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1. Satomura K, Yin M, Sekiyama T, Fujisaki S, Aramaki T, Okumura H, Ohmoto Y: Effects of SSM (specific substance maruyama) on HBe antigen-positive chronic hepatitis B -clinical efficacy and modulation of cytokines. J Nippon Med Sch; 2000 Aug;67(4):261-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Effects of SSM (specific substance maruyama) on HBe antigen-positive chronic hepatitis B -clinical efficacy and modulation of cytokines.
  • Twenty-three patients with HBe antigen-positive chronic hepatitis B were treated with capitalite first letters Maruyama (SSM).
  • The levels of various cytokines in pre- and post-treatment frozen serum samples from six patients whose HBe antigen turned negative and from five whose HBe antigen did not were examined.
  • Reduction of serum interleukin (IL) -10 level to below 20 pg/ml was observed after SSM treatment in four of the six patients whose HBe antigen turned negative.
  • SSM was found to stimulate the production of interferon (IFN) -gamma in peripheral blood cells from two healthy volunteers.
  • SSM augmented the production of IFN-gamma in eight out of 10 patients with chronic hepatitis B and nine of 10 with hepatitis C.
  • These results demonstrate for the first time that SSM stimulates the production of IFN-gamma in human peripheral blood cells and also suggest that treatment of HBe antigen-positive chronic hepatitis B patients with SSM leads to the clearance of HBe antigen and normalization of serum aspartate aminotransferase levels through inhibition of IL-10 and stimulation of IFN-gamma.
  • [MeSH-major] Hepatitis B e Antigens / analysis. Hepatitis B, Chronic / drug therapy. Lipids / therapeutic use. Mannans / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 10938594.001).
  • [ISSN] 1345-4676
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Nippon Medical School = Nippon Ika Daigaku zasshi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Nippon Med Sch
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] JAPAN
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hepatitis B e Antigens; 0 / Lipids; 0 / Mannans; 0 / specific substance maruyama; 130068-27-8 / Interleukin-10; 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma; EC 2.6.1.1 / Aspartate Aminotransferases
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2. Gudny Geirsdottir O, Thorsdottir I: Nutritional status of cancer patients in chemotherapy; dietary intake, nitrogen balance and screening. Food Nutr Res; 2008;52

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Nutritional status of cancer patients in chemotherapy; dietary intake, nitrogen balance and screening.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a short screening sheet (SSM) for malnutrition and to investigate the nutritional status of patients receiving chemotherapy for cancer of the lungs, colon or breast at an outpatient clinic.
  • DESIGN: Full nutritional assessment was conducted to define malnutrition and validate the SSM.
  • After the evaluation study, the SSM was tested in clinical routine and data collected about patients' need for nutritional counseling.
  • SUBJECTS: Patients at the outpatient clinic of the Department of Oncology at Landspitali-University Hospital (n=30 with lung-, colon- or breast cancer in the study population, n=93 with all cancer type in clinical routine screening).
  • RESULTS: Malnutrition was defined by full nutritional assessment in 20% of the participating patients and SSM had high sensitivity and specificity.
  • The test of SSM in clinical routine showed that 40% were malnourished.
  • CONCLUSION: Screening (SSM) for malnutrition in cancer patients is a valid simple approach to define cancer patients for nutritional care.

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  • (PMID = 19158940.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Food & nutrition research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Food Nutr Res
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2615643
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; malnutrition / nutritional counseling / protein balance / protein loss / screening malnutrition / weight loss
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3. Onyüksel H, Mohanty PS, Rubinstein I: VIP-grafted sterically stabilized phospholipid nanomicellar 17-allylamino-17-demethoxy geldanamycin: a novel targeted nanomedicine for breast cancer. Int J Pharm; 2009 Jan 5;365(1-2):157-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • 17-Allylamino-17-demethoxy geldanamycin (17-AAG), an inhibitor of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) function, is being developed as antitumor drug in patients with breast cancer.
  • The purpose of this study was to begin to address these issues by determining whether 17-AAG can be formulated in long-circulating (PEGylated), biocompatible and biodegradable sterically stabilized phospholipid nanomicelles (SSM) to which vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) was grafted as an active targeting moiety and, if so, whether these nanomicelles are cytotoxic to MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.
  • We found that particle size of 17-AAG loaded in VIP surface-grafted SSM was 16+/-1 nm and drug content was 97+/-2% (300 microg/ml).
  • Cytotoxicity of 17-AAG loaded in VIP surface-grafted SSM to MCF-7 cells was significantly higher than that of 17-AAG loaded in non-targeted SSM (p<0.05) and similar to that of 17-AAG dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide.
  • Collectively, these data demonstrate that 17-AAG is solubilized at therapeutically relevant concentrations in actively targeted VIP surface-grafted SSM.
  • Cytotoxicity of these nanomicelles to MCF-7 cells is retained implying high affinity VIP receptors overexpressed on these cells mediate, in part, their intracellular uptake thereby amplifying drug potency.
  • We propose that 17-AAG loaded in VIP surface-grafted SSM should be further developed as actively targeted nanomedicine for breast cancer.

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  • (PMID = 18793708.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-5173
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of pharmaceutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Pharm
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / C06 RR015482; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA121797; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA121797-02; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R01 AG024026; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / AG024026-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA121797-02; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / C06 RR15482; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R01 AG024026-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzoquinones; 0 / HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins; 0 / Lactams, Macrocyclic; 0 / Micelles; 37221-79-7 / Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide; 4GY0AVT3L4 / tanespimycin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS86802; NLM/ PMC2631986
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4. Downes KJ, Glatt BS, Kanchwala SK, Mick R, Fraker DL, Fox KR, Solin LJ, Bucky LP, Czerniecki BJ: Skin-sparing mastectomy and immediate reconstruction is an acceptable treatment option for patients with high-risk breast carcinoma. Cancer; 2005 Mar 1;103(5):906-13
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Skin-sparing mastectomy and immediate reconstruction is an acceptable treatment option for patients with high-risk breast carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) followed by immediate reconstruction is an effective treatment option for patients with early-stage breast carcinoma, but its use in patients with more advanced disease is controversial.
  • METHODS: A retrospective review was performed that included 38 consecutive patients with high-risk breast carcinoma who underwent SSM and immediate reconstruction (between July 1996 and January 2002).
  • Tumor characteristics, type of reconstruction, margin status, timing of adjuvant therapy, postoperative complications, and incidence of recurrence were evaluated.
  • RESULTS: High-risk patients (Stage IIA [n=4 patients] Stage IIB [n=23 patients] Stage IIIA [n=8 patients] and Stage IIIB [n=3 patients]) underwent immediate reconstruction after SSM with the use of a transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap (n=31 patients), a latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flap plus an implant (n=3 patients), or tissue expanders with subsequent implant placement (n=4 patients).
  • The median follow-up was 52.9 months (range, 27.5-92.0 months), and the median time to recurrence has not yet been reached at the time of last follow-up.
  • The median interval from surgery to the initiation of postoperative adjuvant therapy was 38 days (range, 25-238 days).
  • CONCLUSIONS: SSM with immediate reconstruction appeared to be an oncologically safe treatment option for high-risk patients with advanced stages of breast carcinoma.
  • In addition to the aesthetic and psychological benefits of performing SSM with immediate reconstruction, local recurrence rates and disease-free survival were favorable when combined with the use of radiation therapy and adjuvant chemotherapy, as indicated.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Postoperative Complications. Rectus Abdominis. Retrospective Studies. Risk. Time Factors


