / drug therapy. Choriocarcinoma / immunology. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Humans. Leukocyte Count. Male. Neutrophils / pathology. Seminoma / drug therapy. Seminoma / immunology

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  • (PMID = 11903686.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 143011-72-7 / Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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2. Tanase K, Tawada M, Moriyama N, Muranaka K: [Intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy for liver metastases of testicular tumors: report of two cases]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2000 Nov;46(11):823-7
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  • [Title] [Intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy for liver metastases of testicular tumors: report of two cases].
  • Two cases of testicular tumors with lymph node involvement and multiple lung and liver metastases were treated successfully with intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy.
  • Histopathological diagnosis revealed embryonal cell carcinoma and choriocarcinoma.
  • Cisplatin, vinblastine, VP-16 and pepleomycin combination chemotherapy (PVeBV) was started and repeated for 2 courses.
  • Systemic and intrahepatic arterial infusion combined with chemotherapy was administered, and intra-arterial chemotherapy (cisplatin, VP-16) was added.
  • The patient also received systemic chemotherapy (carboplatin, VP-16, ifosfamide).
  • After chemotherapy, retroperitoneal lymph node dissection was performed.
  • Microscopic examination revealed no viable cancer cells.
  • Histopathological diagnosis revealed seminoma.
  • Cisplatin, vinblastine, VP-16 and pepleomycin combination chemotherapy (PVeBV) was administered, but the liver tumors ware enlarged on CT scan.
  • Intrahepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (cisplatin, VP-16) was started and repeated for 4 courses.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Embryonal / secondary. Choriocarcinoma / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Seminoma / secondary. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Humans. Infusions, Intra-Arterial. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Treatment Outcome. Vinblastine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 11193306.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; PVeBV protocol
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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3. Matsumoto S, Matsuda H, Uejima S, Kurita T: [Secondary leukemia following ultra high-dose chemotherapy with peripheral blood stem cell autotransplantation for refractory testicular cancer]. Nihon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi; 2000 Oct-Nov;91(10-11):687-91
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  • [Title] [Secondary leukemia following ultra high-dose chemotherapy with peripheral blood stem cell autotransplantation for refractory testicular cancer].
  • Secondary leukemia following chemotherapy or radiotherapy for mediastinal germ cell tumors in a well-described entity.
  • It also may occur in patients with testicular germ cell tumors.
  • We report a case of secondary leukemia occurring in a 31-year-old man who received ultra high-dose chemotherapy with peripheral blood stem cell autotransplantation (PBSCT) for a refractory testicular cancer (pathology; Seminoma, Embryonal carcinoma, Yolk sac tumor, Choriocarcinoma) with IIIB2 under Japanese classification, poor-risk group under Indiana classification.
  • He received total 11 cycles of systemic chemotherapy (2 cycles of PVB regimen, 4 cycles of PEB regimen, 3 cycles of VIP regimen and 2 cycles of ultra high-dose chemotherapy with PBSCT for pulmonary and para-aortic lymph node metastasis following his initial orchiectomy.
  • Severe and persistent pancytopenia developed 25 months after his initial orchiectomy.
  • Therefore, he was diagnosed as secondary leukemia following high-dose chemotherapy.
  • He received total 6 cycles of systematic chemotherapy for the secondary leukemia in the internal department.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first reported case in the literature relevant to secondary leukemia following ultra high-dose chemotherapy with PBSCT in testicular tumor in Japan.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Carcinoma, Embryonal / drug therapy. Choriocarcinoma / drug therapy. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Leukemia / etiology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / etiology. Seminoma / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Bleomycin / adverse effects. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Combined Modality Therapy. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Etoposide / adverse effects. Humans. Male. Transplantation, Autologous

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  • (PMID = 11109821.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5287
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Hinyōkika Gakkai zasshi. The japanese journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] JAPAN
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; BEP protocol
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4. Takizawa A, Miura T, Fujinami K, Osada Y: [Observation policy for residual masses after chemotherapy for gonadal and extra-gonadal germ cell tumors]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2005 Apr;51(4):247-51
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  • [Title] [Observation policy for residual masses after chemotherapy for gonadal and extra-gonadal germ cell tumors].
  • Twenty-five patients with germ cell tumors who had marker-free residual masses after undergoing chemotherapy were followed for up to 10 years (median, 21 months).
  • Recurrence occurred in one of the six patients with gonadal SGCTs (chemotherapy shrinkage; 11 cm to 3.5 cm) and three of the four cases with extra-gonadal NSGCTs (embryonal cell carcinoma: 3 cm to 1 cm, embryonal cell carcinoma+york sac tumor: 5 cm to 4 cm, embryonal cell carcinoma+chorio carcinoma; 4 cm to 1.2 cm).
  • Considering the pathologic diagnosis, shrinkage, and international germ cell consensus classification, unnecessary resections of residual masses that were less than 5 cm in size after chemotherapy for gonadal NSGCT should be avoided.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Germinoma / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Diterpenes / administration & dosage. Drug Administration Schedule. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm, Residual. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Observer Variation. Seminoma / drug therapy. Seminoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15912783.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Diterpenes; 0 / blephaein; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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5. Hamid AR, Umbas R: Metastasis of testicular carcinoma in the inguinal region. Acta Med Indones; 2009 Jan;41(1):25-9
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  • [Title] Metastasis of testicular carcinoma in the inguinal region.
