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1. Pagliaro LC, Williams DL, Daliani D, Williams MB, Osai W, Kincaid M, Wen S, Thall PF, Pettaway CA: Neoadjuvant paclitaxel, ifosfamide, and cisplatin chemotherapy for metastatic penile cancer: a phase II study. J Clin Oncol; 2010 Aug 20;28(24):3851-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Neoadjuvant paclitaxel, ifosfamide, and cisplatin chemotherapy for metastatic penile cancer: a phase II study.
  • PURPOSE: Men with penile squamous cell carcinoma and regional lymph node involvement have a low probability of survival with lymphadenectomy alone.
  • A multimodal approach to treatment is desirable for such patients.
  • We performed a phase II study of neoadjuvant chemotherapy with the objective of determining the response rate, time to progression (TTP), and overall survival (OS) among patients with bulky adenopathy.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eligible patients had stage N2 or N3 (stage III or stage IV) penile cancer without distant metastases.
  • Neoadjuvant treatment (four courses every 3-4 weeks) consisted of paclitaxel 175 mg/m(2) administered over 3 hours on day 1; ifosfamide 1,200 mg/m(2) on days 1 to 3; and cisplatin 25 mg/m(2) on days 1 to 3.
  • RESULTS: Thirty men received chemotherapy of whom 15 (50.0%) had an objective response and 22 (73.3%) subsequently underwent surgery.
  • Improved TTP and OS were significantly associated with a response to chemotherapy (P < .001 and P = .001, respectively), absence of bilateral residual tumor (P = .002 and P = .017, respectively), and absence of extranodal extension (P = .001 and P = .004, respectively) or skin involvement (P = .009 and P = .012, respectively).
  • CONCLUSION: The neoadjuvant regimen of paclitaxel, ifosfamide, and cisplatin induced clinically meaningful responses in patients with bulky regional lymph node metastases from penile cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Lymph Node Excision. Neoadjuvant Therapy / methods. Penile Neoplasms / drug therapy. Penile Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Administration Schedule. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Predictive Value of Tests. Prospective Studies. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20625118.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA140388; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA016672
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2940402
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2. Munro NP, Thomas PJ, Deutsch GP, Hodson NJ: Penile cancer: a case for guidelines. Ann R Coll Surg Engl; 2001 May;83(3):180-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Penile cancer: a case for guidelines.
  • INTRODUCTION: Aspects of the management of penile cancer remain controversial.
  • In the management of early T1 N0 disease, treatments are divided between amputation and a variety of penis conserving techniques (PCT); local excision, laser techniques, chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • We report on a retrospective series of patients with penile cancer.
  • Data recorded included TNM stage, histological grade and treatment.
  • Overall, 13 penile amputations were performed, 13 underwent radiotherapy, 6 were locally excised in combination with radiotherapy and 3 underwent local excision alone.
  • Two patients were unsuitable for treatment.
  • Of the total (37 patients) 15 have died; 12 from penile cancer.
  • Outcome was not significantly related to treatment modality.
  • There is significant variability in the modalities of treatment used within this series.
  • [MeSH-major] Penile Neoplasms / therapy. Practice Guidelines as Topic
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Amputation. England. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11432137.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-8843
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann R Coll Surg Engl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2503582
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3. Sawada A, Segawa T, Nakanishi S, Kinoshita H, Yamamoto S, Kamoto T, Ogawa O: [Prostate cancer with penile metastasis: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2005 Nov;51(11):771-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Prostate cancer with penile metastasis: a case report].
  • A 77-year-old man presented with complaints of dysuria, nocturia and painless nodule on his penis.
  • Pathological examinations on prostate and penile biopsy specimens revealed prostate adenocarcinoma with penile metastasis.
  • The patient was diagnosed as having prostate cancer stage D2 (T4N1M1) with bone, lymph node and penile metastases.
  • There was no response to initial hormonal therapy with the surgical castration and diethylstilbestrol.
  • However, decrease of the tumor size, as well as PSA and CA19-9 values were achieved after the combined chemotherapy with Estramustine, Paclitaxel and Carboplatin.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Penile Neoplasms / secondary. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. CA-19-9 Antigen / blood. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Estramustine / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Orchiectomy. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood

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  • (PMID = 16363713.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CA-19-9 Antigen; 35LT29625A / Estramustine; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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4. Hori J, Kato Y, Iwata T, Taniguchi N, Hashimoto H, Yachiku S: [A case of penile malignant melanoma]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2003 Aug;49(8):493-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [A case of penile malignant melanoma].
  • In January, 2001, with complaints of black nodules and bleeding from the glans of the penis to the foreskin.
  • Clinical diagnosis was penile malignant melanoma.
  • Cystoscopy and urethrography revealed urethral invasion of malignant melanoma, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the penis revealed invasion to prostate, and pelvic lymph node metastases in abdominal compuled tomography (CT) but no organ metastases.
  • After these therapies, chemotherapy was performed.
  • Five months later, CT revealed multiple lung and brain metastases, and radiation therapy and chemotherapy were performed.
  • Twelve months after the operation, he died of cancer.
