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1. Sakamoto H, Oohta M, Inoue K, Fuji K, Fukagai T, Yoshida H: Testicular sperm extraction in patients with persistent azoospermia after chemotherapy for testicular germ cell tumor. Int J Urol; 2007 Feb;14(2):167-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Testicular sperm extraction in patients with persistent azoospermia after chemotherapy for testicular germ cell tumor.
  • Sperm cryopreservation before chemotherapy in young males is recommended because of chemotherapy's gonadotoxic effects.
  • Two azoospermic patients presented to us after chemotherapy, and we obtained sperm from them by testicular sperm extraction (TESE).
  • One patient was 32 years old and had been treated with six cycles of cisplatin, etoposide and bleomycin (BEP) chemotherapy and one cycle of high-dose chemotherapy for stage III non-seminoma.
  • Histopathology of the testicular specimen showed germinal aplasia with focal islands of full spermatogenesis.
  • The other patient was 33 years old who was treated with four cycles of BEP chemotherapy for stage II seminoma.
  • Histopathology of the testicular specimen showed Sertoli-cell-only syndrome.
  • TESE should be considered in patients with persistent azoospermia after chemotherapy if frozen sperm samples are not available.
  • [MeSH-major] Azoospermia / etiology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Spermatozoa. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy. Tissue and Organ Harvesting

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  • (PMID = 17302578.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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2. Brandli DW, Ulbright TM, Foster RS, Cummings OW, Zhang S, Sweeney CJ, Eble JN, Cheng L: Stroma adjacent to metastatic mature teratoma after chemotherapy for testicular germ cell tumors is derived from the same progenitor cells as the teratoma. Cancer Res; 2003 Sep 15;63(18):6063-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Stroma adjacent to metastatic mature teratoma after chemotherapy for testicular germ cell tumors is derived from the same progenitor cells as the teratoma.
  • Metastatic mature teratoma is often present in postchemotherapy surgical specimens of lymph nodes from patients with pathological stage II or III testicular germ cell tumors.
  • The stromal cells in these lesions have generally been considered "fibrosis" secondary to the chemotherapy and the necrosis it causes, although the frequent cytological atypia of the stromal cells suggests that they may be neoplastic.
  • We studied 25 patients with pathological stage II or III testicular cancer who were treated with platinum-based chemotherapy followed by surgical resection of retroperitoneal lymph nodes that contained metastatic mature teratoma with "fibrosis" to determine the reactive or neoplastic nature of the stromal cells.
  • A laser capture microdissection technique facilitated preparation of genomic DNA from the epithelial components of teratoma, adjacent stromal cells, and normal lymph node tissue from each patient.
  • Concordant genetic alterations observed in teratoma and stroma suggest that both are derived from the same element of the original germ cell tumor or the same progenitor cell.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplastic Stem Cells / pathology. Teratoma / genetics. Teratoma / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / genetics. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Embryonal Carcinoma Stem Cells. Humans. Loss of Heterozygosity. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Stromal Cells / pathology

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  • (PMID = 14522936.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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3. Beck SD: Optimal management of testicular cancer: from self-examination to treatment of advanced disease. Open Access J Urol; 2010;2:143-54

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Optimal management of testicular cancer: from self-examination to treatment of advanced disease.
  • Germ-cell cancer is the most common solid tumor in men aged 15 to 35 years and has become the model for curable neoplasm.
  • This improved cure rate has been largely attributed to the introduction of cisplatin-based chemotherapy.
  • In stage I seminoma and nonseminoma, cure rates approach 100% and treatment is governed by patient choice based on the perceived morbidities of each therapy and personal preferences.
  • For seminoma, treatments include surveillance, radiotherapy, and single course carboplatin.
  • For nonseminoma, treatments include surveillance, retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND), and adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Low volume (<3 cm) stage II seminoma is typically managed with radiotherapy while higher volume (>3 cm) stage II and stage III disease treated with chemotherapy.
  • Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging can differentiate active cancer versus necrosis for postchemotherapy residual masses.
  • PET-positive masses are managed with either surgery or second-line chemotherapy.
  • Low volume (<5 cm) stage II nonseminoma with normal serum tumor markers may be managed with either RPLND or chemotherapy.
  • Patients with persistently elevated serum tumor markers and larger volume stage II and stage III disease are managed with systemic chemotherapy.
  • Residual postchemotherapy masses should be resected due to the uncertainty of the histology with 50% to 60% harboring residual teratoma or active cancer.
  • The majority of patients completing initial therapy who relapse do so within 2 years.
  • Current therapeutic challenges in testis cancer include the accurate prediction of postchemotherapy histology to avoid surgery in patients harboring fibrosis only, improved therapy in platinum-resistant and platinum-refractory disease, and the understanding of the biology of late relapse.

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  • (PMID = 24198622.001).
  • [ISSN] 1179-1551
  • [Journal-full-title] Open access journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Open Access J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3818885
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; advanced disease / self-examination / testicular cancer
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4. Mezvrishvili ZN: [Modified chemotherapy regimens in selected testicular cancer patients with good prognosis]. Georgian Med News; 2006 Jun;(135):7-12
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  • [Title] [Modified chemotherapy regimens in selected testicular cancer patients with good prognosis].
  • The goal of our study was to assess the feasibility of usage of chemotherapy regimens with reduced intensity in subgroups of selected patients with good-prognosis metastatic nonseminomatous germ cell tumor (NSGCT) of the testis.
  • 18 patients with low-volume stage II NSGCT who achieved normal tumor marker level after the first cycle of cisplatin, etoposide and bleomycin (BEP) chemotherapy (group 1) received etoposide and cisplatin (EP) as second and third cycles of treatment and 15 testicular cancer patients with serological disease only (group 2) underwent three cycles of EP chemotherapy.
  • The chemotherapy-related side effects observed in these patients were compared with those in control group consisting of 93 good-prognosis metastatic patients treated with three standard cycles of BEP.
  • All patients from both groups achieved complete response with chemotherapy alone (14 group 1 and 15 group 2 patients) or by subsequent resection of teratoma or necrosis (4 cases from group 1).
  • No relapse with viable malignancy was observed after the treatment.
  • Compared to the control group, less number of treatment cycles was associated with grade III-IV leucopenia in groups 1 (p=0.07) and 2 (p=0.03).
  • Reduced intensity chemotherapy regimens showed efficacy equal to the standard treatment and can be considered as less toxic therapeutic options in these selected patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16905797.001).
  • [ISSN] 1512-0112
  • [Journal-full-title] Georgian medical news
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Georgian Med News
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Georgia (Republic)
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5. Oechsle K, Hartmann M, Brenner W, Venz S, Weissbach L, Franzius C, Kliesch S, Mueller S, Krege S, Heicappell R, Bares R, Bokemeyer C, de Wit M, German Multicenter Positron Emission Tomography Study Group: [18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in nonseminomatous germ cell tumors after chemotherapy: the German multicenter positron emission tomography study group. J Clin Oncol; 2008 Dec 20;26(36):5930-5
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  • [Title] [18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in nonseminomatous germ cell tumors after chemotherapy: the German multicenter positron emission tomography study group.
  • PURPOSE: In patients with metastatic nonseminomatous germ cell cancer (NSGCT), residual masses after chemotherapy (CTX) can consist of vital carcinoma, mature teratoma, or necrosis.
  • This prospective trial has evaluated the accuracy of [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) for the prediction of histology compared with computed tomography (CT) and serum tumor markers (STM).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 121 patients with stage IIC or III NSGCT scheduled for secondary resection after cisplatin-based CTX were included.
  • RESULTS: Prediction of tumor viability with FDG-PET was correct in 56%, which did not reach the expected clinically relevant level of 70%, and was not better than the accuracy of CT (55%) or STM (56%).
