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1. Fusi A, Procopio G, Della Torre S, Ricotta R, Bianchini G, Salvioni R, Ferrari L, Martinetti A, Savelli G, Villa S, Bajetta E: Treatment options in hormone-refractory metastatic prostate carcinoma. Tumori; 2004 Nov-Dec;90(6):535-46
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment options in hormone-refractory metastatic prostate carcinoma.
  • Prostate cancer represents one of the most important health problems in industrialized countries.
  • It is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States.
  • Therapeutic options are different according to the stage of the disease at the diagnosis.
  • Patients with localized disease may be treated with surgery or radiation, whereas the treatment for patients with a metastatic disease is purely palliative.
  • Hormonal treatment represents the standard therapy for stage IV prostate cancer, but patients ultimately become unresponsive to androgen ablation and are classified as hormone-refractory prostate cancer patients.
  • The important thing is that we understand these mechanisms to define potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of hormone-refractory prostate cancer patients.
  • Conventional options for patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer include secondary hormone therapy, radiotherapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy.
  • Therefore, there is no standard therapy for these patients, thus we need new approaches which should be studied in clinical trials.
  • The evaluation and incorporation of new agents into current treatment regimens could have a role in the treatment of hormone-refractory prostate cancer, but their efficacy has not yet been demonstrated.
  • [MeSH-major] Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Receptors, Androgen / drug effects. Receptors, Androgen / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Estramustine / therapeutic use. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Male. Mitoxantrone / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Staging. Palliative Care. Survival Analysis. Taxoids / therapeutic use. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15762353.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 0 / Taxoids; 35LT29625A / Estramustine; BZ114NVM5P / Mitoxantrone
  • [Number-of-references] 120
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2. Tomobe M, Miyanaga N, Kawai K, Kikuchi K, Uchida K, Takeshima H, Hasegawa Y, Nagasawa T, Akaza H: [Intrascrotal tumors: a clinicopathologic study of 15 cases]. Nihon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi; 2000 Sep;91(9):618-22
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  • The histological diagnoses of 15 patients were 8 malignant lymphomas, 2 paratesticular rhabdomyosarcomas, 2 metastatic tumors (origin; stomach and prostate), 1 epidermoid cyst, 1 cyst of tunica testis, and 1 adenomatoid tumor.
  • As for the cases with malignant lymphoma, all of them were non-Hodgkin's lymphoma whose clinical stages were stage I in 2 cases and stage IV in 6 cases.
  • Five 8 patients died in spite of systemic chemotherapy after an orchiectomy, whereas 2 cases with metastatic tumors died of primary cancer, and two cases with paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma are still alive and have had no evidence of disease.
  • Therefore, accurate diagnosis and precise treatment is important in the patient with intrascrotal tumors.

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  • (PMID = 11068425.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5287
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Hinyōkika Gakkai zasshi. The japanese journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] JAPAN
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3. Schleinitz MD, DePalo D, Blume J, Stein M: Can differences in breast cancer utilities explain disparities in breast cancer care? J Gen Intern Med; 2006 Dec;21(12):1253-60
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  • [Title] Can differences in breast cancer utilities explain disparities in breast cancer care?
  • BACKGROUND: Black, older, and less affluent women are less likely to receive adjuvant breast cancer therapy than their counterparts.
  • Whereas preference contributes to disparities in other health care scenarios, it is unclear if preference explains differential rates of breast cancer care.
  • OBJECTIVE: To ascertain utilities from women of diverse backgrounds for the different stages of, and treatments for, breast cancer and to determine whether a treatment decision modeled from utilities is associated with socio-demographic characteristics.
  • PARTICIPANTS: A stratified sample (by age and race) of 156 English-speaking women over 25 years old not currently undergoing breast cancer treatment.
  • DESIGN AND MEASUREMENTS: We assessed utilities using standard gamble for 5 breast cancer stages, and time-tradeoff for 3 therapeutic modalities.
  • We incorporated each subject's utilities into a Markov model to determine whether her quality-adjusted life expectancy would be maximized with chemotherapy for a hypothetical, current diagnosis of stage II breast cancer.
  • RESULTS: Median utilities for the 8 health states were: stage I disease, 0.91 (interquartile range 0.50 to 1.00); stage II, 0.75 (0.26 to 0.99); stage III, 0.51 (0.25 to 0.94); stage IV (estrogen receptor positive), 0.36 (0 to 0.75); stage IV (estrogen receptor negative), 0.40 (0 to 0.79); chemotherapy 0.50 (0 to 0.92); hormonal therapy 0.58 (0 to 1); and radiation therapy 0.83 (0.10 to 1).
