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1. Shenkier T, Weir L, Levine M, Olivotto I, Whelan T, Reyno L, Steering Committee on Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Care and Treatment of Breast Cancer: Clinical practice guidelines for the care and treatment of breast cancer: 15. Treatment for women with stage III or locally advanced breast cancer. CMAJ; 2004 Mar 16;170(6):983-94
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical practice guidelines for the care and treatment of breast cancer: 15. Treatment for women with stage III or locally advanced breast cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: To define the optimal treatment for women with stage III or locally advanced breast cancer (LABC).
  • RECOMMENDATIONS: The management of LABC requires a combined modality treatment approach involving surgery, radiotherapy and systemic therapy.
  • Systemic therapy: chemotherapy.
  • Patients with operable stage IIIA disease should be offered chemotherapy.
  • They should receive adjuvant chemotherapy following surgery, or primary chemotherapy followed by locoregional management.
  • Chemotherapy should contain an anthracycline.
  • Patients with stage IIIB or IIIC disease, including those with inflammatory breast cancer and those with isolated ipsilateral internal mammary or supraclavicular lymph-node involvement, should be treated with primary anthracycline-based chemotherapy.
  • Acceptable chemotherapy regimens are FAC, CAF, CEF or FEC.
  • Patients with stage IIIB or IIIC disease who respond to primary chemotherapy should be treated until the response plateaus or to a maximum of 6 cycles (minimum 4 cycles).
  • Patients with stage IIIB disease should then undergo definitive surgery and irradiation.
  • The locoregional management of patients with stage IIIC disease who respond to chemotherapy should be individualized.
  • In patients with stage IIIB or IIIC disease who achieve maximum response with fewer than 6 cycles, further adjuvant chemotherapy can be given following surgery and irradiation.
  • Patients whose tumours do not respond to primary chemotherapy can be treated with taxane chemotherapy or can proceed directly to irradiation followed by modified radical mastectomy, if feasible.
  • Systemic therapy: hormonal therapy.
  • Patients with stage IIIA disease should receive both modified radical mastectomy (MRM) and locoregional radiotherapy if feasible.
  • They may be managed with MRM followed by chemotherapy and locoregional radiotherapy, or chemotherapy first followed by MRM and locoregional radiotherapy.
  • Breast-conserving surgery is currently not a standard approach.
  • Patients with stage IIIB disease who respond to chemotherapy should receive surgery plus locoregional radiotherapy.
  • The locoregional management of patients with stage IIIC disease who respond to chemotherapy is unclear and should be individualized.
  • Patients whose disease remains inoperable following chemotherapy should receive locoregional radiotherapy with subsequent surgery, if feasible.
  • VALIDATION: The authors' original text was revised by members of the Steering Committee on Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Care and Treatment of Breast Cancer.
  • SPONSOR: The Steering Committee on Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Care and Treatment of Breast Cancer was convened by Health Canada.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Mastectomy. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 15023926.001).
  • [ISSN] 0820-3946
  • [Journal-full-title] CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l'Association medicale canadienne
  • [ISO-abbreviation] CMAJ
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Guideline; Journal Article; Practice Guideline; Review
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Number-of-references] 73
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC359433
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2. Nahleh Z, Sivasubramaniam D, Dhaliwal S, Sundarajan V, Komrokji R: Residual cancer burden in locally advanced breast cancer: a superior tool. Curr Oncol; 2008 Dec;15(6):271-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Residual cancer burden in locally advanced breast cancer: a superior tool.
  • OBJECTIVES: Locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) poses a difficult clinical challenge with an overall poor long-term prognosis.
  • The strength of the association between tumour characteristics, treatment response, and outcome is not well defined.
  • In the present study, we attempted to gain further insight into LABC by reviewing tumour characteristics of patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and by studying the association of those characteristics with outcome.
  • We calculated the residual cancer burden (RCB) score obtained at surgery and attempted to study its correlation with event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS).
  • RESULTS: Of the 45 study patients, 9% had stage IIB disease; 29%, stage IIIA; 51%, stage IIIB; and 11%, stage IIIC.
  • Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) was found in 16%.
  • It appears to be a better predictor than pCR of outcome following neoadjuvant chemotherapy in LABC.
  • A continual quest for reliable predictive and correlative prognostic markers, and for better surrogate endpoints for outcome, is essential to advance our understanding of LABC and to improve treatment outcomes.

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  • (PMID = 19079627.001).
  • [ISSN] 1198-0052
  • [Journal-full-title] Current oncology (Toronto, Ont.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2601022
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Breast cancer / endpoints / locally advanced disease / pathology / residual disease
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3. Lerouge D, Touboul E, Lefranc JP, Genestie C, Moureau-Zabotto L, Blondon J: Combined chemotherapy and preoperative irradiation for locally advanced noninflammatory breast cancer: updated results in a series of 120 patients. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2004 Jul 15;59(4):1062-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Combined chemotherapy and preoperative irradiation for locally advanced noninflammatory breast cancer: updated results in a series of 120 patients.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate our updated data concerning survival and locoregional control in a prospective study of locally advanced noninflammatory breast cancer (LABC) after primary chemotherapy (CT) followed by external preoperative irradiation (RT).
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between 1982 and 1998, 120 patients (75 Stage IIIA, 41 Stage IIIB, and 4 Stage IIIC according to AJCC staging system 2002) were treated by four courses of induction CT with anthracycline-containing combinations followed by preoperative RT (45 Gy to the breast and nodal areas) and a fifth course of CT.
  • Three different locoregional approaches were proposed depending on tumor characteristics and tumor response.
  • After completion of local therapy, all patients received a sixth course of CT and a maintenance adjuvant CT regimen without anthracycline.
  • The median follow-up from the beginning of treatment was 140 months.
  • RESULTS: Mastectomy and axillary dissection were performed in 49 patients (with residual tumor larger than 3 cm in diameter or located behind the nipple or with bifocal tumor), and conservative treatment in 71 patients (39 achieved clinical complete response or partial response >90% and received additional radiation boost to initial tumor bed; 32 had residual mass < or =3 cm in diameter and were treated by wide excision and axillary dissection followed by a boost to the excision site).
  • After multivariate analysis, possibility of breast-conserving therapy was related to initial tumor size (<6 cm vs. > or =6 cm in diameter, p = 0.002).
  • After multivariate analysis, metastatic disease-free survival rates were significantly influenced by clinical stage (Stage IIIA-B vs. IIIC, p = 0.0003), N-stage (N0 vs. N1-2a, and 3c, p = 0.017), initial tumor size (<6 cm vs. > or =6 cm in diameter, p = 0.008), and tumor response after induction CT and preoperative RT (clinically complete response + partial response vs. nonresponder, p = 0.0015).
