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1. Stroup AM, Harlan LC, Trimble EL: Demographic, clinical, and treatment trends among women diagnosed with vulvar cancer in the United States. Gynecol Oncol; 2008 Mar;108(3):577-83
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Demographic, clinical, and treatment trends among women diagnosed with vulvar cancer in the United States.
  • OBJECTIVE: Describe the treatment and survival patterns among a population-based sample of vulvar cancer patients diagnosed in the United States in 1999.
  • METHODS: Cases were identified for the National Cancer Institute's Patterns of Care Study (POC) using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER).
  • Analyses of the association between vulvar cancer and key demographic, clinical, and hospital characteristics by stage were performed.
  • Cox proportional hazards was used to estimate the odds of death due to cancer.
  • RESULTS: Ninety percent of cases were diagnosed with in situ or early-stage invasive disease.
  • Twenty-five percent of women with Stage III-IV vulvar cancer received chemotherapy plus radiation.
  • We noted widespread use of radical local excision among women with Stage I/II cancer, but 46-54% with invasive disease underwent a radical or total vulvectomy.
  • Factors associated with cancer death were limited to age and stage.
  • Women 75 years and older were at higher risk compared to women aged 20-49 years and the risk of death increased with advancing stage.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Vulvar cancer is diagnosed at early stages.
  • Late-stage disease is associated with a significant increase in mortality.
  • Radiation was more common in women diagnosed at late stage, while the use of chemoradiation remained limited.

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  • (PMID = 18155274.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / PC / N01-PC-35145; United States / NCI NIH HHS / PC / N01-PC-35138; United States / NCI NIH HHS / PC / N01-PC-35142; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01PC35143; United States / NCI NIH HHS / PC / N01-PC-35137; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01PC35138; United States / NCI NIH HHS / PC / N01-PC-35141; United States / NCI NIH HHS / PC / N01-PC-35139; United States / NCI NIH HHS / PC / N01-PC-35135; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01PC35141; United States / NCI NIH HHS / PC / N01-PC-35133; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01PC35137; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01PC35133; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01PC35142; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z99 CA999999; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01PC35135; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01PC35145; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01PC35136; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01PC35139; United States / NCI NIH HHS / PC / N01-PC-35143; United States / NCI NIH HHS / PC / N01-PC-35136
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS42698; NLM/ PMC2350205
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2. Raitanen M, Rantanen V, Kulmala J, Helenius H, Grénman R, Grénman S: Supra-additive effect with concurrent paclitaxel and cisplatin in vulvar squamous cell carcinoma in vitro. Int J Cancer; 2002 Jul 10;100(2):238-43
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  • [Title] Supra-additive effect with concurrent paclitaxel and cisplatin in vulvar squamous cell carcinoma in vitro.
  • The effect of concurrent paclitaxel and cisplatin was tested in vitro in 5 vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cell lines (UM-SCV-1A, -2, -4 and -7 and UT-SCV-3).
  • These drug concentrations are clinically achievable.
  • The type of interaction was determined by comparing the AUC ratio of the 2 drugs with the survival fraction (SF) of paclitaxel alone.
  • In the current study the combination of paclitaxel and cisplatin had a clear additive or supra-additive cytotoxic effect on the vulvar SCC cell lines, and it has been successfully used in other gynecologic malignancies; therefore concurrent paclitaxel and cisplatin also deserves further testing in clinical settings in advanced-stage vulvar carcinoma, which has a poor prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Vulvar Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Division / drug effects. Cell Survival / drug effects. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Drug Synergism. Female. Humans. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Tumor Cells, Cultured / drug effects. Tumor Stem Cell Assay

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 12115575.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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3. Brookfield KF, Cheung MC, Yang R, Byrne MM, Koniaris LG: Will patients benefit from regionalization of gynecologic cancer care? PLoS One; 2009;4(1):e4049
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Will patients benefit from regionalization of gynecologic cancer care?
  • We sought to determine the effect of volume and teaching status on patient outcomes for five gynecologic malignancies: endometrial, cervical, ovarian and vulvar carcinoma and uterine sarcoma.
  • METHODS: The Florida Cancer Data System dataset was queried for all patients undergoing treatment for gynecologic cancers from 1990-2000.
  • Endometrial tumors were the most common, representing 43.2% of the entire cohort, followed by ovarian cancer (30.9%), cervical cancer (20.8%), vulvar cancer (4.6%), and uterine sarcoma (0.5%).
  • Multivariate analysis (MVA), however, failed to demonstrate significant survival benefit for gynecologic cancer patients treated at teaching facilities (TF) or HVC.
  • Significant prognostic factors at presentation by MVA were age over 65 (HR = 2.6, p<0.01), African-American race (HR = 1.36, p<0.01), and advanced stage (regional HR = 2.08, p<0.01; advanced HR = 3.82, p<0.01, respectively).
  • Surgery and use of chemotherapy were each significantly associated with improved survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Genital Neoplasms, Female / therapy. Hospitals, Teaching
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Florida. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19125205.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2612742
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4. Sharma DN, Rath GK, Kumar S, Bhatla N, Julka PK, Sahai P: Treatment outcome of patients with carcinoma of vulva: experience from a tertiary cancer center of India. J Cancer Res Ther; 2010 Oct-Dec;6(4):503-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment outcome of patients with carcinoma of vulva: experience from a tertiary cancer center of India.
  • PURPOSE: The aim of our retrospective study was to analyze and report the clinical outcome of patients with vulvar carcinoma (VC) treated at our center.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrieved the information regarding patients' clinical details, treatment given, survival and complications from the case records of all VC patients who were treated at our center during the year 1998-2005.
  • Overall survival (OS) was determined with respect to age, histopathological grade, stage of disease, treatment group, pathological lymph node status, etc.
  • International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage distribution was as follows: stage I: 2 patients; stage II: 17 patients; stage III: 31 patients; stage IV: 9 patients; and unknown stage: 1 patient.
  • Eleven patients received postoperative radiation therapy (PORT), 12 received palliative radiation therapy (RT) and 15 underwent definitive RT (5 of them received concurrent chemotherapy).
  • FIGO stage and pathological node positivity were found to be statistically significant prognostic factors for survival.
  • CONCLUSION: Despite the majority of patients presenting in advanced stage, the 5-year OS of 41% in our series reflects a decent therapeutic outcome.
  • The results have shown FIGO stage and pathological node positivity to be significant prognostic factors for survival.
  • The use of preoperative chemotherapy/RT needs to be studied in our setup.
  • [MeSH-major] Vulvar Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. India. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 21358089.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-4138
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cancer Res Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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5. Levin AO, Carpenter KM, Fowler JM, Brothers BM, Andersen BL, Maxwell GL: Sexual morbidity associated with poorer psychological adjustment among gynecological cancer survivors. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2010 Apr;20(3):461-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sexual morbidity associated with poorer psychological adjustment among gynecological cancer survivors.
  • OBJECTIVES: Sexual morbidity is a distressing and undertreated problem in gynecological cancer survivorship known to occur early and persist well beyond the period of physical recovery.
  • Although often studied as a separate domain, sexuality represents an integral component of psychological adjustment and quality of life (QoL) that is adversely affected by cancer treatments.
  • The participants were gynecological (cervical, endometrial, ovarian, and vulvar) cancer survivors who were partnered (N = 186), whose cancer was diagnosed 2 to 10 years previously, and who were at least 6 months post any cancer therapy.
  • Most had been found to have early-stage disease (70%) and were treated with hysterectomy (77%), chemotherapy (43%), and/or radiotherapy (23%).
  • Outcomes included self-reported depressive symptoms, traumatic stress symptoms, cancer-specific stress, stress about body changes, and QoL.
  • Nurse-rated of performance status and disruptive signs/symptoms of treatment toxicity, as well as relevant sociodemographic and disease variables were collected as potential controls.
  • Notably, disease and treatment variables were not statistically significant correlates of psychological adjustment or QoL.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that prevention or treatment of sexual morbidity might foster improved psychological adjustment/QoL.

