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1. El-Shazli S, Anwar H, Ramzy S, Al-Didi M: Extended lymphadenectomy to the lower paraaortic nodes during radical cystectomy. J Egypt Natl Canc Inst; 2004 Mar;16(1):22-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • PURPOSE: Evaluation of the diagnostic, prognostic and possible therapeutic role of extended lymphadenectomy to lower para-aortic area in operable bladder cancer patients.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred and nine patients were subjected to the procedure in the National Cancer Institute of Cairo University, and in Minea Oncology Center, Ministry of Health by the same group of surgeons, during the period from September 2000 to March 2003.
  • In addition to cystoscopy, biopsy and histologic examination, bone scan, chest X-ray and computerized tomography with I.V. contrast examination for the abdomen and pelvis were done for clinical staging of the disease.
  • The clinical and C.T. staging are inaccurate methods of diagnosis due to high overall error up to 70.6% of patients.
  • There is no higher incidence of morbidity, mortality, operative time or intraoperative blood loss related to the addition of lower para-arotic dissection to the routine radical cystectomy.
  • CONCLUSION: Extension of lymphadenectomy to include the lower para-arotic area in addition to the standard pelvic lymphadenectomy during radical cystectomy for bladder cancer is a more accurate technique for diagnosis and staging of bladder cancer patients and it may help in determining the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy +/- radiotherapy.

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  • (PMID = 15716994.001).
  • [ISSN] 1110-0362
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Egypt Natl Canc Inst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
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2. Ramos D, Navarro S, Villamón R, Gil-Salom M, Llombart-Bosch A: Cytokeratin expression patterns in low-grade papillary urothelial neoplasms of the urinary bladder. Cancer; 2003 Apr 15;97(8):1876-83
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cytokeratin expression patterns in low-grade papillary urothelial neoplasms of the urinary bladder.
  • BACKGROUND: The differential expression patterns of cytokeratin 20 (CK20) and 34betaE12 antigen in low-grade papillary urothelial tumors of the bladder are discussed.
  • METHODS: A retrospective study of 120 patients with low-grade papillary bladder tumors (45 neoplasms of low malignant potential and 75 low-grade WHO G1 carcinomas) was performed.
  • The mean follow-up was 76.6 months (range, 36-168 mos), considering for prognostic purposes the time to first recurrence, or relapse-free interval (RFI), and the total number of recurrent patients.
  • Independent of adjuvant intravesical chemotherapy, these 2 markers showed a strong statistical correlation (p < 0.001) in univariate studies with both the prediction of disease recurrences and RFI.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Intermediate Filament Proteins / metabolism. Keratins / metabolism. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Keratin-20. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / metabolism. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 12673713.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CK-34 beta E12; 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / KRT20 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-20; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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3. Kong CH, Singam P, Hong GE, Cheok LB, Azrif M, Tamil AM, Zainuddin ZM: Clinicopathological features of bladder tumours in a single institution in Malaysia. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev; 2010;11(1):149-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinicopathological features of bladder tumours in a single institution in Malaysia.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinicopathological features of bladder tumours encountered over a five year period in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre.
  • METHODS: Medical records of bladder tumour cases from 2005 till 2009 were retrospectively reviewed and tabulated.
  • Of the total, 5.3% were papillary urothelial tumours of low malignant potential, 33.3% pTa, 20% pT1, 10.7% pT2, 12.0% pT3 and 18.7% pT4.
  • All the adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas were treated by radiotherapy due to the advanced stage of the disease while the myeloid sarcoma received chemotherapy.
  • Mean survival of patients with muscle invasive cancer was 33+/-5 months.
  • By the end of the study, 18.1% of patients had died of their cancer.
  • CONCLUSION: The incidence of bladder tumours is highest among the Chinese.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / secondary. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Malaysia. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 20593947.001).
  • [ISSN] 2476-762X
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
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4. Gaisa NT, Henkel C, Knüchel R: Tumour node metastasis staging of bladder cancer: prognosis versus pitfalls. Curr Opin Urol; 2010 Sep;20(5):398-403
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Tumour node metastasis staging of bladder cancer: prognosis versus pitfalls.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The WHO classification of urothelial cancer in 2004 has made changes based on the insights of molecular genetics, indicating bladder cancer with entities that are genetically stable versus those that are genetically instable.
  • Clinical studies based on solid histological diagnosis are as necessary as the definition of more molecular features of bladder cancer.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Solid histological diagnosis includes sufficient clinical information and adequate tissue processing.
  • This combined with molecular data will lead to a more clear-cut distinction between benign and malignant and possibly to another change in terminology with higher concordance to other epithelial tumours.
