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1. Ehrlich Y, Yossepowitch O, Kedar D, Baniel J: Distribution of nodal metastases after chemotherapy in nonseminomatous testis cancer: a possible indication for limited dissection. BJU Int; 2006 Jun;97(6):1221-4
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  • [Title] Distribution of nodal metastases after chemotherapy in nonseminomatous testis cancer: a possible indication for limited dissection.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical and pathological findings of patients treated by bilateral retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) after chemotherapy, to identify a subset for whom modified template nodal resection might be contemplated, as bilateral RPLND is the treatment of choice in patients with residual retroperitoneal disease after chemotherapy for nonseminomatous germ-cell tumour (GCT).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The medical records were reviewed of 50 consecutive patients who had RPLND after chemotherapy between 1996 and 2005.
  • The pathological findings were correlated with the side of the primary lesion and the extent of metastatic disease before chemotherapy.
  • RESULTS: Pathological assessment of the resected lymph nodes revealed teratoma in 28 patients (56%), viable carcinoma in three (6%), and necrosis or fibrosis in 19 (38%).
  • All clinical stage Is, IIA and IIB left-sided primary tumours followed a predictable pattern of spread constricted to a modified left-sided template.
  • Patients with clinical stage IIC and III, or right-sided primary tumour, had a less predictable metastatic pattern, having crossover metastases to the contralateral template.
  • CONCLUSION: Bilateral RPLND should be considered as the reference standard in patients with metastatic GCT and residual retroperitoneal mass after completing chemotherapy.
  • However, the present data suggest that a modified template dissection might be considered even after chemotherapy in patients with left-sided primary tumours and limited nodal involvement at presentation.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Node Excision / methods. Neoplasm, Residual / surgery. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retroperitoneal Space. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16686715.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-4096
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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2. Beck SD: Optimal management of testicular cancer: from self-examination to treatment of advanced disease. Open Access J Urol; 2010;2:143-54

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Optimal management of testicular cancer: from self-examination to treatment of advanced disease.
  • Germ-cell cancer is the most common solid tumor in men aged 15 to 35 years and has become the model for curable neoplasm.
  • This improved cure rate has been largely attributed to the introduction of cisplatin-based chemotherapy.
  • In stage I seminoma and nonseminoma, cure rates approach 100% and treatment is governed by patient choice based on the perceived morbidities of each therapy and personal preferences.
  • For seminoma, treatments include surveillance, radiotherapy, and single course carboplatin.
  • For nonseminoma, treatments include surveillance, retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND), and adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • Low volume (<3 cm) stage II seminoma is typically managed with radiotherapy while higher volume (>3 cm) stage II and stage III disease treated with chemotherapy.
  • Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging can differentiate active cancer versus necrosis for postchemotherapy residual masses.
  • PET-positive masses are managed with either surgery or second-line chemotherapy.
  • Low volume (<5 cm) stage II nonseminoma with normal serum tumor markers may be managed with either RPLND or chemotherapy.
  • Patients with persistently elevated serum tumor markers and larger volume stage II and stage III disease are managed with systemic chemotherapy.
  • Residual postchemotherapy masses should be resected due to the uncertainty of the histology with 50% to 60% harboring residual teratoma or active cancer.
  • The majority of patients completing initial therapy who relapse do so within 2 years.
  • Current therapeutic challenges in testis cancer include the accurate prediction of postchemotherapy histology to avoid surgery in patients harboring fibrosis only, improved therapy in platinum-resistant and platinum-refractory disease, and the understanding of the biology of late relapse.

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  • (PMID = 24198622.001).
  • [ISSN] 1179-1551
  • [Journal-full-title] Open access journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Open Access J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3818885
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; advanced disease / self-examination / testicular cancer
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3. Mosharafa AA, Foster RS, Bihrle R, Koch MO, Ulbright TM, Einhorn LH, Donohue JP: Does retroperitoneal lymph node dissection have a curative role for patients with sex cord-stromal testicular tumors? Cancer; 2003 Aug 15;98(4):753-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Does retroperitoneal lymph node dissection have a curative role for patients with sex cord-stromal testicular tumors?
  • BACKGROUND: Sex cord-stromal tumors account for < 5% of all adult testicular tumors, and 10% are malignant.
  • METHODS: Reviewing the Indiana University testis cancer registry revealed 17 patients who underwent RPLND for sex cord-stromal tumors.
  • The data examined included clinical and pathologic stage, surgical procedure, additional therapy received, and outcome.
