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1. Mohan SR, Clemente MJ, Afable M, Cazzolli HN, Bejanyan N, Wlodarski MW, Lichtin AE, Maciejewski JP: Therapeutic implications of variable expression of CD52 on clonal cytotoxic T cells in CD8+ large granular lymphocyte leukemia. Haematologica; 2009 Oct;94(10):1407-14
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  • [Title] Therapeutic implications of variable expression of CD52 on clonal cytotoxic T cells in CD8+ large granular lymphocyte leukemia.
  • BACKGROUND: T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia is a clonal proliferation of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes which often results in severe cytopenia.
  • Current treatment options favor chronic immunosuppression.
  • Alemtuzumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against glycophosphatidylinositol-anchored CD52, is approved for patients refractory to therapy in other lymphoid malignancies.
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: We retrospectively examined treatment outcomes in 59 patients with CD8+ T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia, 41 of whom required therapy.
  • Eight patients with severe refractory cytopenia despite multiple treatment regimens had been treated with subcutaneous alemtuzumab as salvage therapy.
  • Flow cytometry was used to monitor expression of glycophosphatidylinositol-anchored CD52, CD55, and CD59 as well as to characterize T-cell clonal expansions by T-cell receptor variable beta-chain (Vbeta) repertoire.
  • RESULTS: Analysis of the effects of alemtuzumab revealed remissions with restoration of platelets in one of one patient, red blood cell transfusion independence in three of five patients and improvement of neutropenia in one of three, resulting in an overall response rate of 50% (4/8 patients).
  • Clonal large granular lymphocytes exhibited decreased CD52 expression post-therapy in patients refractory to treatment.
  • Samples of large granular lymphocytes collected prior to therapy also unexpectedly had a significant proportion of CD52-negative cells while a healthy control population had no such CD52 deficiency (p=0.026).
  • CONCLUSIONS: While alemtuzumab may be highly effective in large granular lymphocytic leukemia, prospective serial monitoring for the presence of CD52-deficient clonal cytotoxic T-lymphocytes should be a component of clinical trials investigating the efficacy of this drug.
  • CD52 deficiency may explain lack of response to alemtuzumab, and such therapy may confer a survival advantage to glycophosphatidylinositol-negative clonal cytotoxic T-lymphocytes.

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  • [CommentIn] Haematologica. 2009 Oct;94(10):1341-5 [19794080.001]
  • (PMID = 19794084.001).
  • [ISSN] 1592-8721
  • [Journal-full-title] Haematologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Haematologica
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA113972; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / U54 RR019397; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / U54 RR 019397
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antibodies, Neoplasm; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / CD52 antigen; 0 / Glycoproteins; 3A189DH42V / alemtuzumab
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2754957
  •  go-up   go-down


2. Cines DB, Liebman H, Stasi R: Pathobiology of secondary immune thrombocytopenia. Semin Hematol; 2009 Jan;46(1 Suppl 2):S2-14
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  • The pathobiology, natural history, and response to therapy of the diverse causes of secondary ITP differ from each other and from primary ITP, so accurate diagnosis is essential.
  • Immune thrombocytopenia can be secondary to medications or to a concurrent disease, such as an autoimmune condition (eg, systemic lupus erythematosus [SLE], antiphospholipid antibody syndrome [APS], immune thyroid disease, or Evans syndrome), a lymphoproliferative disease (eg, chronic lymphocytic leukemia or large granular T-lymphocyte lymphocytic leukemia), or chronic infection, eg, with Helicobacter pylori, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), or hepatitis C virus (HCV).
  • Proper diagnosis and treatment of the underlying disorder, where necessary, play an important role in patient management.