  • Utilities for early stage disease and treatment modalities, but not metastatic disease, varied with socio-demographic characteristics.
  • One hundred and twenty-two of 156 subjects had utilities that maximized quality-adjusted life expectancy given stage II breast cancer with chemotherapy.
  • Age over 50, black race, and low household income were associated with at least 5-fold lower odds of maximizing quality-adjusted life expectancy with chemotherapy, whereas women who were married or had a significant other were 4-fold more likely to maximize quality-adjusted life expectancy with chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Differences in utility for breast cancer health states may partially explain the lower rate of adjuvant therapy for black, older, and less affluent women.
  • Further work must clarify whether these differences result from health preference alone or reflect women's perceptions of sources of disparity, such as access to care, poor communication with providers, limitations in health knowledge or in obtaining social and workplace support during therapy.

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  • (PMID = 16961753.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1497
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of general internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Gen Intern Med
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / K12 HD043447; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD43447
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hormones; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1924747
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4. Zou YP, Li WM, Zheng F, Li FC, Huang H, Du JD, Liu HR: Intraoperative radiofrequency ablation combined with 125 iodine seed implantation for unresectable pancreatic cancer. World J Gastroenterol; 2010 Oct 28;16(40):5104-10
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  • [Title] Intraoperative radiofrequency ablation combined with 125 iodine seed implantation for unresectable pancreatic cancer.
  • AIM: To evaluate the feasibility, efficacy and safety of intraoperative radiofrequency ablation (RFA) combined with (125)iodine seed implantation for unresectable pancreatic cancer.
  • METHODS: Thirty-two patients (21 males and 11 females) at the age of 68 years (range 48-90 years) with unresectable locally advanced pancreatic cancer admitted to our hospital from January 2006 to May 2008 were enrolled in this study.
  • Diagnosis of pancreatic cancer was made through intraoperative biopsy.
  • In brief, a RFA needle was placed, which was confirmed by intraoperative ultrasound to decrease the potential injury of surrounding vital structures, a (125)iodine seed was implanted near the blood vessels and around the tumor border followed by bypass palliative procedure (cholangio-jejunostomy and/or gastrojejunostomy) in 29 patients.
  • The pain score on day 7 after operation, 1 and 3 mo after combined therapy was decreased from 5.86 ± 1.92 before operation to 2.65 ± 1.04, 1.65 ± 0.88 and 2.03 ± 1.16, respectively, after operation (P < 0.05).
  • The rate of complete response (CR), partial response (PR), stable disease (SD), progressive disease (PD) in 32 patients was 21.8% (7/32), 56.3% (18/32), 15.6% (5/32) and 6.3% (2/32), respectively, 6 mo after operation, with a median overall survival time of 17. 5 mo.
  • The median survival time of patients at stage III was longer than that of those at stage IV (19 mo vs 10 mo, P = 0.0026).
  • The median survival time of patients who received and did not receive chemotherapy after operation was 20 mo and 16 mo, respectively (P = 0.0176).
  • All the patients recovered well after conservative support treatment.
  • CONCLUSION: Intraoperative RFA combined with (125)iodine seed implantation is a feasible and safe procedure for unresectable pancreatic cancer with acceptable minor complications, and can prolong the survival time of patients, especially those at stage III.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Catheter Ablation / methods. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Pancreatic Neoplasms / therapy. Radiotherapy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Feasibility Studies. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20976848.001).
  • [ISSN] 2219-2840
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2965288
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5. Hori J, Kato Y, Iwata T, Taniguchi N, Hashimoto H, Yachiku S: [A case of penile malignant melanoma]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2003 Aug;49(8):493-6
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  • Cystoscopy and urethrography revealed urethral invasion of malignant melanoma, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the penis revealed invasion to prostate, and pelvic lymph node metastases in abdominal compuled tomography (CT) but no organ metastases.
  • After these therapies, chemotherapy was performed.
  • Five months later, CT revealed multiple lung and brain metastases, and radiation therapy and chemotherapy were performed.
  • Twelve months after the operation, he died of cancer.
  • In 30 cases, stage III, IV were 20 cases and 16 cases performed operation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 14518390.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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6. Kurbacher CM, Kurbacher JA, Cramer EM, Rhiem K, Mallman PK, Reichelt R, Reinhold U, Stier U, Cree IA: Continuous low-dose GM-CSF as salvage therapy in refractory recurrent breast or female genital tract carcinoma. Oncology (Williston Park); 2005 Apr;19(4 Suppl 2):23-6
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  • [Title] Continuous low-dose GM-CSF as salvage therapy in refractory recurrent breast or female genital tract carcinoma.