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  • (PMID = 20375814.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K05 CA098133; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA092704; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR025755; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K05CA098133; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA090223; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / L30 CA136257; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA92704
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS515899; NLM/ PMC3869624
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6. Mirhashemi R, Nieves-Neira W, Averette HE: Gynecologic malignancies in older women. Oncology (Williston Park); 2001 May;15(5):580-6; discussion 592-4, 597-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Ovarian, endometrial, and vulvar cancers are diseases seen more commonly in postmenopausal and elderly women.
  • Cervical cancer continues to be a significant problem in the elderly and is usually detected at a later stage in that population than in younger patients.
  • Ovarian cancer patients treated by a gynecologic oncologist are more likely to undergo proper surgical staging, leading to optimal debulking surgery and improved survival.
  • Age, by itself, should not alter the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to gynecologic malignancy.
  • Multiagent chemotherapy is also possible in the elderly without excess morbidity, and without compromise of response rates.
  • Radiation therapy for cervical cancer appears to be as effective and is generally well tolerated.
  • The Papanicolaou (Pap) test continues to be the primary screening tool for cervical cancer.
  • Although transvaginal ultrasound seems to be useful in detecting early-stage ovarian cancer, its cost effectiveness for screening the general population remains to be demonstrated.
  • The main considerations in the treatment of ovarian, endometrial, cervical, and vulvar cancer are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Genital Neoplasms, Female / diagnosis. Genital Neoplasms, Female / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Aging. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Carcinoma / radiotherapy. Carcinoma / surgery. Combined Modality Therapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Endometrial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / surgery. Female. Humans. Male. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / drug therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery. Vulvar Neoplasms / therapy. Women's Health

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  • (PMID = 11396354.001).
  • [ISSN] 0890-9091
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 67
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7. van Rijswijk RE, Vermorken JB: Drug therapy for gynaecological cancer in older women. Drugs Aging; 2000 Jul;17(1):13-32
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Drug therapy for gynaecological cancer in older women.
  • Differences in biological behaviour, stage of the disease at presentation, and reluctance to undergo aggressive treatment with its associated morbidity are among the factors thought to be responsible for this difference in outcomes.
  • However, investigations also indicate that elderly patients may receive less surgical and chemotherapeutic treatment without obvious clinical rationale.
  • This overview is aimed at providing a guideline of chemotherapy appropriate for patients with epithelial ovarian, uterine (corpus and cervix), and vulvar cancer, aged 70 to 75 years and over.
  • Platinum-based chemotherapy is the cornerstone of drug treatment in patients with ovarian cancer.
  • Patients aged between 70 and 75 years with a good performance status can be treated with cisplatin- or carboplatin-based chemotherapy.
  • For patients with early recurrence there is no standard treatment, but several cytostatic and hormonal agents can be used with palliative intent.
  • In metastatic endometrial cancer, hormonal therapy is the first choice in tumours expressing a progesterone receptor.
  • Poorly differentiated tumours infrequently respond to endocrine therapy.
  • In this situation, and for patients with tumours that have become resistant to hormonal manipulation, platinum-based chemotherapy may be used.
  • The usefulness of chemotherapy in elderly patients with cervical cancer is limited.
  • Although overall chemoradiation seems superior than radiotherapy alone in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer, the feasibility of this approach in elderly patients needs further investigation.
  • Chemoradiation might also be considered in patients with locally advanced vulvar cancer.
  • However, treatment-related morbidity can be considerable and randomised studies are lacking to prove a survival benefit.
  • Our understanding of the tolerance and effectiveness of chemotherapy in elderly patients is still incomplete due to a paucity of trials that specifically focus on this subset of patients.
  • However, there appears no argument to withhold chemotherapy based purely on age.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Genital Neoplasms, Female / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Endometrial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / drug therapy. Vulvar Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 10933513.001).
  • [ISSN] 1170-229X
  • [Journal-full-title] Drugs & aging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drugs Aging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 203
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8. Tjalma WA, Watty K: Skin metastases from vulvar cancer: a fatal event. Gynecol Oncol; 2003 Apr;89(1):185-8
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Vulvar Cancer.