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  • (PMID = 19245930.001).
  • [ISSN] 0037-1963
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Hematol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL040387-16; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / P01 HL040387; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / P01 HL040387-16
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 185
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS99872; NLM/ PMC2682438
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3. Kim DH, Kamel-Reid S, Chang H, Sutherland R, Jung CW, Kim HJ, Lee JJ, Lipton JH: Natural killer or natural killer/T cell lineage large granular lymphocytosis associated with dasatinib therapy for Philadelphia chromosome positive leukemia. Haematologica; 2009 Jan;94(1):135-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Natural killer or natural killer/T cell lineage large granular lymphocytosis associated with dasatinib therapy for Philadelphia chromosome positive leukemia.
  • Dasatinib, a dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is known to modulate or suppress T-cell activation and proliferation.
  • We report a series of 8 patients who developed chronic peripheral lymphocytosis, identified as natural killer cells or natural killer/T-cells based on their large granular lymphocyte morphologies and CD16(+), CD56(+), CD3(-) or CD3(+) immunophenotypic profiles, out of 18 patients receiving dasatinib therapy.
  • All cases that developed large granular lymphocyte lymphocytosis achieved optimal molecular response (8/8 in large granular lymphocyte(+) patients vs. 3/10 in large granular lymphocyte(-) patients, p=0.002).
  • A (51)Cr release assay demonstrated that natural killer cell cytotoxicity has been enhanced in a case of large granular lymphocyte lymphocytosis compared to normal healthy donors, and that natural killer cell cytotoxicity in dasatinib-responders was superior to that in non-responders.
  • In summary, the present study suggests that natural killer or natural killer/T cell lineage large granular lymphocyte lymphocytosis develops in association with dasatinib therapy and that large granular lymphocyte might have a therapeutic effect on Ph(+) leukemic cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Cell Lineage / drug effects. Killer Cells, Natural / drug effects. Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive / drug therapy. Lymphocytosis / chemically induced. Natural Killer T-Cells / drug effects. Pyrimidines / adverse effects. Thiazoles / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Dasatinib. Humans. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19066329.001).
  • [ISSN] 1592-8721
  • [Journal-full-title] Haematologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Haematologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Pyrimidines; 0 / Thiazoles; RBZ1571X5H / Dasatinib
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2625403
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4. Dincol G, Diz-Kuçukkaya R, Bicakci E: T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukaemia: successful response to 2-deoxycoformycin. Neth J Med; 2008 Feb;66(2):85-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukaemia: successful response to 2-deoxycoformycin.
  • We report a 25-year-old woman with T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukaemia presenting with severe neutropenia, anaemia and recurrent infections with a chronic disease course.
  • Immunophenotyping showed an expansion of CD3+, TCRgamma delta+, CD4-, CD5+, CD7+, CD8+, CD57+ large granular lymphocytes.
  • Clonality was demonstrated with T-gamma polymerase chain reaction analysis which revealed clonal rearrangement of the TCRgamma chain gene.
  • Finally, treatment with 2-deoxycoformycin resulted in both clinical and haemotological complete responses, despite molecular evidence of the persistence of the abnormal T-cell clone.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Large Granular Lymphocytic / drug therapy. Pentostatin / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 18292613.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-2977
  • [Journal-full-title] The Netherlands journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neth J Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 395575MZO7 / Pentostatin
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5. Morris JC, Janik JE, White JD, Fleisher TA, Brown M, Tsudo M, Goldman CK, Bryant B, Petrus M, Top L, Lee CC, Gao W, Waldmann TA: Preclinical and phase I clinical trial of blockade of IL-15 using Mikbeta1 monoclonal antibody in T cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2006 Jan 10;103(2):401-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Preclinical and phase I clinical trial of blockade of IL-15 using Mikbeta1 monoclonal antibody in T cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia.
  • Twelve patients with T cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia and associated hematocytopenia were treated in a phase I dose-escalation trial with the murine monoclonal antibody Mikbeta1.
  • Mikbeta1 treatment was not associated with significant toxicity or with the development of an immune response to the infused monoclonal antibody.
  • Nevertheless, no patients manifested a reduction in peripheral leukemic cell count or an amelioration of their hematocytopenia.
  • This latter observation may reflect the fact that the monoclonal T cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia leukemic cells of the patients did not produce IL-2 or IL-15 or require their actions for cell survival.
  • In light of the lack of toxicity and lack of immunogenicity of the antibody observed in the present study and the role for IL-15 in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, clinical trials should be performed using the humanized version of Mikbeta1 in groups of patients with human T cell lymphotropic virus I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis and refractory celiac disease.