  • A standard protocol for the management of inguinal metastasis from testicular cancer still has not yet been established.
  • Metastasis of testicular cancer to inguinal lymph node rarely occurs, particularly in patients without any prior surgery in inguinal and scrotal region.
  • Daugaard reported 2% incidence of inguinal metastasis for stage 1 testicular cancer in 5-year period.
  • We reported a case of inguinal metastasis from residual testicular cancer with a large size of mass.
  • For this case, surgical treatment of residual tumor excision had been performed prior to the chemotherapy considering a quite large size of tumor mass, which may easily bleed and causing anemia to the patient.
  • Furthermore, we considered that chemotherapy treatment prior to surgical excision will only provide partial effect on the tumor.
  • After the surgery, a 4-cycle combined chemotherapy was administered despite the delay of chemotherapy treatment resulting in residual mass in inguinal region.
  • In fact, the post-surgical chemotherapy treatment in this case has demonstrated relatively good response.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Embryonal / secondary. Choriocarcinoma / secondary. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / secondary. Seminoma / secondary. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Fatal Outcome. Groin. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / radiography. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm, Residual. Skin Transplantation

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  • (PMID = 19258677.001).
  • [ISSN] 0125-9326
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta medica Indonesiana
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Med Indones
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Indonesia
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6. Denissen NH, van Spronsen DJ, Smilde TJ, De Mulder PH: Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis in relapsed non-seminoma testis: a 1-year complete remission with high-dose chemotherapy. Anticancer Drugs; 2005 Sep;16(8):897-9
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  • [Title] Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis in relapsed non-seminoma testis: a 1-year complete remission with high-dose chemotherapy.
  • A 1-year complete remission could be achieved with high-dose systemic chemotherapy in a 33-year-old patient with relapsed germ cell tumor presenting with leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LC).
  • Although LC in general has a very poor prognosis for patients with chemosensitive malignancies, systemic chemotherapy should be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Meningeal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Salvage Therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Remission Induction

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  • (PMID = 16096440.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-4973
  • [Journal-full-title] Anti-cancer drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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7. Matveev VB, Volkova MI, Cherniev VA, Figurin KM, Mitin AV: [Retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy in disseminated non-seminoma germinogenic testicular tumors after chemotherapy in patients with elevated serum tumor markers]. Urologiia; 2010 May-Jun;(3):41-7
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  • [Title] [Retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy in disseminated non-seminoma germinogenic testicular tumors after chemotherapy in patients with elevated serum tumor markers].
  • Postchemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RLND) was performed in 70 testicular non-seminoma patients with elevated serum tumor markers (age median 27.0 +/- 8.1 years) from 1983 to 2008.
  • The prognostic group was not identified in 24 (34.3%) cases which started treatment in other hospitals.
  • All the patients received induction cisplatin-based chemotherapy following orchidectomy (first-line--24 (34.3%), second-line--46 (65.7%) which resulted in tumor shrinkage < 50% in 7 (10.0%), 51-90% in 23 (32.9%), > 90%--in 2 (2.9%) cases.
  • CT scan revealed residual retroperitoneal masses after chemotherapy in all the patients: < 2 cm--5 (7.1%), 2-5 cm--25 (35.7%), > 5 cm--40 (57.1%).
  • Further chemotherapy was not perspective in all 70 patients who further underwent retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RLND).
  • Postoperative chemotherapy was given to 27 (38.6%) cases.
  • Complications developed in 12.9% (9/70) patients.
  • Histology revealed necrosis in 20 (28.6%), teratoma--in 26 (37.1%), cancer--in 24 (34.3%) specimens.
  • Prognostic factors for cancer in retroperitoneal pathology were the following: S > S1 (p = 0.013), intermediate or poor prognosis group IGCCCG (p = 0.014), absence of embryonal carcinoma (p = 0.003), the presence of choriocarcinoma in the testicular tumor (p = 0.028), second-line chemotherapy (p = 0.001), residual mass > 2 cm (p = 0.006).
  • Univariate analysis revealed an adverse impact on progressive-free survival of category S > S1 (p = 0.015), intermediate or poor prognostic group IGCCCG (p = 0.01), the presence of embryonal carcinoma (p = 0.020) and the absence of choriocarcinoma in the testicular tumor (p = 0.029), tumor shrinkage < 50% (p < 0.0001), incomplete RLND (p = 0.012), an incomplete effect of the combined treatment (p < 0.0001), cancer in the residual mass (p < 0.0001).
  • The multivariate analysis proved predictive value of an incomplete effect of the combined treatment (p < 0.0001).
  • Thus, selected testicular non-seminoma patients with elevated serum tumor markers are curable with surgery.
  • The best candidates for RLND in this group are patients without a tumor markers level increase during chemotherapy, with S1 category, good IGCCCG prognosis, tumor shrinkage > 50% and potentially respectable residual disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Germinoma. Lymph Node Excision. Testicular Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 20734877.001).
