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1. Arora S, Arora G: Reiter's disease in a six-year-old girl. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol; 2005 Jul-Aug;71(4):285-6
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  • Reiter's syndrome has characteristically been described in young males and presents with a triad of urethritis, conjunctivitis and arthritis.
  • Reiter's syndrome has been known to affect children, although they usually do not manifest with the typical triad.
  • A case of a six-year-old girl who presented with watery diarrhea, redness of eyes and joint pains followed by skin involvement is reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Arthritis, Reactive / diagnosis. Arthritis, Reactive / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Aspirin / therapeutic use. Biopsy, Needle. Child. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hydrocortisone / therapeutic use. Immunohistochemistry. Salicylic Acid / therapeutic use. Severity of Illness Index. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16394443.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-6323
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of dermatology, venereology and leprology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] O414PZ4LPZ / Salicylic Acid; R16CO5Y76E / Aspirin; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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2. Halászlaki C, Horváth H, Kiss L, Takács I, Speer G, Nagy Z, Winternitz T, Dabasi G, Zalatnai A, Patócs A, Lakatos P: [Verner-Morrison syndrome: a case study]. Orv Hetil; 2010 Jul 4;151(27):1111-4
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  • [Title] [Verner-Morrison syndrome: a case study].
  • [Transliterated title] Verner-Morrison-szindróma egy esete.
  • Verner and Morrison described a syndrome of watery diarrhea, hypokalemia, and achlorhydria (WDHA) in 1958.
  • VIPomas producing high amounts of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) commonly originate from the pancreas.
  • Typical symptoms play a momentous role in the diagnosis of VIPoma.
  • Diarrhea may persist for years before the diagnosis.
  • Morbidity from untreated WDHA syndrome is associated with long-standing dehydration and with electrolyte and acid-base metabolism disorders, which may cause chronic renal failure.
  • Assessment of specific marker (VIP) offers high sensitivity in establishing the diagnosis.
  • Imaging modalities include endoscopic ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, and particularly, scintigraphy with somatostatin analogues.
  • Treatment options include resection of the tumor, chemotherapy or the reduction of symptoms with somatostatin analogues.
  • Early diagnosis and management may affect survival of patients favorably.
  • VIPoma cases may be associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1.
  • [MeSH-major] Pancreatic Neoplasms. Vipoma
  • [MeSH-minor] Achlorhydria / etiology. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Diarrhea / etiology. Endosonography. Female. Humans. Hypokalemia / etiology. Immunohistochemistry. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / complications. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20558361.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6002
  • [Journal-full-title] Orvosi hetilap
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orv Hetil
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 37221-79-7 / Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide
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3. Rammer M, Kirchgatterer A, Höbling W, Stockhammer M, Knoflach P: [W.D.H.A. Syndrome due to occult neuroendocrine malignancy with concomitant liver metastases]. Z Gastroenterol; 2003 Feb;41(2):185-9
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  • [Title] [W.D.H.A. Syndrome due to occult neuroendocrine malignancy with concomitant liver metastases].
  • [Transliterated title] Okkulte, maligne neuroendokrine Neoplasie mit Lebermetastasen als Ursache eines WDHA-Syndroms.
  • In the absence of clinical symptoms a wait and see procedure with clinical and imaging controls at regular intervals is arranged.
  • Beginning in spring of 2001--nearly two years after the initial diagnosis--the patient suffers from progredient diarrhoea and weight loss leading to hospitalisation in September 2001.
  • The existence of secretory diarrhoea, hypokalaemia and hypercalcaemia arouses suspicion of vipoma.
  • This is proven by a remarkably elevated plasma concentration of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP).
  • A vipoma is a rare differential diagnosis of secretory diarrhoea.
  • This case report describes the remarkable constellation of liver metastases of a malignant neuroendocrine neoplasm without a primary tumour and the clinical presentation of a W.D.H.A. syndrome (watery diarrhoea, hypokalaemia and hypo- or achlorhydria).
  • Despite extensive disease, therapy with octreotide and prednisolone provides a good clinical response.
  • [MeSH-major] Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / diagnosis. Vipoma / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Imaging. Humans. Liver / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Octreotide / administration & dosage. Prednisolone / administration & dosage. Radioligand Assay. Receptors, Somatostatin / analysis. Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide / blood. Water-Electrolyte Balance / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 12592602.001).
  • [ISSN] 0044-2771
  • [Journal-full-title] Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Z Gastroenterol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 37221-79-7 / Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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4. Nanba Y, Oka A, Ohno K: [Severe diarrhea associated with X-linked lissencephaly with absent corpus callosum and abnormal genitalia: a case report of successful treatment with the somatostatin analogue octreotide]. No To Hattatsu; 2007 Sep;39(5):379-82
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  • [Title] [Severe diarrhea associated with X-linked lissencephaly with absent corpus callosum and abnormal genitalia: a case report of successful treatment with the somatostatin analogue octreotide].
  • We report the clinical course of a case of X-linked lissencephaly with absent corpus callosum and abnormal genitalia (XLAG) exhibiting severe diarrhea.
  • At the age of 2 years while being treated with the antiallergic formula, he was affected with severe diarrhea that resembled watery diarrhea-hypokalemia-acidosis syndrome (WDHA).
