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1. Kubota Y, Ohji H, Itoh K, Sasagawa I, Nakada T: Changes in cellular immunity during chemotherapy for testicular cancer. Int J Urol; 2001 Nov;8(11):604-8
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  • [Title] Changes in cellular immunity during chemotherapy for testicular cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: The changes in vivo in immunocyte functions during chemotherapy that is administered in combination with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in humans have not been fully investigated.
  • This study was designed to examine neutrophil functions and the activities of natural killer (NK) cells, during the administration of chemotherapy and G-CSF for the treatment of testicular cancer.
  • Numbers and activities of neutrophils and NK cells were measured at various times during and after the first course of chemotherapy.
  • RESULTS: After BEP chemotherapy, CD16+ and CD56+ cell counts, and neutrophil granulocyte counts decreased while there were no significant changes in the number of lymphocytes.
  • The activity of NK cells was severely impaired after chemotherapy and did not change after administration of G-CSF.
  • CONCLUSIONS: After BEP chemotherapy for testicular cancer with G-CSF, neutrophil function was not at all inferior to those before treatment.
  • Natural killer cell activity was suppressed by the BEP chemotherapy and did not change after administration of G-CSF.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / therapeutic use. Immunity, Cellular. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Embryonal / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Embryonal / immunology. Choriocarcinoma / drug therapy. Choriocarcinoma / immunology. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Humans. Leukocyte Count. Male. Neutrophils / pathology. Seminoma / drug therapy. Seminoma / immunology

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  • (PMID = 11903686.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 143011-72-7 / Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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2. Tanase K, Tawada M, Moriyama N, Muranaka K: [Intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy for liver metastases of testicular tumors: report of two cases]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2000 Nov;46(11):823-7
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  • [Title] [Intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy for liver metastases of testicular tumors: report of two cases].
  • Two cases of testicular tumors with lymph node involvement and multiple lung and liver metastases were treated successfully with intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy.
  • Histopathological diagnosis revealed embryonal cell carcinoma and choriocarcinoma.
  • Cisplatin, vinblastine, VP-16 and pepleomycin combination chemotherapy (PVeBV) was started and repeated for 2 courses.
  • Systemic and intrahepatic arterial infusion combined with chemotherapy was administered, and intra-arterial chemotherapy (cisplatin, VP-16) was added.
  • The patient also received systemic chemotherapy (carboplatin, VP-16, ifosfamide).
  • After chemotherapy, retroperitoneal lymph node dissection was performed.
  • Microscopic examination revealed no viable cancer cells.
  • Histopathological diagnosis revealed seminoma.
  • Cisplatin, vinblastine, VP-16 and pepleomycin combination chemotherapy (PVeBV) was administered, but the liver tumors ware enlarged on CT scan.
  • Intrahepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (cisplatin, VP-16) was started and repeated for 4 courses.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Embryonal / secondary. Choriocarcinoma / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Seminoma / secondary. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Humans. Infusions, Intra-Arterial. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Treatment Outcome. Vinblastine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 11193306.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; PVeBV protocol
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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3. Matsumoto S, Matsuda H, Uejima S, Kurita T: [Secondary leukemia following ultra high-dose chemotherapy with peripheral blood stem cell autotransplantation for refractory testicular cancer]. Nihon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi; 2000 Oct-Nov;91(10-11):687-91
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  • [Title] [Secondary leukemia following ultra high-dose chemotherapy with peripheral blood stem cell autotransplantation for refractory testicular cancer].
  • Secondary leukemia following chemotherapy or radiotherapy for mediastinal germ cell tumors in a well-described entity.
  • It also may occur in patients with testicular germ cell tumors.
  • We report a case of secondary leukemia occurring in a 31-year-old man who received ultra high-dose chemotherapy with peripheral blood stem cell autotransplantation (PBSCT) for a refractory testicular cancer (pathology; Seminoma, Embryonal carcinoma, Yolk sac tumor, Choriocarcinoma) with IIIB2 under Japanese classification, poor-risk group under Indiana classification.
  • He received total 11 cycles of systemic chemotherapy (2 cycles of PVB regimen, 4 cycles of PEB regimen, 3 cycles of VIP regimen and 2 cycles of ultra high-dose chemotherapy with PBSCT for pulmonary and para-aortic lymph node metastasis following his initial orchiectomy.
  • Severe and persistent pancytopenia developed 25 months after his initial orchiectomy.
  • Therefore, he was diagnosed as secondary leukemia following high-dose chemotherapy.
  • He received total 6 cycles of systematic chemotherapy for the secondary leukemia in the internal department.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first reported case in the literature relevant to secondary leukemia following ultra high-dose chemotherapy with PBSCT in testicular tumor in Japan.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Carcinoma, Embryonal / drug therapy. Choriocarcinoma / drug therapy. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Leukemia / etiology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / etiology. Seminoma / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Bleomycin / adverse effects. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Combined Modality Therapy. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Etoposide / adverse effects. Humans. Male. Transplantation, Autologous

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  • (PMID = 11109821.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5287
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Hinyōkika Gakkai zasshi. The japanese journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] JAPAN
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; BEP protocol
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4. Lee SC, Kim KH, Kim SH, Lee NS, Park HS, Won JH: Mixed testicular germ cell tumor presenting as metastatic pure choriocarcinoma involving multiple lung metastases that was effectively treated with high-dose chemotherapy. Cancer Res Treat; 2009 Dec;41(4):229-32

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  • [Title] Mixed testicular germ cell tumor presenting as metastatic pure choriocarcinoma involving multiple lung metastases that was effectively treated with high-dose chemotherapy.
  • Choriocarcinoma in the testis is very rare, and it represents less than 1% (0.3%) of all the testicular germ cell tumors.
  • We report here on a case of choriocarcinoma with multiple lung metastases, and the patient has achieved continuous remission for 2 years after combination chemotherapy of BEP (bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin) and sequential high-dose chemotherapy with autologous peripheral stem cell rescue.