  • Adjuvant treatment with continuous low-dose GM-CSF has been shown to prolong survival of stage III/IV melanoma patients.
  • Data on continuous low-dose GM-CSF therapy in tumors other than prostate cancer are still lacking.
  • This pilot trial was initiated in order to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of continuous low-dose GM-CSF as salvage in various chemotherapy-refractory carcinomas.
  • A total of 19 patients who had failed a median of 4 prior chemotherapies were included.
  • Their malignancies included metastatic breast cancer, recurrent ovarian carcinoma, metastatic endometrial carcinoma, and recurrent squamous cell cancer of the cervix uteri.
  • Therapy was continued until progression or refusal by the patient.
  • Notably, 6 of 7 responders but only 1 of 8 patients with disease progression developed leukocytosis during therapy.
  • Therefore, we conclude that continuous low-dose GM-CSF has substantial activity in heavily pretreated patients with either metastatic breast cancer or female genital tract cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / administration & dosage. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Pilot Projects. Recombinant Proteins. Salvage Therapy


7. Hall IE, Andersen MS, Krumholz HM, Gross CP: Predictors of venous thromboembolism in patients with advanced common solid cancers. J Cancer Epidemiol; 2009;2009:182521
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  • There is uncertainty about risk heterogeneity for venous thromboembolism (VTE) in older patients with advanced cancer and whether patients can be stratified according to VTE risk.
  • We performed a retrospective cohort study of the linked Medicare-Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registry in older patients with advanced cancer of lung, breast, colon, prostate, or pancreas diagnosed between 1995-1999.
  • We used survival analysis with demographics, comorbidities, and tumor characteristics/treatment as independent variables.
  • Outcome was VTE diagnosed at least one month after cancer diagnosis.
  • Compared to prostate cancer (1.4 VTEs/100 person-years), there was marked variability in VTE risk (hazard ratio (HR) for male-colon cancer 3.73 (95% CI 2.1-6.62), female-colon cancer HR 6.6 (3.83-11.38), up to female-pancreas cancer HR 21.57 (12.21-38.09).
  • Stage IV cancer and chemotherapy resulted in higher risk (HRs 1.75 (1.44-2.12) and 1.31 (1.0-1.57), resp.).
  • Stratifying the cohort by cancer type and stage using recursive partitioning analysis yielded five groups of VTE rates (nonlocalized prostate cancer 1.4 VTEs/100 person-years, to nonlocalized pancreatic cancer 17.4 VTEs/100 patient-years).
  • In a high-risk population with advanced cancer, substantial variability in VTE risk exists, with notable differences according to cancer type and stage.

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  • (PMID = 20445797.001).
  • [ISSN] 1687-8566
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer epidemiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cancer Epidemiol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / K08 AG024842
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2859683
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8. Redondo M, Rivas-Ruiz F, Guzman-Soler MC, Labajos C: Monitoring indicators of health care quality by means of a hospital register of tumours. J Eval Clin Pract; 2008 Dec;14(6):1026-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • RATIONALE: Hospital registers of tumours provide, on a continuous basis, information on differences in patterns of neoplasias and the results of the treatment strategies employed.
  • Particularly striking was the corresponding delay for breast cancer patients, in most cases superior to 3 months.
  • Thus, non anatomic-pathological diagnoses represented around 7% (range 3-13%), while 43% of patients (range 28-57%) were given adjuvant treatment in the form of radiation therapy or chemotherapy.
  • In 40% of cases (range 20-50%), the tumour stage was included in the clinical record by the doctor who was treating the patient (in the remaining cases, these data were recorded by the Tumour Registry); the date of appearance of the first symptoms was included in the medical record in 65% of cases (range 54-80%).
  • According to the stage classification, the following 5-year survival rates were recorded: (I) 98%, (II) 94%, (III) 69% and (IV) 39% for breast cancer;.
  • (I) 93%, (II) 83%, (III) 68% and (IV) 12% for cancer of the colon; and (I) 100%, (II) 94%, (III) 79% and (IV) 53% for prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Quality Indicators, Health Care / organization & administration. Quality Indicators, Health Care / statistics & numerical data. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 19019095.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2753
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of evaluation in clinical practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Eval Clin Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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9. Lu-Yao GL, Albertsen PC, Moore DF, Shih W, Lin Y, DiPaola RS, Barry MJ, Zietman A, O'Leary M, Walker-Corkery E, Yao SL: Outcomes of localized prostate cancer following conservative management. JAMA; 2009 Sep 16;302(11):1202-9
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  • [Title] Outcomes of localized prostate cancer following conservative management.