  • Administration of octreotide was effective in relieving his secretory diarrhea.
  • Hypoglycemia without hyperinsulinemia was seen during fasting, and plasma vasoactive intestinal polypeptide was not increased when he had WDHA-like diarrhea.
  • Although pancreas of ARX mutant mice revealed an increased number of beta and delta cells, we did not detect the cause of hypoglycemia and secretory diarrhea by pancreatic endocrinology.
  • His urinary findings mimicked the symptoms of Fanconi syndrome, so it was possible that his hyperaldsteronemia affected not only his intestinal tract, but also his renal tubules.
  • [MeSH-major] Abnormalities, Multiple / genetics. Agenesis of Corpus Callosum. Diarrhea / drug therapy. Gastrointestinal Agents / therapeutic use. Genes, X-Linked. Genitalia, Male / abnormalities. Octreotide / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17879613.001).
  • [ISSN] 0029-0831
  • [Journal-full-title] No to hattatsu. Brain and development
  • [ISO-abbreviation] No To Hattatsu
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gastrointestinal Agents; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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5. Cardona AF, Combariza JF, Reveiz L, Ospina EG, Poveda CM, Ruiz CA, Ramos P, Aponte DM: [Clinical and microbiological characteristics of neutropenic enterocolitis in adults with blood cancer in the National Cancer Institute of Bogota D.C. (Colombia)]. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin; 2004 Oct;22(8):462-6
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  • [Transliterated title] Características clínicas y microbiológicas de la colitis neutropénica en adultos con neoplasias hematológicas del Instituto Nacional de Cancerología de Bogotá D.C. (Colombia).
  • OBJECTIVES: This study describes the clinical, epidemiological and microbiological characteristics of adult patients with blood cancer and neutropenic enterocolitis treated in the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia (National Cancer Institute) in Bogota, Colombia.
  • METHODS: The clinical histories of 692 adult patients hospitalized in the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia between 1997 and 2001 with a diagnosis of leukemia or lymphoma were reviewed.
  • Thirty-five of these cases met the criteria for probable or confirmed neutropenic enterocolitis.
  • All patients were undergoing chemotherapy and all presented watery diarrhea and abdominal pain.
  • CONCLUSION: Neutropenic colitis presents as a multifactorial syndrome in patients with blood cancer undergoing cytotoxic therapy with agents such as cytosine arabinoside, etoposide, vincristine, cyclophosphamide and corticoids.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Colombia / epidemiology. Disease Susceptibility. Feces / microbiology. Female. Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections / epidemiology. Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections / etiology. Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections / microbiology. Hospital Mortality. Humans. Inpatients. Male. Middle Aged. Neutropenia / chemically induced. Neutropenia / complications. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15482688.001).
  • [ISSN] 0213-005X
  • [Journal-full-title] Enfermedades infecciosas y microbiología clínica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Enferm. Infecc. Microbiol. Clin.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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6. Cellier C, Yaghi C, Cuillerier E, Siauve N, Berger A, Carnot F, Haddad C, Barbier JP, Landi B: Metastatic jejunal VIPoma: beneficial effect of combination therapy with interferon-alpha and 5-fluorouracil. Am J Gastroenterol; 2000 Jan;95(1):289-93
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  • [Title] Metastatic jejunal VIPoma: beneficial effect of combination therapy with interferon-alpha and 5-fluorouracil.
  • The VIPoma syndrome is rare.
  • Somatostatin analogs and interferon-a can be helpful in the symptomatic control of the disease, but the efficacy of chemotherapy in metastatic disease is limited.
  • We report the case of a 32-yr-old patient who had a primary intestinal VIPoma with peritoneal carcinomatosis and hepatic metastases.
  • Somatostatin analogs and conventional chemotherapy regimens were not effective on VIPoma syndrome and tumor progression.
  • Further investigations should evaluate the place of such a combination as a first line treatment for patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Jejunal Neoplasms / pathology. Vipoma / drug therapy. Vipoma / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Interferon-alpha / administration & dosage. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / radiography. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Peritoneal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Peritoneal Neoplasms / radiography. Peritoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 10638600.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9270
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interferon-alpha; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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7. Krysiak R, Okopień B, Herman ZS: [Rare pancreatic endocrine tumors]. Przegl Lek; 2008;65(4):209-16
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  • [Title] [Rare pancreatic endocrine tumors].
  • Functional pancreatic endocrine tumors other than gastrinoma and insulinoma are quite rare.
  • Some of these tumors may be part of multiple endocrine neoplasia type one (MEN-1) syndrome or phakomatoses.
  • Depending on their cell type, functional pancreatic endocrine tumors may cause distinct clinical endocrine syndromes, such as the 'glucagonoma syndrome', Verner-Morrison syndrome and the 'somatostatinoma syndrome'.
  • Currently, the only curative treatment for islet cell tumors is complete surgical resection.
  • The medical treatment of endocrine pancreatic tumours consists of somatostatin analogues, chemotherapy, and interferon-alpha.