  • Review of the literature revealed that our patient is the thirtieth reported case of penile malignant melanoma in Japan since 1924.
  • In 30 cases, stage III, IV were 20 cases and 16 cases performed operation.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / secondary. Penile Neoplasms / pathology. Urethral Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 14518390.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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5. Cho YS, Lee JA, Kim SB, Gong SJ, Kim JH, Youn SM, Kim ET: A case of synchronous double primary cancer of the penis and urinary bladder. Cancer Res Treat; 2010 Mar;42(1):53-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A case of synchronous double primary cancer of the penis and urinary bladder.
  • Penile cancer is a rare disease, and finding it combined with other cancers is even rarer.
  • A 64-year-old man with a painful penile mass was referred to us from a primary urological clinic.
  • We performed a biopsy of the penile mass and the histology revealed a well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Abdominal computed tomography showed a localized bladder tumor with inguinal lymphadenopathy.
  • The penile and bladder tumors were in stage II (T1N1M0) and stage I (T1N0M0), respectively.
  • We successfully treated the patient with adjuvant radiotherapy and systemic chemotherapy.

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  • (PMID = 20369053.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-9256
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research and treatment : official journal of Korean Cancer Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res Treat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2848747
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Multiple primary / Neoplasms / Penile neoplasms / Urinary bladder neoplasms
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6. Culkin DJ, Beer TM: Advanced penile carcinoma. J Urol; 2003 Aug;170(2 Pt 1):359-65

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Advanced penile carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: In the United States penile carcinoma is an uncommon malignancy that represents only 0.4% of all male malignancies and 2% to 4% of genitourinary malignancies.
  • Of penile cancer cases 30% are diagnosed with advanced disease.
  • Improved understanding of the natural history, appropriate and accurate staging, and tailored, less morbid lymphadenectomy have led to improved survival and decreased the adverse effects of therapy.
  • However, the management of advanced penile carcinoma remains a challenge to urological, medical and radiation oncologists.
  • The rarity and paucity of well designed clinical studies of medical and/or surgical therapy for advanced penile cancer have hampered progress in the treatment of this disease.
  • However, there is clear evidence that identifies active chemotherapy and radiation treatments.
  • This review aims to provide the treating physician with an overview of available data for surgical, chemotherapeutic and radiation treatments, and provide guidelines for appropriate patient selection for these therapies.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a detailed review of the available literature regarding advanced penile carcinoma to include its etiology, epidemiology, natural history, staging classification and treatment.
  • RESULTS: Penile carcinoma typically spreads along an echelon of nodal pathways that permits fairly accurate staging.
  • Prognosis correlates well with clinical nodal status and grade, and the TNM classification developed by the UICC should be uniformly used by clinicians.
  • Treatment recommendations are tightly associated with disease stage.
  • Although tailored lymphadenectomy as currently recommended has greatly decreased morbidity, improved staging accuracy and improved treatment results, controversies still exist regarding the need for lymphadenectomy in patients with impalpable lymph node (cN0) disease, and the role and timing of pelvic lymphadenectomy.
  • There is evidence of modest activity for chemotherapy in advanced penile carcinoma.
  • Combination chemotherapy regimens with promising activity and toxicity profiles include cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil, and vincristine, bleomycin and methotrexate.
  • Radiation in combination with surgery and/or chemotherapy in advanced disease have also demonstrated activity.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The natural history of penile carcinoma and its proclivity to spread via regional lymphatics has been well defined.
  • This understanding has led to the development of effective locoregional treatment strategies.
  • Penile carcinoma is sensitive to radiation and certain chemotherapeutic agents.
  • Improvements in survival and quality of life likely require the incorporation of multiple modalities into the treatment of advanced penile carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / therapy. Penile Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 12853775.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 74
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7. Phé V, Rouprêt M, Mottet N: [What's new in 2008 in the field of basic and clinical research in testicular and penile cancer?]. Prog Urol; 2009 May;19 Suppl 2:S51-5
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  • [Title] [What's new in 2008 in the field of basic and clinical research in testicular and penile cancer?].
  • [Transliterated title] Quelles nouveautes en 2008 dans le cancer du testicule et du pénis en recherche clinique et en recherche fondamentale ?
  • In stage I testis seminomas, data comparing 1 course of chemotherapy by carboplatin (AUC: 7) to retroperitoneal radiotherapy in adjuvant treatment were updated.
  • Localizations of recurrences were different, depending on adjuvant treatment.
  • In stage I non seminomatous testis cancer, active surveillance could be possible if there were not any vascular embols.
  • Chemotherapy by 1 course of BEP was superior to retroperitoneal lymph node dissection in stage I.
  • In penile cancer management, dynamic sentinel node biopsy could be interesting.
  • Carbon-dioxide laser microsurgery only for initially invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the penis could be proposed.
  • [MeSH-major] Penile Neoplasms / therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19447329.001).
  • [ISSN] 1166-7087
  • [Journal-full-title] Progrès en urologie : journal de l'Association française d'urologie et de la Société française d'urologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prog. Urol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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8. Lutterbach J, Pagenstecher A, Weyerbrock A, Schultze-Seemann W, Waller CF: Early-stage penile carcinoma metastasizing to brain: case report and literature review. Urology; 2005 Aug;66(2):432
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Early-stage penile carcinoma metastasizing to brain: case report and literature review.