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  • (PMID = 20057969.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-9256
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research and treatment : official journal of Korean Cancer Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res Treat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2802842
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Germ cell and embryonal / High-dose chemotherapy / Neoplasms / Testicular choriocarcinoma
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5. Ishizuka O, Satoh T, Mizuno H, Mizusawa H, Seki S, Nishizawa O: [A difficult case of advanced testicular choriocarcinoma effectively treated by chemotherapy and resection of lung metastasis]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2004 Feb;31(2):263-5
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  • [Title] [A difficult case of advanced testicular choriocarcinoma effectively treated by chemotherapy and resection of lung metastasis].
  • We found testicular choriocarcinoma with multiple lung, liver, and brain metastases.
  • The patient received 5 courses of VIP therapy (cisplatin, etoposide, ifosfamide) and 1 course of high-dose chemotherapy (carboplatin, etoposide, cyclophospamide) with peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.
  • One year later, the patient underwent surgery for resection of lung metastasis after 1 course of chemotherapy (cisplatin, etoposide).
  • Pathological diagnosis showed a remnant of choriocarcinoma.
  • Three years and three months after surgery, no recurrence of the choriocarcinoma has been found.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Choriocarcinoma / drug therapy. Choriocarcinoma / surgery. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Drug Administration Schedule. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation. Pneumonectomy

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  • (PMID = 14997765.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide; CEC protocol; ICE protocol 1; VP-P protocol
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6. Kalaitzis C, Bantis A, Tsakaldimis G, Giannakopoulos S, Sivridis E, Touloupidis S: Osteolytic bone destruction resulting from relapse of a testicular tumour 23 years after inguinal orchiectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy: a case report. J Med Case Rep; 2009;3:8702

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  • [Title] Osteolytic bone destruction resulting from relapse of a testicular tumour 23 years after inguinal orchiectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy: a case report.
  • INTRODUCTION: Late relapse of a testicular germ cell tumour is an uncommon occurrence.
  • We report a case of osteolytic bone metastasis appearing 23 years after the initial treatment of a metastatic testicular mixed tumour (choriocarcinoma and embryonal carcinoma).
  • This is one of the longest periods of recurrence reported for testicular germ cell tumours.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: A 52-year-old Caucasian man who underwent a right inguinal orchiectomy due to testicular tumour in 1984 presented to our outpatient clinic in a generally bad condition of health and with severe pain of his right hip joint and os ischii caused by osteolytic metastasis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This case emphasizes the need for a life-long follow-up of patients with primary metastatic testicular cancer.

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  • (PMID = 19830236.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-1947
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2737795
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7. Abrahámová J: [Possibilities of curative chemotherapy of solid tumours]. Vnitr Lek; 2001 Aug;47(8):548-52
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  • [Title] [Possibilities of curative chemotherapy of solid tumours].
  • [Transliterated title] Moznosti kurativní chemoterapie solidních nádorů.
  • The attitude to so-called cure changed with time as the therapeutic possibilities changed.
  • At the same time various markers, prognostic and predictive factors (epidemiological, anatomical and cellular and molecular genetic), were sought and found.
  • In the sixties for the first time complete remission of a disseminated testicular tumour was described after combined chemotherapy and complete remission of a disseminated gestational choriocarcinoma.
  • At the same time reports were published on successful treatment of Wilms tumour of the kidneys.
  • Germinal testicular tumours have become since the middle of the eighties (i.e. the period when routine use of cisplatinum started) the model of a "curable" tumour of adult age.
  • With the introduction of adjuvant and neoadjuvant chemotherapy five-year survivals improve and thus also the prognosis of breast cancer.
  • Empirically the number of years which elapsed after termination of treatment of different tumours and which are already "safe" and there is nofurther risk of a relapse of the original disease.
  • However in the course of years which have elapsed since the platinum boom late post-therapeutic changes develop and late relapses (after more than 10 years) in cured originally generalized testicular tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 15633395.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-773X
  • [Journal-full-title] Vnitr̆ní lékar̆ství
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vnitr Lek
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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8. Tatokoro M, Kawakami S, Sakura M, Kobayashi T, Kihara K, Akamatsu H: Successful management of life-threatening choriocarcinoma syndrome with rupture of pulmonary metastatic foci causing hemorrhagic shock. Int J Urol; 2008 Mar;15(3):263-4
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  • [Title] Successful management of life-threatening choriocarcinoma syndrome with rupture of pulmonary metastatic foci causing hemorrhagic shock.
  • We report a case of a man with testicular cancer metastatic to the lung and retroperitoneal lymph node, with significant elevation of serum levels of human chorionic gonadotropin, 534,000 mIU/mL.
  • Just after the initiation of chemotherapy, life-threatening hemothorax occurred and hemorrhagic shock ensued.
  • Pathologic examination of the specimen revealed choriocarcinoma and yolk sac tumor.
  • Through multimodal treatments he achieved complete remission.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first case report of choriocarcinoma syndrome with life-threatening hemorrhage caused by rupture of pulmonary metastases, resulting in complete remission through multimodal treatments.
  • [MeSH-major] Choriocarcinoma / complications. Choriocarcinoma / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / complications. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Shock, Hemorrhagic / etiology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Emergency Treatment. Humans. Male. Remission Induction. Rupture, Spontaneous

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  • (PMID = 18304226.001).
  • [ISSN] 1442-2042
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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9. Savage P, Stebbing J, Bower M, Crook T: Why does cytotoxic chemotherapy cure only some cancers? Nat Clin Pract Oncol; 2009 Jan;6(1):43-52
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  • [Title] Why does cytotoxic chemotherapy cure only some cancers?
  • Despite frequent responses to chemotherapy, curative treatment remains elusive for the majority of patients with metastatic solid tumors.
  • By contrast, in testicular cancer, gestational choriocarcinoma, Hodgkin disease and high-grade lymphomas, chemotherapy is routinely curative, even for patients who present with widely disseminated disease.
  • In the common advanced cancers, however, over 40 years of cytotoxic drug development has brought no significant change in cure rates.
  • One interpretation is that the intrinsic properties of the malignancies themselves, rather than the qualities of individual drugs or combination therapies, are primarily responsible for their curability with chemotherapy.
  • The absence of further genetic and epigenetic changes in genes that regulate apoptosis, DNA repair and senescence allows these cells to maintain their intrinsic sensitivity to chemotherapy.
  • This process allows the cells, when challenged with chemotherapy, to undergo the natural apoptotic pathways that contribute to their intrinsic qualities of chemosensitivity and high curability.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis / drug effects. Clinical Trials as Topic. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Humans