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  • [Title] Skin metastases from vulvar cancer: a fatal event.
  • BACKGROUND: Cutaneous metastases from a vulval cancer are exceptional with only 4 reported cases in the literature.
  • CASE: The present case is a patient who had a radical vulvectomy with bilateral groin node dissection for a vulvar cancer stage Ib.
  • Chemotherapy was started; yet the lesions slowly increased.
  • The treatment was discontinued and she died 4 months later.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Skin metastases must be considered a preterminal event with no well-established treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 12694676.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 22
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9. Beriwal S, Coon D, Heron DE, Kelley JL, Edwards RP, Sukumvanich P, Zorn KK, Krivak TC: Preoperative intensity-modulated radiotherapy and chemotherapy for locally advanced vulvar carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol; 2008 May;109(2):291-5
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  • [Title] Preoperative intensity-modulated radiotherapy and chemotherapy for locally advanced vulvar carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is a rapidly maturing technology that allows delivery of radiation dose in a more conformal manner by varying the radiation beams spatially or temporally.
  • The purpose of the study was to assess the clinical outcome in patients with locally-advanced vulvar cancers treated using preoperative chemotherapy with IMRT.
  • METHODS: Eighteen patients with stage II-IVA cancer were treated with a modified GOG schema using 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and cisplatin with twice-daily (BID) IMRT during the first and last weeks of treatment.
  • Surgery was planned for 6-8 weeks post-treatment.
  • RESULTS: The median follow-up time was 22 months (2-60 months).
  • Four patients did not have surgery: one patient died a week after treatment while 2 of the remaining 3 patients had local recurrences.
  • CONCLUSION: Preoperative chemotherapy and IMRT were well tolerated with good clinical response and early clinical outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Carcinoma / radiotherapy. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures. Preoperative Care. Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated. Vulvar Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / methods. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18455637.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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10. Khouchani M, Benchakroun N, Tahri A, Tawfiq N, Jouhadi H, Acharki A, Sahraoui S, Belaabidia B, Benider A: [Breast metastasis from vulvar carcinoma: case report and review of literature]. Cancer Radiother; 2008 Mar;12(2):120-5
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  • [Title] [Breast metastasis from vulvar carcinoma: case report and review of literature].
  • [Transliterated title] Métastase intramammaire d'un cancer vulvaire: à propos d'un cas avec revue de la littérature.
  • The breast metastases resulting of vulvar carcinoma are very rare, and represent exceptionally the first manifestation of the disease.
  • We report the case of a 42 year-old patient who underwent a treatment because of vulvar epidermoid carcinoma, right away metastatic at the level of the inguinal ganglia.
  • The treatment consisted in a total vulvectomy with bilateral ganglial curretage, followed by external radiotherapy about the perineum and the inguinal ganglia.
  • Three months after the end of her treatment, the patient presented with a nodula on the left outer breast with features of malignancy noticed by clinic and mammographic examination.
  • Besides, this patient presented a right cervical ganglial parcel that the biopsy showed a metastatic localization of a vulvar carcinoma.
  • A palliative chemotherapy type cyclophosphamid, adriblastin, cisplatine (CAP) has been admistrated during three cycles spaced out three weeks.
  • We present this case because its rarety and to show the possibility of metastasis at the level of breast due to vulvar cancer.
  • The clinicians must remember this possible tropism of the vulvar cancer for the breast, not only during the supervision and the complete examination as regards the disease spreading but also when the affection revealed unknown primary tumor.
  • In this stage, the treatment is unfortunately palliative, the survival until a year is not more than 20%.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18343704.001).
  • [ISSN] 1278-3218
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer radiothérapie : journal de la Société française de radiothérapie oncologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Radiother
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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11. van Doorn HC, Ansink A, Verhaar-Langereis M, Stalpers L: Neoadjuvant chemoradiation for advanced primary vulvar cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2006;(3):CD003752
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  • [Title] Neoadjuvant chemoradiation for advanced primary vulvar cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: In advanced stage primary vulvar cancer, treatment is tailored to individual patient needs.
  • Combined treatment modalities have been developed, using chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery.
  • OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the combined treatment strategy using concurrent neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy followed by surgery is effective and safe in vulvar cancer patients with advanced primary disease.
  • Main outcomes of interest were: types of surgical intervention following chemoradiation and survival, recurrence and complication rates.
  • SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Review Group Specialised Register.
  • SELECTION CRITERIA: Studies of curative treatment of patients with advanced, primary squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva were included.
  • Treatment included concurrent radiotherapy and chemotherapy, followed by surgery.
  • MAIN RESULTS: Chemotherapy was given uniformly within each of the five selected studies.
  • A total of 27 to 85% of participants died due to treatment related causes or disease.
  • However, complications of treatment are considerable and information on the effects of quality of life (QOL) is not available.
  • Furthermore, treatment results of the respective studies diverge considerably.
  • In patients with large tumours that can only be treated with anterior and/or posterior exenteration complications of neoadjuvant therapy might outweigh complications of exenterative surgery.
  • With the current knowledge neoadjuvant therapy is not justified in patients with tumours that can be adequately treated with radical vulvectomy and bilateral groin node dissection alone.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Vulvar Neoplasms / drug therapy. Vulvar Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Neoadjuvant Therapy

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  • [UpdateIn] Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;(4):CD003752 [21491387.001]
  • (PMID = 16856018.001).
  • [ISSN] 1469-493X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Cochrane database of systematic reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cochrane Database Syst Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 41
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12. Sun L, Wu LY, Li XG, Bai P, Zhang HT: [Clinical characterization of vulvar epithelioid sarcoma]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2010 Dec;32(12):935-8
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  • [Title] [Clinical characterization of vulvar epithelioid sarcoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: Vulvar epithelioid sarcoma is a rare, undifferentiated soft-tissue sarcoma, with a high rate of local relapse, regional nodal spread and distant metastases.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of this malignancy.
  • METHODS: We studied the clinicopathologic features of 20 cases of vulvar epithelioid sarcoma, of which 4 cases were admitted to our hospital from 1999 to 2009.
  • Seven patients were treated without adjuvant therapy.
  • Seven patients received postoperative radiotherapy only and three underwent chemotherapy.
  • Chemotherapy plus radiotherapy were given postoperatively in three.
  • 2 patients developed lymph node metastases but alive.
  • Survival of the early stage (I-II) patients was significantly longer than those in the advanced stage (III-IV) (median, 21 vs. 6 months, P < 0.01).
  • Radical local excision with adequate margin (at least 2 cm) and bilateral inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy is effective for the treatment of vulvar epithelioid sarcoma.
  • The role of adjuvant therapy, chemotherapy and radiation remains unclear but merits consideration.
  • [MeSH-major] Sarcoma / pathology. Sarcoma / surgery. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / surgery. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Keratins / metabolism. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Mucin-1 / metabolism. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Vimentin / metabolism. Vulva / surgery. Young Adult


13. Micha JP, Goldstein BH, Rettenmaier MA, Caillouette JT, Fee MJ, Brown JV 3rd: Pelvic radiation necrosis and osteomyelitis following chemoradiation for advanced stage vulvar and cervical carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol; 2006 May;101(2):349-52
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  • [Title] Pelvic radiation necrosis and osteomyelitis following chemoradiation for advanced stage vulvar and cervical carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The treatment regimen indicated for most advanced stage vulvar, vaginal, and cervical cancer usually involves adjuvant chemoradiation therapy.
  • Although the risk of complications is low, there have been reported cases of radiation necrosis and osteomyelitis following treatment for vulvar, vaginal, and cervical cancer.
  • CASES: We present a vulvar cancer patient and a cervical cancer patient, both of whom were treated with radical surgery and postoperative chemoradiation.
  • Following therapy, they were afflicted with pelvic radiation necrosis and osteomyelitis.
  • The patients underwent surgery to resect the necrotic bone tissue and long-term antibiotic therapy to treat their osteomyelitis.
  • CONCLUSION: The radiotherapy utilized to treat advanced stage gynecologic cancer can cause intestinal, vaginal, and urologic complications from micro-vascular damage to the organs.
  • Fortunately, with aggressive therapy, these patients may do well clinically.
  • [MeSH-major] Osteomyelitis / etiology. Radiation Injuries / etiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / drug therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Vulvar Neoplasms / drug therapy. Vulvar Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Necrosis. Neoplasm Staging. Pelvis / pathology. Pelvis / radiation effects. Pelvis / surgery. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • (PMID = 16442607.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Tsuji M, Nakai N, Ueda E, Takenaka H, Katoh N, Kishimoto S: Double cancer of plantar malignant melanoma and vulvar extramammary Paget's disease. J Dermatol; 2010 May;37(5):484-7
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  • [Title] Double cancer of plantar malignant melanoma and vulvar extramammary Paget's disease.
  • Histopathological analysis of the vulvar lesion biopsy sample indicated extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD).
  • There was no evidence of metastasis in the computed tomography (CT) and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scans.
  • Melanoma cells were identified in the sentinel lymph nodes, and left radical lymph node dissection was performed after a course of neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • All the lymph nodes that were resected during the second operation tested negative for melanomas, and the plantar lesion was diagnosed as a stage IIIB malignant melanoma (pT4b, Na2, M0).
  • Thereafter, we administrated four courses of chemotherapy, and 8 months after the operation, there was no evidence of recurrence or metastatic lesions.
  • We present a case report of double cancer: a plantar malignant melanoma and vulvar EMPD, and also discuss the possible genetic mutations responsible for these two tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Foot Diseases / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Paget Disease, Extramammary / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology


15. Guirguis A, Kanbour-Shakir A, Kelley J: Epithelioid angiosarcoma of the mons after chemoradiation for vulvar cancer. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2007 Jul;26(3):265-8
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  • [Title] Epithelioid angiosarcoma of the mons after chemoradiation for vulvar cancer.
  • She was a 74-year-old woman who initially presented with stage II keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva that underwent neoadjuvant chemoradiation followed by a radical vulvectomy with bilateral inguinal-femoral lymphadenectomy.
  • Our patient is the first case report of an angiosarcoma of the mons pubis after chemoradiation for vulvar cancer and the second reported angiosarcoma of the mons.
  • Time to presentation was approximately 4 years from the time of completion of chemoradiation.
  • She currently is undergoing systemic chemotherapy after being diagnosed with a metastatic pelvic lymph node.
  • As the treatment of vulvar cancer evolves, and more radiation therapy is given, the incidence of angiosarcomas will rise, requiring better diagnostic and treatment protocols.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangiosarcoma / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17581409.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Bischoff A, Marnitz S, Köhler C, Kurzeja R, Morawietz L, Schneider A, Budach V: Complete remission after neoadjuvant chemoradiation in a stage IV vulvar cancer patient. Strahlenther Onkol; 2008 Aug;184(8):421-5
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  • [Title] Complete remission after neoadjuvant chemoradiation in a stage IV vulvar cancer patient.
  • BACKGROUND: Surgery is the standard in the management of vulvar cancer.
  • Several studies assessed the feasibility of radiochemotherapy as definitive therapy and/or neoadjuvant procedure in order to limit the extent of surgery.
  • The authors report on a modified neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy schedule which is isoeffective to the GOG (Gynecologic Oncology Group) protocol, but associated with less therapy-related toxicity.
  • CASE REPORT: A 36-year-old woman with stage IV vulvar cancer and long-distance rectal infiltration is reported.
  • CONCLUSION: Preoperative conventionally fractionated simultaneous radiochemotherapy seems to be a feasible and safe treatment option for patients with locally advanced vulvar cancer in order to avoid exenterative surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Vulvar Neoplasms / drug therapy. Vulvar Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bowen's Disease / drug therapy. Bowen's Disease / pathology. Bowen's Disease / radiotherapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Human papillomavirus 16. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / radiotherapy. Papillomavirus Infections / drug therapy. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Papillomavirus Infections / radiotherapy. Radiation Injuries / etiology. Rectum / pathology. Rectum / radiation effects. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / drug therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Vulva / pathology. Vulva / radiation effects. Vulva / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18956520.001).
  • [ISSN] 0179-7158
  • [Journal-full-title] Strahlentherapie und Onkologie : Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et al]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Strahlenther Onkol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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17. Sharma S, Odunsi K, Lele S: Pelvic exenterations for gynecologic malignancies: 20-year experience at a cancer institute. J Clin Oncol; 2004 Jul 15;22(14_suppl):5138

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  • [Title] Pelvic exenterations for gynecologic malignancies: 20-year experience at a cancer institute.
  • Most common indication is centrally recurrent or persistent cancer of the cervix after radiation therapy.
  • The goal of this study is to retrospectively review gynecologic patients that have undergone pelvic exenterations at a single cancer institution.
  • 48 patients were reviewed by organ, histology, stage and type of exenteration.
  • RESULTS: 48 patients (ages 21-78) underwent pelvic exenterations for cervical (39), vulvar (3), endometrial (2), ovarian (2), and vaginal (2) cancers.
  • Majority of patients (45) had received prior radiation therapy.
  • Mortality from the procedure was 4.2%.
  • Univariate analysis failed to show an association between type of pelvic exenteration, type of fecal and urinary diversion, outcome, need for reoperation, and recurrence.
  • In patients with recurrent gynecological cancer confined centrally to the pelvis, pelvic exenteration still remains the choice of therapy as response to chemotherapy to a centrally recurrent tumor in radiated area continues to be poor.

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  • (PMID = 28016752.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Frumovitz M, Ramirez PT, Tortolero-Luna G, Malpica A, Eifel P, Burke TW, Levenback C: Characteristics of recurrence in patients who underwent lymphatic mapping for vulvar cancer. Gynecol Oncol; 2004 Jan;92(1):205-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Characteristics of recurrence in patients who underwent lymphatic mapping for vulvar cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate patients with vulvar cancer who experienced a recurrence after undergoing lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy.
  • METHODS: We reviewed the records of 52 patients who underwent vulvectomy and lymphatic mapping with blue dye for treatment of vulvar cancer at our institution from 1993 to 1999 and identified patients who experienced recurrent disease.
  • Four tumors were stage T1, seven were T2, and three were T3.
  • Postoperatively, seven patients underwent no further treatment, six underwent radiation therapy, and one patient underwent chemotherapy.
  • Groin relapse following a negative SLN biopsy is of concern and suggests that long-term follow-up data are required before lymphatic mapping and SLN biopsy alone can be considered standard treatment for patients with vulvar cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 14751159.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Rosaniline Dyes; 39N9K8S2A4 / iso-sulfan blue
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19. Ivanov S: [Some new tendencies in diagnosis and complex treatment of vulvar cancer--our and foreign experience]. Akush Ginekol (Sofiia); 2010;49(1):24-8
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  • [Title] [Some new tendencies in diagnosis and complex treatment of vulvar cancer--our and foreign experience].
  • INTRODUCTION: The aim of this research work was to summarize our and foreign experience in the field of diagnosis, complex treatment and prognostic factors connected with vulvar cancer.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: We evaluated our and foreign experience for 10 years period (2000-2010) and evaluated 625 patients diagnosed and treated for vulvar cancer.
  • We assessed the complex treatment, prognostic factors and some new tendencies towards more conservative surgical treatment of vulvar cancer.
  • The stages of the lymph nodes, LVSI and the stage were connected with survival and disease free survival.
  • The different kinds of treatment were analyzed- surgery, chemo and radiotherapy.
  • We analyzed the tendencies towards more conservative surgical treatment connected with vulvar cancer.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We tried to summarize our and foreign experience in the complex treatment of vulvar cancer for 10 years period.
  • Our main idea was to show some new tendencies in the latest 10 years towards relatively more conservative treatment of this neoplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Vulvar Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vulvar Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Drug Therapy. Female. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Prognosis. Recurrence. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 20734663.001).
  • [ISSN] 0324-0959
  • [Journal-full-title] Akusherstvo i ginekologii︠a︡
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Akush Ginekol (Sofiia)
  • [Language] bul
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Bulgaria
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20. Gaffney DK, Du Bois A, Narayan K, Reed N, Toita T, Pignata S, Blake P, Portelance L, Sadoyze A, Potter R, Colombo A, Randall M, Mirza MR, Trimble EL: Patterns of care for radiotherapy in vulvar cancer: a Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup study. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2009 Jan;19(1):163-7
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  • [Title] Patterns of care for radiotherapy in vulvar cancer: a Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup study.
  • BACKGROUND: This study aimed to describe radiotherapeutic practice in the treatment of vulvar cancer in member study groups of the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG).
  • METHODS: A survey was developed and distributed to representatives of the member study groups of the GCIG, targeting the use of radiotherapy (RT) in vulvar cancer.
  • The most common indications for neoadjuvant RT include unresectable disease or International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage >/=III.
  • For the neoadjuvant treatment of vulvar cancer, pelvic doses were 48.2 +/- 5.0 Gy (mean +/- SD).
  • Of 21 groups that perform neoadjuvant RT, 17 use concomitant chemotherapy and 4 individualize treatment.
  • Weekly cisplatin was the most commonly used chemotherapy.
  • For the neoadjuvant RT treatment of the inguinal region, doses were 49.9 +/- 5.5 Gy (mean +/- SD).
  • Chemotherapy was not routinely used after surgery.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Doses of RT among GCIG members are similar; however, the indications for treatment, treatment fields, and use of chemotherapy differ somewhat between groups.
  • [MeSH-major] Vulvar Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Health Care Surveys. Humans. Radiotherapy / methods