  • In the nonconservative breast treatment group, of the 32 patients with no change in clinical tumor size after induction CT, the 10-year metastatic disease-free survival rate was 59% with only one local relapse.
  • On the other hand, the rate of local failure seems to be high in patients with clinical partial tumor response after induction CT and breast-conserving treatment combining preoperative RT and large wide excision.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Analysis of Variance. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Axilla. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cobalt Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Mastectomy, Segmental. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Remission Induction. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15234040.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cobalt Radioisotopes
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4. Gonzalez-Angulo AM, McGuire SE, Buchholz TA, Tucker SL, Kuerer HM, Rouzier R, Kau SW, Huang EH, Morandi P, Ocana A, Cristofanilli M, Valero V, Buzdar AU, Hortobagyi GN: Factors predictive of distant metastases in patients with breast cancer who have a pathologic complete response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol; 2005 Oct 1;23(28):7098-104
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Factors predictive of distant metastases in patients with breast cancer who have a pathologic complete response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • PURPOSE: To identify clinicopathological factors predictive of distant metastasis in patients who had a pathologic complete response (pCR) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NC).
  • Clinical stage at diagnosis was I (2%), II (36%), IIIA (27%), IIIB (23%), and IIIC (12%).
  • Eleven percent of all patients were inflammatory breast cancers (IBC).
  • Ninety-five percent received anthracycline-based chemotherapy; 42% also received taxane-based therapy.
  • Multivariate Cox regression analysis using combined stage revealed that clinical stages IIIB, IIIC, and IBC (hazard ratio [HR], 4.24; 95% CI, 1.96 to 9.18; P < .0001), identification of < or = 10 lymph nodes (HR, 2.94; 95% CI, 1.40 to 6.15; P = .004), and premenopausal status (HR, 3.08; 95% CI, 1.25 to 7.59; P = .015) predicted for distant metastasis.
  • CONCLUSION: A small percentage of breast cancer patients with pCR experience recurrence.
  • Our data suggest that premenopausal patients with advanced local disease and suboptimal axillary node evaluation may be candidates for clinical trials to determine whether more aggressive or investigational adjuvant therapy will be of benefit.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Premenopause. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16192593.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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5. Fan Y, Xu B, Liao Y, Yao S, Sun Y: A retrospective study of metachronous and synchronous ipsilateral supraclavicular lymph node metastases in breast cancer patients. Breast; 2010 Oct;19(5):365-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A retrospective study of metachronous and synchronous ipsilateral supraclavicular lymph node metastases in breast cancer patients.
  • Clinically, ipsilateral supraclavicular lymph node metastasis (ISLM) in breast cancer can be classified into 2 manifestations: metachronous and synchronous.
  • Synchronous ISLM (T1-4, N3, M0) is stage IIIc.
  • Metachronous ISLM is isolated supraclavicular lymph node relapse after curative treatment.
  • We retrospectively reviewed 2486 breast cancer patients.
  • Axillary lymph node metastasis status (P = 0.009) and chemotherapy after occurrence of ISLM (P = 0.016) were independent prognostic predictors for metachronous ISLM whilst primary tumor size (P = 0.016) and radiotherapy after diagnosis of ISLM (P = 0.022) were independent prognostic factors for synchronous ISLM.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20399657.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-3080
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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6. Franceschini G, Terribile D, Fabbri C, Magno S, D'Alba P, Chiesa F, Di Leone A, Masetti R: Management of locally advanced breast cancer. Mini-review. Minerva Chir; 2007 Aug;62(4):249-55
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of locally advanced breast cancer. Mini-review.
  • The term locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) encompasses a heterogeneous group of breast neoplasms; in the last revision of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system, all of stage III disease is considered locally advanced.
  • LABC constitutes up to 20% of breast cancer in medically underserved populations in the United States and up to 75% of breast cancers in developing countries.
  • The prognosis depends on tumor size, extent of lymph node involvement, and the presence or absence of an inflammatory component.
  • However, a multidisciplinary approach is always recommended combining surgery, radiotherapy and systemic therapy (chemotherapy and/or hormone therapy).
  • In this paper, we discuss the possible options in the management of operable (stage IIIA) and inoperable (stage IIIB-IIIC) LABC.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Decision Trees. Female. Humans. Mastectomy / methods. Neoadjuvant Therapy / methods. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17641585.001).
  • [ISSN] 0026-4733
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Chir
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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7. McGuire SE, Gonzalez-Angulo AM, Huang EH, Tucker SL, Kau SW, Yu TK, Strom EA, Oh JL, Woodward WA, Tereffe W, Hunt KK, Kuerer HM, Sahin AA, Hortobagyi GN, Buchholz TA: Postmastectomy radiation improves the outcome of patients with locally advanced breast cancer who achieve a pathologic complete response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2007 Jul 15;68(4):1004-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Postmastectomy radiation improves the outcome of patients with locally advanced breast cancer who achieve a pathologic complete response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of postmastectomy radiation therapy in women with breast cancer who achieved a pathologic complete response (pCR) to neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: We retrospectively identified 226 patients treated at our institution who achieved a pCR at surgery after receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Of these, the 106 patients without inflammatory breast cancer who were treated with mastectomy were analyzed.
  • The patients' clinical stages at diagnosis were I in 2%, II in 31%, IIIA in 30%, IIIB in 25%, and IIIC in 11% (American Joint Committee on Cancer 2003 system).
  • Of the patients, 92% received anthracycline-based chemotherapy, and 38% also received a taxane.
  • A total of 72 patients received postmastectomy radiation therapy, and 34 did not.
  • Use of radiation therapy did not affect the 10-year rates of LRR for patients with Stage I or II disease (the 10-year LRR rates were 0% for both groups).
  • However, the 10-year LRR rate for patients with Stage III disease was significantly improved with radiation therapy (7.3% +/- 3.5% with vs. 33.3% +/- 15.7% without; p = 0.040).
  • Within this cohort, use of radiation therapy was also associated with improved disease-specific and overall survival.