  • CONTEXT: Most newly diagnosed prostate cancers are clinically localized, and major treatment options include surgery, radiation, or conservative management.
  • Although conservative management can be a reasonable choice, there is little contemporary prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-era data on outcomes with this approach.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcomes of clinically localized prostate cancer managed without initial attempted curative therapy in the PSA era.
  • DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A population-based cohort study of men aged 65 years or older when they were diagnosed (1992-2002) with stage T1 or T2 prostate cancer and whose cases were managed without surgery or radiation for 6 months after diagnosis.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Ten-year overall survival, cancer-specific survival, and major cancer related interventions.
  • RESULTS: Among men who were a median age of 78 years at cancer diagnosis, 10-year prostate cancer-specific mortality was 8.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.2%-12.8%) for men with well-differentiated tumors; 9.1% (95% CI, 8.3%-10.1%) for those with moderately differentiated tumors, and 25.6% (95% CI, 23.7%-28.3%) for those with poorly differentiated tumors.
  • The use of chemotherapy (1.6%) or major interventions for spinal cord compression (0.9%) was uncommon.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Results following conservative management of clinically localized prostate cancer diagnosed from 1992 through 2002 are better than outcomes among patients diagnosed in the 1970s and 1980s.
  • This may be due, in part, to additional lead time, overdiagnosis related to PSA testing, grade migration, or advances in medical care.

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  • (PMID = 19755699.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3598
  • [Journal-full-title] JAMA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JAMA
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA116399-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA116399-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA072720; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA116399-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA116399; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-72720-10; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA116399-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS172636; NLM/ PMC2822438
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10. Bhasin S, Cunningham GR, Hayes FJ, Matsumoto AM, Snyder PJ, Swerdloff RS, Montori VM: Testosterone therapy in adult men with androgen deficiency syndromes: an endocrine society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Jun;91(6):1995-2010
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Testosterone therapy in adult men with androgen deficiency syndromes: an endocrine society clinical practice guideline.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective was to provide guidelines for the evaluation and treatment of androgen deficiency syndromes in adult men.
  • At each stage of review, the Task Force received written comments and incorporated needed changes.
  • We recommend testosterone therapy for symptomatic men with androgen deficiency, who have low testosterone levels, to induce and maintain secondary sex characteristics and to improve their sexual function, sense of well-being, muscle mass and strength, and bone mineral density.
  • We recommend against starting testosterone therapy in patients with breast or prostate cancer, a palpable prostate nodule or induration or prostate-specific antigen greater than 3 ng/ml without further urological evaluation, erythrocytosis (hematocrit > 50%), hyperviscosity, untreated obstructive sleep apnea, severe lower urinary tract symptoms with International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) greater than 19, or class III or IV heart failure.
  • When testosterone therapy is instituted, we suggest aiming at achieving testosterone levels during treatment in the mid-normal range with any of the approved formulations, chosen on the basis of the patient's preference, consideration of pharmacokinetics, treatment burden, and cost.
  • Men receiving testosterone therapy should be monitored using a standardized plan.
  • [MeSH-major] Testosterone / deficiency. Testosterone / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Evidence-Based Medicine. Glucocorticoids / adverse effects. HIV Infections / blood. Humans. Male. Sexual Dysfunction, Physiological / drug therapy

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  • [CommentIn] J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Feb;92(2):414-5 [17284641.001]
  • [CommentIn] J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Feb;92(2):418-9 [17284643.001]
  • [CommentIn] J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Feb;92(2):416-7 [17284642.001]
  • [ErratumIn] J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Jul;91(7):2688
  • (PMID = 16720669.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Practice Guideline
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone
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11. Kumi-Diaka J: Chemosensitivity of human prostate cancer cells PC3 and LNCaP to genistein isoflavone and beta-lapachone. Biol Cell; 2002 Feb;94(1):37-44
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Chemosensitivity of human prostate cancer cells PC3 and LNCaP to genistein isoflavone and beta-lapachone.
  • A wide spectrum of anti-cancer activity of genistein and beta-lapachone in various tumors has been reported in single treatments.
  • In this study the combined effects of genistein and beta-lapachone on the chemosensitivity of LNCaP and PC3 human prostate cancer cells was determined in vitro, using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2-,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) to study treatment-induced growth inhibition and cytotoxicity and, annexin V-fluoresceine (FI) and terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL)-propidium iodide (PI) assays to determine potential treatment-induced apoptosis and/or necrosis.