  • The purpose of this manuscript is to provide an overview of the contemporary etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of rare pancreatic endocrine tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Glucagonoma / diagnosis. Glucagonoma / therapy. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / therapy. Somatostatinoma / diagnosis. Somatostatinoma / therapy. Vipoma / diagnosis. Vipoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Rare Diseases / diagnosis. Rare Diseases / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18724549.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-2240
  • [Journal-full-title] Przegla̧d lekarski
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prz. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Number-of-references] 47
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8. Pratz KW, Ma C, Aubry MC, Vrtiska TJ, Erlichman C: Large cell carcinoma with calcitonin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-associated Verner-Morrison syndrome. Mayo Clin Proc; 2005 Jan;80(1):116-20
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  • [Title] Large cell carcinoma with calcitonin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-associated Verner-Morrison syndrome.
  • Verner-Morrison syndrome, characterized by diarrhea, hypokalemia, and hypochlorhydria, is caused most commonly by vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-secreting islet cell tumors of the pancreas.
  • Verner-Morrison syndrome has not been described as a paraneoplastic syndrome in non-small cell lung cancer.
  • We describe a 38-year-old man with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer of large cell carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation who presented with bone metastasis and intractable secretory diarrhea that was unresponsive to pharmacological treatment, including octreotide.
  • Laboratory evaluation indicated elevated serum calcitonin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide levels.
  • Chemotherapy resulted in a transient response in the patient's diarrhea and neuroendocrine markers.
  • The patient did not respond to further therapy and died 5 months after onset of back pain.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first published case of large cell carcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation associated with treatment-responsive paraneoplastic Verner-Morrison syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcitonin / secretion. Carcinoma, Large Cell / secretion. Lung Neoplasms / secretion. Pancreatic Neoplasms / etiology. Paraneoplastic Endocrine Syndromes / etiology. Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide / metabolism. Vipoma / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Male. Octreotide / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 15667039.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-6196
  • [Journal-full-title] Mayo Clinic proceedings
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mayo Clin. Proc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 37221-79-7 / Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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9. Nikou GC, Toubanakis C, Nikolaou P, Giannatou E, Safioleas M, Mallas E, Polyzos A: VIPomas: an update in diagnosis and management in a series of 11 patients. Hepatogastroenterology; 2005 Jul-Aug;52(64):1259-65
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  • [Title] VIPomas: an update in diagnosis and management in a series of 11 patients.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: VIPoma is a rare pancreatic endocrine tumor (PET) which secretes excessive amounts of VIP (Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide) that causes a special clinical syndrome characterized by secretory diarrhea, hypokalemia and achlorhydria.
  • Among a total number of 76 patients (pts) with PETs, we present in this study 11 pts with VIPoma syndrome focusing on our diagnostic and therapeutic approach, in parallel with a brief review of the literature.
  • The diagnosis was based upon compatible clinical features and serum VIP values and was supported by the estimation of other peptides and neuroendocrine markers such as gastrin, pancreatic polypeptide and chromogranin-A (CgA).
  • In 10/11 pts, diagnosis was confirmed histopathologically.
  • RESULTS: Chronic secretory diarrhea, which persisted despite fasting, was the main symptom in all pts of our study.
  • VIP levels at the time of diagnosis were more than 3 or 10 times the upper normal limit in 7/11 (63.6%) or 4/11 (36.4%) pts, respectively.
  • A surgical resection was possible in 7/11 (63.6%) pts, while pts with metastatic disease already or poorly differentiated tumors also received additional treatment with somatostatin analogues and chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Clinical suspicion, early diagnosis and precise management may affect survival and improve the quality of life of patients.
  • Also, surgical treatment, as extensive as possible, in combination with somatostatin analogues or chemotherapy when necessary, may also result in prolonged survival, also in patients with advanced disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / therapy. Vipoma / diagnosis. Vipoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Pancreatectomy. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 16001675.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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10. Remme CA, de Groot GH, Schrijver G: Diagnosis and treatment of VIPoma in a female patient. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2006 Jan;18(1):93-9
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  • [Title] Diagnosis and treatment of VIPoma in a female patient.
  • We report a case of VIPoma in an 83-year-old female patient, who presented with frequent and excessive diarrhoea, muscle weakness, and severe hypokalaemia.
  • Abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed a 4x6 cm mass in the body of the pancreas.
  • Laboratory analysis showed elevated levels of both vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP; 153 pmol/l) and pancreatic polypeptide (161 pmol/l).
  • The VIPoma syndrome is caused by a neuroendocrine tumour, usually located in the pancreas, which secretes VIP, causing severe diarrhoea, dehydration and hypokalaemia.
  • Treatment options include resection of the tumour, chemotherapy or the reduction of symptoms with somatostatin analogues.
  • We provide an overview of the incidence, pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment strategies, and prognosis of this rare syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Pancreatic Neoplasms / radiography. Vipoma / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16357627.001).
  • [ISSN] 0954-691X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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11. Koo HL, DuPont HL: Current and future developments in travelers' diarrhea therapy. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther; 2006 Jun;4(3):417-27
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  • [Title] Current and future developments in travelers' diarrhea therapy.
  • Diarrhea continues to be the leading health problem among international travelers to developing tropical and semi-tropical regions.
  • An estimated 40% of travelers to developing nations will become ill with diarrhea.