  • CONCLUSION: Postmastectomy radiation therapy provides a significant clinical benefit for breast cancer patients who present with clinical Stage III disease and achieve a pCR after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

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  • (PMID = 17418973.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA077050; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / L30 CA123630-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / L30 CA123630-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 16672; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA 77050; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / L30 CA123630
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS283616; NLM/ PMC4329732
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8. Raspollini MR, Amunni G, Villanucci A, Castiglione F, Rossi Degl'Innocenti D, Baroni G, Paglierani M, Taddei GL: HER-2/neu and bcl-2 in ovarian carcinoma: clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular study in patients with shorter and longer survival. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2006 Jun;14(2):181-6
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  • [Title] HER-2/neu and bcl-2 in ovarian carcinoma: clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular study in patients with shorter and longer survival.
  • The HER-2 oncogene, which is located on chromosome 17 and encodes for a tyrosine-kinase growth factor receptor, is amplified and HER-2/neu is overexpressed in 25% to 30% of breast carcinomas.
  • The authors analyzed the bcl-2 expression and the bcl-2 gene and HER-2/neu overexpression and amplification in FIGO stage IIIC, serous, G3, ovarian carcinomas obtained from living patients who had no evident disease 5 years after primary treatment compared with ovarian carcinomas obtained from patients, matched for stage, grade of differentiation, and treatment, who had died of progression of disease no later than 2 years after primary treatment. bcl-2 overexpression was statistically correlated with progression of disease during first-line chemotherapy (P=0.021).
  • The HER-2/neu status was found not to correlate with progression of disease during first-line chemotherapy.
  • Both bcl-2 and HER-2/neu expression were not statistically associated with the clinical outcome of ovarian cancer patients.
  • The knowledge of additional prognostic or even predictive factors, such as bcl-2 expression, in patients with advanced ovarian carcinoma before the primary chemotherapeutic treatment may help in the management of patients who require a more tailored treatment.
  • In addition, the gene amplification of the HER-2/neu suggests that HER-2 is a potential target for treatment in ovarian cancer.

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  • (PMID = 16785787.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-2016
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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9. Iqbal J, Bano K, Saeed A, Akram M, Aziz Z: Survival of women with locally advanced breast cancer at a teaching hospital in Lahore. J Pak Med Assoc; 2010 Sep;60(9):721-5
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  • [Title] Survival of women with locally advanced breast cancer at a teaching hospital in Lahore.
  • OBJECTIVES: To correlate the clinical features of women presenting with locally advanced breast cancer with event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) and to evaluate the patterns of relapse.
  • METHODS: A total of 200 patients presenting consecutively over 9 years with Stage III breast cancer were evaluated for age, socio-economic status (SES), tumour size and grade, number of involved lymph nodes, stage III sub-categories, estrogen and progesterone receptor (ER/PR) status, treatment profiles and responses, and sites of relapse.
  • Eighty women had extensive nodal involvement (N2 and N3), and 86 had Stage IIIA tumours.
  • Chemotherapy was given to 44 patients before surgery and one of these patients achieved pathological complete response.
  • No patient in stage IIIC was alive at 10 years.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Locally advance breast cancer at our centre is associated with poor survival, and most patients relapsed by 5 years.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / mortality. Breast Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Hospitals, Teaching / statistics & numerical data. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Pakistan / epidemiology. Prognosis. Recurrence. Survival Rate

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  • [CommentIn] J Pak Med Assoc. 2010 Dec;60(12):1067-8; author reply 1068-9 [21381567.001]
  • (PMID = 21381576.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-9982
  • [Journal-full-title] JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pak Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
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10. Garg AK, Oh JL, Oswald MJ, Huang E, Strom EA, Perkins GH, Woodward WA, Yu TK, Tereffe W, Meric-Bernstam F, Hahn K, Buchholz TA: Effect of postmastectomy radiotherapy in patients &lt;35 years old with stage II-III breast cancer treated with doxorubicin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy and mastectomy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2007 Dec 1;69(5):1478-83
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  • [Title] Effect of postmastectomy radiotherapy in patients <35 years old with stage II-III breast cancer treated with doxorubicin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy and mastectomy.
  • The objective of this study was to assess the benefits of PMRT in patients <35 years old treated with doxorubicin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy for Stage II-III breast cancer.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 107 consecutive breast cancer patients <35 years old with Stage IIA-IIIC disease treated at our institution with doxorubicin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy and mastectomy, with or without PMRT.
  • The treatment groups were compared in terms of LRC and overall survival.
  • CONCLUSION: Among breast cancer patients <35 years old at diagnosis, the use of PMRT after doxorubicin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy and mastectomy led to a statistically greater rate of LRC and overall survival compared with patients without PMRT.
  • The benefit seen for PMRT in young patients provides valuable data to better tailor adjuvant, age-specific treatment decisions after mastectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Mastectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 17855016.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / L30 CA123630; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / L30 CA123630-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / L30 CA123630-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS283623; NLM/ PMC4329785
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11. Carey LA, Metzger R, Dees EC, Collichio F, Sartor CI, Ollila DW, Klauber-DeMore N, Halle J, Sawyer L, Moore DT, Graham ML: American Joint Committee on Cancer tumor-node-metastasis stage after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and breast cancer outcome. J Natl Cancer Inst; 2005 Aug 3;97(15):1137-42
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  • [Title] American Joint Committee on Cancer tumor-node-metastasis stage after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and breast cancer outcome.
  • BACKGROUND: Response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy is used as an intermediate endpoint for breast cancer relapse and survival.
  • Most breast cancer response classification systems use pathologic complete response, either alone or in conjunction with clinical assessments, to categorize response.
  • We examined the ability of the revised 2003 American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging system, which considers both the number of involved axillary lymph nodes and the extent of tumor in the breast to predict patient survival after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer.
  • METHODS: We assessed the pathologic stage of residual tumor in 132 patients with nonmetastatic breast cancer after they had undergone neoadjuvant chemotherapy and examined the association between AJCC TNM stage and subsequent distant disease-free survival and overall survival.
  • RESULTS: At a median follow-up of 5 years, pathologic stage in the surgical specimens after neoadjuvant chemotherapy using the revised AJCC system was strongly associated with both distant disease-free survival and overall survival.
  • A higher pathologic stage of residual tumor after neoadjuvant chemotherapy was associated with a statistically significant lower rate of distant disease-free survival (stage 0: 95%, stage I: 84%, stage II: 72%, and stage III: 47%; Ptrend < .001).
  • The 5-year distant disease-free survival for patients with residual stage IIIC tumors was only 18% (95% CI = 0% to 36%).