  • [ISSN] 1728-2985
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologii︠a︡ (Moscow, Russia : 1999)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologiia
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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8. López-González A, Egui Rojo MA, Maximiano C, Martínez-Salamanca JI, González Hernando C, Sánchez Yuste R, Bonilla F, Carballido Rodríguez JA: Natural progression of embryonal carcinoma. Arch Esp Urol; 2010 Nov;63(9):803-7
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  • [Title] Natural progression of embryonal carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: We report a rare case of advanced testicular cancer that describes the natural progression of testicular cancer without medical treatment.
  • This study also describes the effectiveness of chemotherapy, which was the approach used for treatment.
  • He was diagnosed of pT4 embryonal carcinoma by biopsy.
  • He was treated with five cycles of Bleomycin/Etoposide/Cisplatin with complete response after treatment.
  • RESULTS: Testicular tumors are the most frequent solid tumors in males between the ages of 20 and 39 years old.
  • Testicular tumors represent 1% of all neoplasias diagnosed in males and 0.1% of all male deaths due to cancer.
  • Several studies have reported the current real incidence rate of testicular tumors has increased to 3%, which accounts for the diagnosis of 450 new cases of testicular cancer a year in Spain.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The cure rate for patients with intermediate risk non-seminoma is around 70% following a conventional treatment approach of four cycles of BEP.
  • The present case is noteworthy because, in our experience, testicular tumors are diagnosed at an early stage without extensively affecting the skin or simulating another type of epithelial tumor.
  • As a result, the present study describes the natural progression of testicular cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Embryonal / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21098905.001).
  • [ISSN] 1576-8260
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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9. Melchior D, Müller SC, Albers P: Extensive surgery in metastatic testicular cancer. Aktuelle Urol; 2003 Jul;34(4):214-22
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  • [Title] Extensive surgery in metastatic testicular cancer.
  • Surgery remains an important component in the multimodal treatment of patients with advanced testicular cancer.
  • Recently, however, the indications for post-chemotherapy residual tumor resection have changed.
  • Patients with advanced seminoma very rarely need surgical resection of the residual disease after standard chemotherapy.
  • In contrast, patients with high stage non-seminomatous testis cancer must undergo post-chemotherapy surgery in most cases.
  • Surgical resection in metastatic disease may also be necessary in patients with recurrent tumors, patients with persisting marker elevation during chemotherapy and patients with late relapses.
  • Post-chemotherapy residual tumor resections, "redo"-retroperitoneal tumor operations and other salvage resections are often technically demanding procedures with unusual surgical approaches that require individualized perioperative planning in order to reduce morbidity.
  • This paper summarizes the current indications for post-chemotherapy surgery and discusses various surgical approaches and techniques, perioperative management recommendations, as well as complications of these extensive resection procedures.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Embryonal / surgery. Germinoma / surgery. Seminoma / surgery. Teratoma / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm, Residual / surgery. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 14566667.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-7868
  • [Journal-full-title] Aktuelle Urologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aktuelle Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 52
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10. Ugwumba FO, Aghaji AE: Testicular cancer: Management challenges in an African developing country. S Afr Med J; 2010 Jul;100(7):452-5
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  • [Title] Testicular cancer: Management challenges in an African developing country.
  • BACKGROUND: Advances in oncology have greatly improved the prognosis of testicular cancer.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-four patients managed for testicular cancer at two centres (University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria, and JAMA Urological Clinic, Enugu) between April 1984 and March 2003 were prospectively studied.
  • Testicular swelling was the principal complaint in 23 patients.
  • Treatment consisted of radical orchidectomy in all patients and cisplatin-based chemotherapy and radiotherapy in some patients.
  • One patient with a tumour in an intra-abdominal testis underwent laparotomy.
  • The most common histological types were seminoma and embryonal carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Morbidity and mortality of testicular cancer is high in developing countries.
  • Late presentation, poverty, paucity of resources and the high cost of newer imaging modalities and treatment are major challenges to management.
  • Better health funding and education regarding testicular self-examination is essential.
  • [MeSH-major] Testicular Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Africa. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Embryonal / pathology. Child. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Developing Countries. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Laparotomy. Male. Middle Aged. Orchiectomy. Seminoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20822594.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-9574
  • [Journal-full-title] South African medical journal = Suid-Afrikaanse tydskrif vir geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] S. Afr. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] South Africa
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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11. Stang A, Rusner C, Eisinger B, Stegmaier C, Kaatsch P: Subtype-specific incidence of testicular cancer in Germany: a pooled analysis of nine population-based cancer registries. Int J Androl; 2009 Aug;32(4):306-16
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  • [Title] Subtype-specific incidence of testicular cancer in Germany: a pooled analysis of nine population-based cancer registries.
  • Comparisons of incidence estimates of testicular cancer subtypes beyond seminoma and non-seminoma are virtually missing in the epidemiologic literature.
  • We analysed incidence data from population-based German cancer registries to provide subtype-specific incidences of testicular cancer.
  • We pooled data from nine cancer registries from 1998 to 2003.
  • We estimated incidence and mortality time trends of West and East Germany.
  • In 1998-2003, the seminoma incidence rate was 5.1 per 100,000; among non-seminomas, the rates were the highest for malignant teratoma (1.6 per 100,000), followed by embryonal carcinoma (1.2 per 100,000).
  • Testicular lymphomas were rare (0.1 per 100,000).
  • The incidence of testicular cancer among children aged 0-14 years was nearly constant from 1987 through 2004.