  • Whereas the identification of FGFR3 mutations has led to a better distinction of at least two pathways of urothelial carcinogenesis, additional multiparametric approaches may help improve the still inadequate search for urine and blood markers indicative of bladder cancer and/or its progression.
  • SUMMARY: Recent data mainly support the concept of the WHO 2004 classification of bladder cancer.
  • We are optimistic that an even more clear-cut distinction between benign recurring, nonprogressing tumours and more aggressive tumours will enable us to focus and limit chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Molecular Diagnostic Techniques. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Reproducibility of Results

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  • (PMID = 20625299.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-6586
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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5. Krüger S, Weitsch G, Büttner H, Matthiensen A, Böhmer T, Marquardt T, Sayk F, Feller AC, Böhle A: HER2 overexpression in muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder: prognostic implications. Int J Cancer; 2002 Dec 10;102(5):514-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] HER2 overexpression in muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder: prognostic implications.
  • The HER2 (c-erbB-2) receptor is overexpressed in a variety of human malignant tumors and, in breast carcinoma, has been identified as a target for anti-HER2-directed therapy with the monoclonal antibody (MAb) trastuzumab.
  • The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate immunohistochemic HER2 expression in a large cohort of muscle-invasive urothelial cell carcinomas of the urinary bladder and to compare the results to pathologic characteristics and survival.
  • Paraffin-embedded tumor specimens from 138 patients undergoing radical cystectomy for muscle-invasive bladder carcinoma were studied immunohistochemically with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved HercepTest (Dako, Glostrup, Denmark).
  • No significant relationship with HER2 overexpression was registered for tumor staging and lymph node status.
  • These results suggest that HER2 expression might provide additional prognostic information in patients with muscle-invasive bladder carcinomas.
  • Because many of these patients harbor HER2-overexpressing tumors, clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of trastuzumab in bladder carcinoma are warranted.
  • [MeSH-major] Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Muscles. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Risk. Survival Analysis. Urothelium

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 12432555.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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6. Nishimura K, Fujiyama C, Nakashima K, Satoh Y, Tokuda Y, Uozumi J: The effects of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and chemo-radiation therapy on MRI staging in invasive bladder cancer: comparative study based on the pathological examination of whole layer bladder wall. Int Urol Nephrol; 2009 Dec;41(4):869-75
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  • [Title] The effects of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and chemo-radiation therapy on MRI staging in invasive bladder cancer: comparative study based on the pathological examination of whole layer bladder wall.
  • OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the correlation of radiological findings obtained by MRI study with pathological diagnosis in invasive bladder cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy, with or without radiation.
  • DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-seven patients, who underwent total or partial cystectomy for invasive bladder tumors, were enrolled into the present study.
  • Eight cases had received neoadjuvant chemotherapy following the staging biopsy (group A), ten cases had received chemo-radiation therapy following the staging biopsy (group B), and nine cases had received preoperative staging biopsy alone (group C).
  • As a final treatment, 12 of the 27 patients underwent total cystectomy and the other 15 patients underwent partial cystectomy.
  • The pathological stage was assessed by histological examination of the entire layer of the bladder wall.
  • RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Tumor stage assessed by MRI was consistent with pathological findings in 16 of the 27 cases (59.3%), while MRI produced over-staging in 7 cases and under-staging in 4 cases.
  • The accuracy of staging was 75.0, 30.0, and 77.8% in groups A, B, and C, respectively.
  • The accuracy of MRI staging in group B was lower than that in group C (P < 0.05).
  • There was no difference in the accuracy of MRI staging between groups A and C.
  • CONCLUSION: MRI is useful for the staging of bladder cancer.
  • However, care needs to be taken when staging invasive bladder tumors treated with neoadjuvant chemo-radiation therapy, because inflammatory infiltrations and/or fibrous changes caused by the chemotherapy or chemo-radiation therapy make precise staging with MRI difficult.
  • [MeSH-major] Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoadjuvant Therapy / methods. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Urinary Bladder / pathology. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Needle. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cohort Studies. Combined Modality Therapy. Cystectomy / methods. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis

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  • [CommentIn] Int Urol Nephrol. 2009 Dec;41(4):877-9 [19449116.001]
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  • (PMID = 19396568.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-2584
  • [Journal-full-title] International urology and nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Urol Nephrol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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7. Margulis V, Shariat SF, Ashfaq R, Sagalowsky AI, Lotan Y: Ki-67 is an independent predictor of bladder cancer outcome in patients treated with radical cystectomy for organ-confined disease. Clin Cancer Res; 2006 Dec 15;12(24):7369-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ki-67 is an independent predictor of bladder cancer outcome in patients treated with radical cystectomy for organ-confined disease.
  • PURPOSE: To determine the association of the cell proliferative marker Ki-67 with pathologic features and disease prognosis in patients with transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder.