  • Judging only vital carcinoma as a true malignant finding, the negative predictive value increased to 83% for FDG-PET.
  • CONCLUSION: The presence of vital carcinoma and mature teratoma is common (55%) in residual masses in patients with NSGCT, and CT and STM cannot reliably predict absence of disease.
  • In contrast to prior studies, this prospective trial, which is the only with histologic confirmation in all patients, demonstrated that FDG-PET is unable to give a clear additional clinical benefit to the standard diagnostic procedures, CT and STM, in the prediction of tumor viability in residual masses.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm, Residual / radionuclide imaging. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Cell Survival. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Prospective Studies. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / surgery. Sensitivity and Specificity. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19018083.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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6. Ondrus D, Hornák M, Breza J, Mat'oska J, Schnorrer M, Belan V, Kausitz J: Delayed orchiectomy after chemotherapy in patients with advanced testicular cancer. Int Urol Nephrol; 2001;32(4):665-7
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  • [Title] Delayed orchiectomy after chemotherapy in patients with advanced testicular cancer.
  • INTRODUCTION: The therapeutic procedures in the management of testicular cancer are determined by histological findings in the removed testis and by the extent of the disease at the time of diagnosis.
  • However, all advanced tumors could be treated by primary chemotherapy regardless of the histological findings.
  • The current imaging techniques (ultrasound of the testis, abdominal and chest CT examination) and laboratory tests (determination of serum tumor markers AFP and hCG) provide sufficient evidence for the presence of cancer.
  • When the diagnosis of advanced tumor is evident, it is possible to start the treatment without orchiectomy.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the advantages of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy with delayed orchiectomy in the management of advanced testicular cancer.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 36 patients with advanced germ cell testicular cancer underwent primary PVB or BEP chemotherapy without previous orchiectomy.
  • Searching for the origin, testicular tumor was detected.
  • Eleven patients had a bulky disease in the retroperitoneum (Stage IIC), two had enlarged retroperitoneal lymph nodes (Stage IIB), two had enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes (Stage III) and other 16 patients had also pulmonary metastases, and 5 pts had pulmonary metastases only.
  • The patients were treated with cisplatin-containing combination chemotherapy.
  • Following completion of chemotherapy, orchiectomy was performed alone or simultaneously with retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) and/or lung metastasectomy in cases with persistent residual mass.
  • Following orchiectomy the patients were regularly checked and in cases with viable malignant tumor found in the testis sequential chemotherapy was administered.
  • Similarly when the relapse of the disease was detected, the patients were treated with sequential chemotherapy.
  • RESULTS: Complete disappearance of metastases was observed in 12 patients following chemotherapy alone.
  • The viable tumor in the removed tissue was found in one patient.
  • Delayed orchiectomy was performed simultaneously with surgical removal of residual mass in the retroperitoneum in 24 patients and as a separate procedure in 12 patients who have been considered to be complete responders following chemotherapy alone.
  • Residual viable tumor in testicular specimen was found in three patients, necrotic or fibrotic tissue in 18, and mature teratoma in 15 patients.
  • Overall survival of the patients was 26/36 (72.7%) at mean of 56.9 months (range 7-145 months, median 50 months) since the start of the treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In patients with advanced germ cell testicular cancer preference must be given to the early beginning of intensive chemotherapy without the need of tissue diagnosis of primary tumor that should be obtained by orchiectomy.
  • Benefit of this therapeutic approach is the timely management of acute abdominal and/or pulmonary symptoms of life-threatening distant metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Germinoma / drug therapy. Orchiectomy. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy. Vinblastine / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm, Residual. Survival Rate. Teratoma / secondary. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Cites] J Clin Oncol. 1984 Sep;2(9):1025-7 [6088708.001]
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  • (PMID = 11989561.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-1623
  • [Journal-full-title] International urology and nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Urol Nephrol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; PVB protocol
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7. Habuchi T, Kamoto T, Hara I, Kawai K, Nakao M, Nonomura N, Kobayashi T, Ogawa O, Kamidono S, Akaza H, Okuyama A, Kato T, Miki T: Factors that influence the results of salvage surgery in patients with chemorefractory germ cell carcinomas with elevated tumor markers. Cancer; 2003 Oct 15;98(8):1635-42
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  • [Title] Factors that influence the results of salvage surgery in patients with chemorefractory germ cell carcinomas with elevated tumor markers.
  • BACKGROUND: A standard concept for the integration of surgery into the chemotherapy-based treatment of patients with advanced germ cell carcinoma has been that surgery should be avoided in patients with serum tumor markers (alpha-fetoprotein [AFP] and human chorionic gonadotropin [HCG]) that remain elevated.
  • The objective of this retrospective study was to clarify the outcome and clinical prognostic variables of salvage surgery in patients with disseminated (AJCC Stage II or III) testicular germ cell carcinoma or extragonadal germ cell carcinoma who had elevated serum markers.
  • METHODS: The authors reviewed the clinical records of 24 patients who underwent salvage surgery with elevated serum AFP and/or HCG levels after at least 3 courses of cisplatin-based, systemic chemotherapy between January, 1985 and December, 2000.
  • RESULTS: Ten of 24 patients (41.7%) were rendered free of disease and alive without disease after the surgery with or without adjuvant therapy at a median follow-up of 74 months (range, 24-207 months).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Salvage surgery in patients with high serum tumors markers resulted in long-term disease free status in approximately 40% of patients in a small subset with advanced germ cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Chorionic Gonadotropin / blood. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Salvage Therapy. Survival Rate. alpha-Fetoproteins / analysis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 14534879.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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8. Chen YS, Kuo JY, Chin TW, Wei CF, Chen KK, Lin AT, Chang LS: Prepubertal testicular germ cell tumors: 25-year experience in Taipei Veterans General Hospital. J Chin Med Assoc; 2008 Jul;71(7):357-61
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  • [Title] Prepubertal testicular germ cell tumors: 25-year experience in Taipei Veterans General Hospital.
  • BACKGROUND: Due to the rarity of testicular tumors in the prepubertal population, adequate information about their biological course is difficult to document well in a single institution.
  • The purpose of this study was to focus on prepubertal males in an attempt to evaluate clinical features and optimal management among various testicular germ cell tumors with long-term follow-up.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of children younger than 12 years of age with primary testicular germ cell tumors between February 1981 and December 2005 at Taipei Veterans General Hospital.
  • The stage of the disease was determined according to the staging system used by the Children's Oncology Group.
  • Mean follow-up time was 139 months (range, 2-283 months).
  • All patients underwent radical orchiectomy as an initial treatment.
  • Of the 29 patients with yolk sac tumor, 26 (89.7%) were diagnosed as stage I, 1 (3.4%) as stage III, and 2 (7.0%) as stage IV.
  • Five (19.2%) of the 26 stage I yolk sac tumors progressed to metastasis after radical orchiectomy, and all of these 5 patients later received chemotherapy.
  • One patient initially with stage III yolk sac tumor and 2 patients with stage IV yolk sac tumor were also treated with chemotherapy.
  • Eventually, 1 patient with stage IV yolk sac tumor died due to tumor progression; the remaining 28 patients with yolk sac tumor all survived without tumor relapse after appropriate treatment.
  • In the 5 patients with teratomas, there was no tumor relapse after radical orchiectomy with a mean follow-up time of 139.1 months.
  • The 5-year survival rates for yolk sac tumor and teratomas were 96.5% and 100%, respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: The most common prepubertal malignant testicular tumor is yolk sac tumor, and the most common benign testicular tumor is teratoma.
  • Children with testicular germ cell tumors have excellent long-term survival rates after appropriate treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18653399.001).