  • In East and West Germany, rates of embryonal carcinoma in the early periods were considerably lower than the rates of malignant teratoma.
  • In the most recent periods, rates of embryonal carcinoma became quite similar to the rates of malignant teratoma.
  • The later start of the mortality decline in East Germany may be because of a later introduction of platinum-based chemotherapy compared to West Germany.
  • [MeSH-major] Testicular Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Embryonal / epidemiology. Child. Child, Preschool. Choriocarcinoma / epidemiology. Germany / epidemiology. Humans. Incidence. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Middle Aged. Population Surveillance. Registries. Seminoma / epidemiology. Teratoma / epidemiology. Time Factors. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18179558.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2605
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of andrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Androl.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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12. Minamide M, Hosoi I, Yanagi S: [CA19-9-producing testicular tumor: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2000 Jan;46(1):45-7
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  • [Title] [CA19-9-producing testicular tumor: a case report].
  • A rare case of CA19-9-producing testicular tumor is reported.
  • Ultrasonography and computed tomography demonstrated a right testicular tumor with right lung metastasis and aortocaval lymph node metastasis.
  • The histopathological diagnosis was mixed type of teratoma, yolk sac tumor, embryonal carcinoma and seminoma.
  • Immuno-histochemical analysis showed CA19-9 to be expressed in the cancer cells.
  • After 5 courses of combination chemotherapy, the operation for right lung metastasis was performed.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. CA-19-9 Antigen / analysis. Carcinoma, Embryonal / diagnosis. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Seminoma / diagnosis. Teratoma / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Orchiectomy. Treatment Outcome. Vinblastine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 10723665.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] JAPAN
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CA-19-9 Antigen; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; PVB protocol
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13. van de Geijn GJ, Hersmus R, Looijenga LH: Recent developments in testicular germ cell tumor research. Birth Defects Res C Embryo Today; 2009 Mar;87(1):96-113
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Recent developments in testicular germ cell tumor research.
  • Testicular germ cell tumors of adolescents and adults (TGCTs; the so-called type II variant) are the most frequent malignancies found in Caucasian males between 20 and 40 years of age.
  • TGCTs are divided into seminomas and nonseminomas, the latter consisting of the subgroups embryonal carcinoma, yolk-sac tumor, teratoma, and choriocarcinoma.
  • The pathogenesis starts in utero, involving primordial germ cells/gonocytes that are blocked in their differentiation, and develops via the precursor lesion carcinoma in situ toward invasiveness.
  • Seminoma represents the germ cell lineage, and embryonal carcinoma is the undifferentiated component, being the stem cell population of the nonseminomas.
  • Somatic differentiation is seen in the teratomas (all lineages), whereas yolk-sac tumors and choriocarcinoma represent extra-embryonal differentiation.
  • Seminomas are highly sensitive to irradiation and (DNA damaging) chemotherapy, whereas most nonseminomatous elements are less susceptible to radiation, although still sensitive to chemotherapy, with the exception of teratoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / metabolism. Seminoma / metabolism. Testicular Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19306344.001).
  • [ISSN] 1542-9768
  • [Journal-full-title] Birth defects research. Part C, Embryo today : reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Birth Defects Res. C Embryo Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / MicroRNAs
  • [Number-of-references] 235
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14. Opot EN, Magoha GA: Testicular cancer at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. East Afr Med J; 2000 Feb;77(2):80-5
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  • [Title] Testicular cancer at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence, clinical characteristics, management methods and prognosis of testicular cancer at Kenyatta National Hospital.
  • DESIGN: Retrospective case study of testicular cancer patients over a fifteen year period.
  • PARTICIPANTS: All histologically confirmed testicular cancer patients recorded at the Histopathology Department of Kenyatta National Hospital between 1983 and 1997.
  • Thirty one patients (79.49%) presented with painless testicular swellings, eleven (28.08%) with pain, nine (23.08%) with scrotal heaviness, six (15.38%) with abdominal swellings and one (2.56%) each with gynaecomastia and eye swelling.
  • On examination 32 patients (82.05%) had testicular masses, ten (25.64%) had abdominal masses, seven (17.91%) had supraclavicular and cervical lymphadenopathy, and one each (2.56%) had gynaecomastia and eye mass respectively.
  • More than eighty nine per cent had germ cell cancers with seminoma accounting for 67.35%, teratoma 12.24%, embroyonal carcinoma 8.16%, rhabdomyosarcoma 6.12% and malignant germ cell tumour, orchioblastoma and dysgerminoma each accounted for 2.04%.
  • Three patients (7.7%) had orchidectomy and radiotherapy and chemotherapy, sixteen (41.03%) had orchidectomy and radiotherapy, six (15.38%) had orchidectomy and chemotherapy, ten (25.64%) had radiotherapy and chemotherapy, three (7.7%) and two (5.13%) had only chemotherapy and radiotherapy respectively.
  • No cisplastin based chemotherapy regime was used.
  • Cisplastin based chemotherapy with up to 90% cure rates should be included as a component of testicular cancer management at Kenyatta National Hospital.
  • This retrospective study was undertaken to determine the prevalence, clinical characteristics, management methods and prognosis of testicular cancer at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.
  • All histologically confirmed testicular cancer patients recorded at the Histopathology Department between 1993 and 1997 were analyzed.