  • METHODS: Immunohistochemical staining for Ki-67 was done on serial cuts from tissue microarrays containing cystectomy specimens from 9 patients without bladder cancer and 226 consecutive patients with bladder TCC.
  • We also assessed malignant lymph nodes from 50 of the 226 cystectomy patients.
  • In multivariate analyses, pathologic stage and lymph node metastases were independent predictors of disease recurrence and bladder cancer-specific mortality.
  • In the subgroup of patients with organ-confined disease (<pT(3) N(0); n = 91), excluding patients who received neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy, Ki-67 status was an independent predictor of both disease recurrence (risk ratio, 7.591; P = 0.001) and bladder cancer-specific mortality (risk ratio, 4.045; P = 0.041).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Ki-67 overexpression is associated with features of aggressive bladder TCC and adds independent prognostic information to standard pathologic features for prediction of clinical outcome after radical cystectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / surgery. Ki-67 Antigen / physiology. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / physiology. Cystectomy / statistics & numerical data. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17189409.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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8. May F, Treiber U, Hartung R, Schwaibold H: Significance of random bladder biopsies in superficial bladder cancer. Eur Urol; 2003 Jul;44(1):47-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Significance of random bladder biopsies in superficial bladder cancer.
  • OBJECTIVES: We investigated to what extent biopsies of normal-appearing urothelium taken from patients with superficial bladder cancer (Ta, T1, Tis) showed malignant disease and whether those findings had impact on therapeutical decisions.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: 1033 consecutive patients presenting with Ta, T1 or Tis (carcinoma in situ) superficial bladder tumors at increased risk for recurrence underwent multiple random biopsies from normal-appearing urothelium during transurethral resection (TUR).
  • 128 patients (12.4%) showed urothelial bladder cancer in their random biopsies (Tis: 74, Ta: 41, T1: 12, T2: 1).
  • In 14 patients, where transurethral resection of the primary tumor revealed no signs of malignancy, urothelial bladder cancer was detected in the random biopsy material: Ta 8 patients, Tis 5 patients and T1 one patient.
  • Altogether, due to the random biopsy results therapy was altered in 70 patients (6.8%) of our series: It changed intravesical chemotherapy to BCG in 45, provoked a second TUR in 48 and cystectomy in 15 patients.
  • Regarding random bladder biopsies a simple tool for the urologist to identify high risk groups of patients, we recommend them as part of the routine management of superficial bladder cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Needle / methods. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cystectomy / methods. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Germany. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Random Allocation. Risk Assessment. Sensitivity and Specificity. Time Factors. Urothelium / pathology

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  • (PMID = 12814674.001).
  • [ISSN] 0302-2838
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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9. Fink W, Zimpfer A, Ugurel S: Mucosal metastases in malignant melanoma. Onkologie; 2003 Jun;26(3):249-51
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  • [Title] Mucosal metastases in malignant melanoma.
  • BACKGROUND: We present the case of a patient with malignant melanoma stage IV according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) classification and an unusual pattern of metastasis to the mucosa of the esophagus, the stomach, the bladder and the palatine tonsil.
  • CASE REPORT: A 38-year-old male patient with metastatic malignant melanoma of stage III (AJCC) was admitted for initiation of adjuvant therapy.
  • Two cycles of dacarbazine (DTIC) chemotherapy were performed during which the patient developed cutaneous metastases, dyspepsia, and mild hematemesis.
  • A few weeks later the patient developed macroscopic hematuria.
  • A cystoscopy was performed and showed metastases to the mucosa of the bladder.
  • Nutrient vessels of these bladder metastases were embolized in order to control bleeding.
  • [MeSH-major] Esophageal Neoplasms / secondary. Melanoma / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / secondary. Tonsillar Neoplasms / secondary. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Gastric Mucosa / pathology. Humans. Male. Mucous Membrane / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Tomography, Emission-Computed


10. Xu AX, Wang XX, Hong BF, Ye LY, Zhang L: [Non-epithelial tissue tumors of the urinary bladder]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2003 Jul;41(7):530-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Non-epithelial tissue tumors of the urinary bladder].
  • OBJECTIVE: To summarize the experience in the diagnosis and treatment of non-epithelial tissue tumor of urinary bladder.
  • METHODS: >From 1953 to April 2002, a total of 28 patients with non-epithelial tissue tumor in 3 925 bladder tumor cases were analyzed.
  • RESULTS: Painless gross hematuria, pelvic mass, urinary frequency and dysuria are symptoms of non-epithelial bladder tumor.
  • Ultrasonic examination, computed tomography (CT) scan, cystoscopy and biopsy is used for diagnosis of the tumor.