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  • (PMID = 16387851.001).
  • [ISSN] 0027-8424
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Interleukin-15; 0 / Interleukin-2; 0 / Receptors, Interleukin-2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1326174
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6. Nagata Y, Ohashi K, Fukuda S, Kamata N, Akiyama H, Sakamaki H: Clinical features of dasatinib-induced large granular lymphocytosis and pleural effusion. Int J Hematol; 2010 Jun;91(5):799-807
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical features of dasatinib-induced large granular lymphocytosis and pleural effusion.
  • During follow-up of leukocyte counts in 20 consecutive patients (age range 29-81 years) treated with dasatinib, 9 patients (7 chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase, 2 Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoid leukemia in complete remission) developed lymphocytosis (>3,000/microl).
  • Peripheral blood smears revealed a population of large granular lymphocytes.
  • Large granular lymphocytosis (LGL) was first noted between 1 and 8 months after initiation of dasatinib, and it has persisted up to 33 months from the onset of LGL in one patient.
  • Peak numbers of large granular lymphocytes ranged from 2,915 to 17,425/microl.
  • The occurrence of LGL might interfere with achieving molecular response (MR, real-time quantification of major BCR-ABL1 mRNA less than 50 copies/microg RNA) in our small cohort; 8 (89%) of 9 patients with LGL attained MR, while only 6 (55%) of 11 patients without LGL eventually achieved MR.
  • With respect to the relationship between LGL and pleural effusion (PE), 3 (27%) of 11 patients without LGL developed PE, while 5 (56%) of 9 patients with LGL developed PE.
  • Moreover, the mean peak number of LGL was 9,215/microl, which was much higher than the mean peak number (4,635/microl) of LGL in patients without PE.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Large Granular Lymphocytic / chemically induced. Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive / drug therapy. Pleural Effusion / chemically induced. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / adverse effects. Pyrimidines / adverse effects. Thiazoles / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cohort Studies. Dasatinib. Female. Humans. Lymphocytes / pathology. Lymphocytosis / chemically induced. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20405252.001).
  • [ISSN] 1865-3774
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyrimidines; 0 / Thiazoles; RBZ1571X5H / Dasatinib
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7. Malani AK, Gupta C, Rangineni R, Singh J, Ammar H: Concomitant presentation of acute myeloid leukemia with T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia. Acta Oncol; 2007;46(2):247-9
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  • [Title] Concomitant presentation of acute myeloid leukemia with T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia.
  • T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia (T-LGL) also known as T-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia is rare and comprises a small minority of all small lymphocytic leukemias.
  • The concomitant presentation of T-LGL with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has not been previously reported.
  • We present an elderly gentleman with concomitant T-LGL and AML (non-M3) diagnosed by a combination of morphologic evaluation, immunophenotyping by flow cytometry, and T-cell gene rearrangement studies.
  • The patient was managed with combination AML chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid / diagnosis. Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, T-Cell / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, CD / analysis. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 17453377.001).
  • [ISSN] 0284-186X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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8. Dearden C: The role of alemtuzumab in the management of T-cell malignancies. Semin Oncol; 2006 Apr;33(2 Suppl 5):S44-52
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  • [Title] The role of alemtuzumab in the management of T-cell malignancies.
  • T-cell malignancies are rare, making up 10% to 15% of all lymphoid neoplasms in adults.
  • They include many different types of disorders such as T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia, T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia, adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, and peripheral T-cell lymphoma, which are themselves divided into multiple subcategories.
  • Most T-cell malignancies arise as a result of chromosomal abnormalities, including T-cell receptor rearrangement anomalies.
  • Viral infections are implicated in the development of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and some cases of peripheral T-cell lymphoma have been linked to Epstein-Barr virus or human immunodeficiency virus infection.
  • With the possible exception of T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia, which often has an indolent course, T-cell malignancies have not responded well to conventional chemotherapeutic treatment.
  • The introduction of monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of cancer has changed the outlook for patients with T-cell malignancies.
  • Recent studies with single-agent alemtuzumab, an anti-CD52 monoclonal antibody, have shown improved response rates and survival in patients with T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.
  • Preliminary data also suggest that alemtuzumab may have activity in patients with heavily pretreated peripheral T-cell lymphoma who are refractory to conventional chemotherapy.
  • Preclinical studies with mice bearing human adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma cells suggest that alemtuzumab may have a potential therapeutic role in this setting.
  • Treatment of T-cell hematologic malignancies with alemtuzumab appears promising.
  • Earlier treatment and combination with chemotherapeutic agents may improve treatment outcome for patients with these malignancies and allow for consolidation with stem cell transplant strategies in selected patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Neoplasm / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Leukemia, T-Cell / drug therapy. Lymphoma, T-Cell / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Humans. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Remission Induction. Stem Cell Transplantation. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 16720203.001).
  • [ISSN] 0093-7754
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antibodies, Neoplasm; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 3A189DH42V / alemtuzumab
  • [Number-of-references] 103
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9. Manucha V, Zhao F, Rodgers W: Atypical lymphoid cells in cerebrospinal fluid in acute Epstein Barr virus infection: a case report demonstrating a pitfall in cerebrospinal fluid cytology. Acta Cytol; 2008 May-Jun;52(3):334-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Atypical lymphoid cells in cerebrospinal fluid in acute Epstein Barr virus infection: a case report demonstrating a pitfall in cerebrospinal fluid cytology.
  • A well-recognized pitfall is overinterpretation of the presence of atypical lymphocytes that resemble malignant lymphoid cells in the CSF.
  • CASE: A 25-year-old patient with a past history of treated large granular lymphocytic leukemia and presence of a predominant population of large, atypical lymphoid cells in the CSF, giving us the impression of involvement with large cell lymphoma.
  • CONCLUSION: The presence of atypical cells in the CSF certainly warrants a detailed look at the patient's laboratory investigations and communication with the hematologist, because it may be the only specimen available for diagnosis on which therapy and prognosis is based.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebrospinal Fluid / cytology. Cytological Techniques / methods. Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / cerebrospinal fluid. Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / pathology. Lymphocytes / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. DNA, Viral / analysis. DNA, Viral / blood. Hepatomegaly / ultrasonography. Humans. Leukemia, Large Granular Lymphocytic / drug therapy. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymph Nodes / radiography. Lymphatic Diseases / pathology. Lymphatic Diseases / radiography. Male. Pleural Effusion / radiography. Splenectomy

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  • (PMID = 18540300.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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10. Sretenovic A, Antic D, Jankovic S, Gotic M, Perunicic-Jovanovic M, Jakovic L, Mihaljevic B: T-cell large granular lymphocytic (T-LGL) leukemia: a single institution experience. Med Oncol; 2010 Jun;27(2):286-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] T-cell large granular lymphocytic (T-LGL) leukemia: a single institution experience.
  • BACKGROUND: T-cell large granular lymphocytic (T-LGL) leukemia is a rare lymphoproliferative disease which usually affects elderly people.
  • The clinical course of T-LGL leukemia is generally indolent, with lymphocytosis and splenomegaly in 20-50% patients, hepatomegaly in 5-20% of patients, and less commonly, lymphadenopathy.
  • T-LGL leukemia is associated with immunological abnormalities: rheumatoid factor with or without rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Coombs positive hemolytic anemia, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), pure red cell aplasia (PRCA), positive anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA), anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA), hypogammaglobulinemia, and polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia.
  • Aim To compare clinical and laboratory features of T-LGL leukemia patients and their responses to different chemotherapy regimens.
  • METHODS: Six patients (3 males and 3 females) with T-LGL leukemia were analyzed.
  • The diagnosis was based on accepted morphologic criteria, immunophenotype, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangements.
  • RESULTS: All patients exhibited lymphocytosis, mainly with unusual morphologies, splenomegaly, and elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH).
  • Three patients were treated with a Fludarabine-Cyclophosphamide (FC) combination as initial therapy while three patients received CHOP.
  • Two patients received more than one treatment regimen.
  • One patient died due to T-LGL leukemia in first year after diagnosis, one patient died 4 years after diagnosis, two patients interrupted their treatment, and two patients are still alive.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Further prospective studies are needed for establishing a gold standard therapy for T-LGL leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Large Granular Lymphocytic / blood. Leukemia, Large Granular Lymphocytic / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prednisone / therapeutic use. Vidarabine / analogs & derivatives. Vidarabine / therapeutic use. Vincristine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19306076.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-131X
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical oncology (Northwood, London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; FA2DM6879K / Vidarabine; P2K93U8740 / fludarabine; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; CHOP protocol
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11. Osuji N, Matutes E, Wotherspoon A, Catovsky D: Lessons from a case of T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukaemia suggesting that immunomodulatory therapy is more effective than intensive treatment. Leuk Res; 2005 Feb;29(2):225-8
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  • [Title] Lessons from a case of T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukaemia suggesting that immunomodulatory therapy is more effective than intensive treatment.
  • Leukemia treatment strives to eradicate the malignant clone.
  • With T-cell large granular lymphocytic (LGL) leukemia, the onus of treatment appears to be modification of the disease rather than eradication of the clone.
  • We describe a case of T-cell LGL leukemia where aggressive, eradicative type therapy proved ineffective.
  • The patient achieved hematological response to low dose oral methotrexate after failing to respond to and/or tolerate eight previous treatments including CAMPATH-1H and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.
  • We highlight the resistant nature of the LGL clone and discuss the relative merits of immunomodulatory type therapy in this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Immunosuppressive Agents / pharmacology. Leukemia, T-Cell / drug therapy. Methotrexate / pharmacology. T-Lymphocytes / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antibodies, Neoplasm / therapeutic use. Humans. Immunotherapy / methods. Male. Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation / methods