  • The clinical symptoms presented were painless testicular swelling (n = 31, 79.49%), testicular pain (n = 11, 28.08%), scrotal heaviness (n = 9, 23.08%), abdominal swelling (n = 6, 15.38%), gynecomastia (n = 1, 2.56%), and eye swelling (n = 1, 2.56%).
  • On examination, 32 patients (82.05%) had testicular masses, 10 (25.64%) had abdominal masses, 7 (17.91%) had supraclavicular and cervical lymphadenopathy, 1 had gynecomastia, and 1 had an orbital mass.
  • More than 89% of patients had germ cell cancers with seminoma accounting for 67.35%, teratoma for 12.24%, embryonal carcinoma for 8.16%, rhabdomyosarcoma for 6.12%, and malignant germ cell tumor, orchioblastoma, and dysgerminoma each accounting for 2.04%.
  • The various methods of treatment include orchidectomy and radiotherapy and chemotherapy in 3 patients (7.7%), orchidectomy and radiotherapy in 16 patients (41.03%), orchidectomy and chemotherapy in 6 patients (15.38%), and radiotherapy and chemotherapy in 10 patients (25.64%).
  • No cisplatin-based chemotherapy was used.
  • Hence, cisplatin-based chemotherapy with up to 90% cure rates should be included in the testicular cancer management in this hospital.
  • [MeSH-major] Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Hospitals, Teaching. Humans. Incidence. Kenya / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Orchiectomy. Prognosis. Referral and Consultation. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 10774080.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-835X
  • [Journal-full-title] East African medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] East Afr Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] KENYA
  • [Other-IDs] PIP/ 149564; POP/ 00296083
  • [Keywords] PIP ; Cancer (major topic) / Clinical Research (major topic) / Prevalence (major topic) / Research Report (major topic) / Retrospective Studies (major topic) / Signs And Symptoms (major topic) / Testis (major topic) / Treatment (major topic) / Africa / Africa South Of The Sahara / Biology / Developing Countries / Diseases / Eastern Africa / English Speaking Africa / Genitalia / Genitalia, Male / Kenya / Measurement / Neoplasms / Physiology / Research Methodology / Studies / Urogenital System
  • [General-notes] PIP/ TJ: EAST AFRICAN MEDICAL JOURNAL.
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15. Bhayani SB, Ong A, Oh WK, Kantoff PW, Kavoussi LR: Laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for clinical stage I nonseminomatous germ cell testicular cancer: a long-term update. Urology; 2003 Aug;62(2):324-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for clinical stage I nonseminomatous germ cell testicular cancer: a long-term update.
  • OBJECTIVES: To assess retrospectively the long-term cancer control in patients undergoing laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) in the management of clinical Stage I nonseminomatous germ cell testicular tumors.
  • All patients had clinical Stage I nonseminomatous germ cell testicular tumor, with vascular invasion and/or embryonal carcinoma in the orchiectomy specimen.
  • Patients with retroperitoneal metastases were offered two cycles of chemotherapy.
  • Two patients had recurrence, one in the chest, and one biochemically, and both were free of disease after chemotherapy.
  • Twelve of 29 patients had lymph nodes with metastatic testicular cancer.
  • Ten of these patients underwent adjuvant chemotherapy and were free of disease with 6.3 years of follow-up.
  • One patient had a biochemical recurrence after positive RPLND and was salvaged with chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic RPLND is a safe, minimally invasive treatment option in patients with clinical Stage I nonseminomatous germ cell testicular tumor.
  • The cancer control appears to be similar, with minimal morbidity compared with the open procedure.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma / surgery. Laparoscopy / methods. Lymph Node Excision / methods. Retroperitoneal Space / surgery. Seminoma / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12893344.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Paoli D, Gilio B, Piroli E, Gallo M, Lombardo F, Dondero F, Lenzi A, Gandini L: Testicular tumors as a possible cause of antisperm autoimmune response. Fertil Steril; 2009 Feb;91(2):414-9
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  • [Title] Testicular tumors as a possible cause of antisperm autoimmune response.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the presence of antisperm antibodies in testicular cancer patients 1 month after orchiectomy and before radiotherapy or chemotherapy.
  • PATIENT(S): One hundred ninety patients with testicular cancer.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Autoimmune reaction on the sperm surface by the direct immunobead test (IBT), and in blood serum by the indirect IBT and the gelatin agglutination test (GAT), was evaluated 1 month after orchiectomy and before beginning chemotherapy or radiotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION(S): Our data support the hypothesis that testicular cancer might not be a possible cause of antisperm autoimmunization and infertility.
  • [MeSH-major] Autoantibodies / blood. Autoimmune Diseases / immunology. Carcinoma, Embryonal / immunology. Infertility, Male / immunology. Seminoma / immunology. Spermatozoa / immunology. Testicular Neoplasms / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Agglutination Tests. Case-Control Studies. Humans. Male. Orchiectomy. Semen Analysis. Time Factors. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18304541.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-5653
  • [Journal-full-title] Fertility and sterility
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fertil. Steril.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Autoantibodies
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17. Otite U, Webb JA, Oliver RT, Badenoch DF, Nargund VH: Testicular microlithiasis: is it a benign condition with malignant potential? Eur Urol; 2001 Nov;40(5):538-42
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  • [Title] Testicular microlithiasis: is it a benign condition with malignant potential?