  • CONCLUSION: Classification of residual tumor in the breast and axillary surgical specimens after neoadjuvant chemotherapy using the revised AJCC TNM system is useful for predicting distant relapse and survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / classification. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Staging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Mastectomy / methods. Middle Aged. Neoplasm, Residual. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Survival Analysis. United States

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  • (PMID = 16077072.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2105
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA58223; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01RR00046
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Rizzo M, Lund MJ, Mosunjac M, Bumpers H, Holmes L, O'Regan R, Brawley OW, Gabram S: Characteristics and treatment modalities for African American women diagnosed with stage III breast cancer. Cancer; 2009 Jul 1;115(13):3009-15
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  • [Title] Characteristics and treatment modalities for African American women diagnosed with stage III breast cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Stage III breast cancers account for about 6% to 7% of all invasive breast cancers diagnosed annually in the United States.
  • In African American (AA) women, the incidence of stage III breast cancers is almost double that in Caucasian women.
  • The aim of this study was to correlate age, receptor status, nuclear grade, and differences in treatment modalities for stage III breast cancer in an inner-city hospital serving a large AA population.
  • METHODS: A retrospective review was performed for all stage III primary breast cancers diagnosed and or treated from 2000 to 2006.
  • RESULTS: : Of 840 primary invasive breast cancers, the authors identified 107 as stage III, 40.2% IIIA, 32.7% IIIB, 16.8% T4D, and 10.3% IIIC.
  • Stage IIIC patients were younger (P < .05).
  • TNT were more likely among the inflammatory breast cancers (50.0%) compared with the other 3 groups (P < .05).
  • Twenty-two patients (20.5%) refused chemotherapy, and 24 of the 91 patients (26.3%) who should have received chest wall radiation refused.
  • There was no difference in race, marital status, religion, or age in the patients that refused chemotherapy or radiation therapy versus the majority of patients in this series who received standard care.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Stage III breast cancers in AA women have distinct clinical characteristics.
  • A high number of these patients refused chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
  • Reasons for refusal need to be better defined so strategies can be implemented to improve compliance for these advanced stage patients.
  • [MeSH-major] African Americans. Breast Neoplasms / ethnology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Refusal / ethnology. Treatment Refusal / statistics & numerical data


13. Ma CD, Chen CM, Chen XS, Liu GY, Di GH, Wu J, Lu JS, Yang WT, Chen JY, Shao ZM, Shen ZZ, Shen KW: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy with vinorelbine-containing regimens in elderly patients with locally advanced breast cancer. Anticancer Res; 2008 Sep-Oct;28(5B):3093-7
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  • [Title] Neoadjuvant chemotherapy with vinorelbine-containing regimens in elderly patients with locally advanced breast cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the efficacy and safety of neoadjuvant chemotherapy with vinorelbine-containing regimens in elderly patient with locally advanced breast cancer (LABC).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: From 2002 to 2006, 14 female elderly patients with LABC underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy with vinorelbine-containing regimens.
  • All 14 patients received 2-6 cycles of chemotherapy.
  • Six patients had stage IIIA breast tumor, 7 stage IIIB and 1 stage IIIC.
  • CONCLUSION: The results of the current study showed that vinorelbine-containing neoadjuvant chemotherapy was effective and well-tolerated in elderly patients with LABC.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Vinblastine / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / adverse effects. Doxorubicin / analogs & derivatives. Epirubicin / administration & dosage. Epirubicin / adverse effects. Female. Humans. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19031963.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; D58G680W0G / pirarubicin; Q6C979R91Y / vinorelbine
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14. Pölcher M, Rudlowski C, Friedrichs N, Mielich M, Höller T, Wolfgarten M, Kübler K, Büttner R, Kuhn W, Braun M: In vivo intratumor angiogenic treatment effects during taxane-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy of ovarian cancer. BMC Cancer; 2010 Apr 13;10:137
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  • [Title] In vivo intratumor angiogenic treatment effects during taxane-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy of ovarian cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of our study was to analyze the effect of taxane-based chemotherapy on tumor angiogenesis in patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer.
  • METHODS: Within a prospective phase II trial, 32 patients with stage IIIC and IV ovarian cancer were treated with either two or three cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy prior to cytoreductive surgery.
  • Changes in intratumor microvessel density (MVD) were assessed with immunohistochemistry by staining pre- and posttreatment surgical tumor specimens with panendothelial, neovascular and lymphatic vessel markers.
  • RESULTS: Mean values of MVD defined by CD31, CD34, CD105 and D2-40 antibodies showed 12.3, 21.0, 2.7 and 3.1 vessels per high power field (HPF) before chemotherapy and increased after treatment to 15.3, 21.8, 4.8 and 3.6 per HPF, respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: Taxane-based chemotherapy appears to promote tumor vascularization when administered every 3 weeks.
  • A possible explanation is the secondary recovery of MVD in response to immediate cytotoxic and antiangiogenic effects of the chemotherapy.
  • If confirmed prospectively, these findings favor shorter treatment intervals of taxane-based chemotherapy to counteract proangiogenic recovery.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Neovascularization, Pathologic / prevention & control. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Angiogenesis Inhibitors / administration & dosage. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Germany. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Microvessels / drug effects. Microvessels / pathology. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Proportional Hazards Models. Prospective Studies. Taxoids / administration & dosage. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20388201.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00551577
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2873383
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15. Sakurai K, Fujisaki S, Matsuo S, Ogura M, Enomoto K, Kitajima A, Tani M, Amano S, Shiono M: [A case of advanced breast cancer with skin ulceration successfully treated with paclitaxel and toremifene therapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2009 Nov;36(12):2484-6
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  • [Title] [A case of advanced breast cancer with skin ulceration successfully treated with paclitaxel and toremifene therapy].
  • We report a case of advanced breast cancer with skin ulceration and bleeding (T4bN3bM0, Stage IIIC) achieving a significant improvement of QOL by paclitaxel (PTX) and toremifene (TOR) therapy.
  • The patient was a 31-year-old woman who had ulcerative breast lump with skin ulcer.
  • A core needle biopsy for breast tumor led to a diagnosis of an invasive ductal carcinoma positive for estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor, and negative for HER2/neu protein expression.
  • The bleeding from the tumor disappeared after CEF chemotherapy.
  • The response for breast tumor after PTX and TOR therapy was evaluated as partial response, and the infraclavicular, subpectoral, and interpectoral lymph nodes metastasis disappeared.