  • Seventeen of 28 patients (61.7%) were malignant neoplasms in 7 kinds of pathologic types, which was small cell carcinoma (5 cases), rhabdomyosarcoma (4 cases), leiomyosarcoma (4 cases), lymphoma (1 case), malignant fibrous histiocytoma (1 case), liposarcoma(1 case), melanoma (1 case) respectively.
  • Eleven of 28 patients (39.3%) were benign tumors with 4 kinds of histologic types including 2 cases of cavernous hemangioma, 1 case of fibroma, 1 case of leiomyoma, 7 cases of pheochromocytoma.
  • All benign tumor patients were treated with partial cystectomy, transurethral bladder tumor resect (TURBT) and fulguration.
  • In 17 malignant neoplasms patients, 7 of them received partial cystectomy, 9 received radical cystectomy, and 1 patient's tumor was unresectable.
  • Those malignant bladder tumor patient are followed up, but 3 years survival rates is only 8/17.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Non-epithelial tissue tumor of the urinary bladder is rare with complicated pathologic types.
  • Malignant neoplasms are more than benign tumors with very poor prognosis, benign tumors' prognosis is good.
  • Diagnosis rate which was confirmed before operation is low.
  • Dip biopsy under cystoscopy may enhance the diagnosis rate.
  • Surgical treatment is the main therapy for non-epithelial tissue tumor of the urinary bladder.
  • Because of the aggressive biologic behavior of malignant tumors, they should be identified promptly and treated appropriately.
  • According to the histologic appearance radiotherapy and chemotherapy is mandatory in some cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Cystectomy / methods. Cystoscopy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Urinary Bladder / pathology. Urinary Bladder / surgery. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 12921662.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5815
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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11. Manoharan M, Soloway MS: Optimal management of the T1G3 bladder cancer. Urol Clin North Am; 2005 May;32(2):133-45
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Optimal management of the T1G3 bladder cancer.
  • TIG3 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder represents a highly malignant tumor with a variable and unpredictable biologic potential.
  • The most critical aspect of management requires a detailed discussion with the patient regarding the treatment options.
  • Both the physician and the patient should be willing to reconsider the treatment options as the disease continues to evolve.
  • In most cases initial management involves complete resection of the tumor, accurate staging of the disease, and intravesical immunotherapy or chemotherapy.
  • The choice and timing of the decision to abandon bladder preservation and proceed with cystectomy should be continuously reconsidered on an individual patient basis, in concordance with the evolution of the disease (Fig. 1).
  • The goal is to spare the bladder when possible but not at the risk of death from metastatic disease.
  • The discovery of reliable markers may contribute to better selection of patients for bladder sparing.
  • Until then, the optimal treatment for the T1G3 tumor remains controversial.
  • [MeSH-major] Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Intravesical. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cystectomy. Decision Trees. Humans. Immunotherapy. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • (PMID = 15862611.001).
  • [ISSN] 0094-0143
  • [Journal-full-title] The Urologic clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 113
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12. Mayer EK, Beckley I, Winkler MH: Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the urinary bladder--diagnostic and clinical implications. Nat Clin Pract Urol; 2007 Mar;4(3):167-71
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  • [Title] Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the urinary bladder--diagnostic and clinical implications.
  • Urine microscopy confirmed more than 5 red blood cells per high-power field, but no malignant cells were seen on cytologic assessment.
  • Flexible cystoscopy revealed a 3 cm, partially solid, solitary lesion on the right lateral wall of the bladder.
  • DIAGNOSIS: Histologically, the tumor was described as a G3 pT1 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.
  • MANAGEMENT: Following the resection of a solitary recurrence 6 weeks after the initial tumor resection, the patient underwent a standard course of intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy.
  • The patient underwent radical cystoprostatectomy with ileal conduit formation; no adjuvant systemic chemotherapy was given in light of complete tumor resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Cystectomy / methods. Prostatectomy / methods. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Cystoscopy. Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Urography

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  • (PMID = 17347662.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-4289
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Engeler DS, Schmid HP: [Bladder carcinoma--a current review]. Praxis (Bern 1994); 2003 Jan 22;92(4):117-26
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  • [Title] [Bladder carcinoma--a current review].
  • Bladder cancer is the sixth most common malignant tumor.
  • A combination of transurethral resection and intravesical chemotherapy is indicated in superficial tumors and is able to cure most patients with a well differentiated cancer.
  • They can be offered novel combined therapeutic approaches or/and at least orthotopic continent bladder substitution.
  • In the future, there should be more emphasis on prevention (elimination of carcinogens and early detection).
  • [MeSH-major] Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Cystectomy. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Rate. Urinary Bladder / pathology

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  • (PMID = 12632842.001).