  • OBJECTIVE: To review the findings of testicular ultrasonography (US) in patients referred for testicular symptoms including pain, swelling and infertility, and to determine the prevalence of testicular microlithiasis (TM) and ist relevance to the development of testicular cancer.
  • METHODS: Records of 3,026 patients referred for testicular US between 1994 and 1999 were evaluated.
  • The indications for testicular US diagnosis, management and relevant histological details were obtained from medical records.
  • Patients with TM had an annual sonographic follow-up unless they had testicular cancer, in which case follow-up repeat US with clinical reviews was more frequent.
  • Sixteen of these patients had testicular malignancy (30%).
  • One patient with a small testis developed a seminoma while under surveillance.
  • Another patient with metastatic embryonal-cell carcinoma at initial diagnosis was found to have a seminoma 4 years following chemotherapy.
  • The relative risk of testicular tumours in the presence of TM was 13.2 (confidence interval 8.3-21.5).
  • CONCLUSION: TM can no longer be regarded simply as a benign condition because of its association with testicular malignancy.
  • In our series, 2 patients (5.2%) developed interval testicular cancers during follow-up US.
  • In rare instances of radiologically indeterminate cases, biopsy of the testis may be necessary.
  • [MeSH-major] Calculi / complications. Precancerous Conditions. Testicular Diseases / complications. Testicular Neoplasms / etiology

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  • (PMID = 11752862.001).
  • [ISSN] 0302-2838
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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18. Looijenga LH, Gillis AJ, Stoop HJ, Hersmus R, Oosterhuis JW: Chromosomes and expression in human testicular germ-cell tumors: insight into their cell of origin and pathogenesis. Ann N Y Acad Sci; 2007 Dec;1120:187-214
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  • [Title] Chromosomes and expression in human testicular germ-cell tumors: insight into their cell of origin and pathogenesis.
  • Within the testis, three types of GCTs can be diagnosed: type I (teratomas and yolk-sac tumors of neonates and infants); type II (seminomas and nonseminomas); type III (spermatocytic seminomas).
  • Here the focus is on the type II GCTs, the most frequent type in the adult testis (so-called TGCTs).
  • In the testis, they originate from the malignant counterpart of primordial germ cells/gonocytes, referred to as carcinoma in situ (CIS)/intratubular germ-cell neoplasia unclassified (ITGCNU).
  • CIS/ITGCNU and seminomatous cells are characterized by expression of OCT3/4 and NANOG, while in addition embryonal carcinoma expresses SOX2, all identified as transcription factors related to pluripotency in embryonic stem (ES) cells.
  • With the exception of teratomas, most histological elements of TGCTs are sensitive for (cisplatin-based) chemotherapy; CIS/ITGCNU and seminoma cells are also sensitive to DNA damage induced by irradiation.
  • The unusual presence of wild-type P53 in TGCTs is explained by specific expression of a cluster of micro-RNAs (miRNAs), that is, hsa-miR 371-373, also expressed in ES cells, which prevents P53-driven cellular senescence upon oncogenic stress.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomes, Human. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / etiology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / genetics. Neoplastic Stem Cells / physiology. Testicular Neoplasms / etiology. Testicular Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Disease Progression. Embryonal Carcinoma Stem Cells. Epigenesis, Genetic / physiology. Humans. Male. Models, Biological. Stem Cells / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17911410.001).
  • [ISSN] 0077-8923
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 206
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19. Beck SD, Foster RS, Bihrle R, Cheng L, Donohue JP: Does the histology of nodal metastasis predict systemic relapse after retroperitoneal lymph node dissection in pathological stage B1 germ cell tumors? J Urol; 2005 Oct;174(4 Pt 1):1287-90; discussion 1290
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of the testicular cancer database was performed to identify all patients with clinical stage A NSGCT who underwent primary retroperitoneal lymph node dissection and were found to have pathological stage B1 disease.
  • No patient received adjuvant chemotherapy and minimal followup was 24 months.
  • Embryonal cell carcinoma was identified in 92 of 118 (77%) surgical specimens, which was significantly greater than the presence of teratoma (22%), seminoma (16%) and yolk sac (14.4%, p < or = 0.001) with no difference in 5-year DFS comparing the presence or absence of each histology.
  • Embryonal cell carcinoma was the most common single histology identified at surgery at 64 of 88 (73%), with the incidence of seminoma, teratoma and yolk sac being 12.5%, 9.0% and 5.5%, respectively (p < or = 0.001).
  • Recurrence rates were similar for pure embryonal cell carcinoma (69%), mixed embryonal cell carcinoma (63%) and no embryonal cell carcinoma (73%) in the retroperitoneum (p=0.63).
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Embryonal / pathology. Humans. Male. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Seminoma / pathology. Teratoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16145394.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. vom Dorp F, Krege S, Rübben H: [Inductive systemic therapy of urological tumors with curative intent]. Urologe A; 2007 Oct;46(10):1400-3
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  • [Title] [Inductive systemic therapy of urological tumors with curative intent].
  • [Transliterated title] Induktive Systemtherapie mit kurativer Zielsetzung urologischer Tumoren.
  • Up to now systemic therapy with curative intent is possible in only a few tumors.