5. Cesur H, Rubinstein I, Pai A, Onyüksel H: Self-associated indisulam in phospholipid-based nanomicelles: a potential nanomedicine for cancer. Nanomedicine; 2009 Jun;5(2):178-83

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • This study aimed to begin development of a nanomedicine containing indisulam solubilized in sterically stabilized micelles (SSMs) composed of DSPE-PEG(2000) or sterically stabilized mixed micelles (SSMMs) composed of DSPE-PEG(2000) plus egg phosphatidylcholine.
  • Micelles were prepared by co-precipitation and reconstitution of drug and lipids.
  • Amounts of solubilized drug were determined by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC).
  • In vitro cytotoxicity of indisulam in nanocarrier was determined on the MCF-7 cell line by the National Cancer Institute-developed sulforhodamine B assay.
  • Optimal solubilized indisulam concentrations in 5 mM total lipid were 10 microg/mL for SSMMs and 400 microg/mL for SSMs.
  • We conclude that SSMs are a promising nanocarrier for indisulam, and indisulam-SSMs should be developed further as a novel targeted nanomedicine.

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  • (PMID = 19071064.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-9642
  • [Journal-full-title] Nanomedicine : nanotechnology, biology, and medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nanomedicine
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / C06 RR015482; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA121797; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA121797-02; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / AG024026-04; United States / PHS HHS / / AGC24026-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA121797-02; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / C06RR15482; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R01 AG024026-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Micelles; 0 / N-(3-chloro-7-indolyl)-1,4-benzenedisulphonamide; 0 / Phospholipids; 0 / Sulfonamides
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS119839; NLM/ PMC2785016
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6. Kovacs EM, Westerterp-Plantenga MS, Saris WH, Melanson KJ, Goossens I, Geurten P, Brouns F: The effect of guar gum addition to a semisolid meal on appetite related to blood glucose, in dieting men. Eur J Clin Nutr; 2002 Aug;56(8):771-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • INTERVENTION: Subjects consumed a low-energy diet divided over three times a day, consisting of a semisolid meal with (SSM+) or without (SSM) addition of 2.5 g GG, or a solid meal (SM) with the same energy content (947 kJ) and macronutrient composition, plus a dinner of the subject's own choice.
  • At the end of each intervention, time and number of meal initiations, dynamics of blood glucose and other blood parameters, and appetite ratings such as hunger and satiety were determined in a time-blinded situation.
  • RESULTS: The changes in blood glucose from meal initiation to blood glucose peak and from peak to nadir were smaller with SSM+ and SM compared to SSM.
  • Satiety before the third meal was higher with SSM+ and SM compared to SSM (P<0.01).
  • Meal pattern, general appetite and total energy intake were similar for all treatments.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that, similar to SM, SSM+ resulted in a more moderate change in blood glucose compared to SSM and positively affected satiety before the third meal, while general appetite, total energy intake and meal pattern did not differ.
  • [MeSH-major] Appetite Regulation / drug effects. Blood Glucose / drug effects. Diet, Reducing. Feeding Behavior / drug effects. Galactans / administration & dosage. Mannans / administration & dosage. Satiety Response / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Blood Chemical Analysis. Cross-Over Studies. Dietary Supplements. Humans. Hunger. Male. Obesity / diet therapy. Plant Gums. Postprandial Period. Satiation. Weight Loss

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  • (PMID = 12122554.001).
  • [ISSN] 0954-3007
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of clinical nutrition
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Clin Nutr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / Galactans; 0 / Mannans; 0 / Plant Gums; E89I1637KE / guar gum
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7. Liu GG, Hay J: An economic cost analysis of oral ganciclovir prophylaxis for the prevention of CMV disease. Pharm Res; 2000 Aug;17(8):911-9
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. GANCICLOVIR .

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  • Various cost functions were tested in the context of sample-selection model (SSM) and two-part model (TPM), and were estimated using both the ordinary least squares (OLS) and the bounded influence estimation (BIE) methods.
  • RESULTS: The use of informal caregiver services did not differ significantly between patients in the treatment group and those in the placebo group.
  • The monthly total cost function also identified a decreasing but insignificant trend due to the treatment effect.
  • CONCLUSIONS: At the methodological level, this study demonstrated the value of employing more rigorous econometric techniques in identifying subtle treatment effects on cost outcomes from clinical trial data in the economic assessment of medical technologies.
  • At the empirical level, the study concluded that beyond its demonstrated efficacy of preventing CVM disease among AIDS patients, ganciclovir prophylaxis did not lead to additional health care costs, other than the cost of the drug therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiviral Agents / economics. Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Cytomegalovirus Infections / economics. Cytomegalovirus Infections / prevention & control. Ganciclovir / economics. Ganciclovir / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 11028934.001).
  • [ISSN] 0724-8741
  • [Journal-full-title] Pharmaceutical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pharm. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase III; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; P9G3CKZ4P5 / Ganciclovir
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8. Mezi S, Primi F, Capoccetti F, Scopinaro F, Modesti M, Schillaci O: In vivo detection of resistance to anthracycline based neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced and inflammatory breast cancer with technetium-99m sestamibi scintimammography. Int J Oncol; 2003 Jun;22(6):1233-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] In vivo detection of resistance to anthracycline based neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced and inflammatory breast cancer with technetium-99m sestamibi scintimammography.
  • Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) is the treatment of choice in patients (pts) with locally advanced (LABC) and inflammatory breast cancer (IBC).
  • To evaluate the role of Tc-99m sestamibi imaging in the prediction of response to NACT and in the in vivo functional detection of intrinsic or acquired chemoresistance, 24 female pts with LABC (n=21) or IBC (n=3) were prospectively studied.
  • Tc-99m scintimammography was performed 1-3 days before treatment (first) and 2-5 days after the completion (second) of NACT (epirubicin and cyclophosphamide for LABC and doxorubicin and vinorelbine for IBC).
  • Then Tc-99m sestamibi retention index (RI) in the T was determined by dividing the D-TBR by the E-TBR.
  • In LABC, 3 patients had a pathological complete response: first RI was high (>0.56) in all 3, while no T uptake was visible on the second scintigraphy.
  • Eighteen patients did not show a pathological complete response: in 5, both first and second RI were low (</=0.56); 9 had high first RI but low second; 4 had high first RI and no T detected on the second scan.
  • In IBC, the only patient with a clinical complete response had both first and second RI high, whereas the 2 non-responsive pts had both first and second RI low.
  • These results indicate that Tc-99m sestamibi scintimammography can predict LABC and IBC response to NACT.
  • The scintigraphy protocol, including 2 studies before and after NACT, is useful for detecting intrinsic and acquired chemoresistant BC in vivo, which is important for planning therapy and predicting prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Epirubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Inflammation. Middle Aged. Posture. Predictive Value of Tests. Radiopharmaceuticals. Sensitivity and Specificity. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi

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  • (PMID = 12738988.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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9. Tiling R, Kessler M, Untch M, Sommer H, Linke R, Brinkbäumer K, Hahn K: Breast cancer: monitoring response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy using Tc-99m sestamibi scintimammography. Onkologie; 2003 Feb;26(1):27-31
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  • [Title] Breast cancer: monitoring response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy using Tc-99m sestamibi scintimammography.
  • BACKGROUND: Aim of the study was to assess the value of scintimammography using Tc-99m sestamibi in the evaluation of tumor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • MATERIAL ANS METHODS: Results were calculated for 9 patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Scintimammography using 740 MBq Tc-99m sestamibi was performed before, during and after chemotherapy, and sestamibi uptake was scored visually and semiquantitatively to evaluate tumor response.
  • RESULTS: In the case of complete response (n = 3) sestamibi uptake decreased 8 days after beginning neoadjuvant chemotherapy and normalized in the following course.
  • Focal uptake decreased more slowly in patients with partial response (n = 3), who showed clear, persisting tracer accumulation after therapy.
  • The patients without response (n = 3) showed a persisting high tumor activity even after chemotherapy was completed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The preliminary data suggest that in contrast to other imaging modalities scintimammography appears to yield early information regarding tumor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / radionuclide imaging. Mammography. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast / radionuclide imaging. Epirubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Predictive Value of Tests. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg
  • (PMID = 12624514.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-584X
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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10. Grosso M, Imran MB, Volterrani D, Roncella M, Abufalgha K, Grassetto G, Al-Nahhas A, Rubello D, Mariani G: Detection of bilateral, multifocal breast cancer and assessment of tumour response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy by Tc-99m sestamibi imaging - a case report. Nucl Med Rev Cent East Eur; 2008;11(2):70-2
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  • [Title] Detection of bilateral, multifocal breast cancer and assessment of tumour response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy by Tc-99m sestamibi imaging - a case report.
  • In breast cancer, neoadjuvant chemotherapy needs early indication for responsiveness.
  • Tc-99m sestamibi scintimammography provides comprehensive information about the extent of disease including multiple foci in one or both breasts and possible involvement of nodes.
  • On the other hand,Tc-99m Sestamibi scintimammography was able to depict the full extent of the disease, including its spread to the axillary lymph node, and gave useful information on the effectiveness of neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • The case reported here demonstrates that Tc-99m sestamibi scintimammography was useful in detecting bilateral breast cancer and could provide additional information on possible axillary lymph node involvement.
  • Furthermore, Tc-99m sestamibi scintimammography was effective in monitoring response to chemotherapy in the studied case.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
  • [MeSH-minor] Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Prognosis. Radiopharmaceuticals. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19585458.001).
  • [ISSN] 1506-9680
  • [Journal-full-title] Nuclear medicine review. Central & Eastern Europe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nucl Med Rev Cent East Eur
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; CAF protocol
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11. Tiling R, Linke R, Untch M, Richter A, Fieber S, Brinkbäumer K, Tatsch K, Hahn K: 18F-FDG PET and 99mTc-sestamibi scintimammography for monitoring breast cancer response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a comparative study. Eur J Nucl Med; 2001 Jun;28(6):711-20
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  • [Title] 18F-FDG PET and 99mTc-sestamibi scintimammography for monitoring breast cancer response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a comparative study.
  • Presurgical neoadjuvant chemotherapy has shown promise in the treatment of locally advanced breast carcinoma (LABC).
  • This study evaluated and compared fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET) and technetium-99m sestamibi scintimammography (SMM) as potential methods for the early assessment of tumour response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with LABC.
  • Seven patients underwent PET and SMM [planar and single-photon emission tomography (SPET)] before beginning chemotherapy, after the first and second cycles of chemotherapy and after completing chemotherapy prior to surgery.
  • PET and SMM results were evaluated visually and semi-quantitatively by calculating standardised uptake values (SUV) and tumour/lung ratios in the initial and subsequent studies.
  • There was a highly significant correlation between SUVmean, SUVmax and the tumour/lung ratio determined with SMM-SPET in the studies performed before and during neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • All three patients with complete remission showed decreasing FDG and sestamibi uptake as early as 8 days after therapy.
  • In the presurgical study, increased sestamibi and FDG uptake was no longer evident.
  • Three patients had partial remission with clearly reduced but persisting focal FDG and sestamibi uptake after neoadjuvant therapy.
  • One patient who did not respond to therapy had unchanged intense tracer uptake during chemotherapy that was evident with both techniques.
  • An early decline in glucose metabolism or sestamibi uptake 8 days after beginning therapy did not necessarily predict complete tumour remission in the further course of chemotherapy.
  • There was a good correlation between preoperative FDG and sestamibi uptake and the histopathologically determined tumour size.
  • The preliminary data demonstrate that sestamibi SMM is as useful as FDG-PET for the monitoring of tumour response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Radiopharmaceuticals. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Mammography. Middle Aged. Reference Standards. Tomography, Emission-Computed. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon

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  • (PMID = 11440031.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-6997
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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12. Simmons RM, Adamovich TL: Skin-sparing mastectomy. Surg Clin North Am; 2003 Aug;83(4):885-99
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  • [Title] Skin-sparing mastectomy.
  • The cosmetic appearance of the reconstructed breast is largely dependent upon the quantity of breast skin which remains after mastectomy.
  • Leaving behind as much skin as is possible significantly improves the natural appearance of the reconstruction and reduces procedures required on the contralateral breast to achieve symmetry.
  • SSM with immediate reconstruction offers superior aesthetic results to NSSM, with similar LR rates.
  • As most recurrences will occur in chest wall skin, the ability to detect local recurrence is not impaired.
  • The incidence of local wound complications with SSM is comparable to NSSM.
  • It has been demonstrated that sentinel lymph node biopsy and axillary dissection can be performed adequately in SSM.
  • There is no contraindication to postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
  • There are some groups of patients for whom SSM is not indicated, such as patients with inflammatory carcinoma.
  • SSM should be considered for selected patients with breast cancer in conjunction with all types of immediate reconstruction.
  • In conclusion, numerous studies support the use of SSM on selected patients as an oncologically acceptable procedure with superior cosmetic results when compared with traditional NSSM.