  • [ISSN] 1726-4901
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Chinese Medical Association : JCMA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chin Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
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9. Albers P, Siener R, Krege S, Schmelz HU, Dieckmann KP, Heidenreich A, Kwasny P, Pechoel M, Lehmann J, Kliesch S, Köhrmann KU, Fimmers R, Weissbach L, Loy V, Wittekind C, Hartmann M, German Testicular Cancer Study Group: Randomized phase III trial comparing retroperitoneal lymph node dissection with one course of bleomycin and etoposide plus cisplatin chemotherapy in the adjuvant treatment of clinical stage I Nonseminomatous testicular germ cell tumors: AUO trial AH 01/94 by the German Testicular Cancer Study Group. J Clin Oncol; 2008 Jun 20;26(18):2966-72
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  • [Title] Randomized phase III trial comparing retroperitoneal lymph node dissection with one course of bleomycin and etoposide plus cisplatin chemotherapy in the adjuvant treatment of clinical stage I Nonseminomatous testicular germ cell tumors: AUO trial AH 01/94 by the German Testicular Cancer Study Group.
  • PURPOSE: Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) and adjuvant chemotherapy are two adjuvant treatment options for patients with clinical stage I nonseminomatous germ cell tumors of the testis (NSGCT).
  • Aim of this trial was to prove the advantage of one cycle of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) chemotherapy compared with RPLND in terms of recurrence.
  • The trial was powered to detect a 7% reduction (from 10% to 3%) of recurrence with chemotherapy compared with surgery.
  • RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 4.7 years, two and 15 recurrences were observed in the intention-to-treat population with chemotherapy and surgery, respectively (P = .0011).
  • The difference in the 2-year recurrence-free survival rate between chemotherapy (99.46%; 95% CI, 96.20% to 99.92%) and surgery (91.87%; 95% CI, 86.87% to 95.02%) was 7.59% (95% CI, 3.13% to 12.05%).
  • The hazard ratio to experience a tumor recurrence with surgery as opposed to chemotherapy was 7.937 (95% CI, 1.808 to 34.48).
  • CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the largest randomized trial investigating adjuvant treatment strategies in clinical stage I NSGCT, which showed the superiority of one course BEP over RPLND performed according to community standards to prevent recurrence.
  • Although not standard treatment, one course of BEP is active in an unselected group of patients with clinical stage I disease and merits further investigation.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Bleomycin / adverse effects. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Disease-Free Survival. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Etoposide / adverse effects. Humans. Lymph Node Excision / adverse effects. Lymph Node Excision / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Orchiectomy

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  • [CommentIn] J Clin Oncol. 2008 Jun 20;26(18):2934-6 [18458042.001]
  • [CommentIn] J Clin Oncol. 2009 May 1;27(13):2114-6 [19307494.001]
  • [ErratumIn] J Clin Oncol. 2010 Mar 10;28(8):1439. Dosage error in article text
  • (PMID = 18458040.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase III; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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10. Tandstad T, Cohn-Cedermark G, Dahl O, Stierner U, Cavallin-Stahl E, Bremnes RM, Klepp O: Long-term follow-up after risk-adapted treatment in clinical stage 1 (CS1) nonseminomatous germ-cell testicular cancer (NSGCT) implementing adjuvant CVB chemotherapy. A SWENOTECA study. Ann Oncol; 2010 Sep;21(9):1858-63
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  • [Title] Long-term follow-up after risk-adapted treatment in clinical stage 1 (CS1) nonseminomatous germ-cell testicular cancer (NSGCT) implementing adjuvant CVB chemotherapy. A SWENOTECA study.
  • BACKGROUND: To offer minimized risk-adapted adjuvant treatment on a community and nationwide basis for patients with clinical stage 1 (CS1) nonseminomatous germ-cell testicular cancer (NSGCT).
  • The aim was to reduce the risk of relapse and thereby reducing the need of later salvage chemotherapy while maintaining a high cure rate.
  • All were eligible for inclusion into one of two community-based multicenter Swedish and Norwegian Testicular Cancer Project (SWENOTECA) III studies.
  • One study was a prospective randomized study for patients without vascular invasion in the testicular tumor (VASC-), evaluating the effect of one adjuvant course of cisplatin, vinblastine and bleomycin (CVB) compared with surveillance.
  • As all remaining patients were managed according to the SWENOTECA III protocol, although not randomized, the data were pooled.
  • Adjuvant CVB chemotherapy has no place in the treatment of CS1 NSGCT.

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  • (PMID = 20142410.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-8041
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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11. Cushing B, Giller R, Cullen JW, Marina NM, Lauer SJ, Olson TA, Rogers PC, Colombani P, Rescorla F, Billmire DF, Vinocur CD, Hawkins EP, Davis MM, Perlman EJ, London WB, Castleberry RP, Pediatric Oncology Group 9049, Children's Cancer Group 8882: Randomized comparison of combination chemotherapy with etoposide, bleomycin, and either high-dose or standard-dose cisplatin in children and adolescents with high-risk malignant germ cell tumors: a pediatric intergroup study--Pediatric Oncology Group 9049 and Children's Cancer Group 8882. J Clin Oncol; 2004 Jul 1;22(13):2691-700
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  • [Title] Randomized comparison of combination chemotherapy with etoposide, bleomycin, and either high-dose or standard-dose cisplatin in children and adolescents with high-risk malignant germ cell tumors: a pediatric intergroup study--Pediatric Oncology Group 9049 and Children's Cancer Group 8882.
  • PURPOSE: To determine in a randomized comparison whether combination chemotherapy with high-dose cisplatin (HDPEB) improves the event-free (EFS) and overall (OS) survival of children and adolescents with high-risk malignant germ cell tumors (MGCT) as compared with standard-dose cisplatin (PEB) and to compare the regimens' toxicity.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between March 1990 and February 1996, 299 eligible patients with stage III and IV gonadal and extragonadal (all stages) MGCT were enrolled onto this Pediatric Oncology Group and Children's Cancer Group study.
  • Chemotherapy included bleomycin 15 units/m(2) on day 1, etoposide 100 mg/m(2) on days 1 through 5, and either high-dose cisplatin 40 mg/m(2) on days 1 through 5 (HDPEB; n = 149) or standard-dose cisplatin 20 mg/m(2) on days 1 through 5 (PEB; n = 150).
  • Patients were evaluated after four cycles of therapy, and those with residual disease underwent surgery.
  • RESULTS: One hundred thirty-four eligible patients with advanced testicular (n = 60) or ovarian (n = 74) tumors and 165 with stage I to IV extragonadal tumors were enrolled.
  • HDPEB treatment resulted in significantly improved 6-year EFS rate +/- SE (89.6% +/- 3.6% v 80.5% +/- 4.8% for PEB; P =.0284).
  • Tumor-related deaths were more common after PEB (14 deaths v two deaths).
  • Other treatment-related toxicities were more common with HDPEB.
  • CONCLUSION: Combination chemotherapy with HDPEB significantly improves EFS for children with high-risk MGCT.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Bleomycin. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Etoposide. Female. Humans. Male. Prognosis. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 15226336.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA13539; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA30969; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10CA29139
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; BEP protocol
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12. Ondrus D, Hornák M, Schnorrer M, Mat'oska J: [Delayed orchiectomy and surgery of metastases after primary chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced testicular tumors]. Rozhl Chir; 2001 Nov;80(11):612-4
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  • [Title] [Delayed orchiectomy and surgery of metastases after primary chemotherapy in the treatment of advanced testicular tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Odlozená orchiektómia a metastazektómia po primárnej chemoterapii v liecbe nádoru testis v pokrocilom stádiu.
  • OBJECTIVE: The therapeutic procedures in the management of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) are determined by histological findings in the removed testis and by the extent of the disease at the time of diagnosis.
  • However, all advanced TGCT could be treated by primary chemotherapy (CHT) regardless of histological findings.