  • The results showed: i) that both PC3 and LNCaP are sensitive to single and combination treatments regardless of hormone sensitivity status, ii) that treatment induced dual death pathways (apoptosis and necrosis) in both cell types, iii) that growth inhibition in both cell types correlated positively with cell death via apoptosis at lower drug concentrations and necrosis at higher concentrations, iv) that combination of genistein and beta-lapachone had synergistic inhibitory effects on growth and proliferation in both cell types.
  • The synergistic inhibitory effect was correlated positively with treatment-induced cell death via apoptosis and necrosis.
  • The overall results indicate that combination treatments with beta-lapachone and genistein are more potent in killing both PC3 and LNCaP cancer cells than treatment with either genistein or beta-lapachone alone. beta-lapachone acts at the G1 and S phase checkpoints in the cell cycle, while genistein induces cell cycle arrest at the G2-M stage.
  • The current results are therefore in agreement with the hypothesis that drug combinations that target cell cycles at different critical checkpoints would be more effective in causing cell death.
  • This result provides a rationale for in vivo studies to determine whether beta-lapachone-genistein combination will provide effective chemotherapy for prostate cancer, regardless of the tumor sensitivity to hormone.


12. Masue N, Hasegawa Y: [Giant prostate carcinoma treated effectively with endocrine therapy: case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2007 Feb;53(2):133-5
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  • [Title] [Giant prostate carcinoma treated effectively with endocrine therapy: case report].
  • Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a giant prostate tumor.
  • The histologic diagnosis was moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma of prostate.
  • The clinical stage according to the TNM classification system was T4N0M0, stage IV.
  • Combined androgen blockade therapy was performed.
  • Four months later, CT showed that the tumor had decreased markedly in size, and the serum prostate specific antigen level was within normal range.
  • Hormone refractory prostate cancer was not found 1 year after the start of treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Chlormadinone Acetate / therapeutic use. Goserelin / therapeutic use. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists / administration & dosage. Aged, 80 and over. Anilides / therapeutic use. Drug Administration Schedule. Drug Therapy, Combination. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Naphthalenes / administration & dosage. Nitriles. Piperazines / administration & dosage. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Tosyl Compounds / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17352166.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists; 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Anilides; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Naphthalenes; 0 / Nitriles; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Tosyl Compounds; 0F65R8P09N / Goserelin; 0SY050L61N / Chlormadinone Acetate; A0Z3NAU9DP / bicalutamide; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen; R9PHW59SFN / naftopidil
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13. Elliott SP, Jarosek SL, Wilt TJ, Virnig BA: Reduction in physician reimbursement and use of hormone therapy in prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst; 2010 Dec 15;102(24):1826-34
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Reduction in physician reimbursement and use of hormone therapy in prostate cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Use of androgen suppression therapy (AST) in prostate cancer increased more than threefold from 1991 to 1999.
  • METHODS: A cohort of 72,818 men diagnosed with prostate cancer in 1992-2005 was identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database.
  • Non-indicated AST was defined as AST given without other therapies such as radical prostatectomy or radiation in men with low-risk disease (n = 64,788).
  • Covariates in the model included age in 5-year categories, clinical tumor stage (T1-T4), World Health Organization grade (1-3, unknown), Charlson comorbidity (0, 1, 2, ≥ 3), race, education, income, and tumor registry site, all as categorical variables.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this example of hormone therapy for prostate cancer, decreased physician reimbursement was associated with a reduction in overtreatment without a reduction in needed services.

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  • (PMID = 21131577.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2105
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 5K12-RR023247-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3001964
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14. Shahinian VB, Kuo YF, Freeman JL, Goodwin JS: Determinants of androgen deprivation therapy use for prostate cancer: role of the urologist. J Natl Cancer Inst; 2006 Jun 21;98(12):839-45
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Determinants of androgen deprivation therapy use for prostate cancer: role of the urologist.
  • BACKGROUND: The use of androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer has been increasing, even in settings for which there is weak or no evidence of efficacy.
  • We assessed the importance of the physician as a determinant of the use of androgen deprivation therapy in prostate cancer in a population-based, retrospective cohort study using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End-Results-Medicare linked database.
  • METHODS: Participants included 61 717 men with incident prostate cancer diagnosed from January 1, 1992, through December 31, 1999, and 1802 urologists providing care to them within 1 year of cancer diagnosis.
  • Multilevel analyses were used to estimate and partition the variance in use of androgen deprivation therapy within 6 months of diagnosis between patient or tumor characteristics and urologist to examine the relative contribution of each component to androgen deprivation therapy.
  • RESULTS: The percentage of the total variance in the use of androgen deprivation therapy attributable to the urologist was consistently higher than that attributable to tumor or patient characteristics.