  • Concerning advanced malignant tumors in urology only testicular cancer can be cured.
  • In metastatic urothelial cancer of the bladder this might be possible in single cases.
  • In advanced renal cell carcinoma a recent group of new substances, so-called target-specific substances, have gained attention.
  • The amazing results in testicular cancer were possible by consistent performance of clinical trials.
  • The success in treatment also is an example for interdisciplinarity.
  • Especially in advanced stages treatment consists of two components, chemotherapy, correctly performed concerning dose and interval, followed by complete residual tumor resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Neoadjuvant Therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Bleomycin / adverse effects. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Delivery Systems. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Etoposide / adverse effects. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Ifosfamide / adverse effects. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / mortality. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Orchiectomy. Prognosis. Seminoma / drug therapy. Seminoma / mortality. Seminoma / pathology. Seminoma / surgery. Survival Rate. Taxoids / administration & dosage. Taxoids / adverse effects. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / mortality. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery. Treatment Outcome. Vinblastine / administration & dosage. Vinblastine / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 17874061.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-2592
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Urologe. Ausg. A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologe A
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Taxoids; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide; BEP protocol; ICE protocol 1; TIP regimen; VeIP protocol
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21. Maroto P, García del Muro X, Aparicio J, Paz-Ares L, Arranz JA, Guma J, Terrassa J, Barnadas J, Dorta J, Germà-Lluch JR: Multicentre risk-adapted management for stage I non-seminomatous germ cell tumours. Ann Oncol; 2005 Dec;16(12):1915-20
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  • Other patients (358/589; 61%) were kept on close follow-up (chest X-ray; serum tumour markers: first year every 2 months, second year every 3 months, third year every 4 months; abdominal computed tomography scans at every other outpatient control).
  • In the chemotherapy group, two patients relapsed at 12 and 14.5 months and they are presently free of disease.
  • Five (1.4%) patients died of their cancer.
  • Factors associated with relapse were embryonal carcinoma and vascular invasion in patients who refused chemotherapy.

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  • (PMID = 16126737.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide
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22. Berney DM, Shamash J, Gaffney J, Jordan S, Oliver RT: DNA topoisomerase I and II expression in drug resistant germ cell tumours. Br J Cancer; 2002 Sep 9;87(6):624-9
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  • [Title] DNA topoisomerase I and II expression in drug resistant germ cell tumours.
  • A small number of testicular germ cell tumours are refractory to current chemotherapy regimens.
  • DNA topoisomerase I is the target for several new drugs and a potential candidate treatment for chemorefractory germ cell tumours.
  • DNA topoisomerase II alpha is the target for etoposide, which is currently used regularly in germ cell tumour treatment.
  • The expression of DNA topoisomerase I and II alpha were therefore assessed immunohistochemically in a range of testicular tumours, especially those with persistent malignant elements on retroperitoneal lymph node dissection.
  • Pre-chemotherapy orchidectomy specimens were matched with post-chemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissections to examine changes in expression.
  • There was considerable variation in the expression of topoisomerase I in different tumour types.
  • Both yolk sac tumours and teratoma, mature showed universal expression of topoisomerase I, while 38% of seminomas and 30% of embryonal carcinomas were positive.
  • Strong topoisomerase II alpha expression was found in embryonal carcinoma.
  • There was a negative correlation between topoisomerase I and II alpha expression (P=0.004) and downregulation of topoisomerase II alpha after chemotherapy (P=0.02).
  • Topoisomerase I expression appears to increase in those cases with residual teratoma, mature, but is largely unchanged in those cases remaining as embryonal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Embryonal / metabolism. DNA Topoisomerases, Type I / metabolism. DNA Topoisomerases, Type II / metabolism. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Seminoma / metabolism. Teratoma / metabolism. Testicular Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Case-Control Studies. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Down-Regulation. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Testis / chemistry. Testis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 12237772.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; EC 5.99.1.2 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type I; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2364243
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23. Basu S, Rubello D: PET imaging in the management of tumors of testis and ovary: current thinking and future directions. Minerva Endocrinol; 2008 Sep;33(3):229-56
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  • [Title] PET imaging in the management of tumors of testis and ovary: current thinking and future directions.
  • The role of fluoro-D-deoxyglucose positron-emission tomography (FDG-PET) in testicular malignancies has been examined in various studies primarily in three specific settings:.
  • 1) differentiation of active disease from fibrosis/mature teratoma in patients with residual mass following chemotherapy and evaluation of the response to treatment;.
  • 2) initial staging and disease assessment after orchidectomy identification of suspected recurrences in the context of elevated circulating serum markers; and 3) predicting response to treatment.
  • Of these, the area where FDG-PET imaging has been examined the most in testicular tumors is the evaluation of postchemotherapy residual mass in both seminoma and nonseminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCT) of the testis, a critical step in determining the subsequent management approach of these tumors that vary amongst various centers.
  • From the available data, this should be the test of choice for the assessment of a computed tomography (CT)-visualized residual mass following chemotherapy.
  • In patients with residual masses or raised marker levels following therapy, positron-emission tomography (PET) appears sensitive and specific for detecting recurrent disease, at suspected and unsuspected sites.