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  • (PMID = 18982000.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-4262
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 83
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10. Capdevila J, Maroto P, Sainz S, Villavicencio H: Disseminated retroperitoneal choriocarcinoma with open fistula to intestine. "Restitutio ad integrum" with chemotherapy alone. Clin Transl Oncol; 2006 Jun;8(6):453-5
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  • [Title] Disseminated retroperitoneal choriocarcinoma with open fistula to intestine. "Restitutio ad integrum" with chemotherapy alone.
  • We hereby present a clinical case of a germinal tumour with a pulmonary and retroperitoneal dissemination in form of a great adenopathic mass that fistulizes into the duodenum, that obtained a complete resolution with chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Choriocarcinoma / secondary. Duodenal Diseases / etiology. Intestinal Fistula / etiology. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cryptorchidism / complications. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Remission Induction. Smoking. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16790400.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & translational oncology : official publication of the Federation of Spanish Oncology Societies and of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Transl Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; BEP protocol
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11. Bhatia S, Abonour R, Porcu P, Seshadri R, Nichols CR, Cornetta K, Einhorn LH: High-dose chemotherapy as initial salvage chemotherapy in patients with relapsed testicular cancer. J Clin Oncol; 2000 Oct 01;18(19):3346-51
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  • [Title] High-dose chemotherapy as initial salvage chemotherapy in patients with relapsed testicular cancer.
  • PURPOSE: To assess the role of high-dose chemotherapy as initial salvage chemotherapy in patients with relapsed testicular cancer.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: From August 1992 to April 1998, 65 patients with testicular cancer were treated with high-dose carboplatin and etoposide followed by peripheral-blood stem-cell transplantation or autologous bone marrow transplantation rescue as initial salvage chemotherapy at Indiana University.
  • High-dose chemotherapy was associated with significant morbidity but no treatment-related mortality.
  • CONCLUSION: High-dose chemotherapy as initial salvage chemotherapy achieved impressive long-term survival with acceptable toxicity in patients with relapsed testicular cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Germinoma / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Bone Marrow Transplantation. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Carboplatin / adverse effects. Choriocarcinoma / drug therapy. Choriocarcinoma / pathology. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Etoposide / adverse effects. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Salvage Therapy. Seminoma / drug therapy. Seminoma / pathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11013274.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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12. Matveev VB, Volkova MI, Cherniev VA, Figurin KM, Mitin AV: [Retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy in disseminated non-seminoma germinogenic testicular tumors after chemotherapy in patients with elevated serum tumor markers]. Urologiia; 2010 May-Jun;(3):41-7
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  • [Title] [Retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy in disseminated non-seminoma germinogenic testicular tumors after chemotherapy in patients with elevated serum tumor markers].
  • Postchemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RLND) was performed in 70 testicular non-seminoma patients with elevated serum tumor markers (age median 27.0 +/- 8.1 years) from 1983 to 2008.
  • The prognostic group was not identified in 24 (34.3%) cases which started treatment in other hospitals.
  • All the patients received induction cisplatin-based chemotherapy following orchidectomy (first-line--24 (34.3%), second-line--46 (65.7%) which resulted in tumor shrinkage < 50% in 7 (10.0%), 51-90% in 23 (32.9%), > 90%--in 2 (2.9%) cases.
  • CT scan revealed residual retroperitoneal masses after chemotherapy in all the patients: < 2 cm--5 (7.1%), 2-5 cm--25 (35.7%), > 5 cm--40 (57.1%).
  • Further chemotherapy was not perspective in all 70 patients who further underwent retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RLND).
  • Postoperative chemotherapy was given to 27 (38.6%) cases.
  • Complications developed in 12.9% (9/70) patients.
  • Histology revealed necrosis in 20 (28.6%), teratoma--in 26 (37.1%), cancer--in 24 (34.3%) specimens.
  • Prognostic factors for cancer in retroperitoneal pathology were the following: S > S1 (p = 0.013), intermediate or poor prognosis group IGCCCG (p = 0.014), absence of embryonal carcinoma (p = 0.003), the presence of choriocarcinoma in the testicular tumor (p = 0.028), second-line chemotherapy (p = 0.001), residual mass > 2 cm (p = 0.006).
  • Univariate analysis revealed an adverse impact on progressive-free survival of category S > S1 (p = 0.015), intermediate or poor prognostic group IGCCCG (p = 0.01), the presence of embryonal carcinoma (p = 0.020) and the absence of choriocarcinoma in the testicular tumor (p = 0.029), tumor shrinkage < 50% (p < 0.0001), incomplete RLND (p = 0.012), an incomplete effect of the combined treatment (p < 0.0001), cancer in the residual mass (p < 0.0001).
  • The multivariate analysis proved predictive value of an incomplete effect of the combined treatment (p < 0.0001).
  • Thus, selected testicular non-seminoma patients with elevated serum tumor markers are curable with surgery.
  • The best candidates for RLND in this group are patients without a tumor markers level increase during chemotherapy, with S1 category, good IGCCCG prognosis, tumor shrinkage > 50% and potentially respectable residual disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Germinoma. Lymph Node Excision. Testicular Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 20734877.001).
  • [ISSN] 1728-2985
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologii︠a︡ (Moscow, Russia : 1999)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologiia
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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13. Piulats JM Sr, Nadal M, Martinez-Iniesta M, Puertas S, Gonzalez S, Vidal A, Condom E, Germa-Lluch J, Garcia Del Muro X, Villanueva A: Nude mice model of primary human nonseminoma germ cell tumors to study biology and resistance to cisplatin treatment. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e16143

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Nude mice model of primary human nonseminoma germ cell tumors to study biology and resistance to cisplatin treatment.
  • : e16143 Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are the most common malignancy in young men.
  • Recently, our group has reported the development of a model of human nonseminoma (NSE) after orthotopic nude mice implantation (Piulats et al, Amer Assoc Cancer Res. 2006).
  • Xenografts mimic distal dissemination patterns and cisplatin (CDDP) tumor behavior responses.
  • This model has been useful for the study of antiangiogenic therapies (Piulats et al, ASCO.
  • We have generated in vivo five tumors showing increased resistance to CDDP by exposition to repetitive cycles and increasing the dose applied through different passages (1 yolk-sac; 1 choriocarcinoma; 2 embrional carcinoma; 1 mix tumor).
  • A shortness time elipse between pasajes was observed for each tumor through CDDP treatments.
  • To confirm increasin resistance, a parallel assay of chemotherapy response was performed between nontreated and CDDP resistant tumors.