  • This pattern was most pronounced for patients diagnosed from January 1, 1997, through December 31, 1999, in which 22.56% of the total variance in use of androgen deprivation therapy was attributable to the urologist, 9.71% to tumor characteristics (stage or grade), and 4.29% to patient characteristics (age, ethnicity, socio-economic status, comorbidity, geographic region, or year of diagnosis).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Which urologist a patient sees may be more important in determining whether they will receive androgen deprivation therapy than tumor or patient characteristics.

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  • (PMID = 16788157.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2105
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / AHRQ HHS / HS / R24 HS011618; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA116758; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA116758; United States / AHRQ HHS / HS / R24HS011618; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50CA105631; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA105631
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS19896; NLM/ PMC1853355
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15. Yi SK, Yoder M, Zaner K, Hirsch AE: Palliative radiation therapy of symptomatic recurrent bladder cancer. Pain Physician; 2007 Mar;10(2):285-90
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  • [Title] Palliative radiation therapy of symptomatic recurrent bladder cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Palliative radiation therapy (RT) is an established tool in the management of symptoms caused by malignancies.
  • RT is effective at palliating both locally advanced and metastatic cancer, including related symptoms of pain, bleeding, or obstruction.
  • Most data on palliative RT is in regard to its use in the treatment of painful bone metastases.
  • There are also data that support RT palliation for locally advanced or recurrent rectal, prostate, and gynecological cancers.
  • With regard to bladder cancer there is some evidence of the benefit of palliative RT for the control of urinary symptoms and hematuria; however, there is little evidence for the use of palliative RT for pain associated with locally recurrent bladder cancer.
  • We report a case of locally advanced recurrent bladder cancer which was refractory to medical pain management, and was found to be highly responsive to palliative RT.
  • CASE REPORT: An 80-year-old woman with recurrent bladder cancer and intractable pelvic pain refractory to oral and transdermal pain medications, received palliative pelvic RT to a dose of 50 Gy (5000 cGy) in 25 fractions with complete resolution of pain.
  • The patient was originally found to have dysuria, frequency, and hematuria, secondary to an invasive high grade transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder with an adenocarcinoma component, AJCC pT2b N1 M0 Stage IV, for which she underwent a radical cystectomy, total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, partial vaginectomy, and ileal conduit reconstruction.
  • After undergoing 4 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy, the patient did well for 5 months with no evidence of symptomatic, clinical, or radiographic recurrence of disease.
  • The patient was treated with another course of chemotherapy and pain was managed with relatively low doses of opioid medication (25mcg transdermal fentanyl patch, and oxycodone 5mg bid).
  • Ultimately a pain medication regimen of 200mcg transdermal fentanyl patch q2 days, oxycontin 20mg bid, oxycodone 5 - 10mg q 4 hours, ibuprofen 400mg q 8 hours, and gabapentin 600mg TID was not effective in controlling pain.
  • She was able to decrease pain medications, increase overall activity, and gain significant improvement in sleep quality and appetite even early on in the course of her radiation therapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Palliative radiation therapy has been well studied in the setting of bone metastases and treatment of hematuria for locally advanced bladder cancer.
  • There is little data that we are aware of on the use of RT for pain control with patients that have recurrent, locally advanced bladder cancer.
  • RT is an excellent option for pain management in recurrent bladder cancer and should be offered to patients whose pain is not otherwise optimally controlled.
  • Palliative RT is an important component in the multimodality approach to cancer pain management and optimization of quality of life.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Quality of Life. Treatment Outcome


16. Urakawa H, Nishida Y, Naruse T, Nakashima H, Ishiguro N: Cyclooxygenase-2 overexpression predicts poor survival in patients with high-grade extremity osteosarcoma: a pilot study. Clin Orthop Relat Res; 2009 Nov;467(11):2932-8
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  • We examined expression levels of COX-2 immunohistochemically in 51 patients with extremity osteosarcoma who completed standard therapy and obtained complete initial regression of the tumor.
  • We found no correlation between COX-2 staining intensity and variables such as gender, age, anatomic site, necrosis after chemotherapy, and surgical stage.
  • LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV, prognostic study.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Bone Neoplasms / mortality. Bone Neoplasms / therapy. Cyclooxygenase 2 / blood. Osteosarcoma / mortality. Osteosarcoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Chi-Square Distribution. Child. Child, Preschool. Cohort Studies. Combined Modality Therapy. Confidence Intervals. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Pilot Projects. Predictive Value of Tests. Probability. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome. Upper Extremity. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19326179.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-1132
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical orthopaedics and related research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2758970
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17. Sydes MR, Parmar MK, James ND, Clarke NW, Dearnaley DP, Mason MD, Morgan RC, Sanders K, Royston P: Issues in applying multi-arm multi-stage methodology to a clinical trial in prostate cancer: the MRC STAMPEDE trial. Trials; 2009 Jun 11;10:39
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  • [Title] Issues in applying multi-arm multi-stage methodology to a clinical trial in prostate cancer: the MRC STAMPEDE trial.