  • [ISSN] 1661-8157
  • [Journal-full-title] Praxis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Praxis (Bern 1994)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 68
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14. Mehdi I, Shah AH, Moona MS, Verma K, Abussa A, Elramih R, El-Hashmi H: Synchronous and metachronous malignant tumours expect the unexpected. J Pak Med Assoc; 2010 Nov;60(11):905-9

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  • [Title] Synchronous and metachronous malignant tumours expect the unexpected.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate occurrence of synchronous and metachronous malignant tumours, to find tumour types, age group, and relationship to treatment received.
  • The cases were analyzed for morphology/histology of 1st primary tumour, age and gender of patient, treatment received for first tumour, time interval between the 1st and 2nd primary tumour, morphology/histology of second tumour, and the treatment conferred for 2nd tumour.
  • The follow up time was 24-150 months.
  • The time to 2nd primary tumour was 2-132 months.
  • The 1st primary tumours were breast, ovary, GIT and urinary bladder.
  • The patients received surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and hormonal therapy alone or as multi-modality treatment for the 1st tumours.
  • CONCLUSION: It is imperative that patients with a primary malignant tumour should be thoroughly, closely, and regularly followed.
  • Genetic counseling, risk estimation, cancer screening and chemoprevention must be emphasized.
  • The 2nd primary tumour is usually more aggressive, treatment resistant, and metastasizes early requiring a more aggressive treatment strategy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Biopsy. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Sex Distribution. Time Factors. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21375191.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-9982
  • [Journal-full-title] JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pak Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
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15. Tilki D, Reich O, Karakiewicz PI, Novara G, Kassouf W, Ergün S, Fradet Y, Ficarra V, Sonpavde G, Stief CG, Skinner E, Svatek RS, Lotan Y, Sagalowsky AI, Shariat SF: Validation of the AJCC TNM substaging of pT2 bladder cancer: deep muscle invasion is associated with significantly worse outcome. Eur Urol; 2010 Jul;58(1):112-7
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  • [Title] Validation of the AJCC TNM substaging of pT2 bladder cancer: deep muscle invasion is associated with significantly worse outcome.
  • BACKGROUND: The current TNM bladder cancer staging system stratifies bladder muscle invasion into superficial (pT2a) and deep (pT2b).
  • OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to compare the cancer-specific outcomes of patients with pT2 urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) at radical cystectomy (RC) in a large international cohort of patients.
  • None of the patients received preoperative systemic chemotherapy or radiotherapy.
  • Recurrence-free survival (73.2% vs 58.7%) and cancer-specific survival (78.0% vs 65.1%) estimates were significantly better for pT2a patients compared with those with pT2b (p=0.002 and p=0.001, respectively).
  • Pathologic T2 substaging was associated with worse recurrence-free and cancer-specific survival after adjusting for the effects of standard pathologic features (p=0.011 and p=0.006, respectively).
  • These data support the value of the current American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM staging.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / mortality. Carcinoma / pathology. Muscle, Skeletal / pathology. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / mortality. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cystectomy / methods. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • [CommentIn] Eur Urol. 2010 Aug;58(2):e21-2 [20434259.001]
  • (PMID = 20097469.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-7560
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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16. Słojewski M: [Results of radical cystectomy for management of invasive bladder cancer with special reference to prognostic factors and quality of life depending on the type of urinary diversion]. Ann Acad Med Stetin; 2000;46:217-29
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  • [Title] [Results of radical cystectomy for management of invasive bladder cancer with special reference to prognostic factors and quality of life depending on the type of urinary diversion].
  • Bladder cancer is one of the main problems in urology in terms of diagnosis and treatment, due to its high incidence, high recurrence rate, and difficulties in prognosis of its natural history.
  • According to Polish epidemiological reports, bladder cancer was the fifth cause of death due to malignant diseases in 1993 (1.2% in females and 4.0% in males).
  • Radical cystectomy remained for over forty years the main method of treatment in cases of invasive bladder cancer.
  • Improvements in postoperative care, surgical techniques and methods of urine diversion made cystectomy a widely performed, low mortality procedure.
  • The objective was to study retrospectively the results of radical cystectomy in cases of invasive bladder cancer with an emphasis on negative prognostic factors affecting survival.
  • Ileal neobladders were created in 24 cases (25.2%) and in 25 patients (26.3%) other types of urine diversion were used.
  • Median follow-up time was 17.4 months.
  • Different forms of adjuvant or neoadjuvant therapy, e.g. radiotherapy, systemic chemotherapy, intra-arterial chemotherapy, electrochemotherapy were used in 28 patients.
  • The highest mortality and the highest risk of cancer-related death occurred during the first year from operation (Fig. 1 and 2).
  • Radical cystectomy is the best method of treatment in invasive bladder cancer, although it offers a poor chance of curing the patient.
  • In other cases this is just a palliative procedure, thereby justifying the selection of simple methods of urine diversion.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / surgery. Cystectomy / methods. Quality of Life. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / surgery. Urinary Diversion / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 11712306.001).