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  • (PMID = 27963427.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Osawa T, Sugishita K, Murakumo M, Koyanagi T: [Case of brain infarction during cisplatin-based combined chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin for testicular cancer]. Nihon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi; 2009 Jan;100(1):12-5
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  • [Title] [Case of brain infarction during cisplatin-based combined chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin for testicular cancer].
  • A 31-year-oldman presented with a 6-month history of right testicular enlargement.
  • Histopathological examination showed nonseminomatous germ cell tumor (choriocarcinoma>seminoma) which was confined to the tunica albuginea.
  • A thoracic computed tomography (CT) at that time showed bilateral and multiple metastases to the lungs but the abdominal CT was normal.
  • On day 11 of the second chemotherapy course, the patient developed confusion and right sided weakness.
  • Finally, the patient completed one additional course of chemotherapy with considerable measures to prevent side effects.
  • At 3 months followup after chemotherapy, he suffered from partial paralysis of right-sided upper and lower limbs but due to intensive rehabilitation he overcame the paralysis and is able to walk by himself.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Cerebral Infarction / chemically induced. Choriocarcinoma / therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19198224.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5287
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Hinyōkika Gakkai zasshi. The japanese journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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15. Harikumar R, Harish K, Aravindan KP, Thomas V: Testicular choriocarcinoma with gastric metastasis presenting as hematemesis. Indian J Gastroenterol; 2004 Nov-Dec;23(6):223-4
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  • [Title] Testicular choriocarcinoma with gastric metastasis presenting as hematemesis.
  • We report a 28-year-old man who presented with hematemesis due to choricarcinoma of testis metastatic to the stomach.
  • Testicular wedge biopsy confirmed mixed germ cell tumor, the choriocarcinomatous portion alone getting metastasized to the stomach.
  • He was initiated on chemotherapy with actinomycin-D, etoposide and methotrexate, but died due to multiple metastases to the lung and brain.
  • [MeSH-major] Choriocarcinoma / secondary. Hematemesis / etiology. Stomach Neoplasms / complications. Stomach Neoplasms / secondary. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 15627667.001).
  • [ISSN] 0254-8860
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of gastroenterology : official journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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16. Blanke CD, Hemmer MP, Witte RS: Acute tumor lysis syndrome with choriocarcinoma. South Med J; 2000 Sep;93(9):916-9
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  • [Title] Acute tumor lysis syndrome with choriocarcinoma.
  • A 52-year-old man with retroperitoneal nodal, lung, and liver metastases from choriocarcinoma received chemotherapy with etoposide, cisplatin, and bleomycin.
  • Within 48 hours of starting treatment, he had hypotension, hypoxemia, and anuria.
  • A second, shortened course of chemotherapy with carboplatin and etoposide was given 21 days later.
  • This represents the first reported case of acute tumor lysis syndrome after systemic chemotherapy for advanced nonseminomatous germ cell cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Choriocarcinoma / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy. Tumor Lysis Syndrome / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Acidosis / etiology. Acute Disease. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / adverse effects. Bleomycin / adverse effects. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Etoposide / adverse effects. Fatal Outcome. Heart Arrest / etiology. Humans. Hyperkalemia / etiology. Hypocalcemia / etiology. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Phosphates / blood. Respiratory Insufficiency / etiology. Uric Acid / blood

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  • (PMID = 11005356.001).
  • [ISSN] 0038-4348
  • [Journal-full-title] Southern medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] South. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Phosphates; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 268B43MJ25 / Uric Acid; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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17. Kawai K, Takaoka E, Naoi M, Mori K, Minami M, Shimazui T, Akaza H: A case of metastatic testicular cancer complicated by tumour lysis syndrome and choriocarcinoma syndrome. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2006 Oct;36(10):665-7
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  • [Title] A case of metastatic testicular cancer complicated by tumour lysis syndrome and choriocarcinoma syndrome.
  • A 26-year-old man was referred to our hospital for treatment of metastatic testicular cancer.
  • The pathological diagnosis was choriocarcinoma with seminoma.
  • Sequential computerized tomography examinations revealed rapidly progressing bulky liver metastases and a lung metastasis.
  • Chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin (BEP) was started on the day of admission.
  • The latter complication is also called choriocarcinoma syndrome.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first case report of testicular cancer complicated with both critical conditions.
  • The urological oncologist should be aware of the potential complications TLS and choriocarcinoma syndrome in cases of rapidly progressive and high-volume choriocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Choriocarcinoma / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Seminoma / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy. Tumor Lysis Syndrome / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bleomycin / adverse effects. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Drug Administration Schedule. Etoposide / adverse effects. Hemorrhage / etiology. Humans. Ifosfamide. Liver Neoplasms / radiography. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Radiography, Abdominal. Taxoids. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


18. Kandori S, Kawai K, Fukuhara Y, Joraku A, Miyanaga N, Shimazui T, Akaza H: A case of metastatic testicular cancer complicated by pulmonary hemorrhage due to choriocarcinoma syndrome. Int J Clin Oncol; 2010 Dec;15(6):611-4
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  • [Title] A case of metastatic testicular cancer complicated by pulmonary hemorrhage due to choriocarcinoma syndrome.
  • A 40-year-old man was referred to our hospital for treatment of metastatic testicular cancer.
  • Computerized tomography revealed multiple lung, liver, and retroperitoneal lymph node metastases.
  • Induction chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin was started the day after a high orchiectomy.
  • The pathological diagnosis of the surgical specimen was yolk sac carcinoma.
  • The serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) was markedly increased to 630,000 mIU/ml, which suggested the presence of a choriocarcinoma element at metastatic sites.
  • Physicians who treat advanced testicular tumors should be aware of the potential complication of acute pulmonary hemorrhage, called choriocarcinoma syndrome, in cases with a high hCG level, which indicates a rapidly progressive and high-volume choriocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Choriocarcinoma / complications. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Hemorrhage / etiology. Lung Diseases / etiology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Testicular Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Prognosis. Syndrome