  • Early-stage penile squamous cell carcinoma with subsequent distant metastases is rare.
  • We report a case of a 35-year-old man with Stage pT1pN0 penile squamous cell carcinoma who underwent circumcision and bilateral inguinal lymphadenectomy.
  • Further in the disease course, the patient developed metastases in the kidney, adrenal gland, retroperitoneal lymph nodes, lung, and brain.
  • He underwent multiple resections, whole brain radiotherapy, and several chemotherapy regimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Penile Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16098372.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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9. Bouchot O, Rigaud J: [Diagnosis and treatment of penis cancer]. Presse Med; 2010 Sep;39(9):871-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Diagnosis and treatment of penis cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Diagnostic et traitement du cancer du pénis.
  • Penile cancer is a rare tumor in Europe and is therefore associated with risks of diagnostic delay for stage Ta-T1 tumors or pre-epitheliomatous lesions and of an inadequate treatment strategy.
  • Clinical examination by palpation is essential in primary tumors to look for infiltration in the corpus spongiosum and the tunica albuginea of the corpus cavernosa of the penis, and in the lymphatic drainage areas, in particular in the upper inner quadrant of the inguinal lymph nodes.
  • The work-up must include: a biopsy in the case of diagnostic doubt, lymph node aspiration in the case of palpable adenopathies, and whole-body computed tomography (CT).
  • Treatment of the primary tumor can include partial amputation for tumors infiltrating the corpus cavernosa, or conservative treatment for tumors limited to the glands if the diameter is less than 30 mm, after an initial circumcision.
  • In the case of more extensive lymph node spread, a combination of chemotherapy and surgery must be discussed in multidisciplinary meetings, especially for younger patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Penile Neoplasms / diagnosis. Penile Neoplasms / therapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20494544.001).
  • [ISSN] 2213-0276
  • [Journal-full-title] Presse medicale (Paris, France : 1983)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Presse Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
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10. Busby JE, Pettaway CA: What's new in the management of penile cancer? Curr Opin Urol; 2005 Sep;15(5):350-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] What's new in the management of penile cancer?
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Penile cancer is a rare disease.
  • This has led to little in the way of therapeutic advances in the last two decades.
  • In addition, new insights have been gained into multimodal therapy for treating metastatic disease.
  • We reviewed the literature published during the past two years to define the recent insights into the diagnosis and management of penile cancer.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program data revealed poor outcome among African-American patients compared with Caucasians with penile cancer.
  • To improve diagnosis and staging, new modifications in imaging have been developed including magnetic resonance imaging with artificial erection.
  • Pathologic features of the primary tumor (i.e., stage, grade, vascular invasion) assist in identifying patients who would benefit from lymphadenectomy.
  • Organ-sparing treatments using laser ablation and reconstructive procedures to preserve glans or phallus length have also been developed.
  • Systemic chemotherapy regimens, including consolidative approaches with surgery or radiotherapy, are discussed for advanced penile cancer.
  • SUMMARY: Penile cancer remains a rare disease.
  • Recent literature provides information that will aid urologists in (1) minimizing the need for disfiguring treatment of penile tumors in some patients and (2) reducing the number of unnecessary inguinal staging procedures in others.
  • Novel systemic therapies that generate durable responses tested in multi-institutional treatment trials are needed.
  • [MeSH-major] Penile Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnostic Imaging. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Factors. SEER Program. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16093861.001).
  • [ISSN] 0963-0643
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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11. Protzel C, Alcaraz A, Horenblas S, Pizzocaro G, Zlotta A, Hakenberg OW: Lymphadenectomy in the surgical management of penile cancer. Eur Urol; 2009 May;55(5):1075-88
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Lymphadenectomy in the surgical management of penile cancer.
  • CONTEXT: Uncertainty remains about the extent and indications for inguinal lymphadenectomy in penile cancer, a procedure known for relatively high morbidity.
  • Several attempts have been made to develop strategies which can improve the diagnostic quality and reduce the morbidity of the management of inguinal lymph nodes in penile cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyse the existing published data on the surgical management of inguinal nodes in penile cancer regarding morbidity and survival.
  • EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A Medline search was performed of the English-language literature (1966-September 2008) using the MeSH terms penile carcinoma, lymph node dissection, lymphadenectomy, and complications.
  • EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Lymph node metastases are frequent in penile cancer, even in early pT1G2 stages.
  • Since the results of systemic treatment of advanced penile cancer are disappointing, complete dissection of all involved lymph nodes is highly recommended.
  • The extent of lymph node dissection should be adapted to clinical stage, as this corresponds to metastatic spread.
  • In case of fixed inguinal lymph nodes, neoadjuvant chemotherapy is recommended, followed by node resection.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Lymphadenectomy is an integral part of the management of penile cancer, since early dissection of involved lymph nodes improves survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Node Excision / methods. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Penile Neoplasms / pathology. Penile Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19264390.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-7560
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 93
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12. Sofikerim M, Gülmez I, Tokat F, Er O, Gülmez I: Epidermoid carcinoma of the lung with isolated penile metastasis. Can J Urol; 2007 Aug;14(4):3643-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Epidermoid carcinoma of the lung with isolated penile metastasis.