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  • (PMID = 19258960.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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21. Ghaemmaghami F, Modares M, Behtash N, Moosavi AZ: Multiple, disseminated cutaneous metastases of vulvar squamous cell carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2004 Mar-Apr;14(2):384-7
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  • [Title] Multiple, disseminated cutaneous metastases of vulvar squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Cutaneous metastases of vulvar carcinoma are extremely rare and have been reported in six patients so far.
  • After detecting stage III squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva, she underwent radical vulvectomy and bilateral inguinal lymphadenectomy.
  • For her palliation, some chemotherapy drugs were prescribed.
  • She is on her sixth chemotherapy cycle, but these skin lesions are somewhat a preterminal event and there is no well-established treatment for this phase of disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vulvar Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Buttocks. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 15086744.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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22. Olawaiye A, Lee LM, Krasner C, Horowitz N: Treatment of squamous cell vulvar cancer with the anti-EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor Tarceva. Gynecol Oncol; 2007 Sep;106(3):628-30
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  • [Title] Treatment of squamous cell vulvar cancer with the anti-EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor Tarceva.
  • BACKGROUND: The purpose of this case report is to describe the first experience with erlotinib (Tarceva) in the treatment of locally advanced vulvar cancer.
  • CASE: Two elderly patients presented with locally advanced vulvar cancer.
  • Surgery was not a suitable method of treatment for either of them because of multiple medical co-morbidities and stage of disease.
  • CONCLUSION: Therapy targeted to EGFR may be effective in the treatment of locally advanced vulvar cancer.
  • This new therapeutic approach deserves further evaluation in carefully designed studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Quinazolines / therapeutic use. Vulvar Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17561233.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Quinazolines; DA87705X9K / Erlotinib Hydrochloride; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
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23. Tartaglia E, Messalli EM, Di Serio M, Rotondi M, Mainini G, Di Serio C: A new approach to vulvar squamous cell carcinoma: two-year follow-up of a case report. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2007;28(1):51-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A new approach to vulvar squamous cell carcinoma: two-year follow-up of a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Vulvar carcinoma is relatively rare gynaecologic malignancy.
  • The most prevalent vulvar cancer is squamous cell carcinoma.
  • This delay results in many cases being diagnosed in advanced stage.
  • The sentinel lymph node "concept" is attractive in vulvar cancer because it has the potential to avoid a radical vulvectomy associated with uni- or bilateral inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy and, thus, to avoid the morbidity associated with formal groin dissection.
  • CASE REPORT: A case of an 88-year-old woman with advanced local vulvar cancer is presented.
  • A study of the inguinal-femoral lymph nodes was also conducted with intraoperative vital blue dye peritumoral injection and as the sentinel node was found to be negative for malignant metastasis, a radical vulvectomy without bilateral inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy and without additional treatment (chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy) was performed.
  • CONCLUSION: The sentinel lymph node procedure allows a less aggressive treatment to be carried out in patients with invasive vulvar cancer thus reducing the complications and morbidity of treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Vulvar Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vulvar Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymph Nodes / radionuclide imaging. Sensitivity and Specificity. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Technetium Tc 99m Aggregated Albumin. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17375708.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Technetium Tc 99m Aggregated Albumin
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24. Lin A, Ryu J, Harvey D, Sieracki B, Scudder S, Wun T: Low-dose warfarin does not decrease the rate of thrombosis in patients with cervix and vulvo-vaginal cancer treated with chemotherapy, radiation, and erythropoeitin. Gynecol Oncol; 2006 Jul;102(1):98-102
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  • [Title] Low-dose warfarin does not decrease the rate of thrombosis in patients with cervix and vulvo-vaginal cancer treated with chemotherapy, radiation, and erythropoeitin.
  • OBJECTIVES: We had previously reported an association between the use of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) and thrombosis in patients with cervix and vulvo-vaginal cancer treated with chemotherapy and radiation.
  • RESULTS: There was no difference in the baseline characteristics (e.g. age, stage, body mass index, mean and peak hemoglobin, WBC and platelet counts, and number of transfusions) between these two groups.
  • CONCLUSION: Daily low-dose warfarin did not alter the incidence of symptomatic DVT in patients with cervical or vulvo-vaginal cancer who received rHuEpo in conjunction with chemoradiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Anticoagulants / administration & dosage. Erythropoietin / therapeutic use. Genital Neoplasms, Female / complications. Genital Neoplasms, Female / drug therapy. Thrombosis / prevention & control. Warfarin / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Recombinant Proteins. Retrospective Studies. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / complications. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / drug therapy. Vaginal Neoplasms / complications. Vaginal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Vulvar Neoplasms / complications. Vulvar Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16406065.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticoagulants; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 11096-26-7 / Erythropoietin; 5Q7ZVV76EI / Warfarin
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25. Downs LS, Ghosh K, Dusenbery KE, Cosin JA: Stage IV carcinoma of the Bartholin gland managed with primary chemoradiation. Gynecol Oncol; 2002 Nov;87(2):210-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Stage IV carcinoma of the Bartholin gland managed with primary chemoradiation.
  • Although the management of advanced vulvar cancer has shifted toward conservative management with primary chemoradiation, there is limited information on the similar approach to the management of advanced Bartholin's gland carcinoma.
  • CASE: We present a woman with stage IVA basaloid squamous carcinoma of the Bartholin gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Bartholin's Glands / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Vulvar Neoplasms / drug therapy. Vulvar Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 12477454.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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26. Tamura N, Aoki Y, Fujita K, Tanaka K: Stage IVa squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva managed with primary chemoradiation. Int J Clin Oncol; 2005 Apr;10(2):148-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Stage IVa squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva managed with primary chemoradiation.
  • We present the case of a 53-year-old woman with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IVa (T3N2M0) squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva.
  • Because the urethra was surrounded by a vulvar tumor, she was managed with primary chemoradiation in an attempt to spare the morbidity associated with exenterative vulvar surgery.
  • Treatment was given as a planned split course, consisting of two separate courses of 23.8 Gy each.
  • During the 4 days of chemotherapy infusion, the radiation was administered in two daily fractions of 1.7 Gy each, given at least 6 h apart.
  • There was no treatment break due to adverse effect, and a pathological complete response was achieved in the primary tumor and the lymph nodes.
  • Chemoradiation therapy should be considered as an option in patients with locally advanced vulvar cancer to avert the need for exenterative surgery, and to preserve sexual, gastrointestinal, and urinary function.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Vulvar Neoplasms / drug therapy. Vulvar Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome. Urethra / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15864703.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-9625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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27. Yen TC, Lai CH: Positron emission tomography in gynecologic cancer. Semin Nucl Med; 2006 Jan;36(1):93-104
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Positron emission tomography in gynecologic cancer.
  • Most positron emission tomography (PET) imaging studies in gynecologic cancer are performed using (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG).
  • It contributes valuable information in primary staging of untreated advanced cervical cancer, in the post-treatment surveillance with unexplained tumor marker (such as squamous cell carcinoma antigen [SCC-Ag]) elevation or suspicious of recurrence, and restaging of potentially curable recurrent cervical cancer.
  • Its value in early-stage resectable cervical cancer is questionable.
  • In ovarian cancer, FDG-PET provides benefits for those with plateaued or increasing abnormal serum CA 125 (>35 U/mL), computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging (CT-MRI) defined localized recurrence feasible for local destructive procedures (such as surgery, radiotherapy, or radiofrequency ablation), and clinically suspected recurrent or persistent cancer for which CT-guide biopsy cannot be performed.
  • The role of FDG-PET in endometrial cancer is relatively less defined because of the lack of data in the literature.
  • In our prospective study, FDG-PET coupled with MRI-CT may facilitate optimal management of endometrial cancer in well-selected cases.
  • The clinical impact was positive in 29 (48.3%) of the 60 scans, 22.2% for primary staging, 73.1% for post-therapy surveillance, and 57.1% after salvage therapy, respectively.
  • Scant studies have been reported in the management of vulvar cancer using FDG-PET.
  • Our preliminary results suggest that FDG-PET is potentially useful in selected gestational trophoblastic neoplasia by providing a precise metastatic mapping of tumor extent up front, monitoring response, and localizing viable tumors after chemotherapy.
  • The evaluation of a diagnostic tool, such as PET, is usually via comparing the diagnostic efficacy (sensitivity, specificity, etc), by using a more sophisticated receiver operating curve method, or the proportion of treatment been modified.
  • [MeSH-major] Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Genital Neoplasms, Female / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods

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  • (PMID = 16356798.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-2998
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
  • [Number-of-references] 136
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28. Cormio G, Loizzi V, Carriero C, Cazzolla A, Putignano G, Selvaggi L: Groin recurrence in carcinoma of the vulva: management and outcome. Eur J Cancer Care (Engl); 2010 May;19(3):302-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The aim of the study was to investigate the management and outcome of inguinal recurrence in vulvar carcinoma patients.
  • Median interval between primary treatment of vulvar cancer and groin recurrence was 7 months.
  • Three patients refused any treatment, 3 received chemotherapy, 2 inguino-pelvic radiotherapy and 13 had resection of the groin recurrence.
  • After surgery seven patients received irradiation of the groin and pelvis, and three patients received chemotherapy.
  • In univariate analysis, stage and grade at diagnosis, age and performance status at the recurrent disease, and the extent of residual tumour after resection of groin recurrence were predictors for survival.
  • Groin recurrences from vulvar carcinoma carry a poor prognosis.
  • Multi-modal treatment may result in a palliation of the disease, and a very limited number of patients have long-term survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Vulvar Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Female. Groin. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 19832900.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2354
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer care
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Cancer Care (Engl)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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29. Bafna UD, Devi UM, Naik KA, Hazra S, Sushma N, Babu N: Carcinoma of the vulva: a retrospective review of 37 cases at a regional cancer centre in South India. J Obstet Gynaecol; 2004 Jun;24(4):403-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Carcinoma of the vulva: a retrospective review of 37 cases at a regional cancer centre in South India.
  • The surgical treatment consisted of wide excision in one case, radical vulvectomy (RV) in six cases, radical vulvectomy and bilateral groin node dissection (RV+BGND) in 25 cases and radical vulvectomy and unilateral groin node dissection in one case.
  • Nine of these 33 women also received adjuvant chemotherapy preoperatively in the hope of achieving better tumour-free surgical margins.
  • Thirteen of these 26 patients (50%) had inguinal node metastases (Stage III, four patients; Stage IV, nine patients).
  • All the patients with negative nodes were free of disease while three of four patients with Stage III and two of nine patients with Stage IV with nodal metastases remained free of disease.
  • The only patient with Stage III disease plus inguinal node metastases who recurred had multiple positive nodes with extracapsular spread.
  • The role of neoadjuvant chemotherapy as compared to neoadjuvant radiotherapy, in locally advanced tumours, needs to be explored further.
  • [MeSH-major] Vulvar Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma / etiology. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. India / epidemiology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Medical Records. Medically Underserved Area. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Palliative Care. Regional Medical Programs. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 15203581.001).
  • [ISSN] 0144-3615
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology : the journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Obstet Gynaecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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30. López-Varela E, Oliva E, McIntyre JF, Fuller AF Jr: Primary treatment of Bartholin's gland carcinoma with radiation and chemoradiation: a report on ten consecutive cases. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2007 May-Jun;17(3):661-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary treatment of Bartholin's gland carcinoma with radiation and chemoradiation: a report on ten consecutive cases.
  • We reviewed our experience with primary radiation therapy for Bartholin's gland carcinoma (BGC) as an alternative to traditional surgical treatment.
  • A retrospective study reviewed records from the Cancer Data Registry and Research Patient Data Registry from 1986 to 2002.
  • Charts of ten women identified with BGC were reviewed for demographic information, presenting symptoms, tumor characteristics, treatment modalities, and complications, as well as for recurrence and survival.
  • The incidence of BGC was 2.13% of all invasive vulvar cancer cases at the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH).
  • Four patients presented with clinical stage I disease, one with stage II, three with stage III, and two with stage IV.
  • After a change in treatment policy in 1986 from primary surgery that had often required postoperative radiation therapy, ten consecutive patients were treated with primary radiotherapy or chemoradiation therapy.
  • Treatment included teletherapy combined with a boost to the primary site, regional nodes and/or interstitial brachytherapy.
  • Short-term complications were mild and well tolerated; one patient developed late radiation-associated pelvic fractures.
  • Four tumors recurred with a mean time to recurrence of 31.2 months.
  • Three- and 5-year survivals were 71.5% and 66%, comparable to outcomes after surgery and postoperative radiation therapy.
  • We conclude that primary radiation or chemoradiation therapy offers an effective alternative to surgery in the treatment of BGC with preservation of genital function and low morbidity.
  • [MeSH-major] Bartholin's Glands. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Carcinoma / radiotherapy. Vulvar Neoplasms / drug therapy. Vulvar Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17504379.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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31. Hensley ML: Uterine/female genital sarcomas. Curr Treat Options Oncol; 2000 Jun;1(2):161-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Prognosis and treatment vary greatly depending on specific histology, grade, and tumor stage.
  • It is frequently used as adjuvant therapy for resected high-grade or margin-positive vulvo-vaginal sarcomas, and for endometrial stromal sarcomas.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy has not been demonstrated to improve survival in vulvo-vaginal sarcomas, with the exception of vulvo-vaginal rhabdomyosarcomas, nor has it been demonstrated to improve survival in uterine sarcomas.
  • Chemotherapy may be used for recurrent or persistent disease.
  • The choice of agent depends on the histologic type of sarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Sarcoma / therapy. Uterine Neoplasms / therapy. Vaginal Neoplasms / therapy. Vulvar Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Clinical Trials as Topic. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 12057054.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-2729
  • [Journal-full-title] Current treatment options in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Treat Options Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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32. Amant F, Van Calsteren K, Vergote I, Ottevanger N: Gynecologic oncology in pregnancy. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol; 2008 Sep;67(3):187-95
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • In this review current knowledge on prevalence, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of gynaecological malignancies during pregnancy is discussed.
  • After a general overview of surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy during pregnancy, tumor specific diagnosis and treatment options are described for breast, cervical, ovarian, endometrial and vulvar cancer.
  • Information on prognosis of cancer during pregnancy is often contradictory and evidence on the real influence of pregnancy on prognosis is weak.
  • However, there is increasing belief that, the prognosis per stage is similar to that of the non-pregnant patient and that the risk for impaired prognosis is most likely due to suboptimal diagnosis and treatment.
  • Radiotherapy proximal of the upper abdomen is frequently possible, while chemotherapy depending on pregnancy trimester and type of chemotherapy can usually be administered without much hazards.
  • Indications for termination of pregnancy include an unwanted pregnancy and locally advanced cervical cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / therapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Genital Neoplasms, Female / diagnosis. Genital Neoplasms, Female / therapy. Humans. Pregnancy. Prognosis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18296060.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8428
  • [Journal-full-title] Critical reviews in oncology/hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Number-of-references] 80
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33. An JS, Wu LY, Li N, Li B, Yu GZ, Liu LY: [Clinical analysis of 42 cases of primary malignant melanoma in female genital tract]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi; 2007 May;42(5):320-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical characteristics, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of primary malignant melanoma in female genital tract.
  • The 2-year cumulative overall survival rates for the patients of early stage [International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage I and II] and that of advanced stage (stage III and IV) were 77% and 34% respectively (P < 0.05).
  • The 2-year cumulative overall survival rates for the patients of stage I and stage II were 78% and 74% respectively (P = 0.303).
  • In the 40 patients who received surgery, univariate analysis showed that the adjuvant chemotherapy improved the recurrence-free survival and the overall survival significantly (P < 0.05), and the other factors including radical surgery, regional lymphadenectomy, biotherapy and radiotherapy did not affect prognosis (P > 0.05).
  • Compared with chemotherapy, biochemotherapy did not improve prognosis significantly (P > 0.05).
  • Surgery plays an important role in treatment, while the adjuvant chemotherapy could improve survival effectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Genital Neoplasms, Female / diagnosis. Genital Neoplasms, Female / therapy. Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymph Node Excision. Melanoma-Specific Antigens. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy. Retrospective Studies. S100 Proteins / analysis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / therapy. Vaginal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vaginal Neoplasms / metabolism. Vaginal Neoplasms / therapy. Vulvar Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vulvar Neoplasms / metabolism. Vulvar Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17673044.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-567X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / S100 Proteins
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34. Huang YD, Hung YC, Yeh LS, Chiang IP, Zeng GC, Chang WC: Synchronous ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma and endocervical mucinous adenocarcinoma. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol; 2006 Sep;45(3):264-7
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: We report a rare case of synchronous cancer consisting of ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma and endocervical mucinous adenocarcinoma.
  • Computed tomography showed an 18 x 16 cm right pelvic tumor, with both cystic and solid components, ascites and bilateral massive pleural effusion.
  • The final surgical-pathologic stage of ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma was stage IIIc and of endocervical mucinous adenocarcinoma was stage IA1.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy with carboplatin and paclitaxel was prescribed postoperatively, but the malignancy was not controlled due to lung, brain and vulva metastases.
  • Diagnosis should be based on histologic examination and requires appropriate treatment for both tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / metabolism. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphatic Metastasis. Necrosis. Vulvar Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 17175478.001).
  • [ISSN] 1875-6263
  • [Journal-full-title] Taiwanese journal of obstetrics & gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen
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35. Ayhan A, Celik H, Coskun F, Baykal C, Salman MC, Aksan G: Restaging in gynaecological cancers. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2005;26(1):25-30