  • The current imaging techniques (ultrasonography of the testis, abdominal and thoracic CT examination) and laboratory tests (determination of serum tumor markers AFP and hCG) provide sufficient evidence for the presence of TGCT.
  • In cases of acute abdominal and/or pulmonary symptoms because of life-threatening distant metastases, when the diagnosis of advanced TGCT is evident, it is possible to start the treatment without primary orchiectomy (OE).
  • Eleven patients had bulky mass in the retroperitoneum (Stage IIC), three patients had enlarged retroperitoneal lymph nodes (Stage IIB), two patients had enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes (Stage III).
  • Another 24 patients had pulmonary metastases (Stage IV), 15 of them had also bulky mass in the retroperitoneum and 6 of them in the mediastinum.
  • In three of them residual tumorous mass was removed also from the lungs without finding of viable tumor.
  • Viable malignant tumor in the removed retroperitoneal tissue was identified in two patients (7.4%).
  • Residual viable malignant tumor in the testis was found in 5 patients (12.5%).
  • Overall survival was 29/40 patients--72.5% (by mean of 55.2 months since the start of the therapy).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The benefit of this therapeutic approach in the immediate management of acute abdominal and/or pulmonary symptoms of life-threatening distant metastases.
  • Another advantage is the like hood of surgical treatment of residual metastatic masses simultaneously with delayed OE on the same day, under one anaesthesia.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Germinoma / therapy. Orchiectomy. Testicular Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy

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  • (PMID = 11794064.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-9351
  • [Journal-full-title] Rozhledy v chirurgii : měsíčník Československé chirurgické společnosti
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rozhl Chir
  • [Language] slo
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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13. Güler E, Tezer Kutluk M, Büyükpamukçu N, Caglar M, Varan A, Akyüz C, Büyükpamukçu M: Testicular germ cell tumors in childhood: treatment results of 52 patients. Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2004 Jan-Feb;21(1):49-56
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  • [Title] Testicular germ cell tumors in childhood: treatment results of 52 patients.
  • We analysed the treatment results of 52 children with testicular germ cell tumors.
  • Histopathological diagnoses were endodermal sinus tumor (63.4%), embryonal carcinoma (28.8%), teratocarcinoma (5.7%), and mixed tumors (2.1%).
  • Overall survival rates were: whole group: 71.2%; stage I: 89.7%; II: 68.5%; III: 31.2%; IV: 30% (p =.001).
  • Five-year overall survival rates were 85.8% and 100% for stage I patients who received chemotherapy or not (p =.27); BEP regimen: 85.7%; classical VAC: 67.9%; vinblastine + bleomycin: 63.6%.
  • Chemotherapy is not required in stage I.
  • BEP regimen is effective in testicular germ cell tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Humans. Infant. Male. Survival Analysis. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 14660306.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-0018
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric hematology and oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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14. Sava T, Pessa S, Nicoletti L, Perin A, Fraccon AP, Merlin F, Rosa-Bian A, Fosser V, Cetto GL, Franceschi T: Nonseminomatous germ cell testicular tumors clinical stage II: Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection, chemotherapy or both? J Clin Oncol; 2004 Jul 15;22(14_suppl):4746

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  • [Title] Nonseminomatous germ cell testicular tumors clinical stage II: Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection, chemotherapy or both?
  • : 4746 Background: Patients (pts) with nonseminomatous germ cell testicular tumors (NSGCTT) clinical stage IIa and IIb can be treated with: retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND), RPLND followed by adjuvant chemotherapy (CT) or CT with surgery of residual masses.
  • METHODS: We analyzed retrospectively 55 pts with NSGCTT clinical stage IIa (28) and IIb (27) followed in our Institutions.
  • Embrional carcinoma (EC) was predominant in 40 (73%) pts.
  • Serum tumor markers were elevated in 58% of the pts.
  • Treatment was: RPLND in 7 IIa (3 resulted a I pathological stage) and in 2 IIb pts; RPLND and adjuvant CT (2 or 3 cycles of platinum based CT) in 12 IIa and in 5 IIb pts; CT alone (mainly 3 PEB) in 3 IIa and in 10 IIb pts; CT followed by RPLND for residual masses in 6 IIa and in 10 IIb.
  • Median time to relapse was 7 months (4-9); site of relapse were: retrocrural lymph nodes, lung and serum tumor marker only respectively.
  • Two were initially treated with RPLND alone and at relapse platinum-based chemotherapy: both are alive and free from disease.
  • One pt, treated at the beginning with RPLND and adjuvant CT (3 PEB), relapsed and despite any treatment died of disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: i) The preferred initial treatment was RPLND in pts with stage IIa and chemotherapy in pts with stage IIb;.
  • ii) false positive staging error was 16% in clinical stage IIa;.
  • iii) relapse can occur, particularly in pts with IIb (11%) and EC predominance (7.5%), quite soon and in different sites;.
  • v) more than 98% ot the pts are alive and disease-free irrespectively of treatment option: histology, clinical stage and patient's preferences should be part of the decision making.

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  • (PMID = 28017012.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Sun XF, Yang QY, Zhen ZJ, Xia Y, Huang ZH, Ling JY: [Treatment outcome of children and adolescents with germ cell tumor after combined therapy---a report of 44 cases]. Ai Zheng; 2006 Dec;25(12):1529-32
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  • [Title] [Treatment outcome of children and adolescents with germ cell tumor after combined therapy---a report of 44 cases].
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: The overall survival rate of children and adolescents with germ cell tumor is more than 75% after adopting combined therapy.
  • However, the prognosis varies with stage, pathologic type, and primary tumor site.
  • This study was to analyze the clinical characteristics and treatment outcome of children and adolescents with germ cell tumor, and to investigate the prognostic factors and therapeutic strategy.
  • METHODS: Clinical characteristics, treatment outcome, and prognostic factors of 44 children and adolescents with germ cell tumor, treated in Cancer Center of Sun Yat-sen University from Jan.
  • RESULTS: Of the 44 patients, 25 received adjuvant chemotherapy after operation; 1 received operation alone; 18 received induction chemotherapy.
  • Of the 18 patients, 7 received tumor resection after chemotherapy; 2 patients with primary mediastinal chorioepithelioma with multiple metastases received radiotherapy on residual disease after chemotherapy; 1 patient with postoperative abdominal metastasis and 1 with postoperative lung metastasis achieved complete remission after chemotherapy; 1 patient with mediastinal sinus tumor achieved partial remission after chemotherapy; 6 had poor response to chemotherapy and died of disease progression.
  • Chemotherapy-treated patients received platinum-containing regimens for 2-7 cycles.
  • The 3-year survival rate was 100% for stage I-II patients, 83.3% for stage III patients, 65.6% for stage IV patients, and 66.7% for relapsed patients.
  • For previously untreated patients, the 3-year survival rate was 96.0% for gonadal germ cell tumor patients and 61.0% for extragonadal germ cell tumor patients.
  • CONCLUSION: Surgery combined with platinum-containing chemotherapy can improve efficacy and survival of children and adolescents with germ cell tumor.
  • For the patients with stage IV, relapsed, and metastatic tumors, novel therapeutic regimens with increased dose intensity need further investigation.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / drug therapy. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / surgery. Etoposide / therapeutic use. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Male. Mediastinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Mediastinal Neoplasms / pathology. Mediastinal Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Remission Induction. Survival Rate. Teratoma / drug therapy. Teratoma / pathology. Teratoma / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17166380.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; BEP protocol; COB protocol
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16. Kusumakumary P, Mathew BS, Hariharan S, Priyakumari T, Rajan B: Testicular germ cell tumors in prepubertal children. Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2000 Jan-Feb;17(1):105-11
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  • [Title] Testicular germ cell tumors in prepubertal children.