  • PTX and TOR therapy were effective for advanced breast tumor, and can improve patient QOL and the clinical outcomes in Stage IIIC advanced breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / drug therapy. Hemorrhage / complications. Hemorrhage / etiology. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Skin Ulcer / etiology

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  • (PMID = 20037463.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Organic Chemicals; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 0 / tremifene; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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16. Cristofanilli M, Gonzalez-Angulo A, Sneige N, Kau SW, Broglio K, Theriault RL, Valero V, Buzdar AU, Kuerer H, Buchholz TA, Hortobagyi GN: Invasive lobular carcinoma classic type: response to primary chemotherapy and survival outcomes. J Clin Oncol; 2005 Jan 1;23(1):41-8
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  • [Title] Invasive lobular carcinoma classic type: response to primary chemotherapy and survival outcomes.
  • PURPOSE: To investigate the impact of histologic type invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) versus invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) on response to primary chemotherapy (PC) and long-term outcome.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included 1,034 patients with stage II and III breast cancer who participated in six clinical trials of PC at our institution between 1985 and 2002.
  • Pathologic complete response (pCR) was defined as no evidence of invasive disease in the breast and axillary lymph nodes.
  • Patients with ILC tended to be older (median age, 53 years v 47 years for patients with IDC) and have more hormone-receptor-positive tumors (92% v 62%; P < .001), lower nuclear grade (nuclear grade 3, 16% v 56%; P < .001), and higher stage at diagnosis (10% v 0% with stage IIIB or IIIC disease; P < .001).
  • At a median follow-up time of 70 months, ILC patients tended to have longer recurrence-free survival (P = .004) and overall survival (P = .001).
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / mortality. Carcinoma, Lobular / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Lobular / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Axilla. Bridged Compounds / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Ductal / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal / mortality. Carcinoma, Ductal / pathology. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / mortality. Taxoids / therapeutic use. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] J Clin Oncol. 2005 Sep 20;23(27):6796; author reply 6796-7 [16170189.001]
  • [ErratumIn] J Clin Oncol. 2013 Aug 10;31(23):2977. Buccholz, Thomas A [corrected to Buchholz, Thomas A]
  • (PMID = 15625359.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bridged Compounds; 0 / Taxoids; 1605-68-1 / taxane
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17. Ardavanis A, Scorilas A, Tryfonopoulos D, Orphanos G, Missitzis I, Karamouzis M, Chrysochoou M, Sotiropoulou A, Arnogiannaki N, Ioannidis G, Pissakas G, Rigatos G: Multidisciplinary therapy of locally far-advanced or inflammatory breast cancer with fixed perioperative sequence of epirubicin, vinorelbine, and Fluorouracil chemotherapy, surgery, and radiotherapy: long-term results. Oncologist; 2006 Jun;11(6):563-73
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  • [Title] Multidisciplinary therapy of locally far-advanced or inflammatory breast cancer with fixed perioperative sequence of epirubicin, vinorelbine, and Fluorouracil chemotherapy, surgery, and radiotherapy: long-term results.
  • BACKGROUND: Based on phase II data in advanced breast cancer (BC), the fluorouracil, epirubicin, and vinorelbine (FEN) combination was assessed as perioperative chemotherapy, integrated in a multidisciplinary treatment for locally advanced BC.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with newly diagnosed inoperable (stage IIIB or inflammatory) BC.
  • Multimodality treatment protocol consisted of four preoperative courses of fluorouracil (600 mg/m(2) day 1), epirubicin (75 mg/m(2) day 1), and vinorelbine (25 mg/m(2) day1 and day 8), all i.v. every 21 days, followed by radical or conservative surgery according to clinical response and four postoperative identical chemotherapy courses aimed to eradicate micrometastatic disease.
  • Locoregional radiotherapy was offered to all patients after the completion of chemotherapy followed by hormonotherapy according to hormone receptor status.
  • RESULTS: Forty-eight women, one stage IIIA, 27 (56.2%) stage IIIB, two stage IIIC (4.1%), and 12 (25%) with inflammatory BC, aged 34-75 years (median, 52), were accrued.
  • Thirty-eight and 34 patients completed the planned pre- and postoperative chemotherapy, respectively.
  • Toxicity of both phases, mainly hematologic, was in general acceptable without treatment-related death.
  • All but three tumors were converted to operable, 31.3% with breast conservation.
  • After a median follow-up of 72 months, 62.5% and 16.7% of patients remain relapse free at 3 and 5 years, respectively, while 83% and 58.3% were alive 3 and 5 years, respectively, after the start of chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / therapy. Vinblastine / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Epirubicin / adverse effects. Epirubicin / therapeutic use. Female. Fluorouracil / adverse effects. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 16794236.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-7159
  • [Journal-full-title] The oncologist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncologist
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; FEN protocol
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18. Kuru B, Bozgul M: The impact of axillary lymph nodes removed in staging of node-positive breast carcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2006 Dec 1;66(5):1328-34
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  • [Title] The impact of axillary lymph nodes removed in staging of node-positive breast carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: Number of positive lymph nodes in the axilla and pathologic lymph node status (pN) have a great impact on staging according to the current American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system of breast carcinoma.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: The records of 798 consecutive invasive breast cancer patients with T1-3 tumors and positive axillary lymph nodes who underwent modified radical mastectomy between 1999 and 2005 in our hospital were reviewed.
  • The total number of removed nodes were grouped, and compared with the patient and tumor characteristics and the influence of the number of nodes removed on the staging was analyzed.
  • Although the proportion of Stage IIA and IIB decreased, the proportion of Stage IIIA and IIIC increased in patients with >20 nodes removed compared with those with 1-20 nodes removed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In patients with axillary node-positive breast carcinoma, staging is highly influenced by total number of removed nodes.
  • Levels I-III axillary dissection with more than 20 axillary lymph nodes removed could lead to more effective adjuvant chemotherapy and increases substantially the proportion of patients to receive radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Lymph Node Excision. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Neoplasm Staging / methods

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  • (PMID = 16997505.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Sakurai K, Enomoto K, Tani M, Kitajima A, Amano S, Shiono M: [A case of advanced breast cancer successfully treated with paclitaxel and toremifene therapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2008 Nov;35(12):2219-21
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  • [Title] [A case of advanced breast cancer successfully treated with paclitaxel and toremifene therapy].
  • We report a case of advanced breast cancer with skin ulceration and bleeding (T4bN3bM0: Stage IIIC) achieving a significant improvement of QOL by toremifene and paclitaxel therapy.
  • The patient was a 38-year-old woman with slight anemia who had ulcerative breast lump with skin ulcer.
  • A core needle biopsy for breast tumor led to a diagnosis of an invasive ductal carcinoma positive for estrogen receptor and progesteron receptor, and negative for HER2/neu protein expression.