  • [ISSN] 1427-440X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales Academiae Medicae Stetinensis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Acad Med Stetin
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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17. Wielgos M, Szymusik I, Banaszek A, Suchonska B, Kaminski P, Gadomska H, Bablok L: Cancer of the urinary bladder neovagina in a patient with Morris' syndrome. Onkologie; 2008 Feb;31(1-2):53-5
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  • [Title] Cancer of the urinary bladder neovagina in a patient with Morris' syndrome.
  • BACKGROUND: Vaginal agenesis is a rare condition, therefore the incidence of a malignant transformation in the neovagina is extremely low.
  • CASE REPORT: We report on a 42-year-old patient with Morris' syndrome and urinary bladder neovagina with a history of prolonged infections of the urinary bladder and intertrigo of the perineal region.
  • The patient underwent combined radio- and chemotherapy and was disqualified from surgical treatment because of the advanced stage of the disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Because of the high risk of malignant transformations regular follow-ups are necessary in patients with neovagina creation, including gynecological examination, cytological screening, and biopsy if necessary.
  • In addition, urinary bladder does not seem to be a good material for a functional vagina.
  • [MeSH-major] Androgen-Insensitivity Syndrome / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Postoperative Complications / pathology. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures. Surgical Flaps / pathology. Urinary Bladder / pathology. Vagina / abnormalities. Vagina / surgery. Vaginal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Pelvis / pathology. Radioisotope Teletherapy. Syndrome


18. Hegele A, Kosche B, Schrader AJ, Sevinc S, Olbert PJ, Hofmann R, Kropf J: [Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Evaluation of plasma levels of cellular fibronectin as a stage-dependent marker]. Urologe A; 2008 Sep;47(9):1137-40
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  • [Title] [Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. Evaluation of plasma levels of cellular fibronectin as a stage-dependent marker].
  • Up to now markers for transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder (TCC) are missing.
  • Fibronectin (FN) seems to play a key role in progression and invasion of malignant tumors.
  • The aim of this study was to assess the value of cellular FN (cFN), a more specific subform of produced FN, in different stages of TCC.cFN was determined using a highly sensitive immunoassay which we developed.
  • Blood samples were taken of 45 patients with the first diagnosis of TCC before undergoing TUR-B and 6 patients with metastatic TCC before chemotherapy; 70 patients with nonmalignant urological disorders served as a control group.Patients with TCC showed significantly elevated cFN plasma levels compared to controls (p<0.05).
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Fibronectins / blood. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cystoscopy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Urinary Bladder / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18651122.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-2592
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Urologe. Ausg. A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologe A
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Fibronectins
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19. Mistrangelo M, Mobiglia A, Cassoni P, Castellano I, Maass J, Martina MC, Bellò M, Mussa A: [Verrucous carcinoma of the anus or Buschke-Lowenstein tumor of the anus: staging and treatment. Report of 3 cases]. Suppl Tumori; 2005 May-Jun;4(3):S29-30
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  • [Title] [Verrucous carcinoma of the anus or Buschke-Lowenstein tumor of the anus: staging and treatment. Report of 3 cases].
  • These are slow-growing, expansive, cauliflower-like, destructive lesions that could propagate to vulvar and vaginal region, rectum and bladder.
  • The hallmark of the disease is the high rate of recurrence (66%) and malignant transformation (56%).
  • In two cases immunodeficiency was evidentiated (HIV in one case and ciclosporin treatment in the second one).
  • All patients were submitted to extensive local surgical treatment.
  • All inguinal nodes revealed negative to definitive histological exam, that confirmed the diagnosis of Buschke Lowenstein tumor of the primary lesion.
  • Local surgery with elettrocautery or laser is the first treatment of choice, even if abdominoperineal amputation sec.
  • Others treatments proposed are radiotherapy, chemotherapy, interferon, iniquimod and so on.
  • Other studies are requested to value the best treatment.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 16437884.001).
  • [ISSN] 2283-5423
  • [Journal-full-title] I supplementi di Tumori : official journal of Società italiana di cancerologia ... [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Suppl Tumori
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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20. Ro JY, Shen SS, Lee HI, Hong EK, Lee YH, Cho NH, Jung SJ, Choi YJ, Ayala AG: Plasmacytoid transitional cell carcinoma of urinary bladder: a clinicopathologic study of 9 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 May;32(5):752-7
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  • [Title] Plasmacytoid transitional cell carcinoma of urinary bladder: a clinicopathologic study of 9 cases.
  • In this report, we summarized the clinicopathologic features of 9 cases of plasmacytoid transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder, a rare variant of TCC.
  • The initial diagnosis of plasmacytoid TCC was made on transurethral resection in 8 cases and cystoscopic biopsy in 1.