  • Pediatric testicular germ cell tumors are rare.
  • All were staged according to the Pediatric Oncology Group/Children's Cancer Study Group staging system.
  • Seven patients had stage III disease.
  • Histologically, 9 patients had pure endodermal sinus tumor, 1 had endodermal sinus tumor with embryonal carcinoma, 1 had embryonal carcinoma alone, 2 had immature teratoma, and 2 had mature teratoma.
  • All others received chemotherapy with cisplatin, bleomycin, and vinblastine.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma. Testicular Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / therapeutic use. Child, Preschool. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Humans. Infant. Male. Survival Analysis. Vinblastine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 10689721.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-0018
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric hematology and oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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17. Spiess PE, Brown GA, Liu P, Tannir NM, Tu SM, Evans JG, Czerniak B, Kamat AM, Pisters LL: Predictors of outcome in patients undergoing postchemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for testicular cancer. Cancer; 2006 Oct 1;107(7):1483-90
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  • [Title] Predictors of outcome in patients undergoing postchemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for testicular cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: The management of metastatic nonseminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCT) frequently consists of systemic chemotherapy followed by retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (PC-RPLND).
  • METHODS: Between 1980 and 2003, 236 patients with clinical Stage IIA-III NSGCT underwent PC-RPLND.
  • Their medical records were retrospectively reviewed for pertinent clinical and treatment-related outcomes.
  • RESULTS: The median age of patients at diagnosis was 28 years, with all patients receiving systemic chemotherapy (median of 5 cycles) before RPLND.
  • Predictors of poorer recurrence-free survival (RFS) included advanced clinical stage (IIC-III, P = .001) and presence of viable tumor in the RPLND specimen (P = .03).
  • CONCLUSIONS: In patients undergoing PC-RPLND, preoperative tumor markers and the occurrence of postoperative complications or recurrence are predictive of poorer DSS.
  • Advanced clinical stage and viable tumor in the surgical specimen predict worse RFS.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Lymph Node Excision. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Testicular Neoplasms / mortality. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retroperitoneal Space. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2006 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 16944541.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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18. Mosharafa AA, Foster RS, Bihrle R, Koch MO, Ulbright TM, Einhorn LH, Donohue JP: Does retroperitoneal lymph node dissection have a curative role for patients with sex cord-stromal testicular tumors? Cancer; 2003 Aug 15;98(4):753-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Does retroperitoneal lymph node dissection have a curative role for patients with sex cord-stromal testicular tumors?
  • BACKGROUND: Sex cord-stromal tumors account for < 5% of all adult testicular tumors, and 10% are malignant.
  • METHODS: Reviewing the Indiana University testis cancer registry revealed 17 patients who underwent RPLND for sex cord-stromal tumors.
  • The data examined included clinical and pathologic stage, surgical procedure, additional therapy received, and outcome.
  • RESULTS: Pathology included Leydig tumors in six patients, Sertoli tumors in four patients, sex cord-stromal tumors in five patients, a granulosa cell tumor in one patient, and a poorly differentiated non-germ cell tumor in one patient.
  • Clinical stage at surgery was Stage I in nine patients and Stage IIA-IIIA in eight patients.
  • Nine patients had pathologic Stage I tumors, and the remaining eight patients and had pathologic Stage IIB-IIIA tumors.
  • Of the eight patients with Stage II-III disease, six patients eventually died of metastatic disease despite additional radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy.
  • Although the therapeutic role of RPLND in patients with small-volume metastatic retroperitoneal tumors is unclear, RPLND remains an option to be performed immediately after orchiectomy, especially in patients who have tumors with malignant features and/or small-volume metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Node Excision. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 12910519.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Muramaki M, Hara I, Miyake H, Yamada Y, Kawabata G, Kamidono S: Advances in the management of non-seminomatous germ cell tumors during the cisplatin era: a single-institution experience. Int J Urol; 2004 Sep;11(9):768-73
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  • [Title] Advances in the management of non-seminomatous germ cell tumors during the cisplatin era: a single-institution experience.
  • BACKGROUND: The objectives of the present study were to review chronological changes in the long-term survival of patients with non-seminomatous germ cell tumor (NSGCT) who were treated at a single institution after the introduction of cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy.
  • To evaluate chronological changes in treatment outcome between 1978 and 2001, data were analyzed according to the timing of initial treatment in two consecutive 12-year periods.
  • Patients were classified according to criteria of both the Japanese Urological Association (JUA classification) and the International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group (IGCCCG classification).
  • A significant improvement in survival was found in the patients with stage III disease, according to the JUA classification, and in the patients with poor-risk disease, according to the IGCCCG classification (P = 0.004 and 0.05, respectively).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Germinoma / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15379942.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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20. Suita S, Shono K, Tajiri T, Takamatsu T, Mizote H, Nagasaki A, Inomata Y, Hara T, Okamura J, Miyazaki S, Kawakami K, Eguchi H, Tsuneyoshi M, Committee for Pediatric Solid Malignant Tumors in the Kyushu Area: Malignant germ cell tumors: clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcome. A report from the study group for Pediatric Solid Malignant Tumors in the Kyushu Area, Japan. J Pediatr Surg; 2002 Dec;37(12):1703-6
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  • [Title] Malignant germ cell tumors: clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcome. A report from the study group for Pediatric Solid Malignant Tumors in the Kyushu Area, Japan.
  • PURPOSE: This study aims to assess the prognostic factors and optimal treatments for malignant germ cell tumors (MGCT) in childhood.
  • The prognostic factors and treatments were assessed based on the 5-year survival rate. RESULTS:.
  • (1) Stage: 100% for stage I (n = 54), 75.0% for stage II (n = 4), 67.3% for stage III (n = 14), and 54.8% for stage IV (n = 33); Unknown: n = 12. (2) Primary site: 93.4% for the testis (n = 52), 86.7% for the ovary (n = 31), 56.9% for the sacrococcygeal (n = 21), and 60.6% for others (n = 12); unknown: n = 1. (3) Surgical intervention for primary tumor: 100% for stage I with a complete resection (n = 53), 78.4% for stage III, IV with a complete resection (n = 26), and 33.3% for stage III, IV with an incomplete resection (n = 21). (4) Type of chemotherapy for the stage III and IV: 83.9% for the PVB (cisplatin, vinblastin, bleomycin; n = 13), 66.7% for the VAC (vincristine, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide; n = 6), and 47.1% for other regimens (n = 25).
  • CONCLUSIONS: An early stage, a diagnosis under 1 year of age and a primary site in the gonads were favorable prognosis factors, whereas histologic findings of choriocarcinoma and liver or lung metastasis were unfavorable.
  • Radical complete resection alone is a sufficient treatment for localized MGCT.
  • The PVB regimen is optimal chemotherapy for advanced MGCT; however, high-risk cases still may require more aggressive treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma / diagnosis. Germinoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Incidence. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / epidemiology. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / epidemiology. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
  • [CommentIn] J Urol. 2003 Sep;170(3):1040 [12926414.001]
  • (PMID = 12483635.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Antón L, Pérez-Etchepare E, Soriano D, Gómez M, Barrientos G, Tracchia R: [Testicular tumors: wide spectrum in our short casuistics]. Cir Pediatr; 2010 Oct;23(4):222-4
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  • [Title] [Testicular tumors: wide spectrum in our short casuistics].
  • Testicular tumors occur in 0.5 to 2 per 100,000 children.
  • The clinical history, testicular and abdominal ultrasonography, alpha-fetoprotein and human chorionic gonadotropin, estrogens and androgen levels, FSH and LH determine the diagnosis.
  • The pathology determines the specific cell.
  • We report seven cases, three germ cell tumors: a Yolk sac tumor in a child of 18 months and two mature teratomas in children between 2 and 11 years presenting as a painless testicular mass without other symptoms.