  • We report a case of epidermoid-cell carcinoma of the lung that developed a metastatic lesion in the penis.
  • He had a left pneumectomy and was diagnosed with epidermoid carcinoma of the lung at stage IIB (T2N1M0).
  • He was started on an adjuvant chemotherapy protocol consisting of cisplatin and paclitaxel.
  • He was admitted to our urology clinic with obstructive symptoms during urination and pain during penile erection.
  • Physical examination revealed a firm, 3 cm x 2 cm palpable mass on the radix of his penis.
  • A fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the penile mass revealed epidermoid carcinoma that was consistent with lung cancer.
  • The patient was considered to have penile metastasis from epidermoid carcinoma of the lung.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Penile Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 17784986.001).
  • [ISSN] 1195-9479
  • [Journal-full-title] The Canadian journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
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13. Pettaway CA, Pagliaro L, Theodore C, Haas G: Treatment of visceral, unresectable, or bulky/unresectable regional metastases of penile cancer. Urology; 2010 Aug;76(2 Suppl 1):S58-65
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment of visceral, unresectable, or bulky/unresectable regional metastases of penile cancer.
  • OBJECTIVES: To review the treatment strategies among patients with Stage IV penile cancer to describe potentially curative or palliative therapy.
  • METHODS: The International Consultation on Urologic Disease for Penile Cancer subcommittee on the treatment of Stage IV penile cancer reviewed reports related to the topics of advanced penile cancer and metastatic penile cancer alone and combined with chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and inguinal lymphadenectomy.
  • Treatment recommendations were made by consensus, with the appropriate grades determined from the level of evidence.
  • RESULTS: The incidence of Stage IV disease using the current or modified TNM or Jackson descriptions was 0%-14%.
  • The role of radiotherapy for advanced penile cancer has been largely palliative.
  • Data have suggested that surgical consolidation among patients exhibiting an objective response to chemotherapy could be associated with durable survival.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with a cisplatin-containing regimen in Stage IV penile cancer should be considered and might facilitate curative resection.
  • The use of bleomycin was associated with a high level of toxicity and should be discouraged as first-line therapy.
  • Surgical consolidation to achieve disease-free status or palliation should be considered in fit patients with an objective response to systemic chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Pelvic Neoplasms / secondary. Pelvic Neoplasms / therapy. Penile Neoplasms / pathology. Penile Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20691886.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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14. Siow WY, Cheng C: Penile cancer: current challenges. Can J Urol; 2005 Feb;12 Suppl 1:18-23; discussion 97-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Penile cancer: current challenges.
  • Penile cancer remains a formidable challenge in many developing countries because of its high incidence and the advanced disease stage at diagnosis.
  • For early penile cancer, surgery alone offers a high cure rate.
  • Penile sparing therapies are proposed as alternative treatment options for select patients with the added advantages of preservation of body image and improved quality of life.
  • For advanced, metastatic penile cancer, more effective and less toxic chemotherapy is needed.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Penile Neoplasms / pathology. Penile Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Needle. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Developing Countries. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Risk Assessment. Singapore / epidemiology. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome. Urologic Surgical Procedures, Male / methods

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  • (PMID = 15780160.001).
  • [ISSN] 1195-9479
  • [Journal-full-title] The Canadian journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Number-of-references] 83
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15. Graafland NM, van Boven HH, van Werkhoven E, Moonen LM, Horenblas S: Prognostic significance of extranodal extension in patients with pathological node positive penile carcinoma. J Urol; 2010 Oct;184(4):1347-53

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prognostic significance of extranodal extension in patients with pathological node positive penile carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: We assessed the prognostic significance of extranodal extension, defined as tumor extension through the lymph node capsule into the perinodal fibrous-adipose tissue, as well as several other risk factors in node positive penile cancer cases.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed prospectively collected data on a consecutive series of 156 chemotherapy naïve patients with proven lymph node involvement who underwent therapeutic regional lymphadenectomy.
  • We estimated cancer specific survival using the Kaplan-Meier method.
  • Overall 5-year cancer specific survival was 61%.
  • Men with extranodal extension had significantly decreased 5-year cancer specific survival compared with men without it (42% vs 80%).
  • Pathological T stage or differentiation grade were not significant predictors of outcome.
  • On multivariate analysis extranodal extension and pelvic lymph node involvement remained associated with decreased cancer specific survival (HR 2.37 and 2.20, respectively).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Metastatic inguinal lymph node extranodal extension and pelvic lymph node involvement are independent predictive parameters of cancer specific survival in patients with pathologically node positive penile carcinoma despite surgery with postoperative radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Penile Neoplasms / mortality. Penile Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20723934.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-3792
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Skeel RT, Huang J, Manola J, Wilding G, Dreicer R, Walker P, Muggia F, Crawford ED, Dutcher JP, Loehrer PJ: A phase II study of 13-cis retinoic acid plus interferon alpha-2a in advanced stage penile carcinoma: an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group study (E3893). Cancer Invest; 2003;21(1):41-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A phase II study of 13-cis retinoic acid plus interferon alpha-2a in advanced stage penile carcinoma: an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group study (E3893).