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  • (PMID = 12875600.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6109
  • [Journal-full-title] The Surgical clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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13. Wu J, Di GH, Chen TW, Qi FZ, Shen KW, Han QX, Shen ZZ, Shao ZM: [A retrospective study of 129 cases with immediate breast reconstruction after skin-sparing mastectomy for breast cancer]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2008 May 15;46(10):737-40
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  • [Title] [A retrospective study of 129 cases with immediate breast reconstruction after skin-sparing mastectomy for breast cancer].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the oncologic safety, indications and aesthetic results for skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) and immediate breast reconstruction (IBR).
  • METHOD: One hundred and twenty-nine breast cancer patients treated by SSM + IBR from October 1999 to May 2007 were reviewed.
  • Time of first chemotherapy was 5.2 days after operation.
  • Eleven patients (11/63, 17.5%) developed capsular contracture and 24 patients (24/99, 24.2%) developed seroma in the donor site.
  • Nine patients (9/28, 32.1%) developed partial fat necrosis in TRAM and DIEP flaps.
  • The satisfaction with the aesthetic results of the reconstructive breast was significantly lower in irradiated patients than non-irradiated ones.
  • Median follow-up time was 11 months.
  • Five patients developed local recurrence and 7 patients with metastasis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: SSM with IBR can be used for the 0 to II a stage breast cancer patients, with surgical oncologic and aesthetic satisfaction.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Surgical Flaps. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18953926.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5815
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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14. Torresan RZ, dos Santos CC, Okamura H, Alvarenga M: Evaluation of residual glandular tissue after skin-sparing mastectomies. Ann Surg Oncol; 2005 Dec;12(12):1037-44
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  • [Title] Evaluation of residual glandular tissue after skin-sparing mastectomies.
  • BACKGROUND: The oncological safety of skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) has been the object of several studies.
  • METHODS: From June 2003 to January 2004, 42 breast cancer patients, stage 0 to IIIA, underwent SSM.
  • Before surgery, two lines were drawn on the breast skin, representing SSM and conventional mastectomy incisions.
  • After surgery, the skin flap that would remain after SSM was removed, and immediate breast reconstruction was begun.
  • The presence and amount of remaining glandular breast tissues were histologically evaluated in the skin flap.
  • RESULTS: The prevalence of residual breast tissue in the sample was 59.5%, and the presence of TDLUs was significantly associated with skin flaps thicker than 5 mm.
  • Residual disease was found in 9.5% of the women and was associated with skin flaps >5 mm thick and the presence of TDLUs.
  • There was no significant association between the presence of TDLUs and residual disease with age, body mass index, menopausal status, clinical and pathologic staging, breast volume, mammographic density, neoadjuvant chemotherapy, type of surgery, and presence of an extensive in situ component.
  • The receiver operating characteristic curve showed that as skin flaps decrease in thickness, TDLUs also decrease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A high prevalence of glandular breast tissue and residual disease in the skin flap was associated with a skin flap thickness >5 mm.

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  • (PMID = 16244800.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Fujiwara K, Ohashi Y, Nakayama H, Nishimura R, Shimizu K, Mitsuhashi N, Hatae M, Ochiai K, Hatano K, Noda K: Phase III double-blind randomized trial of radiation therapy for stage IIIB cervical cancer in combination with low or high dose Z-100, immunomodulator widely used in Japan. J Clin Oncol; 2004 Jul 15;22(14_suppl):5029

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  • [Title] Phase III double-blind randomized trial of radiation therapy for stage IIIB cervical cancer in combination with low or high dose Z-100, immunomodulator widely used in Japan.
  • : 5029 Background: The Specific Substance of Maruyama (SSM) is a well-known immunomodulator that has been used in Japan as an unapproved drug in the treatment of over 240,000 cancer-bearing patients since 1970.
  • Z-100 is the same agent as SSM, used in different concentrations.
  • The aim of this study is to investigate whether Z-100 enhances the efficacy of radiation therapy (RT) for locally advanced cervical cancer of the uterus.
  • METHODS: Between 1995 and 1999, 221 (217 evaluable) patients with stage IIIb squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix were randomly assigned to treatment with either 0.2 μg Z-100 (Group L: n=109) or 40 μg Z-100 (Group H: n=108) in a double-blind manner in combination with conventional RT.