19. Miyazaki J, Kawai K, Hayashi H, Onozawa M, Tsukamoto S, Miyanaga N, Hinotsu S, Shimazui T, Akaza H: The limited efficacy of methotrexate, actinomycin D and cisplatin (MAP) for patients with advanced testicular cancer. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2003 Aug;33(8):391-5
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  • [Title] The limited efficacy of methotrexate, actinomycin D and cisplatin (MAP) for patients with advanced testicular cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Combination chemotherapy of methotrexate, actinomycin D and cisplatin (MAP) is reported to be effective against gestational choriocarcinoma.
  • METHODS: Eight patients with metastatic testicular cancer who had elevated beta-hCG were treated with MAP.
  • An additional three patients received MAP as part of the induction therapy.
  • The MAP therapy consisted of methotrexate (10 mg/m2) on days 1-5, actinomycin D (0.01 mg/kg) on days 1-5 and cisplatin (70 mg/m2) on day 1.
  • Of these two, one patient relapsed again 7 months after MAP and was subsequently salvaged with high-dose chemotherapy.
  • Of the three patients who received MAP as part of the induction chemotherapy, one with pure choriocarcinoma achieved tumor marker normalization after MAP and is still alive without disease progression.
  • In the other two patients, MAP failed to achieve marker normalization and the patients received high-dose chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrated the limited efficacy of MAP as salvage therapy.
  • In addition, the efficacy of MAP as part of induction chemotherapy was negligible.
  • However, there might be some role for MAP as a salvage therapy for patients with pure choriocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Choriocarcinoma / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Dactinomycin / administration & dosage. Drug Administration Schedule. Humans. Leukopenia / chemically induced. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Middle Aged. Salvage Therapy. Thrombocytopenia / chemically induced. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 14523058.001).
  • [ISSN] 0368-2811
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 1CC1JFE158 / Dactinomycin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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20. Hamid AR, Umbas R: Metastasis of testicular carcinoma in the inguinal region. Acta Med Indones; 2009 Jan;41(1):25-9
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  • [Title] Metastasis of testicular carcinoma in the inguinal region.
  • A standard protocol for the management of inguinal metastasis from testicular cancer still has not yet been established.
  • Metastasis of testicular cancer to inguinal lymph node rarely occurs, particularly in patients without any prior surgery in inguinal and scrotal region.
  • Daugaard reported 2% incidence of inguinal metastasis for stage 1 testicular cancer in 5-year period.
  • We reported a case of inguinal metastasis from residual testicular cancer with a large size of mass.
  • For this case, surgical treatment of residual tumor excision had been performed prior to the chemotherapy considering a quite large size of tumor mass, which may easily bleed and causing anemia to the patient.
  • Furthermore, we considered that chemotherapy treatment prior to surgical excision will only provide partial effect on the tumor.
  • After the surgery, a 4-cycle combined chemotherapy was administered despite the delay of chemotherapy treatment resulting in residual mass in inguinal region.
  • In fact, the post-surgical chemotherapy treatment in this case has demonstrated relatively good response.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Embryonal / secondary. Choriocarcinoma / secondary. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / secondary. Seminoma / secondary. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Fatal Outcome. Groin. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / radiography. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm, Residual. Skin Transplantation

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  • (PMID = 19258677.001).
  • [ISSN] 0125-9326
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta medica Indonesiana
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Med Indones
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Indonesia
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21. Eid H, Mingfang L, Institoris E, Bodrogi I, Bak M: MRP expression of testicular cancers and its clinical relevance. Anticancer Res; 2000 Sep-Oct;20(5C):4019-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] MRP expression of testicular cancers and its clinical relevance.
  • However, there is a lack of data regarding its expression in germ cell testicular tumors (GCTTs).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: MRP expression was examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using mouse monoclonal antibody (MRPm6) against human MRP in 56 testis cancer specimens.
  • RESULTS: All testis tumors, regardless of their histology, metastatic status and clinical stage gave positive signals.
  • Since germ cell tumors are very sensitive to chemotherapy, the role of MRP as mediator of drug resistance seems unconvincing in this malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters / analysis. Drug Resistance, Multiple. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antibodies, Monoclonal. Choriocarcinoma / pathology. Choriocarcinoma / surgery. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Mice. Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Seminoma / pathology. Seminoma / surgery. Teratoma / pathology. Teratoma / surgery. Testis / pathology. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis

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  • (PMID = 11268495.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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22. Mann JR, Raafat F, Robinson K, Imeson J, Gornall P, Sokal M, Gray E, McKeever P, Hale J, Bailey S, Oakhill A: The United Kingdom Children's Cancer Study Group's second germ cell tumor study: carboplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin are effective treatment for children with malignant extracranial germ cell tumors, with acceptable toxicity. J Clin Oncol; 2000 Nov 15;18(22):3809-18
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  • [Title] The United Kingdom Children's Cancer Study Group's second germ cell tumor study: carboplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin are effective treatment for children with malignant extracranial germ cell tumors, with acceptable toxicity.
  • Stage I testicular and some ovarian GCTs were resected and monitored with alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) ("watch-and-wait" approach).
  • Chemotherapy toxicities were assessed using World Health Organization or Brock grading.
  • Eight were excluded because either there was no histologic diagnosis (n = 3) or chemotherapy was given off-study (n = 5).
  • The remaining 184 patients had germinoma (n = 20), malignant teratoma (n = 55), embryonal carcinoma (n = 1), yolk sac tumor (n = 107), or choriocarcinoma (n = 1).
  • The median follow-up after JEB treatment was 53 months (range, 0 to 109 months); the median number of courses was five (range, three to eight).
  • CONCLUSION: Conservative surgery, a watch-and-wait approach after complete excision, and JEB for those requiring chemotherapy produced high cure rates and few serious complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Germinoma / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Bleomycin / adverse effects. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Carboplatin / adverse effects. Child. Child, Preschool. Chorionic Gonadotropin / blood. Combined Modality Therapy. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Etoposide / adverse effects. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Prognosis. Survival Analysis. alpha-Fetoproteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 11078494.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; JEB protocol
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23. Castillo-Avila W, Piulats JM, Garcia Del Muro X, Vidal A, Condom E, Casanovas O, Mora J, Germà JR, Capellà G, Villanueva A, Viñals F: Sunitinib inhibits tumor growth and synergizes with cisplatin in orthotopic models of cisplatin-sensitive and cisplatin-resistant human testicular germ cell tumors. Clin Cancer Res; 2009 May 15;15(10):3384-95
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  • [Title] Sunitinib inhibits tumor growth and synergizes with cisplatin in orthotopic models of cisplatin-sensitive and cisplatin-resistant human testicular germ cell tumors.
  • PURPOSE: Germ cell tumors (GCT) of the testis are highly curable, but those patients who are refractory to cisplatin (CDDP)-based combination chemotherapy have a poor prognosis.
  • Therefore, identifying new alternatives for treatment remains a priority.
  • Several studies support an important role for angiogenesis in GCTs, suggesting that antiangiogenic treatment might be a good alternative.
  • In the present study, we evaluated the effect of sunitinib, CDDP, or the combination of both drugs using an orthotopic model of human testicular GCT.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Mice were implanted with four different testicular tumors: a yolk sac, two choriocarcinomas, and a CDDP-resistant choriocarcinoma variant induced in mice by continuous exposure to CDDP.
  • Mice were treated with vehicle, CDDP, sunitinib, or the combination of both drugs and their effects on tumors were analyzed.
  • RESULTS: We observed a significant inhibition in tumor growth accompanied by longer survival after sunitinib treatment.
  • Combination therapy with CDDP significantly enhanced these effects.
  • More importantly, tumor growth inhibition induced by sunitinib was also observed in the induced CDDP-resistant choriocarcinoma model.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these results suggest that sunitinib might be a new alternative for treatment of CDDP-refractory patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Indoles / therapeutic use. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Pyrroles / therapeutic use. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
  • [MeSH-minor] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / administration & dosage. Angiogenesis Inhibitors / pharmacology. Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Animals. Apoptosis / drug effects. Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Cell Survival / drug effects. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / pharmacology. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Drug Synergism. Humans. Male. Mice. Mice, Nude. Neovascularization, Pathologic / genetics. Neovascularization, Pathologic / metabolism. Neovascularization, Pathologic / prevention & control. Receptors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor / genetics. Receptors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor / metabolism. Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor / genetics. Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Survival Analysis. Tumor Burden / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 19417025.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Indoles; 0 / Pyrroles; 0 / sunitinib; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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24. Huls G, ten Bokkel Huinink D: Bleomycin and scuba diving: to dive or not to dive? Neth J Med; 2003 Feb;61(2):50-3
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  • Bleomycin is to treat patients with testicular cancer and lymphoma.
  • The duration of risk after bleomycin chemotherapy is unknown.
  • Here we discuss our advice to a young male patient, who was successfully treated with bleomycin for testicular cancer, concerning the safety to return to scuba diving.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Choriocarcinoma / pathology. Diving / adverse effects. Lung Diseases / prevention & control. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carboplatin / therapeutic use. Etoposide / therapeutic use. Humans. Male. Orchiectomy

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  • [CommentIn] Neth J Med. 2003 Nov;61(11):388-9; author reply 389 [14768724.001]
  • (PMID = 12735422.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-2977
  • [Journal-full-title] The Netherlands journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neth J Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; JEB protocol
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25. Besse B, Grunenwald D, Fléchon A, Caty A, Chevreau C, Culine S, Théodore C, Fizazi K: Nonseminomatous germ cell tumors: assessing the need for postchemotherapy contralateral pulmonary resection in patients with ipsilateral complete necrosis. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2009 Feb;137(2):448-52
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  • OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to explore the pathologic components of residual masses after primary chemotherapy in patients with metastatic nonseminomatous germ cell tumors.
  • METHODS: A multicenter retrospective study was conducted of 71 patients with thoracic residual masses (39 patients had bilateral lung metastasis) after first-line cisplatin-based chemotherapy for disseminated nonseminomatous germ cell tumors.
  • RESULTS: Pathologic findings in postchemotherapy residual masses included complete necrosis, teratoma, and viable cancer in 31%, 55%, and 14% of patients, respectively.
  • Avoiding contralateral lung surgery could therefore be considered when complete necrosis is found in the first lung after induction chemotherapy for nonseminomatous germ cell tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Pneumonectomy. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Choriocarcinoma / drug therapy. Choriocarcinoma / pathology. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / drug therapy. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Mediastinal Neoplasms / secondary. Necrosis. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Retrospective Studies. Teratoma / drug therapy. Teratoma / pathology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19185168.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-685X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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26. Maroto P, García del Muro X, Aparicio J, Paz-Ares L, Arranz JA, Guma J, Terrassa J, Barnadas J, Dorta J, Germà-Lluch JR: Multicentre risk-adapted management for stage I non-seminomatous germ cell tumours. Ann Oncol; 2005 Dec;16(12):1915-20
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  • Other patients (358/589; 61%) were kept on close follow-up (chest X-ray; serum tumour markers: first year every 2 months, second year every 3 months, third year every 4 months; abdominal computed tomography scans at every other outpatient control).
  • In the chemotherapy group, two patients relapsed at 12 and 14.5 months and they are presently free of disease.
  • Five (1.4%) patients died of their cancer.
  • Factors associated with relapse were embryonal carcinoma and vascular invasion in patients who refused chemotherapy.