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  • [CommentIn] Leuk Res. 2005 Feb;29(2):123-5 [15607357.001]
  • (PMID = 15607372.001).
  • [ISSN] 0145-2126
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antibodies, Neoplasm; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 3A189DH42V / alemtuzumab; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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12. Takahashi T, Otani I, Okuda M, Inoue M, Ito K, Sakai M, Koie H, Yamaya Y, Watari T, Sato T, Kanayama K, Tokuriki M: Malignant transformation of T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia in a dog. J Vet Med Sci; 2007 Jun;69(6):677-81

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  • [Title] Malignant transformation of T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia in a dog.
  • An 8-year-old spayed female Golden Retriever was referred to us for evaluation of mild lymphocytosis.
  • The peripheral lymphocytes were comprised of mostly large granular lymphocytes (LGLs), and flow cytometry showed that they were mostly CD3+8+ T lymphocytes.
  • Clonal rearrangement of the T-cell receptor gene was identified in the peripheral blood, and the dog was therefore diagnosed with LGL chronic leukemia.
  • The dog was subclinical without treatment until hospitalization on day 154, at which point the lymphocytes looked like lymphoblasts and the surface markers changed to CD3-8-.
  • This was regarded as malignant transformation from LGL chronic leukemia to the acute type.
  • Sequential chemotherapy was started, but the dog died on day 190.
  • Necropsy revealed tumor cell infiltration into the heart, skin, and brain.

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  • (PMID = 17611371.001).
  • [ISSN] 0916-7250
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of veterinary medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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13. Robak T: Emerging drugs for rarer chronic lymphoid leukemias. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs; 2008 Mar;13(1):95-118
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  • [Title] Emerging drugs for rarer chronic lymphoid leukemias.
  • BACKGROUND: Rarer indolent lymphoid leukemias include well defined mature B-cell and T-cell neoplasm with widely varying natural history and specific morphological, immunophenotypic and molecular characteristics.
  • Among these are prolymphocytic leukemia (PLL), hairy cell leukemia (HCL) and its variants, large granular lymphocyte leukemia (LGLL) and adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL).
  • OBJECTIVE: To present current therapies and emerging drugs potentially useful in the treatment of rarer chronic lymphoid leukemias.
  • RESULTS/CONCLUSION: New drugs including monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), new purine analogs, small molecules targeting specific molecular targets and other agents are included.
  • Future research should focus on the novel therapeutic strategies based on the molecular pathogenic mechanisms and the development of new targeted therapies for each distinct chronic lymphoid leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Drugs, Investigational / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Lymphoid / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Chronic Disease. Humans

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  • (PMID = 18321151.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-7623
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert opinion on emerging drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Opin Emerg Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Drugs, Investigational
  • [Number-of-references] 189
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14. Granjo E, Lima M, Correia T, Lisboa C, Magalhães C, Cunha N, Teixeira MA, Queirós ML, Candeias J, Matutes E: Cd8(+)/V beta 5.1(+) large granular lymphocyte leukemia associated with autoimmune cytopenias, rheumatoid arthritis and vascular mammary skin lesions: successful response to 2-deoxycoformycin. Hematol Oncol; 2002 Jun;20(2):87-93
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  • [Title] Cd8(+)/V beta 5.1(+) large granular lymphocyte leukemia associated with autoimmune cytopenias, rheumatoid arthritis and vascular mammary skin lesions: successful response to 2-deoxycoformycin.
  • We report a case of CD8(+)/V beta 5.1(+) T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia (T-LGL leukemia) presenting with mild lymphocytosis, severe autoimmune neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, polyarthritis and recurrent infections with a chronic disease course.
  • Immunophenotyping showed an expansion of CD3(+)/TCR alpha beta(+)/CD8(+bright)/CD11c(+)/CD57(-)/CD56(-) large granular lymphocytes with expression of the TCR-V beta 5.1 family.
  • Hematopoietic growth factors, high dose intravenous immunoglobulin and corticosteroids were of limited therapeutic benefit to correct the cytopenias.
  • During the disease course, the patient developed a severe cutaneous leg ulcer and bilateral vascular mammary skin lesions.
  • Treatment with 2-deoxycoformycin resulted in both clinical and hematological complete responses, including the resolution of vascular skin lesions.
  • Combined immuno-staining with relevant T-cell associated and anti-TCR-V beta monoclonal antibodies proved to be a sensitive method to assess the therapeutic effect of 2-deoxycoformicin and to evaluate the residual disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Antigens, CD8. Arthritis, Rheumatoid / complications. Leukemia, Lymphoid / drug therapy. Leukemia, Lymphoid / immunology. Pentostatin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antigens, CD3 / analysis. Breast / blood supply. Female. Gene Rearrangement, T-Lymphocyte / immunology. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Leg Ulcer / complications. Neutropenia / complications. Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta / immunology. Thrombocytopenia / complications