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  • (PMID = 28015511.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Nicolas C, Reichert-Penetrat S, Granel F, Barbaud A, Schmutz JL: [Ultra-late metastasis of melanoma with secondary dissemination along the venous stripping line]. Ann Dermatol Venereol; 2000 Jan;127(1):60-3
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  • [Title] [Ultra-late metastasis of melanoma with secondary dissemination along the venous stripping line].
  • BACKGROUND: A woman was cured of a melanoma of the leg.
  • CASE REPORT: In 1977, a 38-year-old woman was operated for a SSM melanoma of the calf.
  • She was then given chemotherapy and BCGtherapy for 2 years.
  • We discuss metastatic dissemination of SSM melanoma and the role played by stripping in this case of recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / secondary. Neoplasm Metastasis. Postoperative Complications. Saphenous Vein / surgery. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Thrombophlebitis / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Leg. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 10717565.001).
  • [ISSN] 0151-9638
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de dermatologie et de vénéréologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] FRANCE
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17. Ishihara K, Saida T, Otsuka F, Yamazaki N, Prognosis and Statistical Investigation Committee of the Japanese Skin Cancer Society: Statistical profiles of malignant melanoma and other skin cancers in Japan: 2007 update. Int J Clin Oncol; 2008 Feb;13(1):33-41
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  • [Title] Statistical profiles of malignant melanoma and other skin cancers in Japan: 2007 update.
  • BACKGROUND: In the previous report of the Prognosis and Statistical Investigation Committee of the Japanese Skin Cancer Society, we tabulated data on patients with malignant melanoma who had been registered at major medical institutions (22 institutions on average) in Japan over 5-year periods from 1987 to 1991 (group A) and from 1992 to 1996 (group B).
  • METHODS: The numbers of melanoma patients registered were: 545 in group A (1987-1991), 699 in group B (1992-1996), and 821 in group C (1997-2001).
  • Because the International Union Against Cancer (UICC) TNM and stage classifications for malignant melanoma were changed substantially in 2002, analyses in the present investigation were performed according to the new classifications.
  • In addition, the numbers of patients with various kinds of skin malignancies, including not only malignant melanoma but also basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, mycosis fungoides, actinic keratosis, Bowen's disease, and Paget's disease, registered at approximately 100 medical institutions in Japan from 1987 to 2001, were also investigated and data were tabulated.
  • RESULTS: The nationwide survey of Japanese patients with malignant skin tumors from 1987 to 2001 showed that the most prevalent skin tumor was basal cell carcinoma, which increased year by year, followed by squamous cell carcinoma, and then by malignant melanoma.
  • The following results were obtained from the data for melanoma patients registered at major institutions from 1987 to 2001. (1) The overall 10-year survival rates for melanoma patients in each chronological group were ranked as: group C > B > A, although only the difference between groups C and A was statistically significant. (2) The male-to-female ratio ranged from 1: 0.97 to 1: 1.14, and the survival rate of female patients was higher than that of male patients (the 140-month survival rate was 70.6% in females and 60% in males). (3) Assessment of the age distribution showed that the number of patients increased rapidly from ages 40-49 years and reached a peak at around 60 years in all three groups. (4) The sole of the foot was the most common site of melanoma in both males and females, while melanomas on the lower limbs were also prevalent in females. (5) Acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM) was the most common type in all three groups, accounting for nearly 50% of the patients in each group.
  • The number of patients with superficial spreading melanoma (SSM) increased steadily over time and exceeded the number of patients with nodular melanoma (NM) in group C.
  • The prognosis of NM was the worst, while that of SSM was the most favorable. (6) The proportion of stage I patients was larger in group C than in groups A and B, but no significant difference among the groups was observed in the proportions of stage II, III, and IV patients.
  • For patients in stage III, the overall survival rate was higher in group C than that in group A or B, while there was no apparent difference in survival between the groups for patients in stage I or II.
  • For patients in stage IV, the survival rate in group C was slightly lower than that in group A or B. (7) In group C, the overall survival rates for substages III A, B, and C were ranked as III A > III B > III C. (8) The overall survival rates for stage IV M1a, M1b, and M1c were ranked as M1a > M1b > M1c.
  • In group C, the overall survival rate of stage IV patients with a normal serum lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) level was higher than that of patients with elevated LDH values. (9) Evaluation of the effects of some therapeutic procedures (prophylactic lymph node dissection and chemotherapy with and without interferon-beta) on the survivals of patients with melanoma was inconclusive and suggested the need for more studies in this area.
  • CONCLUSION: In Japan, the number of patients with malignant skin tumors has increased year by year.
  • The prognosis of patients with advanced malignant melanoma remains extremely poor, but that of patients in stage III has shown an improvement.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / epidemiology. Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • [Cites] Int J Epidemiol. 1995 Oct;24(5):897-907 [8557445.001]
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  • (PMID = 18307017.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-9625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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18. Hunter JE, Malata CM: Refinements of the LeJour vertical mammaplasty skin pattern for skin-sparing mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg; 2007;60(5):471-81
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  • [Title] Refinements of the LeJour vertical mammaplasty skin pattern for skin-sparing mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction.
  • BACKGROUND: Skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) is a well-established technique for immediate breast reconstruction (IBR).
  • When used for large and/or ptotic breasts, traditional SSM patterns produce long skin flaps prone to necrosis or 'T' junction breakdown.
  • The authors have previously demonstrated the applicability of the LeJour-type vertical mammaplasty skin pattern to this group of patients.
  • With further experience, indications for this procedure have been widened and the technique refined.
  • The remaining five patients had bilateral mastectomies and reconstructions using the vertical mammaplasty skin pattern for both breasts.
  • All flaps were successful, but there were three cases of minor skin flap necrosis, three of delayed wound healing and two instances of significant post-operative bleeding.
  • DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: The vertical mammaplasty skin pattern was successfully used with a wide range of reconstructions.
  • However, to avoid suboptimal cosmetic results and minimise wound healing problems this technique is not recommended in heavy smokers, very obese patients, those undergoing prosthetic reconstructions or neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • The skin resection pattern should also be conservative.
  • The LeJour-type vertical mammaplasty pattern is a viable alternative technique for SSM in selected patients, especially those requiring contralateral balancing surgery and undergoing autologous tissue reconstruction.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Breast Implantation / methods. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Postoperative Complications. Skin Transplantation / methods. Surgical Flaps. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17399655.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-6815
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of plastic, reconstructive & aesthetic surgery : JPRAS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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19. Hultman CS, Daiza S: Skin-sparing mastectomy flap complications after breast reconstruction: review of incidence, management, and outcome. Ann Plast Surg; 2003 Mar;50(3):249-55; discussion 255
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  • [Title] Skin-sparing mastectomy flap complications after breast reconstruction: review of incidence, management, and outcome.
  • This study assesses the incidence and outcome of skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) flap complications after breast reconstruction.
  • The authors performed a retrospective review of 37 consecutive patients undergoing SSM and immediate breast reconstruction, focusing on preoperative demographics, management of complications, and early outcome.
  • Univariate analysis comparing patients with and without complications was performed using Student's t-test and chi-square analysis.
  • From July 2000 to December 2001, 37 patients (mean age 48.1, range 24-71 y) underwent SSM and breast reconstruction (unilateral 20, bilateral 17) via TRAM flaps (n = 18), latissimus flaps (n = 13), and expander/implants (n = 6).
  • SSM flap complications occurred in nine patients (24.3%) and included mild (n = 2), moderate (n = 5), and severe (n = 2) skin loss, resulting in four cases of dehiscence, five reoperations, and no delay in postoperative adjuvant therapy (required in six patients).
  • Previous irradiation (n = 5, p = 0.045) and diabetes (n = 3, p = 0.001) were associated with SSM flap complications, but age, smoking, previous breast cancer, and type of reconstruction were not.
  • Patients with SSM flap loss had a higher body mass index (BMI) than those without complications (30.0 vs. 24.3; p = 0.025).
  • Skin flap complications after SSM and breast reconstruction are not uncommon but did not delay the initiation of adjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy, despite the need for reoperation.
  • Patients with elevated BMI, diabetes, and previous irradiation may be at increased risk for SSM flap complications.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Female. Humans. Incidence. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12800900.001).
  • [ISSN] 0148-7043
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of plastic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Plast Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Giacalone PL, Rathat G, Daures JP, Benos P, Azria D, Rouleau C: New concept for immediate breast reconstruction for invasive cancers: feasibility, oncological safety and esthetic outcome of post-neoadjuvant therapy immediate breast reconstruction versus delayed breast reconstruction: a prospective pilot study. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2010 Jul;122(2):439-51
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Mastectomy.

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  • [Title] New concept for immediate breast reconstruction for invasive cancers: feasibility, oncological safety and esthetic outcome of post-neoadjuvant therapy immediate breast reconstruction versus delayed breast reconstruction: a prospective pilot study.
  • Feasibility and oncological safety of post-adjuvant skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) plus immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) cannot be evaluated by randomized trials.
  • However, comparative study could modify guidelines for the oncosurgical treatment of invasive breast cancer.
  • Our study compared the feasibility, oncological safety and esthetic outcome of SSM plus latissimus dorsi (LD) flap IBR after chemotherapy (CT) and radiotherapy (RT) with the standard management for invasive breast cancer: mastectomy as primary treatment, adjuvant CT and RT, and LD flap delayed breast reconstruction (DBR).
  • Twenty-six selected patients with stages IIA-IIIA breast cancer were offered post-neoadjuvant SSM plus IBR with LD flap plus implant (IBR group).
  • Our concept provides a basis for offering more women the opportunity to elect for immediate reconstruction, even in the setting of radiation therapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Feasibility Studies. Female. France. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Patient Satisfaction. Pilot Projects. Prospective Studies. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Risk Assessment. Risk Factors. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20502959.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7217
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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21. Rashid M, Ilahi I, ur Rehman Sarwar S, ul Haq E, Aslam R, Islam ZU, Rizvi TA: Skin sparing mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak; 2005 Aug;15(8):467-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Skin sparing mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate skin sparing mastectomy(SSM) and immediate breast reconstruction(IBR) in terms of the survival, chances of recurrence, aesthetic restoration and prevention of psychosocial problems.
  • In all patients SSM with en-bloc level II axillary clearance and IBR was done.
  • There was marginal necrosis of native skin flaps in 03 (10.5%), infection in 03 (10.5%), axillary seroma in 03 (10.5%) and abdominal seroma in 01 patient (3.5%).
  • As late complication 5 patients (19%) developed fat necrosis.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy was given in 6 (21%) and adjuvant radiotherapy in 4 patients (14%).
  • CONCLUSION: SSM for patients with early breast cancer is an oncologically safe procedure.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 16202356.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-386X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Coll Physicians Surg Pak
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
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22. Loewe R, Püspök-Schwarz M, Petzelbauer P: [Apomorphine hyperpigmentation]. Hautarzt; 2003 Jan;54(1):58-63
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  • A 72 year old bedridden, disoriented man presented with a continuously increasing number of blue nodules on his abdomen and both thighs.
  • In addition, he had a melanoma on his left forearm (SSM, Clark level III, Breslow 0.75 mm), which lead to the clinical diagnosis of melanoma metastases.
  • Because of the unexplained clinical and histopathological picture, the patient's history was reassessed and it was learned that the patient had received subcutaneous infusions of apomorphine for the past 10 years for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiparkinson Agents / adverse effects. Apomorphine / adverse effects. Drug Eruptions / diagnosis. Hyperpigmentation / chemically induced. Parkinson Disease / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] ADP-ribosyl Cyclase / metabolism. Aged. Antigens, CD / metabolism. Antigens, CD38. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Injections, Subcutaneous. Langerhans Cells / pathology. Male. Melanins / metabolism. Melanocytes / pathology. Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / pathology. Membrane Glycoproteins. Oxidation-Reduction. Skin / pathology