  • RESULTS: Pathology included Leydig tumors in six patients, Sertoli tumors in four patients, sex cord-stromal tumors in five patients, a granulosa cell tumor in one patient, and a poorly differentiated non-germ cell tumor in one patient.
  • Clinical stage at surgery was Stage I in nine patients and Stage IIA-IIIA in eight patients.
  • Nine patients had pathologic Stage I tumors, and the remaining eight patients and had pathologic Stage IIB-IIIA tumors.
  • Of the eight patients with Stage II-III disease, six patients eventually died of metastatic disease despite additional radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy.
  • Although the therapeutic role of RPLND in patients with small-volume metastatic retroperitoneal tumors is unclear, RPLND remains an option to be performed immediately after orchiectomy, especially in patients who have tumors with malignant features and/or small-volume metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Node Excision. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2003 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 12910519.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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4. Ondrus D, Hornák M, Breza J, Mat'oska J, Schnorrer M, Belan V, Kausitz J: Delayed orchiectomy after chemotherapy in patients with advanced testicular cancer. Int Urol Nephrol; 2001;32(4):665-7
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  • [Title] Delayed orchiectomy after chemotherapy in patients with advanced testicular cancer.
  • INTRODUCTION: The therapeutic procedures in the management of testicular cancer are determined by histological findings in the removed testis and by the extent of the disease at the time of diagnosis.
  • However, all advanced tumors could be treated by primary chemotherapy regardless of the histological findings.
  • The current imaging techniques (ultrasound of the testis, abdominal and chest CT examination) and laboratory tests (determination of serum tumor markers AFP and hCG) provide sufficient evidence for the presence of cancer.
  • When the diagnosis of advanced tumor is evident, it is possible to start the treatment without orchiectomy.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the advantages of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy with delayed orchiectomy in the management of advanced testicular cancer.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 36 patients with advanced germ cell testicular cancer underwent primary PVB or BEP chemotherapy without previous orchiectomy.
  • Searching for the origin, testicular tumor was detected.
  • Eleven patients had a bulky disease in the retroperitoneum (Stage IIC), two had enlarged retroperitoneal lymph nodes (Stage IIB), two had enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes (Stage III) and other 16 patients had also pulmonary metastases, and 5 pts had pulmonary metastases only.
  • The patients were treated with cisplatin-containing combination chemotherapy.
  • Following completion of chemotherapy, orchiectomy was performed alone or simultaneously with retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) and/or lung metastasectomy in cases with persistent residual mass.
  • Following orchiectomy the patients were regularly checked and in cases with viable malignant tumor found in the testis sequential chemotherapy was administered.
  • Similarly when the relapse of the disease was detected, the patients were treated with sequential chemotherapy.
  • RESULTS: Complete disappearance of metastases was observed in 12 patients following chemotherapy alone.
  • The viable tumor in the removed tissue was found in one patient.
  • Delayed orchiectomy was performed simultaneously with surgical removal of residual mass in the retroperitoneum in 24 patients and as a separate procedure in 12 patients who have been considered to be complete responders following chemotherapy alone.
  • Residual viable tumor in testicular specimen was found in three patients, necrotic or fibrotic tissue in 18, and mature teratoma in 15 patients.
  • Overall survival of the patients was 26/36 (72.7%) at mean of 56.9 months (range 7-145 months, median 50 months) since the start of the treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In patients with advanced germ cell testicular cancer preference must be given to the early beginning of intensive chemotherapy without the need of tissue diagnosis of primary tumor that should be obtained by orchiectomy.
  • Benefit of this therapeutic approach is the timely management of acute abdominal and/or pulmonary symptoms of life-threatening distant metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Germinoma / drug therapy. Orchiectomy. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy. Vinblastine / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm, Residual. Survival Rate. Teratoma / secondary. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11989561.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-1623
  • [Journal-full-title] International urology and nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Urol Nephrol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; PVB protocol
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5. Mezvrishvili ZN: [Modified chemotherapy regimens in selected testicular cancer patients with good prognosis]. Georgian Med News; 2006 Jun;(135):7-12
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  • [Title] [Modified chemotherapy regimens in selected testicular cancer patients with good prognosis].
  • The goal of our study was to assess the feasibility of usage of chemotherapy regimens with reduced intensity in subgroups of selected patients with good-prognosis metastatic nonseminomatous germ cell tumor (NSGCT) of the testis.