15. Ferrajoli A, Faderl S, Ravandi F, Estrov Z: The JAK-STAT pathway: a therapeutic target in hematological malignancies. Curr Cancer Drug Targets; 2006 Dec;6(8):671-9
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  • [Title] The JAK-STAT pathway: a therapeutic target in hematological malignancies.
  • STAT proteins mediate cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, transformation, and other fundamental cell functions.
  • In addition constitutive activation of the JAK-STAT pathway has been reported in various types of leukemias such as acute myelogenous leukemia, T-LGL leukemia, and multiple myeloma.
  • [MeSH-major] Hematologic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Janus Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. STAT Transcription Factors / antagonists & inhibitors. Signal Transduction / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors. Humans. PPAR gamma / agonists. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 17168672.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-5576
  • [Journal-full-title] Current cancer drug targets
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Cancer Drug Targets
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / STAT Transcription Factors; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.2 / Janus Kinases
  • [Number-of-references] 88
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16. Cheung MM, Chan JK, Wong KF: Natural killer cell neoplasms: a distinctive group of highly aggressive lymphomas/leukemias. Semin Hematol; 2003 Jul;40(3):221-32
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  • [Title] Natural killer cell neoplasms: a distinctive group of highly aggressive lymphomas/leukemias.
  • Natural killer (NK) cell neoplasms, which include extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma (nasal and extranasal) and aggressive NK cell leukemia, are generally rare, but they are more common in people of Oriental, Mexican and South American descent.
  • Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma most commonly affects the nasal cavity and other mucosal sites of the upper aerodigestive tract.
  • Despite the early stage of disease at presentation, overall survival is poor.
  • Patients with the extranasal form of the lymphoma often present with high-stage disease, commonly involving the skin, gastrointestinal tract, testis, and soft tissue, and the prognosis is even worse.
  • Based on currently available data, treatment of nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma should consist of radiotherapy, with or without multiagent chemotherapy.
  • More research is required to ascertain the role of high-dose chemotherapy with stem cell rescue and that of non-multidrug resistance-related chemotherapeutic agents.
  • Aggressive NK cell leukemia affects younger patients, who present with poor general condition, fever, and disseminated disease; they often die within a short time from systemic disease or complications such as multi-organ failure.
  • The peripheral blood and bone marrow show atypical large granular lymphocytes, which exhibit an immunophenotype similar to that of extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma.
  • Aggressive NK cell leukemia must be distinguished from T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia and indolent NK cell lymphoproliferative disorder, both of which are indolent.
  • [MeSH-major] Killer Cells, Natural / pathology. Leukemia / pathology. Lymphoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Lymphoma, T-Cell / diagnosis. Lymphoma, T-Cell / pathology. Lymphoma, T-Cell / therapy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12876671.001).
  • [ISSN] 0037-1963
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 99
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17. Dearden CE, Matutes E, Catovsky D: Alemtuzumab in T-cell malignancies. Med Oncol; 2002;19 Suppl:S27-32
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  • [Title] Alemtuzumab in T-cell malignancies.
  • Alemtuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the CD52 antigen, which is abundantly expressed on all normal and most malignant T-lymphocytes.
  • We summarize the results of our experience using alemtuzumab to treat a range of clinically aggressive, mature, post-thymic, T-cell malignancies, including T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL), cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL), T-cell large granular lymphocyte (T-LGL) leukemia, and human T-cell lymphotropic virus I (HTLV-I) associated adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATLL).
  • Alemtuzumab was administered at a dose of 30 mg, three times a week until maximum response.
  • Apart from first-dose reactions, which were common, treatment was well tolerated, the main complication being infection and viral reactivation associated with the prolonged lymphopenia.
  • Experience in T-LGL and ATLL is limited to single cases only and further studies are required to better define the role of alemtuzumab in these subgroups.
  • Our results indicate that alemtuzumab has activity in T-cell malignancies, particularly in T-PLL and in patients with predominantly blood and bone marrow disease.
  • It may be possible to prolong response duration by the use of high-dose therapy and stem cell transplantation.
  • Alemtuzumab may also have a role in purging minimal residual disease following other chemotherapy and prior to transplantation.
  • We conclude that treatment with alemtuzumab may offer new hope to patients who otherwise have a bleak prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Neoplasm / therapeutic use. Antigens, CD / drug effects. Antigens, Neoplasm / drug effects. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Glycoproteins / drug effects. Lymphoma, T-Cell / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 12180489.001).
  • [ISSN] 1357-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical oncology (Northwood, London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Osuji N, Matutes E, Tjonnfjord G, Grech H, Del Giudice I, Wotherspoon A, Swansbury JG, Catovsky D: T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia: A report on the treatment of 29 patients and a review of the literature. Cancer; 2006 Aug 1;107(3):570-8
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  • [Title] T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia: A report on the treatment of 29 patients and a review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: To the authors' knowledge, there is no standard treatment for patients with T-cell large granular lymphocyte (LGL) leukemia.
  • METHODS: The authors report on the use of immunosuppressants (cyclosporin A [CSA] and low-dose oral methotrexate [MTX] given continuously) and cytotoxic agents in the treatment of 29 patients with T-cell LGL leukemia age over the past 20 years.
  • The median time to response for both agents was 1 month.
  • An ORR of 67% (all CHR) was attained with pentostatin (n = 4 patients); recurrences developed after a median of 4.6 years.
  • Successful retreatment with pentostatin was possible but with increasing drug resistance.
  • Alemtuzumab induced a PR in 1 patient who had refractory disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Both MTX and CSA were efficacious in the treatment of T-cell LGL leukemia but generally required long-term maintenance therapy.
  • The authors highlight the risks of second malignancies and persistence of bone marrow disease.
  • Although MTX and CSA were effective as first-line therapy, alemtuzumab and pentostatin merit further investigation, particularly for refractory disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Lymphoid / drug therapy. Leukemia, T-Cell / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Cyclosporine / therapeutic use. Databases as Topic. Female. Humans. Male. Methotrexate / therapeutic use. Middle Aged. Pentostatin / therapeutic use. Retrospective Studies