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  • (PMID = 12567259.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-8470
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hautarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antiparkinson Agents; 0 / Melanins; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; EC 3.2.2.5 / ADP-ribosyl Cyclase; EC 3.2.2.5 / Antigens, CD38; EC 3.2.2.5 / CD38 protein, human; N21FAR7B4S / Apomorphine
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23. Levine ME, Chillas JC, Stern RM, Knox GW: The effects of serotonin (5-HT3) receptor antagonists on gastric tachyarrhythmia and the symptoms of motion sickness. Aviat Space Environ Med; 2000 Nov;71(11):1111-4
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  • Subjective symptoms of motion sickness (SSMS) were obtained every 3 min during drum rotation.
  • However, maximum SSMS scores were not different among conditions.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiemetics / therapeutic use. Gastrointestinal Motility / drug effects. Granisetron / therapeutic use. Motion Sickness / drug therapy. Motion Sickness / physiopathology. Ondansetron / therapeutic use. Serotonin Antagonists / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Cross-Over Studies. Double-Blind Method. Electrodiagnosis. Female. Humans. Male. Nystagmus, Optokinetic. Rotation. Severity of Illness Index. Surveys and Questionnaires. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11086664.001).
  • [ISSN] 0095-6562
  • [Journal-full-title] Aviation, space, and environmental medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aviat Space Environ Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiemetics; 0 / Serotonin Antagonists; 4AF302ESOS / Ondansetron; WZG3J2MCOL / Granisetron
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24. Cocquyt VF, Blondeel PN, Depypere HT, Van De Sijpe KA, Daems KK, Monstrey SJ, Van Belle SJ: Better cosmetic results and comparable quality of life after skin-sparing mastectomy and immediate autologous breast reconstruction compared to breast conservative treatment. Br J Plast Surg; 2003 Jul;56(5):462-70
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  • [Title] Better cosmetic results and comparable quality of life after skin-sparing mastectomy and immediate autologous breast reconstruction compared to breast conservative treatment.
  • Preoperative chemotherapy (PCT) can be used in large primary breast cancer to facilitate breast conservative surgery (BCS).
  • After mastectomy, immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) with autologous tissue provides excellent cosmetic outcome and has proven to be safe in breast cancer patients.
  • Besides improving overall and disease free survival, Quality of Life (QoL), body image and cosmetic outcome are also important issues after treatment for breast cancer.
  • In this study, Health-Related-Quality of Life (HRQL) and body image were evaluated, in patients treated with PCT, followed by BCS, or skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) and perforator-flap breast reconstruction.
  • The mean score was 7.5/10 for IBR, versus 6.0/10 for BCS (p<0.0001).Breast conserving treatment or mastectomy with reconstruction may yield comparable results of QoL, but cosmetic outcome is better after SSM and perforator-flap reconstruction.

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  • (PMID = 12890459.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1226
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of plastic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Plast Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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25. Galal S, El Massik MA, Abdallah OY, Daabis NA: Study of in-vitro release characteristics of carbamazepine extended release semisolid matrix filled capsules based on Gelucires. Drug Dev Ind Pharm; 2004 Sep;30(8):817-29
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  • Various extended release carbamazepine (CBZ) formulations have been developed previously, in order to reduce the frequency of dosing in chronic therapy and to decrease the variability in drug plasma concentration.
  • In the present study, the suitability of different grades of Gelucires (G, glyceride based excipients) to formulate CBZ extended release capsules by the application of semisolid matrix (SSM) filling capsule technology was investigated.
  • The possible modification of CBZ release kinetics by using Gelucire blends or inclusion of hydrophilic additives in the SSM was studied.
  • The mechanism of drug release from the test formulations was studied.
  • The following results were obtained: a) Release data could not be correlated to the melting point (mp) of Gelucires used, pointing to relative lipophilicity of the base as a more important determinant of drug release.
  • c) Zero order release profiles of CBZ were obtained from SSM-based on G50/13, G53/10 and their blends in ratios higher than 1:1 and G53/10 containing croscarmellose sodium.
  • From the above data, it can be concluded that different grades of Gelucires and their blends as well as hydrophilic additives could be successfully used to formulate CBZ extended release SSM filled capsules with various release kinetics.
  • [MeSH-minor] Capsules / chemistry. Chemistry, Pharmaceutical / methods. Delayed-Action Preparations / chemistry. Delayed-Action Preparations / pharmacokinetics. Drug Carriers / chemistry. Drug Carriers / pharmacokinetics. Drug Storage / methods. Excipients / chemistry. Excipients / pharmacokinetics. Fats / chemistry. Fats / pharmacokinetics. Gels / chemistry. Glycerides / chemistry. Glycerides / pharmacokinetics. Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions. Materials Testing / methods. Oils / chemistry. Oils / pharmacokinetics. Polyethylene Glycols / chemistry. Polyethylene Glycols / pharmacokinetics. Solubility. Time Factors. Transition Temperature