  • The anemia and the bleeding from the tumor disappeared after FEC chemotherapy.
  • The response for breast tumor after paclitaxel and toremifene therapy was evaluated as partial response, and the infraclavicular, subpectoral, and interpectoral lymph nodes metastasis disappeared.
  • Paclitaxel and Toremifene therapy was effective for advanced breast tumor, and can improve a patient QOL and the clinical outcomes in Stage IIIC advanced breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use. Toremifene / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Staging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19106576.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 7NFE54O27T / Toremifene; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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20. Moriya T, Fukatsu K, Ueda S, Iwaya K, Osaki A, Yamamoto J: [A case of giant advanced ulcerative breast cancer managed with epirubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by weekly paclitaxel]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 May;37(5):907-10
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  • [Title] [A case of giant advanced ulcerative breast cancer managed with epirubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by weekly paclitaxel].
  • We report a case of giant advanced breast cancer with skin ulceration and bleeding (T4cN3M0, Stage IIIC) in which a significant QOL improvement was achieved with epirubicin and cyclophosphamide (EC) followed by weekly paclitaxel.
  • A 63- year-old postmenopausal woman presented in May 2008 with a giant ulcerated right breast tumor and extensive erythema of the involved skin.
  • She had discovered the tumor the previous year, but had not sought medical advice or treatment.
  • A core needle biopsy of the breast mass led to a diagnosis of an invasive ductal carcinoma negative for estrogen receptor, progester-one receptor, and HER2/neu protein expression.
  • Upon completion of this chemotherapy, the breast tumor and skin erythema had nearly disappeared.
  • Pathological examination showed only focal residual tumor cells and complete disappearance of cancer cells in the lymph nodes (Grade 2).
  • EC followed by weekly paclitaxel therapy was effective for the locally advanced ulcerative breast tumor, and significantly improved QOL in this patient with Stage III C advanced breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Epirubicin / therapeutic use. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Quality of Life. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20495326.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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21. Li B, Wu LY, Zhang WH, Li L, Ma SK, Liu LY: [Clinical analysis of 11 cases of ovarian Setoli-Leydig cell tumor]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi; 2004 May;39(5):334-7
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  • [Title] [Clinical analysis of 11 cases of ovarian Setoli-Leydig cell tumor].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical characteristics, treatment and prognostic factors of ovarian Setoli-Leydig cell tumor.
  • METHODS: During 1962 - 2002, a total of 11 patients with Setoli-Leydig cell tumor were retrospectively analyzed.
  • Nine of the tumors were stage Ia, 1 was stage IIc and 1 was stage IIIc.
  • Two patients suffered from breast cancer.
  • And 5 patients with poorly differentiated or stage II-III tumors were subjected to postoperational chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Ovarian Setoli-Leydig cell tumor has good prognosis.
  • Surgery alone is a currently acceptable treatment for patients with well-differentiated early stage tumors.
  • For patients with poorly differentiated or advanced tumors, postoperational chemotherapy seems to be necessary.
  • Conservative surgery should be the treatment of choice in young patients who need future fertility.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms. Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 15196418.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-567X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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22. Lerouge D, Touboul E, Lefranc JP, Genestie C, Moureau-Zabotto L, Blondon J: [Locally advanced non inflammatory breast cancer treated by combined chemotherapy and preoperative irradiation: updated results in a series of 120 patients]. Cancer Radiother; 2004 Jun;8(3):155-67
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  • [Title] [Locally advanced non inflammatory breast cancer treated by combined chemotherapy and preoperative irradiation: updated results in a series of 120 patients].
  • [Transliterated title] Cancer du sein localement évolué non inflammatoire traité par association de chimiothérapie et de radiothérapie à dose préopératoire: réactualisation des résultats d'une série de 120 patientes.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate our updated data concerning survival and locoregional control in a study of locally advanced non inflammatory breast cancer after primary chemotherapy followed by external preoperative irradiation.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 1982 and 1998, 120 patients (75 stage IIIA, 41 stage IIIB, and 4 stage IIIC according to AJCC staging system 2002) were consecutively treated by four courses of induction chemotherapy with anthracycline-containing combinations followed by preoperative irradiation (45 Gy to the breast and nodal areas) and a fifth course of chemotherapy.
  • After completion of local therapy, all patients received a sixth course of chemotherapy and a maintenance adjuvant chemotherapy regimen without anthracycline.
  • The median follow-up from the beginning of treatment was 140 months.
  • RESULTS: Mastectomy and axillary dissection were performed in 49 patients (with residual tumour larger than 3 cm in diameter or located behind the nipple or with bifocal tumour), and conservative treatment in 71 patients (39 achieved clinical complete response or partial response >90% and received additional radiation boost to initial tumour bed; 32 had residual mass <or=3 cm in diameter and were treated by wide excision and axillary dissection followed by a boost to the excision site).
  • After multivariate analysis, possibility of breast-conserving therapy was related to initial tumour size (<6 vs. >or=6 cm in diameter, p =0.002).
  • After multivariate analysis, metastatic disease-free survival rates were significantly influenced by clinical stage (stage IIIA-B vs. IIIC, p =0.0003), N-stage (N0 vs. N1-2a, and 3c, p =0.017), initial tumour size (<6 vs. >or=6 cm in diameter, p =0.008), and tumour response after induction chemotherapy and preoperative irradiation (clinically complete response + partial response vs. non-response, p =0.0015).
  • In the non conservative breast treatment group, of the 32 patients with no change in clinical tumour size after induction chemotherapy, the 10-year metastatic disease-free survival rate was 59% with only one local relapse.
  • CONCLUSION: Despite the poor prognosis of patients with locally advanced non inflammatory breast cancer resistant to primary anthracycline-based regimen, aggressive locoregional management using preoperative irradiation and mastectomy with axillary dissection offers a possibility of long term survival with low local failure rate for patients without extensive nodal disease.
  • On the other hand, the rate of local failure seems to be high in patients with clinical partial tumour response following induction chemotherapy and breast-conserving treatment combining preoperative irradiation and large wide excision.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Mastectomy. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15217583.001).