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  • (PMID = 16126737.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide
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27. van de Geijn GJ, Hersmus R, Looijenga LH: Recent developments in testicular germ cell tumor research. Birth Defects Res C Embryo Today; 2009 Mar;87(1):96-113
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  • [Title] Recent developments in testicular germ cell tumor research.
  • Testicular germ cell tumors of adolescents and adults (TGCTs; the so-called type II variant) are the most frequent malignancies found in Caucasian males between 20 and 40 years of age.
  • TGCTs are divided into seminomas and nonseminomas, the latter consisting of the subgroups embryonal carcinoma, yolk-sac tumor, teratoma, and choriocarcinoma.
  • Somatic differentiation is seen in the teratomas (all lineages), whereas yolk-sac tumors and choriocarcinoma represent extra-embryonal differentiation.
  • Seminomas are highly sensitive to irradiation and (DNA damaging) chemotherapy, whereas most nonseminomatous elements are less susceptible to radiation, although still sensitive to chemotherapy, with the exception of teratoma.
  • To allow early diagnosis and follow up, appropriate markers are mandatory to discriminate between the different subgroups.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / metabolism. Seminoma / metabolism. Testicular Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19306344.001).
  • [ISSN] 1542-9768
  • [Journal-full-title] Birth defects research. Part C, Embryo today : reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Birth Defects Res. C Embryo Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / MicroRNAs
  • [Number-of-references] 235
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28. Brandes AA, Pasetto LM, Monfardini S: The treatment of cranial germ cell tumours. Cancer Treat Rev; 2000 Aug;26(4):233-42
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  • [Title] The treatment of cranial germ cell tumours.
  • Germ cell tumours of the central nervous system (CNS) include many subtypes whose response to treatment varies, even though the symptoms and radiological appearances are similar.
  • Patients with choriocarcinoma, embryonal carcinoma, or yolk sac tumour have the lowest survival rates; patients with germinoma or mature teratoma have longer survival rates.
  • Beside the delayed injury induced by radiotherapy, the late injury induced by chemotherapy is becoming increasingly evident.
  • Cisplatin is considered an indispensable drug, but it may cause renal damage, ototoxicity, peripheral neuropathy and sterility, while etoposide is associated with an excess frequency of second neoplasms.
  • Taking into account all of the published literature, the following therapeutic options are suggested: in pure germinoma tumours (GT) radiotherapy alone will usually ensure adequate control of the disease, and the long-term sequelae may be limited by reducing the dose delivered, as was proposed for germ cell testicular tumours, to 30 Gy to limited fields plus 25-30 Gy to the spinal axis if there is disseminated disease.
  • In cases of recurrence, which should be uncommon, patients may be rescued with both radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • In NGGC tumours, the prognosis is more unfavourable and there is often dissemination to the spine at diagnosis; however, the tumour's high chemosensitivity suggests neoadjuvant treatment chemotherapy with cisplatin and etoposide for three cycles followed by consolidation radiotherapy with 40 Gy to the limited fields plus 30 Gy to the spinal axis if disseminated.
  • In our opinion, a higher dose of radiotherapy in cases in which chemotherapy does not achieve a radiological complete remission is not advisable, because very often the residual radiological abnormality does not represent biologically active tumour but differentiated forms such as mature teratoma.
  • The challenge for 2000 is to both cure these patients, and avoid the late and permanent sequelae of radiation and/or chemotherapy that may subsequently impair quality of life.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Cranial Irradiation. Drug Therapy. Humans. Neurosurgical Procedures. Prognosis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Survival Rate

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.
  • (PMID = 10913379.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-7372
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer treatment reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Treat. Rev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Number-of-references] 59
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29. Williams SB, Steele GS, Richie JP: Primary retroperitoneal lymph node dissection in patients with clinical stage IS testis cancer. J Urol; 2009 Dec;182(6):2716-20
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  • [Title] Primary retroperitoneal lymph node dissection in patients with clinical stage IS testis cancer.
  • PURPOSE: Initial management for clinical stage IS (persistently increased tumor markers) nonseminomatous germ cell tumor has evolved from primary retroperitoneal lymph node dissection to induction chemotherapy at most medical centers.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the charts of patients who underwent retroperitoneal lymph node dissection at Brigham and Women's Hospital, and Dana Farber Cancer Center from 1993 to 2008.
  • Positive lymph nodes were identified at retroperitoneal lymph node dissection in 9 patients (38%), including pure embryonal carcinoma in 6 (67%), combined embryonal carcinoma and teratoma in 1, embryonal carcinoma, choriocarcinoma and teratoma in 1, and only teratoma in 1.
  • Of the patients who underwent primary retroperitoneal lymph node dissection 5 (21%) also received chemotherapy postoperatively, which was due to persistently increased tumor markers in 3 (13%).
  • At surgery estimated blood loss was 175 cc, operative time was 3.1 hours and hospital stay was 3.9 days.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with clinical stage IS are at significant risk for metastatic disease and can be successfully treated with primary retroperitoneal lymph node dissection, thereby sparing chemotherapy in most of them.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Node Excision / methods. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [CommentIn] J Urol. 2009 Dec;182(6):2720 [19836765.001]
  • (PMID = 19836777.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-3792
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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30. Stang A, Rusner C, Eisinger B, Stegmaier C, Kaatsch P: Subtype-specific incidence of testicular cancer in Germany: a pooled analysis of nine population-based cancer registries. Int J Androl; 2009 Aug;32(4):306-16
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  • [Title] Subtype-specific incidence of testicular cancer in Germany: a pooled analysis of nine population-based cancer registries.
  • Comparisons of incidence estimates of testicular cancer subtypes beyond seminoma and non-seminoma are virtually missing in the epidemiologic literature.
  • We analysed incidence data from population-based German cancer registries to provide subtype-specific incidences of testicular cancer.
  • We pooled data from nine cancer registries from 1998 to 2003.
  • We estimated incidence and mortality time trends of West and East Germany.
  • Testicular lymphomas were rare (0.1 per 100,000).
  • The incidence of testicular cancer among children aged 0-14 years was nearly constant from 1987 through 2004.
  • The later start of the mortality decline in East Germany may be because of a later introduction of platinum-based chemotherapy compared to West Germany.
  • [MeSH-major] Testicular Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Embryonal / epidemiology. Child. Child, Preschool. Choriocarcinoma / epidemiology. Germany / epidemiology. Humans. Incidence. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Middle Aged. Population Surveillance. Registries. Seminoma / epidemiology. Teratoma / epidemiology. Time Factors. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18179558.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2605
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of andrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Androl.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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31. Worster A, Sharma S, Mookadam F, Opie J: Acute presentation of choriocarcinoma: a case study and review of the literature. CJEM; 2002 Mar;4(2):111-4
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  • [Title] Acute presentation of choriocarcinoma: a case study and review of the literature.
  • We report an unusual case of a 27-year-old male with an acute presentation of choriocarcinoma.
  • The patient presented with unstable vital signs, severe anemia and a widened arterial pulse pressure following a several day history of testicular pain.
  • He was subsequently diagnosed as having testicular choriocarcinoma with multiple hepatic metastases and large hemorrhagic para-aortic lymph nodes.
  • The widened pulse pressure persisted during fluid resuscitation and correction of both the anemia and hypotension, and only narrowed after the initiation of chemotherapy.
  • A literature review indicates that metastatic testicular choriocarcinoma is a rare but aggressive malignancy that often presents with acute symptoms and signs that cause patients to seek emergency care.
  • We summarize the reported cases of "acute" testicular choriocarcinoma presentation and briefly discuss its relationship to widened arterial pulse pressure.