  • Three tumors estrumales: one derived from Leydig cells and two of the granulosa cells, a palpable testicular mass was added precocious puberty in stage II-III of Tanner in the first, second gynecomastia in Tanner stage III and the third only with testicular mass.
  • The seventh case, Lipoma para-testicular mass palpable.
  • The treatment was radical orchiectomy in five cases.
  • Testis-sparing surgery in Leydig cell tumor and resection of the paratesticular mass was performed through scrotal.
  • The Yolk sac tumor requiring chemotherapy with good outcome.
  • Historically prepubertal testicular tumors have been treated in adults.
  • Recent testicular preservation algorithms optimize and minimize the morbidity of adjuvant therapies.
  • Many are benign and can be treated with preservation of the testis.
  • [MeSH-major] Testicular Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 21520554.001).
  • [ISSN] 0214-1221
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía pediátrica : organo oficial de la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Pediátrica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Pediatr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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22. Nicolato A, Ria A, Foroni R, Manno P, Alessandrini F, Sava T, Lupidi F, Leone P, Maluta S, Cetto GL, Gerosa M: Gamma knife radiosurgery in brain metastases from testicular tumors. Med Oncol; 2005;22(1):45-56
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  • [Title] Gamma knife radiosurgery in brain metastases from testicular tumors.
  • To our knowledge, there are no published reports on the effectiveness of radiosurgery in the management of brain metastases from testicular nonseminomatous germ cell tumor.
  • The authors evaluate the results of gamma knife (GK) treatment in three patients with these unusual intracranial lesions.
  • Between April 1995 and July 2001, three patients with brain metastasis from testicular nonseminomatous germ cell tumor underwent adjuvant radiosurgery at our department.
  • The primary tumor had been surgically removed in all cases.
  • At diagnosis, one patient was stage IB and two were stage III poor risk.
  • Chemotherapy and whole brain radiotherapy were administered before radiosurgery in all cases.
  • Pre-GK radiotherapy was administered with a daily fraction dosage of 1.8-2.0 Gy.
  • The indications for radiosurgery were tumor volume <20 cm3, microsurgery too risky, refusal of surgery.
  • Post-GK high-dose chemotherapy with autologous peripheral-blood stem-cell rescue was administered in two cases due to systemic recurrence of the disease.
  • Neuroradiological follow-up invariably showed tumor growth control (complete response in two cases and partial response in one) with typically delayed post-radiosurgical imaging changes (transient in two cases and long-lasting in one).
  • In conclusion, GK seems to be highly effective and safe in brain metastases from testicular nonseminomatous germ cell tumor.
  • In cases with diffuse metastatic brain involvement, the whole brain radiotherapy preceding radiosurgery should be delivered with 1.8 Gy daily fraction to prevent the risk of long-lasting post-radiosurgical imaging changes.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / secondary. Radiosurgery / methods. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15750196.001).
  • [ISSN] 1357-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical oncology (Northwood, London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Spiess PE, Brown GA, Pisters LL, Liu P, Tu SM, Evans JG, Kamat AM, Black P, Tannir NM: Viable malignant germ cell tumor in the postchemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection specimen: can it be predicted using clinical parameters? Cancer; 2006 Oct 1;107(7):1503-10
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  • [Title] Viable malignant germ cell tumor in the postchemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection specimen: can it be predicted using clinical parameters?
  • BACKGROUND: The presence of viable tumor in the surgical specimen after postchemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (PC-RPLND) is associated with an increased risk of disease progression.
  • The objective of this study was to determine whether the presence of viable tumor in the surgical specimen could be predicted.
  • METHODS: Between 1980 and 2003, 236 patients underwent PC-RPLND for clinical Stage IIA or III nonseminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCT).
  • The authors retrospectively reviewed the medical records of those patients for pertinent clinical and treatment-related outcomes.
  • A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate whether clinical parameters were capable of predicting the presence of viable tumor in the surgical specimen.
  • RESULTS: International Germ Cell Consensus Classification (IGCCC) risk categories could be assigned to 218 patients, with 101 patients in the good-risk category, 32 patients in the intermediate-risk category, and 85 patients in the poor-risk category.
  • The incidence of viable tumor in the good-risk, intermediate-risk, and poor-risk categories was similar (17.8%, 15.6%, and 15.3%, respectively); however, the risk categories predicted disease-specific and recurrence-free survival (P = .022 and P < .0001, respectively).
  • On multivariate analysis, an elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level prior to PC-RPLND (P = .05) and the size of the retroperitoneal mass on pathology review (P = .02) were predictive of viable tumor in the surgical specimen.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although IGCCC risk categories were correlated with disease-related outcomes, the risk groups had similar incidences of viable tumor.
  • Elevated serum AFP levels prior to surgery and the size of the retroperitoneal mass in the resected specimen may help to predict viable tumor in the PC-RPLND specimen.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Pathology, Surgical. Prognosis. Retroperitoneal Space. Risk. alpha-Fetoproteins / analysis

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2006 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 16944534.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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24. Tavolini IM, Norcen M, Oliva G, Nigro F, Benedetto G, Mazzariol C, Bassi P: [Caval involvement in advanced-stage non-seminoma testicular tumors: surgical strategy and long-term results]. Arch Ital Urol Androl; 2002 Jun;74(2):69-76
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  • [Title] [Caval involvement in advanced-stage non-seminoma testicular tumors: surgical strategy and long-term results].
  • OBJECTIVES: The involvement of vena cava by residual masses after cytoreductive chemotherapy for bulky metastatic germ cell tumors is a rare but possible event.
  • It could ensue by tumor invasion of the inferior vena cava (IVC), venous or neoplastic thrombosis, or by close adherence and encasement of IVC by scar tissue containing fibrosis or cancer; it usually occurs in right testicular neoplasms.
  • In this study we evaluated a group of nine over 86 patients who underwent IVC (and possibly aortic) surgery for post-chemotherapy residual masses and we assessed long term oncological and functional efficacy of the procedure.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 1980 and 1997, 86 patients underwent retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy (RPLND) after induction or additional salvage chemotherapy.
  • A subgroup of nine patients, all with primary tumors of the right testis in stage II C to III, showed evidence of caval involvement, four had caval thrombosis, seven exhibited caval invasion; in one case the IVC was displaced and compressed with no clear evidence of infiltration.

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  • (PMID = 12161940.001).
  • [ISSN] 1124-3562
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivio italiano di urologia, andrologia : organo ufficiale [di] Societa italiana di ecografia urologica e nefrologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Ital Urol Androl
  • [Language] ITA
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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25. Tsukamoto T, Fukui I: [Treatment and prognosis of testicular seminoma]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2000 Apr;27(4):516-21
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  • [Title] [Treatment and prognosis of testicular seminoma].
  • Although testicular germ cell tumor is a relatively uncommon disease, it is a relatively common type of malignant tumor among young men.
  • Seminoma accounts for approximately 50% of all germ cell testicular tumors.
  • Since the vast majority of patients with seminoma present with early-stage disease and the disease responds well to treatment, almost all of the patients are cured.
  • Patients who have stage I disease without obvious metastatic lesions have two treatment options, surveillance or adjuvant retroperitoneal radiotherapy, following inguinal orchiectomy.
  • Stage IIA disease with a relatively small retroperitoneal lymph node metastasis is generally treated by retroperitoneal radiation therapy, although systemic chemotherapy with carboplatin is an alternative treatment.
  • For patients with bulky retroperitoneal lymph node or distant metastases (stage IIB, III), systemic chemotherapy including cisplatin and etoposide appears to be the standard approach.
  • Recently, 85% to 90% of patients with stage III disease are cured.
  • Thus, the current therapeutic goal is cure of the disease with the minimum of treatment sequelae.