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  • (PMID = 15521328.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9045
  • [Journal-full-title] Drug development and industrial pharmacy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drug Dev Ind Pharm
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Capsules; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Drug Carriers; 0 / Excipients; 0 / Fats; 0 / Gels; 0 / Glycerides; 0 / Oils; 121548-04-7 / gelucire 44-14; 121548-05-8 / Gelucire 50-13; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols; 33CM23913M / Carbamazepine
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26. Liang KV, Sanderson SO, Nowakowski GS, Arora AS: Metastatic malignant melanoma of the gastrointestinal tract. Mayo Clin Proc; 2006 Apr;81(4):511-6
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  • [Title] Metastatic malignant melanoma of the gastrointestinal tract.
  • Malignant melanoma is one of the most common malignancies to metastasize to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.
  • Metastases to the GI tract can present at the time of primary diagnosis or decades later as the first sign of recurrence.
  • We report 2 cases of malignant melanoma metastatic to the GI tract, followed by a review of the literature.
  • The first case is a 72-year-old man who underwent resection of superficial spreading melanoma on his back 13 years previously who presented with dysphagia.
  • A biopsy specimen of a mucosal fold in a gastric fundus noted during endoscopy was taken and revealed metastatic malignant melanoma, which was resected 1 month later.
  • Three weeks later, the patient was found to have an ulcerated jejunal metastatic melanoma mass, which was also resected.
  • The second case is a 63-year-old man with an ocular melanoma involving the chorold of the left eye that had been diagnosed 4 years previously, which had been excised several times, who presented with anorexia, dizziness, and fatigue.
  • He underwent adjuvant radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and surgical resection of the gastric melanoma metastasis.
  • In patients with a history of melanoma, a high index of suspicion for metastasis must be maintained if they present with seemingly unrelated symptoms.
  • Diagnosis requires careful inspection of the mucosa for metastatic lesions and biopsy with special immunohistochemical stains.
  • Management may include surgical resection, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, observation, or enrollment in clinical trials.
  • Prognosis is poor, with a median survival of 4 to 6 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Choroid Neoplasms / pathology. Jejunal Neoplasms / secondary. Melanoma / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Intestinal Mucosa / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16610571.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-6196
  • [Journal-full-title] Mayo Clinic proceedings
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mayo Clin. Proc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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27. Lam YY, Kaya MG, Li W, Mahadevan VS, Khan AA, Henein MY, Mullen M: Effect of endovascular stenting of aortic coarctation on biventricular function in adults. Heart; 2007 Nov;93(11):1441-7
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  • LV long-axis function improved at intermediate-term follow-up (tissue Doppler imaging lateral and septal systolic and diastolic velocities and E/Em ratios: LSm, 6.5 (1.4) cm/s to 7.9 (1.7) cm/s; SSm, 5.8 (1.2) cm/s to 7.3 (1.6) cm/s; LEm, 8.1 (1.3) to 9.4 (2.3) cm/s; SEm, 6.7 (1.5) cm/s to 7.8 (1.9) cm/s; LE/Em, 11.2 (2.7) to 9.8 (2.8); SE/Em, 14.8 (5.3) to 11.8 (3.9); p<0.05 for all).
  • No significant difference in LV ejection fraction, conventional LV diastolic measurements (E, A, E/A ratio, IVRT and DT) was found after stenting.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Blood Pressure. Echocardiography, Doppler. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome. Ventricular Function, Right