  • Although travelers' diarrhea is considered a self-limited disease, novel and effective approaches to disease prevention and treatment have been realized in recent years.
  • Also, recent evidence has identified a potential for long-term complications of the illness, including postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome.
  • With the advent of poorly absorbed (<0.4%) rifaximin, a treatment option for the common watery diarrhea syndrome equivalent to previously used absorbed antibacterial drugs has emerged.
  • Rifaximin with an excellent safety profile and limited potential to induce coliform resistance, prevents most of the diarrhea that would otherwise occur.
  • Antibacterial drugs will continue to be the optimal treatment for travelers' diarrhea subjects for the most part caused by bacterial enteropathogens and shorten the duration of diarrhea by 1-2 days compared with no active drug treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Diarrhea / therapy. Travel
  • [MeSH-minor] Bismuth / therapeutic use. Fluid Therapy. Humans. Organometallic Compounds / therapeutic use. Probiotics / therapeutic use. Rifamycins / therapeutic use. Risk Factors. Salicylates / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16771619.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8336
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of anti-infective therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organometallic Compounds; 0 / Rifamycins; 0 / Salicylates; 62TEY51RR1 / bismuth subsalicylate; L36O5T016N / rifaximin; U015TT5I8H / Bismuth
  • [Number-of-references] 104
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12. Ueno H, Okusaka T, Funakoshi A, Ishii H, Yamao K, Ishikawa O, Ohkawa S, Saitoh S: A phase II study of weekly irinotecan as first-line therapy for patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol; 2007 Mar;59(4):447-54
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  • [Title] A phase II study of weekly irinotecan as first-line therapy for patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer.
  • PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and toxicity of weekly irinotecan in patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with histologically proven pancreatic adenocarcinoma, at least one bidimensionally measurable metastatic lesion, and no prior chemotherapy were selected.
  • Pharmacokinetics was examined on day 1 of the first cycle of treatment.
  • Although toxicities were generally tolerated, one patient died of disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome induced by neutropenia with watery diarrhea.
  • Pharmacokinetic study showed that patients with biliary drainage seemed to have higher area under the concentration versus time curve for irinotecan and its metabolites compared with patients without biliary drainage.
  • CONCLUSION: Single-agent irinotecan has significant efficacy for metastatic pancreatic cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Pancreatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 16855842.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-5704
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 7673326042 / irinotecan; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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13. Bourdeaut F, de Carli E, Timsit S, Coze C, Chastagner P, Sarnacki S, Delattre O, Peuchmaur M, Rubie H, Michon J, Neuroblastoma Committee of the Société Française des Cancers et Leucémies de l'Enfant et de l'Adolescent: VIP hypersecretion as primary or secondary syndrome in neuroblastoma: A retrospective study by the Société Française des Cancers de l'Enfant (SFCE). Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2009 May;52(5):585-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] VIP hypersecretion as primary or secondary syndrome in neuroblastoma: A retrospective study by the Société Française des Cancers de l'Enfant (SFCE).
  • BACKGROUND: Neuroblastic tumors (NTs) are occasionally associated with watery diarrhea, due to Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) secretion.
  • PROCEDURES: We conducted a retrospective analysis of the French experience of NTs associated with watery diarrhea due to VIP-secretion.
  • VIP secretion was confirmed by seric dosage and/or immunohistochemistry.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-two patients met the diagnostic criteria between 1988 and 2007.
  • In 16 cases, digestive symptoms preceded the diagnosis of the tumor ("Primary VIP secreting NTs"); 15 were localized and all showed a differentiated histology.
  • Interestingly, in another 6 patients with high-risk NT, diarrhea occurred at the time of chemotherapy or retinoic acid therapy ("Secondary VIP secreting NTs").
  • Differentiation in response to treatment was documented in 4 cases.
  • CONCLUSION: VIP secreting NTs are usually associated with differentiation; they can also secondarily arise from a high-risk tumor upon treatment.
  • Primary surgery constitutes first-line treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Neuroblastoma / pathology. Neuroblastoma / secretion. Societies, Medical. Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide / secretion

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19143025.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 37221-79-7 / Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide
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14. Koriyama N, Fukumoto O, Fukudome M, Aso K, Hagiwara T, Arimura K, Nakazaki M, Arima N, Eizuru Y, Tei C: Successful treatment of Good syndrome with cytomegalovirus duodenoenteritis using a combination of ganciclovir and immunoglobulin with high anti-cytomegalovirus antibody titer. Am J Med Sci; 2004 Jan;327(1):49-54
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. GANCICLOVIR .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Successful treatment of Good syndrome with cytomegalovirus duodenoenteritis using a combination of ganciclovir and immunoglobulin with high anti-cytomegalovirus antibody titer.
  • We describe the case of a 64-year-old woman with Good syndrome who presented with watery diarrhea and abdominal distention caused by cytomegalovirus (CMV) duodenoenteritis.
  • Abdominal radiography revealed multiple air-fluid levels, and computed tomography revealed ascites and dilation of the small intestine.
  • When patients with Good syndrome complain of abdominal symptoms, particularly chronic diarrhea, a diagnosis of CMV gastroenteritis should not be excluded, even if negative results are obtained for CMV pp65 antigenemia assays.