  • PURPOSE: Combined biological therapy with 13-cis-retinoic acid (13-cRA) and interferon alpha-2a (IFN alpha-2a) was reported to be highly effective in squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix and skin.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma of the penis is rare in the United States, accounting for less than 1/2% of all male malignancies.
  • Because of the association of infection with human papillomavirus with both carcinomas of the cervix and penis and their shared squamous cell histology, we carried out a phase II study of 13-cRA and IFN alpha-2a in carcinoma of the penis.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen ambulatory patients with surgically unresectable, recurrent, and/or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the penis were treated with IFN alpha-2a, 3MU/day administered subcutaneously and 13-cRA, 1 mg/kg orally daily for at least eight weeks, unless intolerable toxicity occurred.
  • RESULTS: One patient was ineligible; one patient withdrew prior to treatment.
  • Fourteen patients had progressive disease as their only treatment effect.
  • No unexpected treatment-related toxicities were found on study.
  • CONCLUSION: In contrast to its benefit in squamous cell carcinomas of the cervix and skin, the combination of 13-cRA and IFN alpha-2a has low efficacy in advanced carcinoma of the penis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Penile Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Anemia / chemically induced. Disease Progression. Fatigue / chemically induced. Fever / chemically induced. Humans. Hypertriglyceridemia / chemically induced. Interferon-alpha / administration & dosage. Interferon-alpha / adverse effects. Isotretinoin / administration & dosage. Isotretinoin / adverse effects. Life Tables. Male. Middle Aged. Recombinant Proteins. Survival Analysis. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 12643008.001).
  • [ISSN] 0735-7907
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA14958; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA21115; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA23318; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA32102; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA42777; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA49883; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA58882; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA66636; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CACA21076
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 76543-88-9 / interferon alfa-2a; EH28UP18IF / Isotretinoin
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17. Mosconi AM, Roila F, Gatta G, Theodore C: Cancer of the penis. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol; 2005 Feb;53(2):165-77

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cancer of the penis.
  • Cancer of the penis is rare in Europe, accounting for less than 0.5% of all cancers.
  • More than 95% of penile carcinomas are squamous cell carcinomas.
  • Early disease (stage I-II) is curable in most patients, who can be treated by conventional penile amputation or, in selected cases, by organ preserving techniques, including Moh's micrographic surgery, laser ablation or radiation therapy (external-beam, brachytherapy).
  • For more advanced primary tumours, penile amputation is required.
  • Survival of patients with penile cancer is strongly related to the presence and extent of nodal metastases.
  • Bilateral inguinal lymphadenectomy is recommended for palpable lymph nodes that persist 3 or more weeks after removal of the primary tumour and a course of antibiotic therapy.
  • The role of chemotherapy, as adjuvant and neoadjuvant or primary treatment in metastatic disease, needs to be further explored in prospective clinical trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell. Penile Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 15661566.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8428
  • [Journal-full-title] Critical reviews in oncology/hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Number-of-references] 98
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18. Di Capua Sacoto C, Lujan Marco S, Morales Solchaga G, Budía Alba A, Pontones Moreno JL, Jiménez Cruz JF: [Cancer of the penis. Our experience in 15 years]. Actas Urol Esp; 2009 Feb;33(2):143-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Cancer of the penis. Our experience in 15 years].
  • OBJECTIVE: To review and analysis the diagnosis, treatment, evolution, and risk factors of the penis cancer.
  • We included 47 patients with penis cancer diagnose of treated in our service.
  • We analyzed risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment.
  • The average time of follow-up was 50 months {range 12 to 120 months).
  • Of the 27 cases (57%) who underwent blood calcium check at the time of diagnosis, we found hypercalcaemia in 8 patients (30%).
  • The surgical treatment was the gold standard treatment.
  • 4 patients received radiotherapy as initial treatment.
  • Regarding to the TNM, most of the patients had a clinical stage located: T1N0M0 23%, T2N0M0 27%.
  • The most significant adverse prognostic factors were the presence of lymph nodes, clinical stage at the diagnosis and the degree of cell differentiation (p = 0001).
  • There were 11 (24%) cases that presented recurrence and were treated: 3 patients with radiotherapy, surgery was used in 7 patients and 1 patient with chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The carcinoma of the penis remains a rare malignancy in our centre.
  • The most significant adverse prognostic factors were the presence of lymph nodes, clinical stage at the diagnosis and the degree of cell differentiation.