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  • (PMID = 17575331.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-201X
  • [Journal-full-title] Heart (British Cardiac Society)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Heart
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2016938
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28. Qasmi S, Sutra-Loubet C, Maubec E, Boitier F, Duvillard P, Carlotti A, Marinho E, Jacobelli S, Franck N, Gorin I, Vacher-Lavenu MC, Bouscarat F, Crickx B, Dupin N, Avril MF: [Melanoma in HIV patients: 14 cases]. Ann Dermatol Venereol; 2010 Dec;137(12):769-74
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  • [Title] [Melanoma in HIV patients: 14 cases].
  • [Transliterated title] Mélanomes chez des patients séropositifs pour le VIH : 14 cas.
  • BACKGROUND: a clinical study of 14 patients presenting both malignant melanoma and HIV infection, and analysis of the literature to determine the frequency and specific features of this association.
  • In 50% of cases, the primary melanoma consisted of spreading superficial melanoma with a mean Breslow thickness of 2.83 mm.
  • In two cases, regional lymph node metastasis was discovered but with no primary melanoma being identified.
  • HIV infection was already documented on diagnosis of melanoma in 11 cases, and it was discovered in three cases at the time of surgery for melanoma (treatment of the primary melanoma in two cases, and in one case, regional lymph node dissection two years after the initial diagnosis).
  • Eight patients died within a mean period of 39 months, with melanoma being the cause of death in six cases.
  • Following relapse of melanoma, the course of the disease was severe, with mean stage IV survival of 3.6 months.
  • No response to chemotherapy was observed where such treatment was feasible.
  • DISCUSSION: the presence of HIV appears to be an aggravating factor for the outcome of metastatic melanoma.
  • CONCLUSION: our study suggests the importance of clinical examination of pigmented lesions in HIV patients in order to ensure early identification of melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Seropositivity / diagnosis. Melanoma / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cause of Death. Early Diagnosis. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21134578.001).
  • [ISSN] 0151-9638
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de dermatologie et de vénéréologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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29. Reefy S, Patani N, Anderson A, Burgoyne G, Osman H, Mokbel K: Oncological outcome and patient satisfaction with skin-sparing mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction: a prospective observational study. BMC Cancer; 2010;10:171
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Oncological outcome and patient satisfaction with skin-sparing mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction: a prospective observational study.
  • BACKGROUND: The management of early breast cancer (BC) with skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) and immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) is not based on level-1 evidence.
  • In this study, the oncological outcome, post-operative morbidity and patients' satisfaction with SSM and IBR using the latissimus dorsi (LD) myocutaneous flap and/or breast prosthesis is evaluated.
  • METHODS: 137 SSMs with IBR (10 bilateral) were undertaken in 127 consecutive women, using the LD flap plus implant (n = 85), LD flap alone (n = 1) or implant alone (n = 51), for early BC (n = 130) or prophylaxis (n = 7).
  • Nipple reconstruction was performed in 69 patients, using the trefoil local flap technique (n = 61), nipple sharing (n = 6), skin graft (n = 1) and Monocryl mesh (n = 1).
  • Overall breast cancer specific survival was 99.2%, 8 patients developed distant disease and 1 died of metastatic BC.
  • Morbidities included infection, requiring implant removal in 2 patients and 1 patient developed marginal ischaemia of the skin envelope.
  • Chemotherapy was delayed in 1 patient due to infection.
  • The outcome questionnaire was completed by 82 (64.6%) of 127 patients with a median satisfaction score of 9 (range = 5-10).
  • CONCLUSION: SSM with IBR is associated with low morbidity, high levels of patient satisfaction and is oncologically safe for T(is), T1 and T2 tumours without extensive skin involvement.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Breast Implantation. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. London. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Nipples / surgery. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Skin / pathology. Skin Transplantation. Surgical Flaps. Surveys and Questionnaires. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20429922.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2873394
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30. Salhab M, Al Sarakbi W, Joseph A, Sheards S, Travers J, Mokbel K: Skin-sparing mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction: patient satisfaction and clinical outcome. Int J Clin Oncol; 2006 Feb;11(1):51-4
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Mastectomy.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Skin-sparing mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction: patient satisfaction and clinical outcome.
  • BACKGROUND: Skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) followed by immediate reconstruction has been advocated as an effective treatment option for patients with early-stage breast carcinoma.
  • It minimizes deformity and improves cosmesis through preservation of the natural skin envelope of the breast.
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate postoperative morbidity, patients' satisfaction, and oncological safety for SSM and immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) with a latissimus dorsi (LD) myocutaneous flap and/or breast prosthesis in patients with operable breast cancer.
  • METHODS: Twenty-one consecutive patients with operable breast cancer undergoing 25 SSM and immediate reconstruction with an LD flap plus implant (n = 14) or implant alone (n = 11) were retrospectively studied (from 2001 through 2005).
  • Eight of 20 (40%) patients required adjuvant chemotherapy, and only 2 patients required post-mastectomy radiation.
  • There was no delay in time to commencement of adjuvant therapies.
  • After a mean follow-up period of 13.5 months (range, 5-46 months), none of the patients developed locoregional recurrence.
  • Only 1 patient (5%) developed systemic recurrence (bony metastases).
  • CONCLUSION: SSM and IBR for operable breast cancer is associated with a high level of patient satisfaction and low morbidity.
  • The procedure seems to be oncologically safe, even in patients with high-risk (T3 or node-positive) carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Patient Satisfaction. Retrospective Studies. Surveys and Questionnaires. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Cites] Plast Reconstr Surg. 2004 Mar;113(3):877-81 [15108879.001]
  • [Cites] Br J Plast Surg. 1999 Jul;52(5):360-4 [10618978.001]
  • [Cites] Ann Surg Oncol. 2000 Aug;7(7):544-8 [10947024.001]
  • [Cites] Plast Reconstr Surg. 1995 Oct;96(5):1111-5; discussion, 1116-8 [7568487.001]
  • [Cites] Ann Surg Oncol. 2003 Mar;10(2):102-7 [12620902.001]
  • [Cites] Eur J Surg Oncol. 2003 Mar;29(2):191-7 [12633565.001]
  • [Cites] Plast Reconstr Surg. 2003 Feb;111(2):706-11 [12560691.001]
  • [Cites] Ann Plast Surg. 2004 Jan;52(1):15-21 [14676693.001]
  • [Cites] Surg Clin North Am. 2003 Aug;83(4):885-99 [12875600.001]
  • [Cites] Ann Surg Oncol. 2002 Jun;9(5):462-6 [12052757.001]
  • [Cites] Ann Surg Oncol. 2003 Mar;10(2):95-7 [12620899.001]
  • [Cites] Plast Reconstr Surg. 2004 May;113(6):1617-28 [15114121.001]
  • [Cites] Ann Surg. 2002 Jun;235(6):814-9 [12035037.001]
  • [Cites] Am J Surg. 2004 Jul;188(1):78-84 [15219490.001]
  • [Cites] Ann Surg. 1997 May;225(5):570-5; discussion 575-8 [9193184.001]
  • (PMID = 16508729.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-9625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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31. Göhl J, Hohenberger W, Merkel S: [Malignant melanoma]. Chirurg; 2009 Jun;80(6):559-67
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Skin Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Malignant melanoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Malignes Melanom.
  • Malignant melanomas have one of the highest increases in incidence among malignancies.
  • There are four histological types: superficial spreading melanoma, nodular melanoma, acrolentiginous melanoma and lentigo maligna melanoma.
  • Sentinel lymph node biopsy is relevant in all melanomas with a Breslow tumor thickness >1 mm without clinically suspicious lymph nodes.
  • In the case of lymph node metastases therapeutic dissection is recommended, in patients with in-transit metastases of the extremities hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion with cytostatic agents may be indicated.
  • Adjuvant, neoadjuvant and palliative procedures, such as radiotherapy, chemotherapy and immunotherapy are additional treatment options.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / surgery. Skin Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Palliative Care. Prognosis. Skin / pathology. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 19444395.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4722
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift fur alle Gebiete der operativen Medizen
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurg
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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32. Morrison BW, Doudican NA, Patel KR, Orlow SJ: Disulfiram induces copper-dependent stimulation of reactive oxygen species and activation of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway in melanoma. Melanoma Res; 2010 Feb;20(1):11-20
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. DISULFIRAM .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Disulfiram induces copper-dependent stimulation of reactive oxygen species and activation of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway in melanoma.
  • Melanoma is the most aggressive and deadly form of skin cancer.
  • The current standard of care produces response rates of less than 20%, underscoring the critical need for identification of new effective, nontoxic therapies.
  • Disulfiram (DSF) was identified using a drug screen as one of the several compounds that preferentially decreased proliferation in multiple melanoma subtypes compared with benign melanocytes.
  • Here, we report that in the presence of free Cu, DSF inhibits cellular proliferation and induces apoptosis in a panel of cell lines representing primary and metastatic nodular and superficial spreading melanoma.
  • Both decreased cellular proliferation and increased apoptosis were seen at 50-500 nmol/l DSF concentrations that are achievable through oral dosing of the medication.
  • Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in response to DSF-Cu treatment preceded the induction of apoptosis.
  • Our study shows that DSF might be used to target both nodular and superficial spreading melanoma through ROS production and activation of the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis / drug effects. Copper Sulfate / pharmacology. Disulfiram / pharmacology. Melanoma / drug therapy. Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Growth Processes / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Copper / metabolism. Humans. Oxidative Stress / drug effects

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. COPPER, ELEMENTAL .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. COPPER(II) SULFATE .
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  • (PMID = 19966593.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5636
  • [Journal-full-title] Melanoma research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Melanoma Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Reactive Oxygen Species; 789U1901C5 / Copper; LRX7AJ16DT / Copper Sulfate; TR3MLJ1UAI / Disulfiram
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33. Little JW: Melanoma: etiology, treatment, and dental implications. Gen Dent; 2006 Jan-Feb;54(1):61-66; quiz, 67
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Oral Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Melanoma: etiology, treatment, and dental implications.
  • Melanoma is one of the most serious skin cancers.
  • It arises from neural crest-derived melanocytes located in the epidermis or dermis of the skin.
  • Melanoma also can arise from melanocytes located in other regions of the body such as the eye, meninges, digestive tract, mucosal surfaces, or lymph nodes.
  • There are no proven causes of melanoma but the most commonly associated factor is episodic exposure to the sun.
  • Melanoma is a common cancer that has been increasing in incidence for the last 35 years.
  • The median age at the time of diagnosis is 53 years.
  • Five-year survival rates for melanoma of the skin have been increasing since 1976.
  • There are four types of melanoma: superficial spreading melanoma, nodular melanoma, lentigo maligna melanoma, and acral lintiginous melanoma.
  • Clinical signs indicating possible melanoma are asymmetry, border irregularity, color variation, increase in diameter, elevation, ulceration, and bleeding of pigmented lesions.
  • Histopathologic findings (tumor thickness, tumor invasion), surface ulceration, spread to lymph nodes, and distant metastases are used to project patient prognosis.
  • Treatment consists of surgical excision, lymph node dissection, limb perfusion, regional chemotherapy infusion, radiation, intralesional immunotherapy, systemic chemotherapy, and/or interferon-alpha, depending on the staging of the melanoma.
  • Oral melanomas are rare; however, approximately 20% of all melanomas are found in the head and neck region.
  • The role of the dentist is to be alert for changes in pigmented lesions of the oral mucosa and skin of the head and neck.
  • Lesions suspected of melanoma must be biopsied, which usually involves referral of the patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms. Melanoma. Mouth Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16494125.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-6771
  • [Journal-full-title] General dentistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gen Dent
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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