  • Combination therapy of ganciclovir and CMV-Ig seems useful for patients with CMV gastroenteritis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Cytomegalovirus Infections / drug therapy. Duodenitis / drug therapy. Gastroenteritis / drug therapy. Thymoma / complications. Thymus Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Ganciclovir / therapeutic use. Humans. Immunoglobulins, Intravenous / therapeutic use. Middle Aged. Thymectomy. Treatment Outcome


15. Kato J, Sakamoto J, Teramukai S, Kojima H, Nakao A: A prospective within-patient comparison clinical trial on the effect of parenteral cimetidine for improvement of fluid secretion and electrolyte balance in patients with short bowel syndrome. Hepatogastroenterology; 2004 Nov-Dec;51(60):1742-6
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. CIMETIDINE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A prospective within-patient comparison clinical trial on the effect of parenteral cimetidine for improvement of fluid secretion and electrolyte balance in patients with short bowel syndrome.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Survival of patients with gastrointestinal cancer has improved recently with various multidisciplinary treatments.
  • Short bowel syndrome, characterized by severe watery diarrhea and electrolyte losses, is one of the major problems caused by gastrointestinal cancer and subsequent treatments.
  • We investigated whether cimetidine, a gastric antisecretory agent, would ameliorate short bowel syndrome in patients after massive small bowel resection.
  • The randomized block method was used for statistical analyses of frequency and amount of daily watery fluid excretion and urine output, electrolyte levels in fluid secretions, as well as blood biochemistry, body weight and performance status.
  • [MeSH-major] Ascitic Fluid / secretion. Cimetidine / administration & dosage. Digestive System Surgical Procedures / adverse effects. Short Bowel Syndrome / drug therapy. Water-Electrolyte Balance / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / surgery. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Male. Middle Aged. Parenteral Nutrition / methods. Postoperative Care / methods. Probability. Prospective Studies. Reference Values. Risk Assessment. Severity of Illness Index. Statistics, Nonparametric. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15532817.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 80061L1WGD / Cimetidine
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16. Chiurchiu C, Firrincieli A, Santostefano M, Fusaroli M, Remuzzi G, Ruggenenti P: Adult nondiarrhea hemolytic uremic syndrome associated with Shiga toxin Escherichia coli O157:H7 bacteremia and urinary tract infection. Am J Kidney Dis; 2003 Jan;41(1):E4
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Shiga toxin .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adult nondiarrhea hemolytic uremic syndrome associated with Shiga toxin Escherichia coli O157:H7 bacteremia and urinary tract infection.
  • About 15% of children with Shiga toxin (Stx) producing Escherichia coli (STEC) primarily of serotype O157:H7, gastrointestinal infection, and watery or bloody diarrhea, may develop hemolytic uremic syndrome (D+ HUS).
  • Usually D+ HUS is not complicated by bacteremia and patients recover spontaneously without antibiotic treatment.
  • We report here an adult case of a STEC O157:H7 urinary tract infection complicated by bacteremia and HUS that was not preceded by diarrhea (D- HUS).
  • Cases of D- HUS need to be carefully examined for foci other than the gastrointestinal tract, and patients with E coli bacteremia should receive early antibiotic treatment as would any patient with sepsis.
  • [MeSH-major] Bacteremia / microbiology. Diarrhea / microbiology. Escherichia coli O157 / isolation & purification. Escherichia coli O157 / metabolism. Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome / microbiology. Shiga Toxin / biosynthesis. Urinary Tract Infections / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Drug Therapy, Combination. Escherichia coli Infections / blood. Escherichia coli Infections / drug therapy. Escherichia coli Infections / microbiology. Female. Humans

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 by the National Kidney Foundation, Inc.
  • (PMID = 12500215.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-6838
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Kidney Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 75757-64-1 / Shiga Toxin
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17. Kato T, Yazawa K, Madono K, Saito J, Hosomi M, Itoh K: Acute graft-versus-host-disease in kidney transplantation: case report and review of literature. Transplant Proc; 2009 Nov;41(9):3949-52
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. MYCOPHENOLATE MOFETIL .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • After the procedure, the patient presented with a fever, skin rash, and watery diarrhea.
  • An allograft kidney biopsy demonstrated no sign of rejection; however, anti-A antibody was detected in plasma and progressive anemia was attributed to hemolytic anemia owing to a passenger lymphocyte syndrome.
  • In this case, detection led to early diagnosis of donor-derived GVHD due to passenger lymphocyte syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Graft vs Host Disease / drug therapy. Kidney Transplantation / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adult. Anemia, Hemolytic / diagnosis. Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use. Bacterial Infections / diagnosis. Bacterial Infections / drug therapy. Female. HLA Antigens / analysis. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Male. Methylprednisolone Hemisuccinate / therapeutic use. Mycophenolic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Mycophenolic Acid / therapeutic use. Pancreas Transplantation / adverse effects. Reoperation. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19917421.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-2623
  • [Journal-full-title] Transplantation proceedings
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Transplant. Proc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / HLA Antigens; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 5GMR90S4KN / Methylprednisolone Hemisuccinate; 9242ECW6R0 / mycophenolate mofetil; HU9DX48N0T / Mycophenolic Acid
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18. Heiser CR, Ernst JA, Barrett JT, French N, Schutz M, Dube MP: Probiotics, soluble fiber, and L-Glutamine (GLN) reduce nelfinavir (NFV)- or lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r)-related diarrhea. J Int Assoc Physicians AIDS Care (Chic); 2004 Oct-Dec;3(4):121-9
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Glutamine .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Probiotics, soluble fiber, and L-Glutamine (GLN) reduce nelfinavir (NFV)- or lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r)-related diarrhea.