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  • (PMID = 17612431.001).
  • [ISSN] 1481-8035
  • [Journal-full-title] CJEM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] CJEM
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
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32. Shintaku I, Satoh M, Okajima E, Fujimoto H, Kamoto T, Ogawa O, Kawai K, Akaza H, Tsukamoto T, Naito S, Miki T, Arai Y: Survival of metastatic germ cell cancer patients assessed by international germ cell consensus classification in Japan. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2008 Apr;38(4):281-7
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  • [Title] Survival of metastatic germ cell cancer patients assessed by international germ cell consensus classification in Japan.
  • This increase is most likely attributed to more effective chemotherapy regimens and more extensive care in the experienced institutes.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / mortality. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Choriocarcinoma / diagnosis. Choriocarcinoma / epidemiology. Disease-Free Survival. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / diagnosis. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / epidemiology. Humans. Japan / epidemiology. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Seminoma / diagnosis. Seminoma / epidemiology. Survival Rate. Teratoma / diagnosis. Teratoma / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 18321891.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3621
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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33. Gleizal A, Torossian JM, Geha H, Lebreton F, Beziat JL: [Testicular choriocarcinoma presenting as cutaneous metastasis. A case report and review of the literature]. Ann Chir Plast Esthet; 2005 Jun;50(3):237-41
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  • [Title] [Testicular choriocarcinoma presenting as cutaneous metastasis. A case report and review of the literature].
  • [Transliterated title] Les métastases cutanées révélatrices des choriocarcinomes: revue de la littérature. A propos d'une localisation nasale d'origine testiculaire.
  • Choriocarcinoma are germinal tumors from testicular cells in men or foetal trophoblast in women.
  • The authors report a case of angioma-like tumor in a 22-year-old man which was a cutaneous metastasis of a testicular carcinoma.
  • Diagnosis was of course histologic.
  • Testicular echography showed an intra testicular tumor, pulmonary and abdominal CT-scan showed multiple metastases.
  • Orchidectomy and retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy were performed before a general chemotherapy.
  • Patient died 14 months after diagnosis.
  • Only 11 cases of cutaneous metastasis of choriocarcinoma were found in the world literature (7 men and 4 women).
  • All cases showed diagnosis trap for plastic surgeon.
  • [MeSH-major] Choriocarcinoma / secondary. Nose Neoplasms / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Orchiectomy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15963845.001).
  • [ISSN] 0294-1260
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de chirurgie plastique et esthétique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Chir Plast Esthet
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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34. Mardiak J, Sálek T, Sycová-Milá Z, Obertová J, Recková M, Mego M, Hlavatá Z, Brozmanová K, Risnyovzská Z, Svetlovská D, Koza I: Paclitaxel, bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (T-BEP) as initial treatment in patients with poor-prognosis germ cell tumors (GCT): a phase II study. Neoplasma; 2007;54(3):240-5
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  • [Title] Paclitaxel, bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (T-BEP) as initial treatment in patients with poor-prognosis germ cell tumors (GCT): a phase II study.
  • First line treatment of patients pts with poor-prognosis GCT, using BEP, is unsatisfactory.
  • Twenty-four pts received T-BEP as initial therapy.
  • Four cycles of T-BEP were given 21 days apart.
  • Median survival was not achieved and median time-to-progression is 9.5 months.
  • There were two treatment-related deaths due to sepsis.
  • Patients treated with 1st line T-BEP didn't achieve higher response rate or time to progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Embryonal / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Embryonal / secondary. Choriocarcinoma / drug therapy. Choriocarcinoma / secondary. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Teratocarcinoma / drug therapy. Teratocarcinoma / secondary. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 17447857.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2685
  • [Journal-full-title] Neoplasma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neoplasma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Slovakia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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35. Sahraoui S, Hassani AT, Ouhtatou F, Acharki A, Benider A, Kahlain A: [Pure choriocarcinoma of the testis: report of a case and review of the literature]. Ann Urol (Paris); 2001 Mar;35(2):125-8
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  • [Title] [Pure choriocarcinoma of the testis: report of a case and review of the literature].
  • [Transliterated title] Choriocarcinome pur du testicule: à propos d'un cas avec revue de la littérature.
  • We report a case of a young man 31 years old treated at the Ibn Rochd Oncology Center for a pure choriocarcinoma of the right testis.
  • The diagnosis was confirmed by pathological examination of the testis after orchidectomy.
  • The adjuvant treatment consisted in chemotherapy like using in germ cell neoplasm's of the testis.
  • During the evolution, partial remission (50%) was obtained after the third course and complete remission one month after the end of treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Choriocarcinoma / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 11355283.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4401
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'urologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Urol (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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36. Khurana RN, DiBernardo C, Handa JT: Improved systemic chemotherapy for metastatic testicular choriocarcinoma can result in excellent prognosis for life and vision. Arch Ophthalmol; 2008 Jul;126(7):1008-9
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  • [Title] Improved systemic chemotherapy for metastatic testicular choriocarcinoma can result in excellent prognosis for life and vision.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Choriocarcinoma / drug therapy. Choroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Orchiectomy. Prognosis. Visual Acuity. Vitreous Detachment / ultrasonography. Vitreous Hemorrhage / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 18625957.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3601
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of ophthalmology (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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37. Ohno M, Narita Y: A case of pathological complete remission of a brain metastasis from germ cell tumor of the testis after systemic chemotherapy. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2010 Dec;40(12):1201
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. IFOSFAMIDE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A case of pathological complete remission of a brain metastasis from germ cell tumor of the testis after systemic chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Choriocarcinoma / drug therapy. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / blood. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Male. Remission Induction. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Brain Tumors.
  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Testicular Cancer.
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. CIS-DIAMINEDICHLOROPLATINUM .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. ETOPOSIDE .
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  • (PMID = 21112974.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3621
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide
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