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 American Cancer Society.
  • [ErratumIn] Cancer. 2006 Dec 1;107(11):2744
  • (PMID = 16795070.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 395575MZO7 / Pentostatin; 83HN0GTJ6D / Cyclosporine; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
  • [Number-of-references] 41
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19. Sokol L, Loughran TP Jr: Large granular lymphocyte leukemia and natural killer cell leukemia/lymphomas. Curr Treat Options Oncol; 2003 Aug;4(4):289-96
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  • [Title] Large granular lymphocyte leukemia and natural killer cell leukemia/lymphomas.
  • Natural killer (NK) cell leukemia and lymphoma represent rare conditions with heterogeneity of biologic behavior, prognosis, and responsiveness to therapy.
  • The initial diagnosis of NK-cell malignancies can be difficult because of the lack of immunophenotypic clonality markers, morphologic heterogeneity, and a poor correlation between cytomorphology and prognosis.
  • Therapeutic recommendations for NK-cell malignancies are derived from retrospective studies or case reports.
  • Immature NK-cell malignancies often have aggressive behavior with poor prognosis, despite administration of acute myeloid leukemia or acute lymphocytic leukemia induction chemotherapy.
  • The use of high-dose chemotherapy with stem cell rescue resulted in a prolonged survival in a small series of patients.
  • NK-cell malignancies originating from cells with mature phenotypes form a spectrum of diseases with distinct prognosis.
  • Patients with aggressive NK-cell leukemia invariably die within several months.
  • Nasal and nasal-like NK/T-cell lymphomas with limited stage disease often respond to radiation therapy alone or combination with chemotherapy and radiation therapy, with 5-year disease-free survival rates ranging from 30% to 75%.
  • Patients with T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia or chronic NK-cell lymphoproliferative disease of granular lymphocytes can have an indolent clinical course with long survival without therapy.
  • However, approximately 66% of patients with T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia require low-dose chemotherapy with methotrexate or cyclophosphamide or immunosuppressive therapy with glucocorticosteroids or cyclosporine A for symptomatic cytopenias during the course of their disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Killer Cells, Natural. Leukemia / therapy. Lymphoma / therapy. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 12943609.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-2729
  • [Journal-full-title] Current treatment options in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Treat Options Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Moosig F, Schoch R, Kneba M: [T-large granular lymphocyte leukaemia. An important differential diagnosis to Felty's syndrome]. Z Rheumatol; 2006 Sep;65(5):447-51
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  • [Title] [T-large granular lymphocyte leukaemia. An important differential diagnosis to Felty's syndrome].
  • [Transliterated title] Die T-large Granular Lymphocyte Leukämie (T-LGL-Leukämie). Eine wichtige Differenzialdiagnose zum Felty-syndrom.
  • T-Large Granular Lymphocyte (T-LGL) leukaemia is a rare clonal disease characterized by neutropenia and/or anaemia.
  • Because of its strong association with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), T-LGL leukaemia is an important differential diagnosis to Felty's syndrome.
  • This differentiation might be especially difficult since, in severe RA with extraarticular manifestations, there is often an expanded memory effector T-cell population which can hardly be separated from T-LGL leukaemia cells by means of immunophenotyping.
  • The main criterion for T-LGL leukaemia is the detection of a clonal T-cell-receptor rearrangement by PCR.
  • First-line therapy consists of weekly low-dose methotrexate.
  • There are very limited data from therapy studies.
  • The German CLL study group has initiated a protocol using parenteral low-dose methotrexate as first-line therapy and fludarabine as second-line medication.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Lymphoid / diagnosis. Leukemia, T-Cell / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antirheumatic Agents / therapeutic use. Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Arthritis, Rheumatoid / diagnosis. Arthritis, Rheumatoid / drug therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Felty Syndrome / diagnosis. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Methotrexate / therapeutic use. Vidarabine / analogs & derivatives. Vidarabine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16450150.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-1855
  • [Journal-full-title] Zeitschrift fur Rheumatologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Z Rheumatol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antirheumatic Agents; 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; FA2DM6879K / Vidarabine; P2K93U8740 / fludarabine; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
  • [Number-of-references] 39
  •  go-up   go-down