  • [ISSN] 1278-3218
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer radiothérapie : journal de la Société française de radiothérapie oncologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Radiother
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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23. Costa SD, Loibl S, Kaufmann M, Zahm DM, Hilfrich J, Huober J, Eidtmann H, du Bois A, Blohmer JU, Ataseven B, Weiss E, Tesch H, Gerber B, Baumann KH, Thomssen C, Breitbach GP, Ibishi S, Jackisch C, Mehta K, von Minckwitz G: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy shows similar response in patients with inflammatory or locally advanced breast cancer when compared with operable breast cancer: a secondary analysis of the GeparTrio trial data. J Clin Oncol; 2010 Jan 1;28(1):83-91
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  • [Title] Neoadjuvant chemotherapy shows similar response in patients with inflammatory or locally advanced breast cancer when compared with operable breast cancer: a secondary analysis of the GeparTrio trial data.
  • PURPOSE Neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by mastectomy is the treatment of choice in patients with inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) or locally advanced breast cancer (LABC), but it is considered less effective in these diseases than in operable breast cancer (OBC).
  • We report a prospective comparison of the GeparTrio trial of patients with IBC (cT4 days) or LABC (cT4a-c or cN3; stage IIIB or IIIC) and patients with OBC (cT2-3).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS Participants were stratified by stage and were randomly assigned to six or eight cycles of docetaxel/doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide (TAC) or to two cycles of TAC followed by four cycles of vinorelbine/capecitabine.
  • We present results of a secondary aim of the study, which was to compare pathologic complete response (pCR; ie, no remaining invasive/noninvasive tumor in breast and lymph nodes) in different stage groups.
  • At baseline, parameters were as follows for the three types of cancer, respectively: median tumor sizes: 8.0 cm, 7.0 cm, and 4.0 cm (P < .001); multiple lesions: 31.2%, 27.3%, and 19.6% (P < .001); nodal involvement: 86.6%, 71.2%, and 51.6% (P < .001); grade 3: 44.4%, 30.4%, and 39.9% (P = .178); lobular-invasive type: 7.5%, 17.5%, and 13.3% (P = .673); negative hormone receptor status: 38.0%, 20.0%, and 36.4% (P = .008); and positive human growth factor receptor 2 status: 45.1%, 38.9%, and 35.7% (P = .158).
  • Response rates for IBC, LABC, and OBC, respectively, were 8.6%, 11.3%, and 17.7% for pCR (P = .002); 71.0%, 69.6%, and 83.4% for overall response by physical or sonographic examination (P < .001); and 12.9%, 33.0%, and 69.9% for breast conservation (P < .001).
  • However, tumor stage itself was not an independent predictor for pCR in multivariable analysis (odds ratio, 1.51; 95% CI, 0.88 to 2.59; P = .13).
  • CONCLUSION No evidence of a difference in response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy was found by tumor stage when analysis was adjusted for baseline characteristics.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Prospective Studies


24. Huang O, Chen C, Wu J, Chen S, Chen X, Liu G, Hu Z, Lu J, Wu J, Shao Z, Shen Z, Shen K: Retrospective analysis of 119 Chinese noninflammatory locally advanced breast cancer cases treated with intravenous combination of vinorelbine and epirubicin as a neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a median follow-up of 63.4 months. BMC Cancer; 2009;9:375
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  • [Title] Retrospective analysis of 119 Chinese noninflammatory locally advanced breast cancer cases treated with intravenous combination of vinorelbine and epirubicin as a neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a median follow-up of 63.4 months.
  • BACKGROUND: This study is a retrospective evaluation of the efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NC) with a vinorelbine (V) and epirubicin (E) intravenous combination regimen and is aimed at identification of predictive markers for the long-term outcome in noninflammatory locally advanced breast cancer (NLABC).
  • All patients were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer using 14 G core needle biopsy and treated with three cycles of VE before surgery.
  • Local-regional radiotherapy was offered to all patients after the completion of chemotherapy followed by hormonal therapy according to hormone receptor status.
  • Tissue sections cut from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded blocks from biopsy specimens and postoperative tumor tissues were stained for the presence of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), HER-2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor-2), and MIB-1(Ki-67).
  • RESULTS: Patients characteristics were median age 52 years (range: 25-70 years); clinical TNM stage, stage IIB (n = 32), stage IIIA (n = 56), stage IIIB (n = 22) and stage IIIC (n = 9).
  • Among patients with non-pCR, those with a pathological response at the tumor site with special involvement (i.e. skin, vessel and more than one quadrant) were at a higher risk of disease relapse and death (p < 0.001, p = 0.001, respectively).
  • Pathological response in the tumor site, pre-Ki-67 and post-Ki-67 expression, and pre-ER expression were the important variables that predicted long-term outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Epirubicin / administration & dosage. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Vinblastine / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. China. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Ki-67 Antigen / genetics. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Middle Aged. Receptors, Estrogen / genetics. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19845944.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; Q6C979R91Y / vinorelbine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2770573
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25. Kayikçioğlu F, Boran N, Ayhan A, Güler N: Inflammatory breast metastases of ovarian cancer: a case report. Gynecol Oncol; 2001 Dec;83(3):613-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Inflammatory breast metastases of ovarian cancer: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Metastasis to the breast from extramammary malignancies is rare.
  • CASE: A 35-year-old woman presented with bilaterally inflammatory breast involvement, 2 years after the diagnosis of stage IIIC epithelial ovarian cancer.
  • Neoplastic tissue was immunohistochemically positive using antibodies against OC125 and negative for gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 (BRST-2) and estrogen receptor in biopsy material in the breast.
  • Combination chemotherapy consisting of paclitaxel, cisplatin, and anthracycline was started.
  • She died 18 months after the breast metastasis.
  • CONCLUSION: Ovarian carcinoma usually presents with signs and symptoms related to the tumor burden within the abdominal cavity.
  • The finding of isolated, distant metastases such as breast involvement without intraabdominal disease is extremely rare.
  • Determining the origin of the primary tumor is important in directing the actual therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Cystadenocarcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology


26. Gatek J, Kotoc J, Kotocová K, Katrusák J, Vázan P, Duben J, Hnátek L, Dudesek B: [Locoregional recurrences after conservative surgery in early breast cancer]. Rozhl Chir; 2010 Oct;89(10):604-11
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  • [Title] [Locoregional recurrences after conservative surgery in early breast cancer].
  • INTRODUCTION: Conservative surgery is considered as standard and alternative mastectomy in early stage breast cancer but number of local recurrence is higher.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Local recurrences were evaluated in patients after conservative surgery in early breast cancer at department of surgery Atlas hospital in Zlin between January 2004 and December 2008.
  • T1-2 (only one T3) breast cancers were included in study.
  • Study guidelines required microscopic distance between resection line and tumor margin 5mm.
  • Radiotherapy and chemotherapy in additions to character of cancer followed surgery.