  • PURPOSE: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) can be associated with diarrhea and other gastrointestinal (GI) side effects.
  • Reducing these side effects may improve treatment durability and quality of life (QOL).
  • This study assessed the impact of nutritional co-therapies known to reduce diarrhea in HIV-positive men treated with nelfinavir (NFV)- or lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r)-containing regimens.
  • METHODS: Thirty-five HIV-positive men treated with NFV (n = 27) or LPV/r (n = 8) with diarrhea (> or = two liquid stools/day [d]) participated in a 12-week prospective study.
  • If diarrhea persisted at week 4, 30g/d L-Glutamine (GLN) was added.
  • Diarrhea incidence, as well as supplement and antidiarrheal use, was assessed monthly.
  • Diarrhea completely resolved in 10 of 28 (36 percent) S subjects.
  • Diarrhea (loose, watery stools/d) lessened in S from 2.84+/-1.42 to 0.74+/-1.03 (p < 0.0001).
  • In C, stools/d, 4.14+/-4.86 to 3.44+/-1.68(p = 0.678) and incidence of diarrhea/d, 3.00+/-4.82 to 1.36+/-1.29 (p= 0.361) was unchanged.
  • CONCLUSION: Probiotics, soluble fiber, and GLN significantly reduced diarrhea for subjects receiving NFV or LPV/r.
  • Nutritional co-therapies show clinical benefit in HIV-positive men with diarrhea.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / drug therapy. Diarrhea / prevention & control. Dietary Fiber / therapeutic use. Glutamine / therapeutic use. HIV Protease Inhibitors / adverse effects. Nelfinavir / adverse effects. Probiotics / therapeutic use. Pyrimidinones / adverse effects. Ritonavir / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active / adverse effects. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Humans. Lopinavir. Male. Quality of Life. Severity of Illness Index. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15768732.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-1097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care (Chicago, Ill. : 2002)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Int Assoc Physicians AIDS Care (Chic)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HIV Protease Inhibitors; 0 / Pyrimidinones; 0RH81L854J / Glutamine; 2494G1JF75 / Lopinavir; HO3OGH5D7I / Nelfinavir; O3J8G9O825 / Ritonavir
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19. Sugie M, Kuriki A, Arai D, Ichikawa H, Kawamura M: [A case report of acute neuromyopathy induced by concomitant use of colchicine and bezafibrate]. No To Shinkei; 2005 Sep;57(9):785-90
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. COLCHICINE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • A 75-year-old man with chronic renal failure and hyperlipidemia treated with bezafibrate (400 mg/day) for 1.5 years had developed watery diarrhea followed by acute tetraparesis, 14 days after the administration of colchicine for recurrent gout.
  • Neurological examination showed proximal muscle weakness with myalgia, distal mild numbness (dysesthesia) of four limbs and generalized decreased or absent reflexies.
  • Soon after both colchicine and bezafibrate were stopped, the patient's symptoms resolved rapidly, therefore we made a diagnosis of drug-induced neuromyopathy, although rhabdomyolysis with Guillain-Barré syndrome was initially suspected.
  • Recently, there had been reported acute and severe neuromuscular disorder induced by combination therapy with colchicine and anti-hyperlipidemic drugs, and there were clinical similarities between the cases of these reports and our case.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Aged. Drug Synergism. Drug Therapy, Combination. Electromyography. Gout / drug therapy. Humans. Hyperlipidemias / drug therapy. Kidney Failure, Chronic / drug therapy. Male. Neural Conduction / physiology

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  • (PMID = 16248366.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-8969
  • [Journal-full-title] Nō to shinkei = Brain and nerve
  • [ISO-abbreviation] No To Shinkei
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hypolipidemic Agents; SML2Y3J35T / Colchicine; Y9449Q51XH / Bezafibrate
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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20. Sanada S, Ookawara S, Shindo T, Morino K, Ishikawa H, Suzuki M: A case report of the effect of plasma exchange on reactive hemophagocytic syndrome associated with toxic shock syndrome. Ther Apher Dial; 2004 Dec;8(6):503-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A case report of the effect of plasma exchange on reactive hemophagocytic syndrome associated with toxic shock syndrome.
  • We report here the case of a patient suffering from hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) associated with toxic shock syndrome (TSS).
  • A 50-year-old man was admitted because of fever, watery diarrhea and shortness of breath.
  • Though the respiratory and hemodynamic status improved by the mechanical ventilation, fluid resuscitation with catecholamine and antibiotic therapy, the platelet count decreased rapidly.
  • This reactive HPS was treated not with immunosuppressive drugs but with therapeutic plasma exchange in order to prevent worsening of S. aureus infection.