  • BACKGROUND: The multi-arm multi-stage (MAMS) trial is a new paradigm for conducting randomised controlled trials that allows the simultaneous assessment of a number of research treatments against a single control arm.
  • Prostate cancer is the most common tumour in men and there is a need to improve outcomes for men with hormone-sensitive, advanced disease as quickly as possible.
  • The MAMS design will potentially facilitate evaluation and testing of new therapies in this and other diseases.
  • METHODS: STAMPEDE is an open-label, 5-stage, 6-arm randomised controlled trial using MAMS methodology for men with prostate cancer.
  • CONCLUSION: It is possible to use the MAMS design to initiate and undertake large scale cancer trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Data Interpretation, Statistical. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use. Drug Therapy, Combination. Humans. Imidazoles / therapeutic use. Male. Software. Taxoids / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19519885.001).
  • [ISSN] 1745-6215
  • [Journal-full-title] Trials
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Trials
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ISRCTN/ ISRCTN78818544; ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00268476
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / 10588; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / ; United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / 3804; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MC/ U122861330; United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / ; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0501019; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0500966
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / Imidazoles; 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; 6XC1PAD3KF / zoledronic acid
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2704188
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18. Liu ZZ, Xie XD, Qu SX, Zheng ZD, Wang YK: Small breast epithelial mucin (SBEM) has the potential to be a marker for predicting hematogenous micrometastasis and response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer. Clin Exp Metastasis; 2010 Apr;27(4):251-9
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  • [Title] Small breast epithelial mucin (SBEM) has the potential to be a marker for predicting hematogenous micrometastasis and response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer.
  • To investigate the potential role of small breast epithelial mucin (SBEM) as a marker for detecting hematogenous micrometastasis in breast cancer and explore its clinical significance in neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • SBEM protein expression in 82 tissue specimens of primary breast cancer was detected using immunohistochemistry (IHC), and SBEM expression in peripheral blood (PB) samples of 109 primary breast cancer patients (94 cases at stage I-III, 15 cases at stage IV) was detected by flow cytometry (FCM) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
  • Moreover, SBEM mRNA expression was monitored by quantification real-time PCR (QPCR) before and after 3 cycles' neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • SBEM expression in PB of breast cancer patients was markedly higher than that of healthy donors and other cancer patients.
  • SBEM was found expressed in PB of 50 cases among 94 cases at stage I-III and expressed in PB of 11 cases among 15 cases at stage IV.
  • After 3 cycles' neoadjuvant chemotherapy, SBEM expression levels were significantly down-regulated in up to 58% breast cancer patients.
  • SBEM has the potential to be a specific marker for predicting hematogenous micrometastasis and response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Mucins / metabolism. Neoplasm Metastasis
  • [MeSH-minor] Cohort Studies. Female. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 20364301.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7276
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & experimental metastasis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Metastasis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / MUCL1 protein, human; 0 / Mucins; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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19. Bunn PA Jr, Chan DC, Earle K, Zhao TL, Helfrich B, Kelly K, Piazza G, Whitehead CM, Pamukcu R, Thompson W, Alila H: Preclinical and clinical studies of docetaxel and exisulind in the treatment of human lung cancer. Semin Oncol; 2002 Feb;29(1 Suppl 4):87-94
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  • [Title] Preclinical and clinical studies of docetaxel and exisulind in the treatment of human lung cancer.
  • Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States.
  • About one third of patients have stage IV disease with metastases to distant organs at the time of diagnosis.
  • Current chemotherapy combinations improve the survival and quality of life for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.
  • With two-drug combinations, median survival is increased to 8 months or more and 1-year survival is increased to 35% to 40%.
  • The improvements created by current therapies led to studies of chemotherapy in the second-line setting.
  • Docetaxel has been shown to improve survival of patients who failed platinum-based chemotherapy and was approved by the U.S.
  • Food and Drug Administration for therapy in this setting.
  • Therefore, new therapies are urgently needed.
  • Exisulind is a novel oral anticancer agent that holds promise for the treatment of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.
  • Exisulind was originally developed as a chemoprevention agent for colorectal cancer.
  • Subsequent preclinical studies showed that exisulind also inhibited the growth of human breast, prostate, and lung cancers.