  • The most effective treatment for cancer of the penis is surgery reserving chemotherapy and radiation therapy for the recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Penile Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 19418837.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-4806
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas urologicas españolas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Urol Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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19. DiBlasio CJ, Malcolm JB, Derweesh IH, Womack JH, Kincade MC, Mancini JG, Ogles ML, Lamar KD, Patterson AL, Wake RW: Patterns of sexual and erectile dysfunction and response to treatment in patients receiving androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer. BJU Int; 2008 Jul;102(1):39-43
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Patterns of sexual and erectile dysfunction and response to treatment in patients receiving androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence of patient-reported erectile (ED) and sexual dysfunction and response to treatment in men after the induction of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer, as ADT-induced changes in serum testosterone can result in changes in libido and sexual function.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed patients receiving ADT for prostate cancer at our institution between January 1989 and July 2005; those receiving only neoadjuvant ADT were excluded.
  • Variables included age, race, body mass index, prostate-specific antigen level before ADT, Gleason sum, clinical stage, ADT type (medical vs surgical) and schedule (continuous vs intermittent), previous treatment for prostate cancer, presence of pre-existing or new-onset diabetes mellitus (DM), and presence of ED before ADT.
  • After ADT induction, charts were reviewed for reporting of ED, changes in libido, and initiation of ED therapy (medical or surgical).
  • Response rates were 33-80% with medical therapy, including 44% receiving phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor monotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients receiving ADT for prostate cancer have variable degrees of ED.
  • Successful outcomes are possible, particularly when implementing multimodal therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Androgen Antagonists / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / adverse effects. Erectile Dysfunction / chemically induced. Libido / drug effects. Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Analysis of Variance. Androgens / metabolism. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Penile Erection / drug effects. Regression Analysis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18294309.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-410X
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Androgens; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors
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20. Sánchez-Ortiz R, Huang SF, Tamboli P, Prieto VG, Hester G, Pettaway CA: Melanoma of the penis, scrotum and male urethra: a 40-year single institution experience. J Urol; 2005 Jun;173(6):1958-65
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Melanoma of the penis, scrotum and male urethra: a 40-year single institution experience.
  • We describe our experience with 10 patients with penile or urethral involvement.
  • RESULTS: Of 10 patients with penile or urethral melanoma 1997 American Joint Committee on Cancer melanoma pathological stage was T1 (depth less than 0.75 mm) in 4, T2 (0.75 to 1.5 mm) in 3 and T3 (1.51 to 4 mm) in 3.
  • One patient died of melanoma that developed at a second primary site.
  • In all patients with penile melanoma the 5-year actuarial disease specific and recurrence-free survival rates were 80% and 60%, respectively, at a median followup of 39 months (range 20 to 210).
  • Three of the 6 patients had palpable inguinal nodes, of whom 2 died after chemotherapy for unresectable disease and 1 died of other causes 51 months after negative BILND.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Partial penectomy or WLE provided effective local control for low stage penile or urethral melanomas and all scrotal lesions.
  • Patients showing clinically positive, proven metastasis died despite appropriate surgical procedures and multi-agent chemotherapy.
  • Prophylactic modified inguinal lymphadenectomy should be considered in select patients with penile, scrotal and anterior urethral melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Genital Neoplasms, Male / surgery. Melanoma / surgery. Penile Neoplasms / surgery. Scrotum / surgery. Urethral Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • [CommentIn] J Urol. 2006 Apr;175(4):1574-5; author reply 1575-6 [16516049.001]
  • (PMID = 15879790.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Doehn C, Feyerabend T: [Radiochemotherapy of penis carcinoma]. Urologe A; 2001 Jul;40(4):313-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Radiochemotherapy of penis carcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Radiochemotherapie des Peniskarzinoms.
  • Some authors report successful use of radiochemotherapy in patients with penile cancer.
  • The most promising chemotherapeutic agents in penile cancer are cisplatin, methotrexate, bleomycin, vinblastine, and vincristine.
  • Operative treatment is still the primary approach in patients with penile cancer.
  • However, in some patients with relevant co-morbidity who wish to receive organ-sparing therapy, radiochemotherapy may be applied when low-stage tumors (carcinoma in situ or T1) are present.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Penile Neoplasms / drug therapy. Penile Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiation-Sensitizing Agents / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 11490866.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-2592
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Urologe. Ausg. A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologe A
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Radiation-Sensitizing Agents
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22. Kawahara T, Manabe Y, Asazuma A, Aoyama T, Hashimura T: [Hormone refractory prostate carcinoma metastasizes to the penis: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2009 Oct;55(10):627-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Hormone refractory prostate carcinoma metastasizes to the penis: a case report].
  • A 76-year-old man presented with urinary retention and penile discomfort.
  • At 67-years-old, he was diagnosed with stage D2 prostate cancer and then, was treated with hormone therapy.
  • Several nodules were observed on the glans, and histological examination of the penile tumor biopsy showed metastatic adenocarcinoma of the prostate.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Penile Neoplasms / secondary. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 19938335.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists
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23. Marconnet L, Bouchot O, Culine S, Avances C, Rigaud J, membres du CCAFU-OGE: [Treatment of lymph nodes in epidermoid carcinoma of the penis: review of literature by the Committee of Cancerology of the French Association of Urology-External Genital Organs Group (CCAFU-OGE)]. Prog Urol; 2010 May;20(5):332-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Treatment of lymph nodes in epidermoid carcinoma of the penis: review of literature by the Committee of Cancerology of the French Association of Urology-External Genital Organs Group (CCAFU-OGE)].