  • Four patients were treated by radical cystectomy with chemotherapy, 2 by radical cystectomy alone, 1 each by chemotherapy or intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin infusion alone, and 1 did not receive any further therapy.
  • Morphologic recognition and distinction from other plasmacytoid malignant neoplasms is critical for its clinical management and immunohistochemical studies may be required for differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Plasma Cells / pathology. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Combined Modality Therapy. Cystoscopy. Cytoplasm / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18379419.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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21. Machtens S, Serth J, Meyer A, Kleinhorst C, Ommer KJ, Herbst U, Kieruij M, Boerner AR: Positron emission tomography (PET) in the urooncological evaluation of the small pelvis. World J Urol; 2007 Aug;25(4):341-9
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  • [Title] Positron emission tomography (PET) in the urooncological evaluation of the small pelvis.
  • Positron emission tomography (PET) with the use of ((18)F)2-fluoro-D: -2-desoxyglucose (FDG) has been investigated to be a highly sensitive and specific imaging modality in the diagnostic of primary and recurrent tumors and in the control of therapies in numerous non-urologic cancers.
  • The aim of this review is to validate the significance of PET as a diagnostic tool in malignant urological tumors of the small pelvis.
  • A systematic review of the current literature concerning the role of PET for malignant prostate, testicular and bladder tumors was carried out.
  • The data indicate no additional role for PET in comparison with conventional imaging in tumor detection and local staging for prostate, bladder or testicular cancer.
  • Tumor recurrence in prostate cancer seems to be more effectively identified with acetate and choline than with FDG, but this effect is more pronounced with higher PSA values.
  • FDG-PET can be regarded as accepted imaging modality in the restaging of seminomatous germ cell tumors after chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Pelvis / diagnostic imaging. Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / methods. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Reproducibility of Results

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  • (PMID = 17624533.001).
  • [ISSN] 0724-4983
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 66
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22. Cheng L, Foster SR, MacLennan GT, Lopez-Beltran A, Zhang S, Montironi R: Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors of the genitourinary tract--single entity or continuum? J Urol; 2008 Oct;180(4):1235-40
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  • PURPOSE: Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the genitourinary tract is a spindled soft tissue lesion that is often mistaken for sarcoma.
  • We investigated whether inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors in adults and children are the same entity, and whether inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor is part of a biological spectrum that includes benign and malignant entities at opposite ends.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the genitourinary tract should be considered a neoplasm of uncertain malignant potential, and routine surveillance and close clinical followup are recommended.
  • Aggressive therapy (radical cystectomy, radiation or chemotherapy) is unwarranted given the indolent and often benign clinical course for the majority of cases.
  • To understand the diagnostic and prognostic implications future emphasis should be placed on the link between genetic abnormalities, and clinical course, therapeutic response and ultimate outcome.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Incidence. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Risk Assessment. Ureteral Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ureteral Neoplasms / pathology. Urethral Neoplasms / diagnosis. Urethral Neoplasms / pathology. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18707729.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-3792
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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23. vom Dorp F, Krege S, Rübben H: [Inductive systemic therapy of urological tumors with curative intent]. Urologe A; 2007 Oct;46(10):1400-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Inductive systemic therapy of urological tumors with curative intent].
  • [Transliterated title] Induktive Systemtherapie mit kurativer Zielsetzung urologischer Tumoren.
  • Up to now systemic therapy with curative intent is possible in only a few tumors.
  • Concerning advanced malignant tumors in urology only testicular cancer can be cured.
  • In metastatic urothelial cancer of the bladder this might be possible in single cases.
  • The amazing results in testicular cancer were possible by consistent performance of clinical trials.
  • The success in treatment also is an example for interdisciplinarity.
  • Especially in advanced stages treatment consists of two components, chemotherapy, correctly performed concerning dose and interval, followed by complete residual tumor resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Neoadjuvant Therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Bleomycin / adverse effects. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Delivery Systems. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Etoposide / adverse effects. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Ifosfamide / adverse effects. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / mortality. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Orchiectomy. Prognosis. Seminoma / drug therapy. Seminoma / mortality. Seminoma / pathology. Seminoma / surgery. Survival Rate. Taxoids / administration & dosage. Taxoids / adverse effects. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / mortality. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery. Treatment Outcome. Vinblastine / administration & dosage. Vinblastine / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 17874061.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-2592
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Urologe. Ausg. A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologe A
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Taxoids; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide; BEP protocol; ICE protocol 1; TIP regimen; VeIP protocol
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24. Chen ZF, Wang F, Qin ZK, Dai YP, Zhou FJ, Han H, Liu ZW, Yu SL, Li YH, Ye YL: [Clinical analysis of 14 cases of urachal carcinoma]. Ai Zheng; 2008 Sep;27(9):966-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • This study was to summarize our clinical experience in the diagnosis and treatment of urachal carcinoma.