  • Bacteria associated HPS remains a difficult diagnosis with high mortality and there is a crucial question of whether this should be treated with immunosuppressive drugs.
  • The patient's clinical course would suggest that the therapeutic plasma exchange should be considered as a therapeutic tool for the bacteria associated HPS instead of immunosuppressive drugs.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytosis, Non-Langerhans-Cell / therapy. Plasma Exchange. Shock, Septic / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Anti-Bacterial Agents. Drug Therapy, Combination / therapeutic use. Humans. Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / blood. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 15663552.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-9979
  • [Journal-full-title] Therapeutic apheresis and dialysis : official peer-reviewed journal of the International Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ther Apher Dial
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 81627-83-0 / Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor
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21. Schmidt W, Wahnschaffe U, Schäfer M, Zippel T, Arvand M, Meyerhans A, Riecken EO, Ullrich R: Rapid increase of mucosal CD4 T cells followed by clearance of intestinal cryptosporidiosis in an AIDS patient receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. Gastroenterology; 2001 Mar;120(4):984-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Rapid increase of mucosal CD4 T cells followed by clearance of intestinal cryptosporidiosis in an AIDS patient receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) suppresses the replication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and leads to an increase in circulating CD4 T lymphocytes, but its effects on other immune compartments such as the intestinal mucosa are not well understood.
  • We describe a severely immunodeficient HIV-infected patient with intractable watery diarrhea and weight loss caused by infection with Cryptosporidium parvum in whom we studied virologic and immunologic changes in both peripheral blood and the intestinal mucosa after initiating HAART.
  • Mucosal biopsies were performed by rectoscopy before and at several time points after HAART was begun.
  • In both blood and mucosa, HIV RNA decreased below the limit of detection and CD4 T cells increased.
  • Our findings show a rapid repopulation of the intestinal mucosa with CD4 T cells after initiation of HAART that can effectively restore mucosal immunity, leading to eradication of opportunistic pathogens.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / drug therapy. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / pathology. Cryptosporidiosis / parasitology. Cryptosporidium / isolation & purification. Intestinal Mucosa / pathology. Intestines / parasitology


22. Crutchley RD, Miller J, Garey KW: Crofelemer, a novel agent for treatment of secretory diarrhea. Ann Pharmacother; 2010 May;44(5):878-84
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Crofelemer, a novel agent for treatment of secretory diarrhea.
  • Additional references from the bibliographies of articles included in the search, as well as company and Food and Drug Administration Web sites, were also assessed.
  • DATA SYNTHESIS: Crofelemer is a first-in-class agent that may be useful for different types of secretory diarrhea, since it prevents chloride and fluid secretion into the bowel by directly inhibiting 2 distinct intestinal chloride channels.
  • Crofelemer significantly brought about faster symptom resolution in patients with traveler's diarrhea, along with lower rates of treatment failure compared to placebo-treated patients.
  • In a post hoc analysis, crofelemer compared to placebo also appears to have reduced abnormal stool weight and frequency in patients with AIDS-associated diarrhea.
  • In a third trial, crofelemer did not offer a significant benefit in improving stool consistency after 12 weeks of treatment in patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome.
  • Preliminary studies also show that crofelemer may reduce watery stool output in patients with infectious diarrhea such as cholera.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Crofelemer possesses a novel mechanism of action that shows promise in treating secretory diarrhea of several etiologies.
  • [MeSH-major] Antidiarrheals / therapeutic use. Diarrhea / drug therapy. Intestinal Secretions / metabolism. Proanthocyanidins / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Chloride Channels / metabolism. Clinical Trials as Topic. Humans. Treatment Outcome


23. Baert D, Coppens M, Burvenich P, De Cock G, Lagae J, Rasquin K, Vanderstraeten E: Chronic diarrhoea in non collagenous microscopic colitis: therapeutic effect of cholestyramine. Acta Clin Belg; 2004 Sep-Oct;59(5):258-62
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. CHOLESTYRAMINE RESIN .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Chronic diarrhoea in non collagenous microscopic colitis: therapeutic effect of cholestyramine.
  • Chronic watery diarrhoea is the main symptom of the microscopic colitis syndrome, including collagenous colitis (CC), lymphocytic colitis (LC), and not otherwise specified (NOS) colitis.
  • The records of 13 patients with LC and 7 patients with NOS, who had received cholestyramine as first line therapy and who responded to a questionnaire, were reviewed.
  • On an intention to treat basis, a good clinical effect of cholestyramine was achieved in 75 % of the patients in both LC and NOS colitis.
  • There was no therapeutic effect in 15 % of the patients, who all had LC.
  • In general, the anti-diarrhoeal effect appeared within one week of treatment.
  • Cholestyramine provides a rapid and adequate symptomatic relief of the diarrhoea in non collagenous microscopic colitis.
  • [MeSH-major] Cholestyramine Resin / therapeutic use. Colitis, Microscopic / drug therapy. Colitis, Microscopic / pathology. Diarrhea / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chronic Disease. Cohort Studies. Colitis, Collagenous / complications. Colitis, Collagenous / drug therapy. Colitis, Collagenous / pathology. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Intestinal Mucosa / drug effects. Intestinal Mucosa / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Patient Satisfaction. Quality of Life. Risk Assessment. Severity of Illness Index. Surveys and Questionnaires. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15641395.001).