  • [Transliterated title] Prise en charge ganglionnaire dans le carcinome épidermoïde du pénis: revue de la littérature par le comité de cancérologie de l'Association française d'urologie-groupe organes génitaux externes (CCAFU-OGE).
  • INTRODUCTION: Invasive lymph nodes are an independent factor of prognosis and essential for the survival of patients with cancer of the penis.
  • The aim of this article is to analyse published research results on the diagnosis and treatment of lymph nodes in cancer of the penis.
  • MATERIAL AND METHOD: Bibliographic research on Medline was carried out using the terms penile carcinoma, lymph node dissection, lymphadenectomy, survival, chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • RESULTS: The risk of lymph node metastasis depends on the stage of the primitive tumour, its histological grade, the presence of venous and lymphatic embolus and the presence of palpable lymph nodes (classification into risk groups by the European Association of Urology [EAU]).
  • Not only is surgery on inguinal lymph nodes the only reliable way of confirming an invasive metastatic lymph node, it also plays a therapeutic and prognostic role for patients who have a tumour of the penis which risks spreading to lymph nodes (intermediate or high risk according to EAU).
  • The type of dissection is in function with the clinical examination: a radical inguinal dissection is recommended in the case of palpated adenopathy and a modified inguinal dissection is recommended if there is no palpated adenopathy, this should be radicalised in the case of metastatic adenopathy on histological examination.
  • Neo-adjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy would appear to play a interesting role when combined with surgery for certain patients without there being currently being precise consensus because of the lack of documented cases.
  • CONCLUSION: Lymph node dissection alone has a therapeutic role in patients who have reached metastasis of lymph nodes (stage pN1).
  • However, it remains insufficient for patients who have metastatic infiltration of more than 2 lymph nodes (stage > or =pN2).
  • Consequently, it would seem important to develop multimodal approaches in the treatment of these patients in order to increase the rate of response to treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Lymph Node Excision. Penile Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. France. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Societies, Medical. Urology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20471577.001).
  • [ISSN] 1166-7087
  • [Journal-full-title] Progrès en urologie : journal de l'Association française d'urologie et de la Société française d'urologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prog. Urol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 65
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24. Eastham JA, Scardino PT, Kattan MW: Predicting an optimal outcome after radical prostatectomy: the trifecta nomogram. J Urol; 2008 Jun;179(6):2207-10; discussion 2210-1
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • PURPOSE: The optimal outcome after radical prostatectomy for clinically localized prostate cancer is freedom from biochemical recurrence along with the recovery of continence and erectile function, a so-called trifecta.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the records of patients undergoing open radical prostatectomy for clinical stage T1c-T3a prostate cancer at our center during 2000 to 2006.
  • Men were excluded if they received preoperative hormonal therapy, chemotherapy or radiation therapy, if pretreatment prostate specific antigen was more than 50 ng/ml, or if they were impotent or incontinent before radical prostatectomy.
  • A trifecta outcome (cancer-free status with recovery of continence and potency) was achieved in 62% of patients.
  • In a nomogram developed to predict the likelihood of the trifecta baseline prostate specific antigen was the major predictive factor.

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  • (PMID = 18423693.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-3792
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA092629; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 92629-05
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS96982; NLM/ PMC4270351
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25. Das S, Tunuguntla HS: Balanitis xerotica obliterans--a review. World J Urol; 2000 Dec;18(6):382-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Many cases of BXO occurring after circumcision may be cases of secondary phimosis due to BXO not being recognized at the time of surgery.
  • Biopsy of the lesions is not essential in all cases and is indicated to differentiate from penile cancer and in atypical cases.
  • Early diagnosis and treatment of BXO are very important in preventing the urological complications of the diseases such as urethral stricture.
  • Treatment of BXO depends on the anatomic location of the lesions and their extent and severity, together with the rapidity of progression of the disease process.
  • The treatment may vary from topical corticosteroids, laser vaporization in early cases to meatoplasty and urethroplasty in extensive cases.
  • Topical pharmacotherapy is useful in the early stages to reduce the initial symptoms and slow down the progression, but is not effective in all cases and is not the curative treatment of disease.
  • Meatal stenosis, phimosis, scar adhesions, fissures, erosions of glans and prepuce and involvement of the urethra are indications for surgical treatment.
  • Surgery seems to be the only treatment that can relieve the symptoms of advanced disease.
  • Excision of the scleroatrophic tract and grafting of the glans base, coronal sulcus, and the end of the shaft give a complete relief of pain during erection and intercourse in circumcised patients with balanopreputial adhesions and restore the elasticity of the skin of penile shaft.
  • BXO involving anterior urethra can be treated by 2-stage urethroplasty or substitution urethroplasty.
  • The complete excision of the stricture and flap urethroplasty seems to be better than a 2-stage procedure.
  • However, at the present time, it is not possible to say that surgery can completely resolve this chronic and progressive disease.

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  • (PMID = 11204255.001).