  • METHODS: Fourteen cases of urachal carcinoma treated from May 1994 to April 2007 at Cancer Center and The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed.
  • RESULTS: The most common complaints of the 14 patients were hematuria and irrigative bladder symptoms.
  • Cystoscopy mainly revealed broad-based tumors located at the dome of the bladder.
  • Soft-tissue masses between the bladder dome and the abdominal wall were detected by imaging examinations; the wall of the bladder was often invaded.
  • Thirteen patients were found adenocarcinoma, the other one was malignant stromal cell tumor.
  • Seven patients underwent extensive partial excision of the bladder, among which one case developed local recurrence 24 months after operation, while the other six cases were followed up for 14-120 months, with a median follow-up of 42 months without recurrence.
  • Three patients underwent radical bladder resection and urinary diversion, two of which were followed up for 16 months and 84 months respectively without recurrence, while the other one died from surgical complications 3 months after operation.
  • One case underwent partial cystectomy at another hospital developed recurrence 10 months after operation.
  • Three advanced cancer patients received chemotherapy, two of which achieved progression free survival for seven and eight months respectively, while the other one died three months after chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Extensive partial excision of the bladder is recommended for urachal carcinoma.
  • Radical removal of the tumor during the first treatment and comprehensive therapies for advanced cancer patients and patients with recurrence or metastasis after operation are critical to improve the treatment efficacy of urachal carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Cystectomy / methods. Urachus / pathology. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18799037.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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25. Volkmer BG, Seidl-Schlick EM, Bach D, Romics I, Kleinschmidt K: Cyclophosphamide is contraindicated in patients with a history of transitional cell carcinoma. Clin Rheumatol; 2005 Aug;24(4):319-23
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Cyclophosphamide is a urotoxic agent that increases the incidence of malignant neoplasms of the urinary tract.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term impact of cyclophosphamide on patients with a history of superficial bladder cancer.
  • Between July 1986 and January 1988, 58 consecutive patients with primary superficial transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder were included in this study.
  • Tumor staging, grading, and size were equally distributed in both groups.
  • Whereas there were no recurrences in the upper urinary tract among the patients of group B, 2 of the 22 patients from group A developed cancer of the renal pelvis.
  • In patients with a history of superficial bladder cancer, a single dose of cyclophosphamide poses a significantly increased risk of tumor recurrence in the lower and in the upper urinary tract as well.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / drug therapy. Cyclophosphamide / adverse effects. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / chemically induced. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Intravesical. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cystectomy / methods. Cystoscopy. Female. Humans. Incidence. Infusions, Intravenous. Male. Middle Aged. Mycobacterium bovis. Neoplasm Staging. Probability. Prognosis. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 16034647.001).
  • [ISSN] 0770-3198
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical rheumatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Rheumatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide
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26. Leonard GD, O'Reilly EM: Biliary tract cancers: current concepts and controversies. Expert Opin Pharmacother; 2005 Feb;6(2):211-23
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Biliary tract cancer, which consists of gall bladder cancer and cholangio-carcinoma, presents many challenges to practising physicians.
  • It is a relatively rare cancer that often causes a diagnostic dilemma, as its presentation may be similar to that of non-malignant conditions.
  • In many cases, histological or cytological confirmation of a cancer diagnosis is not possible preoperatively.
  • The management of this disease is also complex due to a morbid patient population and limited data on the optimal therapeutic approach.
  • Surgery remains the mainstay of treatment, although the extent of resection required is still debated.
  • The role of adjuvant therapy is also controversial, but a combined modality approach appears to be beneficial in patients with a high risk of recurrence, such as those with node positive tumors or positive resection margins.
  • When surgery is not possible, the prognosis of patients with biliary tract cancer is very poor.
  • In unresectable patients, the combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy can result in a prolonged survival for some patients.
  • Gemcitabine-based combination chemotherapy may also provide successful palliation and has achieved response rates of approximately 30% and a median survival of > 15 months in one study.
  • Ultimately, treatment decisions should be individualised and participation in clinical trials is encouraged.
  • Further progress in the management of biliary tract cancer is anticipated using biological therapies and continued research is essential to discover the optimal treatment for this challenging disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Bile Duct Neoplasms / therapy. Gallbladder Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Biliary Tract Neoplasms / diagnosis. Biliary Tract Neoplasms / etiology. Biliary Tract Neoplasms / therapy. Clinical Trials as Topic / statistics & numerical data. Humans. Neoplasm Staging / statistics & numerical data

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  • (PMID = 15757418.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-7666
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Opin Pharmacother
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 128
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