  • [ISSN] 1784-3286
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta clinica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Clin Belg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11041-12-6 / Cholestyramine Resin
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24. Deng M, Rutherford MS, Abrahamsen MS: Host intestinal epithelial response to Cryptosporidium parvum. Adv Drug Deliv Rev; 2004 Apr 19;56(6):869-84
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Host intestinal epithelial response to Cryptosporidium parvum.
  • Cryptosporidium parvum is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that is a well-recognized cause of diarrhea in humans and animals throughout the world, and is associated with a substantial degree of morbidity and mortality in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). C. parvum primarily infects epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract, resulting in acute watery diarrhea for which there is no effective therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Cryptosporidiosis / parasitology. Cryptosporidium parvum / parasitology. Intestinal Mucosa / parasitology

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  • (PMID = 15063595.001).
  • [ISSN] 0169-409X
  • [Journal-full-title] Advanced drug delivery reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 122
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25. Arenas Gracia M, Mata Medina B, Serrano Corredor MS, Calduch Broseta JV, Martínez López V, Segarra Soria MM: [Lymphocytic colitis: hypopotassemia as a complication and an association with toxic multinodular goiter]. Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2000 Feb;23(2):75-8
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. SULFASALAZINE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Transliterated title] Colitis linfocítica: hipopotasemia como complicación y associación con bocio multinodular tóxico.
  • Lymphocytic colitis is a rare clinicopathologic syndrome, characterized by chronic watery diarrhea, diffuse inflammatory changes in the colonic mucous in spite of normal findings on colonoscopy and marked intraepithelial lymphocytic infiltration on biopsy.
  • Although the physiological mechanism of diarrhea is not clear, patients do not usually present hydroelectrolytic alterations and the results of routine laboratory investigations are usually normal.
  • We report a 61-year-old woman with a history of multinodular toxic goiter, whose previously uninvestigated chronic diarrhea became more acute and led to the diagnosis of lymphocytic colitis.
  • Results of laboratory investigations revealed only a significant hypokalemia with an associated nonfunctioning bilateral adrenal incidentaloma.
  • Hypokalemia as a complication of lymphocytic colitis and an association between lymphocytic colitis and toxic multinodular goiter does not seem to have been previously described.
  • [MeSH-major] Colitis / complications. Graves Disease / complications. Hypokalemia / etiology. Lymphocytes
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Chronic Disease. Diagnosis, Differential. Diarrhea / diagnosis. Diarrhea / drug therapy. Diarrhea / etiology. Female. Gastrointestinal Agents / therapeutic use. Humans. Middle Aged. Sulfasalazine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 10726387.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-5705
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroenterología y hepatología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol Hepatol
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] SPAIN
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gastrointestinal Agents; 3XC8GUZ6CB / Sulfasalazine
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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26. Mehta S, Fawzi W: Effects of vitamins, including vitamin A, on HIV/AIDS patients. Vitam Horm; 2007;75:355-83
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • An estimated 25 million lives have been lost to acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (AIDS) since the immunodeficiency syndrome was first described in 1981.
  • The progress made in the field of treatment in the form of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV disease/AIDS has prolonged as well as improved the quality of life of HIV-infected individuals.
  • However, access to such treatment remains a major concern in most parts of the world, especially in the developing countries.
  • Finally, vitamin A is known to increase lymphoid cell differentiation, which leads to an increase in CCR5 receptors.
  • The risk for lower respiratory tract infection and severe watery diarrhea has been shown to be lower in HIV-infected children supplemented with vitamin A.
  • The benefits of multivitamin supplementation, particularly vitamins B, C, and E, have been more consistent across studies.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / drug therapy. Vitamin A / therapeutic use. Vitamins / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / drug therapy. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / immunology. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / transmission. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Dietary Supplements. Disease Progression. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical. Male. Middle Aged. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Complications, Infectious / drug therapy. Pregnancy Complications, Infectious / immunology


27. Orth D, Grif K, Zimmerhackl LB, Würzner R: Prevention and treatment of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli infections in humans. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther; 2008 Feb;6(1):101-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prevention and treatment of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli infections in humans.
  • Infections with enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) result in various clinical symptoms and outcomes ranging from watery or bloody diarrhea to the life-threatening hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS).
  • So far, there is only supportive therapy available for the treatment of both EHEC-associated diarrhea and HUS.
  • Antibiotic therapy for the treatment of EHEC-associated diarrhea is discussed.
  • In recent years other therapeutic strategies have been developed, including Gb3 receptor analogues, that bind Stx in the gut or in the circulation, passive immunization with Stx-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies, or active immunization with Stx1 And Stx2 toxoids as a preventive procedure.
  • [MeSH-major] Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli / drug effects. Escherichia coli Infections / prevention & control
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antibodies, Monoclonal / pharmacology. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Humans. Shiga Toxins / isolation & purification. Treatment Outcome

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - E. Coli Infections.
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  • (PMID = 18251667.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8336
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of anti-infective therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Shiga Toxins
  • [Number-of-references] 70
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