  • [ISSN] 0724-4983
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Urol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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26. Gillitzer R, Hampel C, Wiesner C, Hadaschik B, Thüroff J: Single-institution experience with primary tumours of the male urethra. BJU Int; 2008 Apr;101(8):964-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • RESULTS: Three patients had tumours of the prostatic urethra, two of which had proliferating focal inflammation and one a low-grade, superficial urothelial cancer.
  • Six patients had carcinoma of the bulbar or penile urethra, including two with previous local percutaneous radiotherapy for prostate cancer.
  • One patient had adjuvant chemotherapy after surgery.
  • Local surgical tumour control is essential for long-term survival, but the extent of surgery depends on tumour location and stage.
  • Multimodal therapy might be required to obtain an optimum oncological outcome.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Epidemiologic Methods. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 18070169.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-410X
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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27. Gipponi M: Clinical applications of sentinel lymph-node biopsy for the staging and treatment of solid neoplasms. Minerva Chir; 2005 Aug;60(4):217-33

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical applications of sentinel lymph-node biopsy for the staging and treatment of solid neoplasms.
  • A review of the clinical applications of sentinel lymph node (sN) biopsy has been performed with the aim of defining the rationale, the methods of detection, the accuracy, and the current indications to sN biopsy in different solid neoplasms.
  • In melanoma patients, sN biopsy represents a standard procedure for staging purpose, although its therapeutic value is still under examination.
  • The sN is an accurate method for the pathologic staging of the axilla in patients with early stage breast cancer, and it can be useful for the selection of patients with axillary metastasis who should undergo standard axillary dissection.
  • In gynecologic malignancies, appreciable results are available in patients with vulvar and cervical cancer only.
  • Patients with squamous cell vulvar cancer may benefit by sN biopsy because a complete bilateral inguino-femoral lymph-node dissection may be avoided whenever the sN is free of metastasis.
  • As regards to cervical cancer, further studies are required with the combined technique (blue dye injection and gamma-probe guided surgery), which seems more promising, before abandoning pelvic lymphadenectomy in patients with histologically-negative sN.
  • The experience in urologic cancer deals mainly with penile and prostate cancer; the modern procedures for the dynamic detection of sN are going to clarify its role in the surgical management of penile cancer; as regards to prostate cancer, very preliminary results suggest that the sN biopsy may enhance the pathologic staging of this neoplasm compared to modified pelvic lymphadenectomy, due to the individual variability of the lymphatic drainage of this cancer.
  • In patients with clinically node-negative squamous head and neck cancer, the reliability of sN-guided neck lymph node dissection seems promising.
  • The sN biopsy is also technically feasible in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer; however, the future role of this procedure in the clinical decision-making of these patients remains to be defined due to the questionable biological meaning of nodal metastases.
  • Patients with non-small-cell lung cancer should be investigated by means of radiotracers injected at the time of thoracotomy or under CT-scan guidance in order to achieve a satisfactory identification rate (over 80%); the focused histopathologic staging of the sN improves current pathologic staging by conventional bi-valve assessment of all the lymph nodes of the surgical specimen; moreover, the prognostic role of isolated N2 metastasis can be better elucidated.
  • In patients with gastric cancer, current data show that it can be detected by means of peritumoral injection of indocyanine green; the detection of tumor positive lymph nodes beyond the perigastric area could select patients amenable to D2 lymphadenectomy.
  • As regards to colorectal cancer patients, the focused analysis of the sN may reveal disease that might otherwise go undetected by conventional surgical and pathological methods, and those patients which are upstaged can benefit by adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Finally, in patients with Merkel cell carcinoma, notwithstanding the limited experiences with sN biopsy, sN histology seems to predict regional lymph node status and may aid in selecting which patients are amenable to therapeutic lymph node dissection.
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / therapy. Female. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / pathology. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / therapy. Genital Neoplasms, Female / pathology. Genital Neoplasms, Female / therapy. Humans. Melanoma / pathology. Melanoma / therapy. Neoplasm Staging / methods

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  • (PMID = 16166921.001).
  • [ISSN] 0026-4733
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Chir
  • [Language] eng; ita
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 99
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28. Juan Escudero JU, Ramos de Campos M, Ordoño Domínguez F, Fabuel Deltoro M, Navalón Verdejo P, Zaragoza Orts J: [Radical prostatectomy complications: evolution and conservative management of urinary incontinence]. Actas Urol Esp; 2006 Nov-Dec;30(10):991-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVES: Radical retropubic prostatectomy is the major procedure for curing early stage prostate cancer.
  • In this retrospective study we valued the complications of this surgery and its evolution in time, as well as the efectiveness of the urinary incontinence preservative treatment in the recovery of urinary continence.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Radical prostatectomy continues to be the most effective treatment for the non spared prostate cancer, in spite of the associated morbidity.
  • Hence, this is a significant tool to tackle this illness, whether in connection with the use of absorbent, the pharmacologic therapy or the use of penile collectors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Exercise Therapy. Prostatectomy / adverse effects. Prostatic Neoplasms / surgery. Urinary Incontinence / etiology. Urinary Incontinence / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17253067.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-4806
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas urologicas españolas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Urol Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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