  • Stage of the tumor: 0 19x, I 101x, IIA 163x, IIB 33x, IIIA 5, IIIB 0, IIIC 9.
  • In breast local recurrence appeared in 5 (3.6%) patients and one had regional recurrence without in breast recurrence.
  • Clear margins after breast conserving surgery are very important factor in prevention local recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Mastectomy, Segmental. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 21374943.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-9351
  • [Journal-full-title] Rozhledy v chirurgii : měsíčník Československé chirurgické společnosti
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rozhl Chir
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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27. Sparano JA, Moulder S, Kazi A, Coppola D, Negassa A, Vahdat L, Li T, Pellegrino C, Fineberg S, Munster P, Malafa M, Lee D, Hoschander S, Hopkins U, Hershman D, Wright JJ, Kleer C, Merajver S, Sebti SM: Phase II trial of tipifarnib plus neoadjuvant doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide in patients with clinical stage IIB-IIIC breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 2009 Apr 15;15(8):2942-8
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  • [Title] Phase II trial of tipifarnib plus neoadjuvant doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide in patients with clinical stage IIB-IIIC breast cancer.
  • PURPOSE: Tipifarnib is a farnesyl transferase (FTase) inhibitor that has activity in metastatic breast cancer and enhances the efficacy of cytotoxic agents in preclinical models.
  • We evaluated the biological effects of tipifarnib in primary breast cancers in vivo, whether adding tipifarnib to preoperative chemotherapy increased the pathologic complete response rate (pCR) at surgery, and determined whether biomarkers predictive of pCR could be identified.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Forty-four patients with stage IIB-IIIC breast cancer received up to four cycles of neoadjuvant doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide (AC) every 2 weeks plus tipifarnib and filgrastim followed by surgery.
  • Enzymatic assays measuring FTase activity and Western blotting for phospho (p)-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p-AKT, and p27 were done in 11 patients who agreed to optional tissue biopsies before therapy and 2 hours after the final dose of tipifarnib during the first cycle, and predictive biomarkers were evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 33 patients.
  • The trial was powered to detect an improvement in breast pCR rate of 10% or less expected for AC alone to 25% for AC-tipifarnib (alpha = 0.05, beta = 0.10).
  • RESULTS: Eleven patients had a breast pCR (25%; 95% confidence interval, 13-40%).
  • Low tumor Ki-67 expression (below the median of 60%) at baseline was significantly associated with resistance to therapy (P = 0.01).
  • CONCLUSION: Tipifarnib inhibits FTase activity in human breast tumors in vivo, is associated with down-regulation of p-STAT3, and enhances the breast pCR rate, thus meriting further evaluation.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Farnesyltranstransferase / antagonists & inhibitors. Quinolones / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. STAT3 Transcription Factor / antagonists & inhibitors. STAT3 Transcription Factor / metabolism. rho GTP-Binding Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19351752.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098473-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098473-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA013330-369020; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01CM62204; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098473-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098473-04S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CM / N01 CM062204; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CM / N01-CM-62204; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098473-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098473-05S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098473; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA98473; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098473-03S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098473-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA013330; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098473-02S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA013330-359020
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Quinolones; 0 / STAT3 Transcription Factor; 0 / STAT3 protein, human; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; EC 2.5.1.29 / Farnesyltranstransferase; EC 3.6.5.2 / rho GTP-Binding Proteins; MAT637500A / tipifarnib
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS105425; NLM/ PMC2785076
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28. Li AJ, Elmore RG, Chen IY, Karlan BY: Serum low-density lipoprotein levels correlate with survival in advanced stage epithelial ovarian cancers. Gynecol Oncol; 2010 Jan;116(1):78-81
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  • [Title] Serum low-density lipoprotein levels correlate with survival in advanced stage epithelial ovarian cancers.
  • OBJECTIVE: Recent data suggest patients with epithelial ovarian cancers on statin therapy have improved survival.
  • We have hypothesized that statins influence ovarian cancer outcome through alteration of lipoprotein profiles, and sought to determine correlations between lipoprotein levels and survival in women with advanced stage disease.
  • METHODS: After IRB approval, we identified patients with stage IIIC/IV epithelial ovarian cancer with banked prediagnostic fasting serum.
  • No univariate associations were identified between elevated TC, HDL, TG, LDL and age, stage IV disease, high grade, or optimal cytoreduction.
  • Multivariate analysis indicated that LDL retained significance as an independent predictor of survival, after controlling for age, stage, grade, and suboptimal cytoreduction (p=0.003).
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest LDL is a significant predictor of clinical outcome, and warrant the further study of lipoproteins and statins on epithelial ovarian cancer biology.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cholesterol / blood. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Female. Humans. Lipoproteins, HDL / blood. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Triglycerides / blood

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  • (PMID = 19822357.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR000425; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK063491
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Lipoproteins, HDL; 0 / Lipoproteins, LDL; 0 / Triglycerides; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS691034; NLM/ PMC4437689
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29. Shen J, Valero V, Buchholz TA, Singletary SE, Ames FC, Ross MI, Cristofanilli M, Babiera GV, Meric-Bernstam F, Feig B, Hunt KK, Kuerer HM: Effective local control and long-term survival in patients with T4 locally advanced breast cancer treated with breast conservation therapy. Ann Surg Oncol; 2004 Sep;11(9):854-60
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  • [Title] Effective local control and long-term survival in patients with T4 locally advanced breast cancer treated with breast conservation therapy.
  • BACKGROUND: The presence of skin involvement has been accepted as a relative contraindication to breast preservation because it is believed to be associated with an increased local failure rate.
  • This study was conducted to assess the outcome of a carefully selected group of patients who presented with breast cancer involving the skin and who had breast conservation therapy (BCT) following neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
  • METHODS: Between 1987 and 1999, 33 patients with stage IIIB or IIIC breast cancer completed treatment consisting of four cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, lumpectomy, radiation therapy, and consolidative chemotherapy.
  • RESULTS: Initial median tumor size was 7 cm.
  • Following chemotherapy, median pathologic tumor size was 2 cm.
  • At median follow-up time of 91 months in surviving patients, 26 patients (79%) were alive without evidence of disease.
  • The actuarial ipsilateral breast cancer recurrence rate was 6% at 5 years.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients who present with T4 breast cancer who experience tumor shrinkage and resolution of skin changes with neoadjuvant chemotherapy represent a select group of patients who can have BCT.
  • Mastectomy is not mandatory for all patients with breast cancer who present with skin involvement.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Mastectomy, Segmental. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis






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