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Regardless of recent technical developments in the scientific arena, stage is still the most important prognostic factor in gynaecological cancers.
  • Surgical staging is performed in all types of gynaecologic cancers except for cervical cancer.
  • Adjuvant therapies that contribute to survival are planned in the light of information obtained from staging procedures.
  • Therefore, necessary information for further therapeutic management should be revealed by the end of surgical staging.
  • A staging surgery that is not completed for any reason will not only deprive the patient of necessary treatments, but can also cause administration of unnecessary adjuvant treatments.
  • This is especially important, given the undesired effects and cost of both chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • A particularly relevant case in point is tumours that look like early stage; this is because upstaging up to 30% has been reported in ovarian and endometrial cancers.
  • As for vulvar cancer, clinical staging has been reported to lead to about 15% over-diagnosis in comparison to surgical staging.
  • Thus, the first step in all gynaecological cancers, except cervical cancer, should be to perform surgical staging when possible and unveil all surgical-pathological prognostic factors in the light of data obtained.
  • However, care should be taken to evaluate the benefits to be reaped together with the operative morbidity risk associated with the restaging procedure.
  • This will both ensure accurate planning of postoperative treatment and provide a universal standard of approaching cancer patients and their treatments.

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  • (PMID = 15754995.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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36. Lai CH, Yen TC, Chang TC: Positron emission tomography imaging for gynecologic malignancy. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol; 2007 Feb;19(1):37-41
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

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  • [Title] Positron emission tomography imaging for gynecologic malignancy.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The utility of positron emission tomography (PET) in gynecologic malignancy has increased rapidly in recent years.
  • It is valuable in primary staging of untreated advanced cervical cancer, for posttreatment unexplained tumor marker elevation and restaging of potentially curable recurrent cervical cancer.
  • Its value in early-stage cervical cancer is limited.
  • In ovarian cancer, sequential imaging predicts response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and survival.
  • It also provides benefits when increases in serum CA 125 or computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging defined recurrence is noted but biopsy deemed infeasible.
  • A few studies have shown that FDG-PET may facilitate optimal management of endometrial cancer, especially for posttherapy surveillance and after salvage therapy.
  • FDG-PET is potentially useful in selected gestational trophoblastic neoplasia by monitoring response and localizing viable tumors after chemotherapy.
  • Scanty studies have been reported in vulvar and vaginal cancer.
  • The methodology and prospects of using integrated PET/computed tomography in the management of gynecological cancer are discussed.
  • SUMMARY: The role of PET or PET/computed tomography has evolved from a diagnostic tool into a potential indicator of response to treatment and prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Ovarian Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging

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  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Ovarian Cancer.
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  • (PMID = 17218850.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-872X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in obstetrics & gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Opin. Obstet. Gynecol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
  • [Number-of-references] 53
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37. Rogers LJ, Howard B, Van Wijk L, Wei W, Dehaeck K, Soeters R, Denny LA: Chemoradiation in advanced vulval carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2009 May;19(4):745-51
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. FLUOROURACIL .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The treatment of choice is radical vulvectomy and inguinal lymph node dissection.
  • Less morbid and less mutilating therapeutic alternatives have been investigated, particularly chemoradiation, which has shown success in the management of anal carcinomas.
  • This is a retrospective study of the GSH's experience of the use of chemoradiation as primary therapy for women with advanced vulval carcinoma.
  • Other prognostic factors for survival were performance status and tumor stage.
  • Performance status, age, and tumor stage were also associated with survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Vulvar Neoplasms / drug therapy. Vulvar Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Middle Aged. Mitomycin / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. MITOMYCIN C .
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  • (PMID = 19509582.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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38. Gipponi M: Clinical applications of sentinel lymph-node biopsy for the staging and treatment of solid neoplasms. Minerva Chir; 2005 Aug;60(4):217-33

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical applications of sentinel lymph-node biopsy for the staging and treatment of solid neoplasms.
  • A review of the clinical applications of sentinel lymph node (sN) biopsy has been performed with the aim of defining the rationale, the methods of detection, the accuracy, and the current indications to sN biopsy in different solid neoplasms.
  • In melanoma patients, sN biopsy represents a standard procedure for staging purpose, although its therapeutic value is still under examination.
  • The sN is an accurate method for the pathologic staging of the axilla in patients with early stage breast cancer, and it can be useful for the selection of patients with axillary metastasis who should undergo standard axillary dissection.
  • In gynecologic malignancies, appreciable results are available in patients with vulvar and cervical cancer only.
  • Patients with squamous cell vulvar cancer may benefit by sN biopsy because a complete bilateral inguino-femoral lymph-node dissection may be avoided whenever the sN is free of metastasis.
  • As regards to cervical cancer, further studies are required with the combined technique (blue dye injection and gamma-probe guided surgery), which seems more promising, before abandoning pelvic lymphadenectomy in patients with histologically-negative sN.
  • The experience in urologic cancer deals mainly with penile and prostate cancer; the modern procedures for the dynamic detection of sN are going to clarify its role in the surgical management of penile cancer; as regards to prostate cancer, very preliminary results suggest that the sN biopsy may enhance the pathologic staging of this neoplasm compared to modified pelvic lymphadenectomy, due to the individual variability of the lymphatic drainage of this cancer.
  • In patients with clinically node-negative squamous head and neck cancer, the reliability of sN-guided neck lymph node dissection seems promising.
  • The sN biopsy is also technically feasible in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer; however, the future role of this procedure in the clinical decision-making of these patients remains to be defined due to the questionable biological meaning of nodal metastases.
  • Patients with non-small-cell lung cancer should be investigated by means of radiotracers injected at the time of thoracotomy or under CT-scan guidance in order to achieve a satisfactory identification rate (over 80%); the focused histopathologic staging of the sN improves current pathologic staging by conventional bi-valve assessment of all the lymph nodes of the surgical specimen; moreover, the prognostic role of isolated N2 metastasis can be better elucidated.
  • In patients with gastric cancer, current data show that it can be detected by means of peritumoral injection of indocyanine green; the detection of tumor positive lymph nodes beyond the perigastric area could select patients amenable to D2 lymphadenectomy.
  • As regards to colorectal cancer patients, the focused analysis of the sN may reveal disease that might otherwise go undetected by conventional surgical and pathological methods, and those patients which are upstaged can benefit by adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Finally, in patients with Merkel cell carcinoma, notwithstanding the limited experiences with sN biopsy, sN histology seems to predict regional lymph node status and may aid in selecting which patients are amenable to therapeutic lymph node dissection.
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / therapy. Female. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / pathology. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / therapy. Genital Neoplasms, Female / pathology. Genital Neoplasms, Female / therapy. Humans. Melanoma / pathology. Melanoma / therapy. Neoplasm Staging / methods

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  • (PMID = 16166921.001).
  • [ISSN] 0026-4733
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Chir
  • [Language] eng; ita
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 99
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39. Le T, Menard C, Hicks-Boucher W, Hopkins L, Weberpals J, Fung-Kee-Fung M: Final results of a phase 2 study using continuous 5% Imiquimod cream application in the primary treatment of high-grade vulva intraepithelial neoplasia. Gynecol Oncol; 2007 Sep;106(3):579-84
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Imiquimod .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Final results of a phase 2 study using continuous 5% Imiquimod cream application in the primary treatment of high-grade vulva intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • OBJECTIVES: To investigate the activity of 5% Imiquimod cream in the primary treatment of vulva intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) grade 2/3.
  • A Simon two-stage phase 2 study design was used.
  • Imiquimod cream was applied over the abnormal VIN areas by the patients, using an escalating dose regimen for a total treatment duration of 16 weeks.
  • Therapy was well tolerated with the most common observed side effects being only minor skin irritation at the application site.
  • No VIN progression or cancer was diagnosed.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Carcinoma in Situ / drug therapy. Vulvar Neoplasms / drug therapy

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Vulvar Cancer.
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  • (PMID = 17582474.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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40. Levgur M: Estrogen and combined hormone therapy for women after genital malignancies: a review. J Reprod Med; 2004 Oct;49(10):837-48
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Hormone Replacement Therapy.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Estrogen and combined hormone therapy for women after genital malignancies: a review.
  • This review summarizes information regarding estrogen therapy (ET) and hormone therapy (HT) for women with endometrial cancer as well as other gynecologic malignancies.
  • Of the 228 patients who received estrogen therapy, 3.5% developed recurrences as opposed to 16.5% among the 309 women receiving no therapy.
  • Administration of ET at an early stage of disease is therefore appropriate if a few conditions are fulfilled.
  • As to ovarian cancer, the information on hormone employment is scantier and derives mainly from statistical analysis of data on healthy users of estrogen alone or combined with progestin.
  • Several age-matched, case-control studies and 4 meta-analyses disclosed a higher rate, though not significant, of the later development of ovarian cancer among hormone users.
  • It is agreed, however, that the histologic type of the tumor is an important factor to consider prior to the initiation of such therapy.
  • The current literature permits ET in most cases of ovarian cancer, but further studies are needed to clearly delineate specific contraindications.
  • Utilizing estrogen compounds has no bearing on risks of later developing squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix, or tubal, vulvar or vaginal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Genital Neoplasms, Female / pathology. Genital Neoplasms, Female / therapy. Hormone Replacement Therapy / adverse effects. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / chemically induced
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Case-Control Studies. Continuity of Patient Care. Drug Therapy, Combination. Estrogen Replacement Therapy / adverse effects. Estrogen Replacement Therapy / methods. Female. Humans. Incidence. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Risk Assessment. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15568410.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-7758
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of reproductive medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Reprod Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 75
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