21. Fortune AF, Kelly K, Sargent J, O'Brien D, Quinn F, Chadwick N, Flynn C, Conneally E, Browne P, Crotty GM, Thornton P, Vandenberghe E: Large granular lymphocyte leukemia: natural history and response to treatment. Leuk Lymphoma; 2010 May;51(5):839-45
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  • [Title] Large granular lymphocyte leukemia: natural history and response to treatment.
  • Large granular lymphocyte leukemia (T-LGL) is an indolent T lymphoproliferative disorder that was difficult to diagnose with certainty until clonality testing of the T cell receptor gene became routinely available.
  • We studied the natural history and response to treatment in 25 consecutive patients with T-LGL diagnosed between 2004 and 2008 in which the diagnosis was confirmed by molecular analysis, to define an effective treatment algorithm.
  • The median age at diagnosis was 61 years (range 27-78), with a male to female ratio of 1:1.8 and presenting features of fatigue (n = 13), recurrent infections (n = 9), and/or abnormal blood counts (n = 5).
  • Thirteen patients with symptomatic disease were treated as follows: pentostatin (nine patients), cyclosporine (six patients), methotrexate (three patients), and alemtuzumab in two patients in whom pentostatin was ineffective.
  • Pentostatin was the single most effective therapy, with a response rate of 75% and minimal toxicity.
  • Treatment of T-LGL should be reserved for patients with symptomatic disease, but in this series, pentostatin treatment was less toxic and more effective than cyclosporine or methotrexate.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cyclosporine / therapeutic use. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Large Granular Lymphocytic / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antibodies, Neoplasm / administration & dosage. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Middle Aged. Pentostatin / administration & dosage. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20367569.001).
  • [ISSN] 1029-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antibodies, Neoplasm; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 395575MZO7 / Pentostatin; 3A189DH42V / alemtuzumab; 83HN0GTJ6D / Cyclosporine; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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22. Christopoulos PD, Katsoudas S, Androulaki A, Nakopoulou L, Economopoulos T, Vlahakos DV: T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia presenting as end-stage renal disease: the diagnostic role of flow-cytometric and clonality analysis of the urine sediment. Clin Nephrol; 2009 Feb;71(2):198-202
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia presenting as end-stage renal disease: the diagnostic role of flow-cytometric and clonality analysis of the urine sediment.
  • Several liver and bone marrow biopsies during that period had shown a nonspecific polyclonal T-cell infiltration, and she was administered low-dose steroids for symptomatic relief.
  • Physical examination, laboratory workup and imaging studies at presentation showed pancytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly, large symmetric kidneys with normal cortices and no evidence of obstructive uropathy, aseptic pyuria with neutrophils and lymphocytes and mild proteinuria.
  • On biopsy the renal interstitium was infiltrated by large, granular CD3+CD8+CD56-CD57+ lymphocytes, clonal by molecular analysis, which established the diagnosis of T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia.
  • Most urinary and peripheral blood lymphocytes bore the same T-LGL surface markers and were also clonal, as shown by flow-cytometry and PCR amplification of the T-cell receptor g-chain genes.
  • After exclusion of an underlying EBV, CMV, HBV, HCV or HIV infection with negative serology and blood PCR the patient received one cycle of chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, vincristine and prednisone.
  • No improvement of renal function was achieved, while complication with a prolonged pulmonary infection and severe sepsis precluded further treatment.
  • Our report indicates that the T-LGL leukemia should be considered in the differential diagnosis of renal failure with large-sized kidneys, especially when hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia and aseptic pyuria are also present.
  • Since renal function may deteriorate rapidly, chemotherapy should not be delayed.
  • [MeSH-major] Flow Cytometry. Kidney Failure, Chronic / diagnosis. Leukemia, Large Granular Lymphocytic / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19203516.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-0430
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Nephrol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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23. Robak T: Novel drugs for chronic lymphoid leukemias: mechanism of action and therapeutic activity. Curr Med Chem; 2009;16(18):2212-34
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Novel drugs for chronic lymphoid leukemias: mechanism of action and therapeutic activity.
  • Chronic lymphoid leukemias include well defined mature B-cell and T-cell neoplasms with diverse natural history and specific morphological, immunophenotypic and molecular characteristics.
  • The most common adult leukemia in the Western world is chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
  • Rarer indolent lymphoid leukemias include prolymphocytic leukemia, hairy cell leukemia, large granular lymphocyte leukemia and T-cell leukemia/lymphoma.
  • Recently, several new agents have been explored and have shown promise in CLL treatment.
  • Novel therapies are being evaluated both in pre-clinical studies and in early clinical trials.
  • These treatments include new purine nucleoside analogs, antisense oligonucleotides, agents targeting the antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family of proteins, receptors involved in mediation of survival signals from the microenvironment, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, protein kinase C inhibitors, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, immunomodulating drugs, new monoclonal antibodies and other agents.
  • At present, available therapies are only partially efficient and there is an obvious need to develop better strategies and new, more specific and active drugs.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Drug Design. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Clinical Trials as Topic. Drug Evaluation, Preclinical. Humans. Molecular Structure