  • These observations lead to the studies of the combination of exisulind and docetaxel in preclinical and clinical studies in human lung cancer described in this article.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Paclitaxel / analogs & derivatives. Sulindac / analogs & derivatives. Taxoids
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Animals. Cell Cycle. Disease Models, Animal. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mice. Rats. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 11894018.001).
  • [ISSN] 0093-7754
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA46934; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA58187
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; 184SNS8VUH / Sulindac; K619IIG2R9 / sulindac sulfone; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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20. Tkachev SI, Matveev VB, Trofimova OP, Nazarenko AV, Pylova IV, Priamikova IuI: [Conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer]. Vopr Onkol; 2010;56(2):215-9
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  • [Title] [Conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer].
  • Data are presented on a retrospective comparison of the results of remote radiotherapy and combined treatment of prostate cancer (T2T4NxM0) (88) at the Center's Clinics (1999-2003).
  • In group 1 (n=37), contemporary radiotherapy was administered--TTD--up to 44 Gy (stage I) and up to 66-70 Gy (stage II).
  • In group 2 (n=51), contemporary radiotherapy was supplemented with inhalation of radioprotector GGS-9--TTD--up to 44 Gy plus GGS-9 (stage I) and up to 72-76 Gy plus conformaton radiotherapy (3D CRT) (stage II).
  • When GGS-9 was used at stage I the rate of acute radiation injury dropped from 56.7% in group 1 to 11.7% in group 2, (p=0.0001).
  • The latter treatment was followed by higher 5-year recurrence-free survival (94.2%) as compared with contemporary radiotherapy (73%), (p=0.0001).
  • Owing to use of 3D CRT, dose distribution was improved as volume and dosage for organs at risk of irradiation decreased, while TTD increased up to 72-76 Gy unaccompanied by a rise in early-onset injuries.
  • [MeSH-major] Prostatic Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Conformal
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / administration & dosage. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation. Drug Administration Schedule. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy / methods. Neoplasm Staging. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted. Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20552901.001).
  • [ISSN] 0507-3758
  • [Journal-full-title] Voprosy onkologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vopr Onkol
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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21. Patel K, Brahmbhatt V, Ramu V: Zoledronic acid-induced severe hypocalcaemia in a prostate cancer patient with extensive osteoblastic bone metastases. Tenn Med; 2005 Feb;98(2):83-5, 89
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Zoledronic acid-induced severe hypocalcaemia in a prostate cancer patient with extensive osteoblastic bone metastases.
  • A 74-year old white man was undergoing treatment with palliative chemotherapy for Stage IV Prostate Adenocarcinoma with multiple osteoblastic metastases.
  • Before starting Zoledronic acid therapy, the patient's serum calcium level was 6.9 mg/dl.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Bone Resorption / prevention & control. Diphosphonates / adverse effects. Hypocalcemia / chemically induced. Imidazoles / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Aged. Humans. Male. Pain / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

  • Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Bone Cancer.
  • Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Prostate cancer.
  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Bone Cancer.
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  • (PMID = 15779196.001).
  • [ISSN] 1088-6222
  • [Journal-full-title] Tennessee medicine : journal of the Tennessee Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tenn Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / Imidazoles; 6XC1PAD3KF / zoledronic acid
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22. Kris MG, Natale RB, Herbst RS, Lynch TJ Jr, Prager D, Belani CP, Schiller JH, Kelly K, Spiridonidis H, Sandler A, Albain KS, Cella D, Wolf MK, Averbuch SD, Ochs JJ, Kay AC: Efficacy of gefitinib, an inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase, in symptomatic patients with non-small cell lung cancer: a randomized trial. JAMA; 2003 Oct 22;290(16):2149-58
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Efficacy of gefitinib, an inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase, in symptomatic patients with non-small cell lung cancer: a randomized trial.
  • CONTEXT: More persons in the United States die from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) than from breast, colorectal, and prostate cancer combined.
  • In preclinical testing, oral gefitinib inhibited the growth of NSCLC tumors that express the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a mediator of cell signaling, and phase 1 trials have demonstrated that a fraction of patients with NSCLC progressing after chemotherapy experience both a decrease in lung cancer symptoms and radiographic tumor shrinkages with gefitinib.
  • Patients (N = 221) had either stage IIIB or IV NSCLC for which they had received at least 2 chemotherapy regimens.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Improvement of NSCLC symptoms (2-point or greater increase in score on the summed lung cancer subscale of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Lung [FACT-L] instrument) and tumor regression (>50% decrease in lesion size on imaging studies).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Gefitinib, a well-tolerated oral EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor, improved disease-related symptoms and induced radiographic tumor regressions in patients with NSCLC persisting after chemotherapy.






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