  • [MeSH-major] Seminoma / therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 10790992.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] JAPAN
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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26. Inci K, Dogan HS, Akdogan B, Ergen A, Tasar C, Ozen H: Does age affect the prognosis of patients with testicular germ cell tumor? Urol Int; 2007;79(2):117-23
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Does age affect the prognosis of patients with testicular germ cell tumor?
  • INTRODUCTION: In this study, the effect of age on the prognosis of testicular germ cell tumors in patients over 40 was investigated.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-three patients with testicular germ cell tumor who were 40 years old and over were identified in our germ cell tumor database.
  • Patients were grouped according to their age with those between 40 and 44, 45 and 49 and 50 and over constituting groups I, II and III, respectively.
  • RESULTS: Only 15% of the patients of group III had localized disease (p = 0.002).
  • Group III patients had a significantly lower response rate to initial chemotherapy and a higher disease progression rate during therapy (complete response rate: 33.3%, progression rate: 44.4%, p = 0.035).
  • The multivariate analysis revealed that advanced stage was the only independent prognostic factor for survival (p = 0.0011).
  • CONCLUSION: Testicular germ cell tumor patients over 50 years old presented with a more advanced stage and had higher disease progression and disease mortality rates.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / mortality. Testicular Neoplasms / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Databases as Topic. Disease Progression. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Survival Analysis

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  • [Copyright] 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 17851279.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0399
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologia internationalis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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27. Lallave Martín F, Lomas Garrido M, Laguna Alvarez E, Asuar Aydillo S, Murillo Mirat J, Ramírez Zambrana A, Molina Suarez JL: [Testicular germ cell tumours: descriptive study of 13 years of experience in the health care area of Badajoz]. Arch Esp Urol; 2007 Jun;60(5):531-7
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  • [Title] [Testicular germ cell tumours: descriptive study of 13 years of experience in the health care area of Badajoz].
  • OBJECTIVES: To describe the incidence of germ cell testicular tumors in our Center, their characteristics and therapy results.
  • METHODS: Retrospective study of 66 cases of germ cell testicular tumors diagnosed in the Health Area of Badajoz between 1993 and 2005.
  • RESULTS: Mean age of the time of diagnosis was 32 years (range 16-80 years), presenting a younger age patients with non seminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCT) (mean age 30 years).
  • 86.5% of the patients did not have risk factors associated with the diagnosis of germ cell testicular tumor.
  • Testicular mass was the most frequent symptom, and a higher proportion of tumors were located in the left testicle (51.5%).
  • Non seminomatous germ cell tumors were the most frequent histological type (64.8%).
  • Stage I (72%) was the most frequent stage in the group of seminomatous tumors, in comparison with 68.5% of non seminomatous tumors.
  • Stages II-III appeared in 34.4% of the NSGCT and 28% of seminomatous, having worse prognosis.
  • 92% of the patients received adjuvant treatment with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, and curative surgery was the only treatment in the remainder 8%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: An increased incidence of germ cell testicular tumors have been verified over last years, mainly NSGCT Nevertheless, the diagnosis of advanced stages of the disease has diminished in favour of initial stages, which have a better prognosis for the patient.
  • Oncologycal treatment protocols have high cure rates, although a long-term follow-up is needed due to the natural history of these tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal. Testicular Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Catchment Area (Health). Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Spain. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 17718207.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0614
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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28. Tomomasa H, Shimizu H, Sato S, Adachi Y, Ashizawa Y, Kamiyama Y, Okano Y, Sato M, Yoshii T, Iizumi T, Umeda T, Yazaki T: Clinical study of testicular germ cell tumors. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2001 Jun;47(6):389-95
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical study of testicular germ cell tumors.
  • A clinical statistical analysis on 65 patients with 68 testicular germ cell tumors was performed.
  • Thirty-six testes (53.7%) had seminomas and the remainder non-seminomatous germ cell testicular tumors (NSGCTTs).
  • Of the seminomas, 31 (88.6%) were in stage I and the others showed distant metastases at presentation.
  • Of the 32 NSGCTTs, 22 (68.8%) were in stage I.
  • Immunosuppressive acidic protein (IAP) was a useful diagnostic tumor marker as well as alpha-feto protein (AFP), beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH).
  • We adopted a surveillance policy in more than half of the stage I patients and obtained acceptable results.
  • In the remaining cases, therapies including combination chemotherapy, radiation and salvage operation were performed after orchiectomy.
  • The three-year survival rate was 98.0, 100.0 and 26.7%, for stage I, II and III patients respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma. Testicular Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11496394.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / immunosuppressive acidic protein
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29. Matsuda Y, Tanaka T, Sato S, Kitamura H, Takahashi S, Masumori N, Tsukamoto T: [Clinical features of patients with brain metastasis from testicular germ cell tumor]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2010 Feb;56(2):99-102
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  • [Title] [Clinical features of patients with brain metastasis from testicular germ cell tumor].
  • We retrospectively reviewed 190 patients with germ cell tumors of testis or extragonadal origin who were treated in our hospital between 1980 and 2007.
  • We studied the clinical features and treatment outcome of these patients.
  • The clinical stage was III in all the patients, except one with stage I disease.
  • All patients underwent multiple regimens of chemotherapy.
  • As local therapies for brain metastases, surgical resection was done in 4 and gamma knife was in 1.
  • The long survivor had solitary brain metastasis at the initial presentation and received 4 regimens of chemotherapy, 2 surgical resections of brain metastases and whole brain irradiation.
  • Finally, chemotherapy consisting of irinotecan and nedaplatin resulted in normalization of the tumor markers and complete remission was proved by the subsequent surgical resection.
  • Although most patients with brain metastasis have a poor clinical outcome, aggressive local treatment and employment of novel anticancerous agents may contribute to improve clinical course of selected patients with germ cell tumors and brain metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / secondary. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Camptothecin / administration & dosage. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Organoplatinum Compounds / administration & dosage. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20185995.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 7673326042 / irinotecan; 8UQ3W6JXAN / nedaplatin; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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30. Lopes LF, Sonaglio V, Ribeiro KC, Schneider DT, de Camargo B: Improvement in the outcome of children with germ cell tumors. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2008 Feb;50(2):250-3
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  • [Title] Improvement in the outcome of children with germ cell tumors.
  • PURPOSE: To describe the clinical characteristics and estimate the survival of children and adolescents with germ cell tumors treated with cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy according to three different protocols in Brazil.
  • METHODS: From 1983 to 1997, 106 patients were treated at the Hospital do Cancer, Sao Paulo for a diagnosis of germ cell tumor.
  • RESULTS: Patients were treated with only surgery (n = 32), surgery and radiotherapy (n = 1) and chemotherapy (n = 73).
  • From 1983 to 1986 (period I), there were 30 patients and 21 received chemotherapy according to the modified VAB-6 protocol.
  • Twenty-two of 35 patients registered between 1987 and 1991 (period II) were treated with EPO/VAC combination chemotherapy.
  • From 1991 to 1997 (period III), there were 41 patients and 31 received chemotherapy according to the Brazilian TCG-91 protocol.
  • Important prognostic factors included stage (P < 0.001), metastatic status (P < 0.001) and surgical procedure at diagnosis (P < 0.001).
  • An incremental improvement in outcomes was noted across the periods of treatment (P = 0.070).
  • Five-year OS was respectively 42.9 +/- 10.8%, 53.9 +/- 11.4% and 80.6 +/- 7.1% for periods I, II, and III for the patients who received chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: An improvement in the survival of children with germ cell tumors was achieved in the most recent trial (TCG-91) with a risk adapted approach incorporating only cisplatin and etoposide.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17554793.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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31. Jiang YG, Chen JH, Jiang R, Hang G, Wang GH, Wang D, Li FC, Liu H, Shi CJ, Wu HJ, Yuan YG: [Testicular tumor in Mongolian men (report of 35 cases)]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue; 2006 May;12(5):397-400
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Testicular tumor in Mongolian men (report of 35 cases)].