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  • (PMID = 19519388.001).
  • [ISSN] 0929-8673
  • [Journal-full-title] Current medicinal chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Med. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 230
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24. Go RS, Tefferi A, Li CY, Lust JA, Phyliky RL: Lymphoproliferative disease of granular T lymphocytes presenting as aplastic anemia. Blood; 2000 Nov 15;96(10):3644-6
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  • [Title] Lymphoproliferative disease of granular T lymphocytes presenting as aplastic anemia.
  • Lymphoproliferative disease of granular T lymphocyte (T-LDGL), also known as T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia, is a clonal disorder of cytotoxic T lymphocytes that is clinically manifested as chronic neutropenia and anemia.
  • Morphologic evidence of increased granular lymphocytes in the peripheral blood and an excess of CD3(+)/CD8(+)/CD57(+) cells in the bone marrow were found in most cases.
  • After a median follow-up of 49 months, 5 patients had died from the disease or related complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Anemia, Aplastic / etiology. Leukemia, T-Cell / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Bone Marrow Cells / immunology. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / standards. Cytogenetic Analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Immunosuppressive Agents / administration & dosage. Immunosuppressive Agents / standards. Leukemia, Lymphoid / complications. Leukemia, Lymphoid / diagnosis. Leukemia, Lymphoid / drug therapy. Lymphoproliferative Disorders / complications. Lymphoproliferative Disorders / diagnosis. Lymphoproliferative Disorders / drug therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Prednisone / standards. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11071666.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone
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25. Lamy T, Loughran TP Jr: Clinical features of large granular lymphocyte leukemia. Semin Hematol; 2003 Jul;40(3):185-95
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  • [Title] Clinical features of large granular lymphocyte leukemia.
  • The spectrum of large granular lymphocyte (LGL) proliferations consists of four distinct entities: reactive/transient LGL expansion, chronic LGL lymphocytosis, classical indolent LGL leukemia, and aggressive LGL leukemia.
  • LGL leukemias are classified as lymphoid malignancies.
  • They are divided into CD3(+)/T-cell LGL (85% of cases) and CD3(-)/natural killer (NK) cell LGL leukemia (15% of cases).
  • Identification of LGL expansion has been improved using T-cell receptor (TCR)beta/gamma polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis and a combination of Vbeta and killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR)-specific monoclonal antibodies.
  • LGL leukemias are characterized by a clonal LGL infiltration of the bone marrow, spleen, and liver.
  • T-LGL leukemias affect the elderly and display a relatively indolent behavior.
  • Approximately 60% to 70% of patients are symptomatic: recurrent infections secondary to chronic neutropenia, anemia, and autoimmune disease such as rheumatoid arthritis are the main clinical manifestations.
  • Conversely, NK LGL leukemias behave aggressively, and most patients do not respond to chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Lymphoid / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Autoimmune Diseases. Clone Cells / immunology. Clone Cells / pathology. Hematologic Diseases. Humans. Killer Cells, Natural / immunology. Killer Cells, Natural / pathology. T-Lymphocytes / immunology. T-Lymphocytes / pathology


26. Rosenblum MD, LaBelle JL, Chang CC, Margolis DA, Schauer DW, Vesole DH: Efficacy of alemtuzumab treatment for refractory T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia. Blood; 2004 Mar 1;103(5):1969-71
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  • [Title] Efficacy of alemtuzumab treatment for refractory T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Neoplasm / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Lymphoid / drug therapy. Leukemia, T-Cell / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Female. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 14976065.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antibodies, Neoplasm; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 3A189DH42V / alemtuzumab
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27. Haran MZ, Basous L, Berrebi A: Multiple myeloma associated with CD4+ large granular lymphocytic leukemia: a possible causal relationship. Hematol J; 2004;5(5):458-60
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  • [Title] Multiple myeloma associated with CD4+ large granular lymphocytic leukemia: a possible causal relationship.


28. Tse E, Chan JC, Pang A, Au WY, Leung AY, Lam CC, Kwong YL: Fludarabine, mitoxantrone and dexamethasone as first-line treatment for T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia. Leukemia; 2007 Oct;21(10):2225-6
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  • [Title] Fludarabine, mitoxantrone and dexamethasone as first-line treatment for T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Dexamethasone / administration & dosage. Leukemia, T-Cell / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / drug therapy. Mitoxantrone / administration & dosage. Vidarabine / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Medical Oncology / methods. Treatment Outcome

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  • [ErratumIn] Leukemia. 2007 Dec;21(12):2577
  • (PMID = 17525720.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-6924
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; BZ114NVM5P / Mitoxantrone; FA2DM6879K / Vidarabine; P2K93U8740 / fludarabine
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29. Olteanu H, Harrington AM, Ramirez S, Kroft SH, Hari P: Efficacy and safety of long-term (>7 year) alemtuzumab therapy for refractory T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukaemia. Br J Haematol; 2010 Aug;150(4):480-1
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  • [Title] Efficacy and safety of long-term (>7 year) alemtuzumab therapy for refractory T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukaemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Neoplasm / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Large Granular Lymphocytic / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic / chemically induced

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  • (PMID = 20456357.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2141
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antibodies, Neoplasm; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 3A189DH42V / alemtuzumab
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30. Anoop P, Ravindranathan G, Osuji N, Dearden CE, Wotherspoon A, Bain BJ, Matutes E: Epstein-Barr virus negative large B-cell lymphoma during long term immunomodulatory therapy for T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukaemia. Br J Haematol; 2010 Jan;148(2):337-9
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  • [Title] Epstein-Barr virus negative large B-cell lymphoma during long term immunomodulatory therapy for T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukaemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects. Leukemia, Large Granular Lymphocytic / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / chemically induced. Methotrexate / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biopsy. Cyclophosphamide. Disease Progression. Doxorubicin. Humans. Male. Prednisone. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine

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  • (PMID = 19804452.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2141
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; CHOP protocol
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31. Monjanel H, Hourioux C, Arbion F, Colombat P, Lissandre S, Regner MP, Senecal D: Rapid and durable molecular response of refractory T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia after alemtuzumab treatment. Leuk Res; 2010 Aug;34(8):e197-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Rapid and durable molecular response of refractory T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia after alemtuzumab treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Neoplasm / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Leukemia, Large Granular Lymphocytic / drug therapy. Salvage Therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Remission Induction. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20211489.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-5835
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antibodies, Neoplasm; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 3A189DH42V / alemtuzumab
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32. Pawarode A, Wallace PK, Ford LA, Barcos M, Baer MR: Long-term safety and efficacy of cyclosporin A therapy for T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia. Leuk Lymphoma; 2010 Feb;51(2):338-41
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. CYCLOSPORIN A .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Long-term safety and efficacy of cyclosporin A therapy for T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclosporine / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Large Granular Lymphocytic / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Middle Aged. Neutropenia / complications. Neutropenia / drug therapy. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20038217.001).
  • [ISSN] 1029-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 83HN0GTJ6D / Cyclosporine
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