  • With regard to its role in ovarian carcinoma, it appears to be particularly useful for the diagnosis of recurrence when CA125 levels are rising and conventional imaging is inconclusive or negative.
  • The role of fluoro-D-deoxyglucose (FDG)-PET/CT for the detection of recurrent ovarian cancer appears very promising and has the potential to replace the current surveillance techniques in detecting recurrent disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Testicular Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Clinical Trials as Topic. Combined Modality Therapy. Cost-Benefit Analysis. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Forecasting. Humans. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / radionuclide imaging. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / radionuclide imaging. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy. Paraneoplastic Cerebellar Degeneration / radionuclide imaging. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Radiopharmaceuticals. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18846028.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals
  • [Number-of-references] 83
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24. Fléchon A, Droz JP: [Germ cell tumors of the testes: state of the art]. Cancer Radiother; 2000 Jan-Feb;4(1):27-31
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  • The treatment of stage I seminoma is lomboaortic radiotherapy, and that of stage I non-seminomatous tumors is either surveillance, retroperitoneal lymph node dissection or adjuvant chemotherapy according to the risk factors of extra-testicular involvement (pure embryonal carcinoma, vascular invasion).
  • For advanced diseases, the standard treatment is three cycles of bleomycin, etoposide, cisplatin (BEP regimen) or four cycles of the same association without bleomycin (EP regimen) and four cycles of the BEP regimen for patients with good risk and poor risk prognostic characteristics, respectively.
  • It is recommended to resect all residual masses after chemotherapy.
  • The standard salvage treatment is four cycles of vinblastin, ifosfamide, cisplatin (VelP regimen).
  • New associations of drugs are under study in order to improve the overall survival rate for the poor-risk and relapsed-tumors patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Risk Factors. Salvage Therapy. Vinblastine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 10742806.001).
  • [ISSN] 1278-3218
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer radiothérapie : journal de la Société française de radiothérapie oncologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Radiother
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] FRANCE
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide; BEP protocol; VeIP protocol
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25. Mickisch GH: Prognostic parameters for the management of advanced testis tumours. Curr Opin Urol; 2000 Sep;10(5):465-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prognostic parameters for the management of advanced testis tumours.
  • The need for prognostic parameters in testicular germ cell tumours is sometimes questioned based on an overall cure rate of more than 80% of the patients regardless of tumour stage.
  • However, the trend for an earlier and more accurate diagnosis amenable to curative treatment as well as the high effectiveness of standard Cisplatinum containing chemotherapy has masked the continuing need for intensifying therapy in patients with adverse risk factors.
  • This intense treatment is often associated with worrysome morbidity and the assessment of prognostic factors, stage by stage, is warranted on which patient at risk can be identified and treated accordingly.
  • Clearly, the infrastructure and the experience of the treating uro-oncology unit (see 1) is decisive for treatment outcomes, and -at least-'difficult to treat' patients should be referred to properly resourced cancer centres.
  • Finally, biologic factors (see 3) such as beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin or MAGE epitopes in seminoma or the percentage of embryonal carcinoma components orvascular invasion mayor may not inversely influence the prognosis and need further assessment in prospective trials.
  • However, the search for even better (molecular) biologic factors is speeding up because more complex treatment decisions such as in advanced testicular cancers rely on a more precise determination of prognosis, enabling a more tailored selection of individualized therapeutic options.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 11005453.001).
  • [ISSN] 0963-0643
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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26. Krarup-Hansen A, Helweg-Larsen S, Schmalbruch H, Rørth M, Krarup C: Neuronal involvement in cisplatin neuropathy: prospective clinical and neurophysiological studies. Brain; 2007 Apr;130(Pt 4):1076-88
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  • The clinical symptoms localized in a stocking-glove distribution may be explained by a length dependent neuronopathy or by a distal axonopathy.
  • To study whether the whole neuron or the distal axon was primarily affected, we have carried out serial clinical and electrophysiological studies in 16 males with testicular cancer before or early and late during and after treatment with cisplatin, etoposide and bleomycin at limited (<400 mg/m2 cisplatin), conventional (approximately 400 mg/m2 cisplatin) or high (>400 mg/m2 cisplatin) doses.
  • At cumulative doses of cisplatin higher than 300 mg/m2 the patients lost distal tendon and H-reflexes and displayed reduced vibration sense in the feet and the fingers.
  • Motor conduction studies, autonomic function and warm and cold temperature sensation remained unchanged at all doses of cisplatin treatment.
  • The results of these studies are consistent with degeneration of large sensory neurons whereas there was no evidence of distal axonal degeneration even at the lowest toxic doses of cisplatin.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Carcinoma, Embryonal / drug therapy. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Neurons, Afferent / drug effects. Peripheral Nervous System Diseases / chemically induced. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Action Potentials / physiology. Adult. Bleomycin / adverse effects. Etoposide / adverse effects. Evoked Potentials, Somatosensory / physiology. Humans. Longitudinal Studies. Male. Middle Aged. Neural Conduction / physiology. Prospective Studies. Reflex / physiology. Seminoma / drug therapy. Seminoma / physiopathology. Sensation Disorders / chemically induced. Sensation Disorders / physiopathology. Sensory Thresholds / physiology. Touch / physiology

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  • (PMID = 17301082.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2156
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain : a journal of neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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