  • OBJECTIVE: To improve the diagnosis, therapy and prognosis of testicular tumor in Mongolian men.
  • METHODS: A retrospective review of 35 cases of testicular tumors in Mongolian men from seven medical centers dated from 1990 to 2004 was performed.
  • RESULTS: The usual presentation of a testicular tumor was a nodular or painless swelling of one gonad.
  • Regarding stage, 22, 2, and 5 of 29 germ cell tumors were seen initially as stage I, II, and III, respectively.
  • Combined therapy, including radical orchiectomy, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, were taken.
  • 29 cases have been followed for 2 months to 10 years, 4 out of them died of distant metastasis, one died of other disease, one lives with tumor, the others live without relapse and metastasis.
  • CONCLUSION: In this article, the rate of seminoma to germ cell tumors is higher than that of general population.
  • Better public awareness regarding testicular tumor in this population, advances in diagnosis and therapy will help to improve therapeutic effectiveness and prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 16755865.001).
  • [ISSN] 1009-3591
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua nan ke xue = National journal of andrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] China
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32. Géczi L, Gomez F, Bak M, Bodrogi I: The incidence, prognosis, clinical and histological characteristics, treatment, and outcome of patients with bilateral germ cell testicular cancer in Hungary. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol; 2003 May;129(5):309-15
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The incidence, prognosis, clinical and histological characteristics, treatment, and outcome of patients with bilateral germ cell testicular cancer in Hungary.
  • PURPOSE: To examine the incidence, prognosis, clinical and histological characteristics, treatment, and outcome of patients with bilateral testicular cancer in the referral center in Hungary, to determine which parameters might predict a second testicular tumor. METHODS: .
  • Clinical parameters-such as time of original surgery, histology of primary tumor, extent of the disease, serum marker concentrations, history of testicular abnormalities, treatment, response to treatment, follow-up period, data on second carcinoma-of bilateral testicular tumors among the 2,386 patients with testicular cancer treated between November 1988 and November 1998 were analyzed.
  • RESULTS: The incidence of patients with synchronous testicular tumor was 0.8% (19 of 2,386 patients).
  • The clinical stages were 8 I/A, 5 I/B, 1 II/A, 2 II/B, 1 III/A, and 2 III/B.
  • Median follow-up time was 93 months and the 5-year overall survival was 84%.
  • The incidence of patients with metachronous testicular cancer (median age 28 years and 35 years at first and second tumor diagnosis) was 2.2% (53 of 2,386 patients) and the median time to second tumor was 76 months (range 18-203 months).
  • The clinical stages at the first and second tumor diagnosis were: 14 I/A, 21 I/B, 15 II/A, 2 II/B, and 1 III/B, and 26 I/A, 16 I/B, 3 II/A, 1 II/B, 7 III/B, respectively.
  • The median follow-up time was 42 months and the 5-year overall survival was 93%.
  • In thirteen patients with metachronous cancers, two family histories of testicular cancer, five cases of undescended testicles, seven cases of testicular atrophy, and one case of azoospermia were detected.
  • There was a non-significant trend to a longer cancer interval after chemotherapy and radiotherapy and a tendency to a greater incidence of asynchronous seminoma after chemotherapy.
  • Clinical stage I tumors were more frequent in the surveyed group than among patients not followed up according to the institutional protocol ( P = 0.01), but the survival rate was good in both groups.
  • Seminoma as a second tumor was diagnosed in an older age group (median 38 years, range 25-49 years) than nonseminoma (median 32 years, range 21-51 years, P < 0.045).
  • The interval till the appearance of a metachronous testicular cancer depended on tumor histology: in seminoma cases it was longer than in nonseminoma cases (median time: 121 months versus 50 months, P = 0.002).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The overall incidence of bilateral testicular cancer in the referral center in Hungary was 3%.
  • We could not identify clinical factors which predicted a higher risk for metachronous testicular cancer.
  • With regular follow-up the early diagnosis of second testicular tumors is probable; therefore education, self-examination of the remaining testicle, and long-term follow-up are important in early detection.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma. Neoplasms, Second Primary. Testicular Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / blood. Humans. Hungary / epidemiology. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Orchiectomy. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Risk Factors. Self-Examination. Seminoma / blood. Seminoma / epidemiology. Seminoma / pathology. Seminoma / therapy. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome. alpha-Fetoproteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 12748851.001).
  • [ISSN] 0171-5216
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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33. Classen J, Souchon R, Hehr T, Bamberg M: Treatment of early stage testicular seminoma. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol; 2001 Aug;127(8):475-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment of early stage testicular seminoma.
  • Stage I and IIA/B testicular seminoma represent approximately 45% of all testicular germ cell tumours.
  • Due to the availability of highly efficient salvage treatment, the disease-specific survival in stage I seminoma is approximately 100%, irrespective of the choice of adjuvant treatment.
  • Radiotherapy with 26 Gy to the paraaortic/paracaval lymph nodes yields excellent cure rates of 95 98% with a favourable profile of acute and late toxicity.
  • Likewise, phase-II trials with single-agent carboplatinum systemic treatment have demonstrated a rate of relapse of 3-4% on average.
  • However, carboplatinum chemotherapy has to be regarded as experimental until data of phase-III trials are available.
  • Surveillance in stage I disease is conflicted with a rate of relapse of approximately 20%.
  • In stage IIA/B seminoma, "dogleg" radiotherapy with 30 Gy and 36 Gy, respectively, provides high cure rates of 90-95%.
  • Testicular intraepithelial neoplasia (TIN) is the common precursor lesion of testicular germ cell tumours except for spermatocytic seminoma.
  • In case of TIN in a single testis or bilateral TIN, local radiotherapy with 18 Gy is recommended as standard treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Seminoma / drug therapy. Seminoma / radiotherapy. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Carboplatin / therapeutic use. Carcinoma in Situ / therapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Population Surveillance. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11501746.001).
  • [ISSN] 0171-5216
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
  • [Number-of-references] 58
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34. Spiess PE, Brown GA, Liu P, Tu SM, Tannir NM, Evans JG, Kamat AM, Kassouf W, Pisters LL: Recurrence pattern and proposed surveillance protocol following post-chemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection. J Urol; 2007 Jan;177(1):131-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Recurrence pattern and proposed surveillance protocol following post-chemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection.
  • PURPOSE: We evaluated the recurrence pattern in patients with nonseminomatous germ cell tumors treated with post-chemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection and determined the optimal surveillance strategy in these patients.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 1980 and 2003, 236 patients with clinical stage IIA-III nonseminomatous germ cell tumors underwent post-chemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection.
  • Patients with increased preoperative tumor markers (alpha-fetoprotein greater than 15 ng/ml and/or beta-human chorionic gonadotropin greater than 2.2 U/ml) were excluded from study resulting in 198 patients for analysis.
  • We retrospectively reviewed medical records for pertinent clinical and treatment related outcomes.
  • In our patient population recurrence developed in 45 (23%) patients and 22 (11%) died of disease at a median followup of 41 months (range 6 to 250) after retroperitoneal lymph node dissection.
  • RESULTS: The clinical stage of testis cancer was IIA in 17, IIB in 49, IIC in 83 and III in 49 patients.
  • Of the cases of recurrence 21 (46.7%) were in those of clinical stage III, 18 (40%) stage IIC and 6 (11.8%) stage IIB disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Based on the recurrence pattern we propose stage specific surveillance guidelines for the followup of patients after post-chemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Node Excision. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17162023.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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