  • 18 patients with low-volume stage II NSGCT who achieved normal tumor marker level after the first cycle of cisplatin, etoposide and bleomycin (BEP) chemotherapy (group 1) received etoposide and cisplatin (EP) as second and third cycles of treatment and 15 testicular cancer patients with serological disease only (group 2) underwent three cycles of EP chemotherapy.
  • The chemotherapy-related side effects observed in these patients were compared with those in control group consisting of 93 good-prognosis metastatic patients treated with three standard cycles of BEP.
  • All patients from both groups achieved complete response with chemotherapy alone (14 group 1 and 15 group 2 patients) or by subsequent resection of teratoma or necrosis (4 cases from group 1).
  • No relapse with viable malignancy was observed after the treatment.
  • Compared to the control group, less number of treatment cycles was associated with grade III-IV leucopenia in groups 1 (p=0.07) and 2 (p=0.03).
  • Reduced intensity chemotherapy regimens showed efficacy equal to the standard treatment and can be considered as less toxic therapeutic options in these selected patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16905797.001).
  • [ISSN] 1512-0112
  • [Journal-full-title] Georgian medical news
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Georgian Med News
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Georgia (Republic)
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6. Debrah AY, Mand S, Specht S, Marfo-Debrekyei Y, Batsa L, Pfarr K, Larbi J, Lawson B, Taylor M, Adjei O, Hoerauf A: Doxycycline reduces plasma VEGF-C/sVEGFR-3 and improves pathology in lymphatic filariasis. PLoS Pathog; 2006 Sep;2(9):e92
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  • Presently used antifilarial drugs are able to strongly reduce transmission and will thus ultimately lower the burden of morbidity associated with the infection, however, a chemotherapeutic principle that directly induces a halt or improvement in the progression of the morbidity in already infected individuals would constitute a major lead.
  • In search of such a more-effective drug to complement the existing ones, in an area endemic for bancroftian filariasis in Ghana, 33 microfilaremic and 18 lymphedema patients took part in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a 6-wk regimen of 200 mg/day doxycycline.
  • Four months after doxycycline treatment, all patients received 150-200 microg/kg ivermectin and 400 mg albendazole.
  • Lymphedema patients were additionally monitored for stage (grade) of lymphedema and the circumferences of affected legs.
  • The extent of disease in lymphedema patients significantly improved following doxycycline, with the mean stage of lymphedema in the doxycycline-treated patients being significantly lower compared to placebo patients 12 mo after treatment.
  • In conclusion, a 6-wk regimen of antifilarial treatment with doxycycline against W. bancrofti showed a strong macrofilaricidal activity and reduction in plasma levels of VEGF-C/sVEGFR-3, the latter being associated with amelioration of supratesticular dilated lymphatic vessels and with an improvement of pathology in lymphatic filariasis patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Doxycycline / therapeutic use. Elephantiasis, Filarial / drug therapy. Elephantiasis, Filarial / pathology. Filaricides / therapeutic use. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C / blood. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-3 / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Animals. Female. Humans. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / blood. Lymphatic System / diagnostic imaging. Lymphatic System / drug effects. Male. Microfilariae / isolation & purification. Microfilariae / physiology. Middle Aged. Molecular Sequence Data. Parasitemia / parasitology. Testicular Hydrocele / parasitology. Testis / diagnostic imaging. Treatment Outcome. Ultrasonography. Wolbachia / isolation & purification

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  • (PMID = 17044733.001).
  • [ISSN] 1553-7374
  • [Journal-full-title] PLoS pathogens
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS Pathog.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GENBANK/ AF081198/ CAA63907; RefSeq/ NM/ 002020
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Filaricides; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-3; N12000U13O / Doxycycline
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1564427
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7. Spiess PE, Pisters LL, Liu P, Pettaway CA, Kamat AM, Gomez JA, Tannir NM: Malignant transformation of testicular teratoma: a chemoresistant phenotype. Urol Oncol; 2008 Nov-Dec;26(6):595-9
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  • [Title] Malignant transformation of testicular teratoma: a chemoresistant phenotype.
  • RESULTS: Two patients presented with clinical stage I disease in which malignant transformation occurred within the primary testis tumor (rhabdomyosarcoma in 1 and adenocarcinoma in 1).
  • No viable tumor was identified in the specimen, and both patients were alive without disease at 16 months follow-up.
  • Of the remaining 7 patients, the clinical stages were IIA (N = 1), IIB (N = 3), and III (N = 3), and all were treated with chemotherapy followed by RPLND.
  • Following preoperative chemotherapy, a significant radiologic response (defined as more than a 25% reduction in maximum tumor circumferential diameter) was demonstrated in 1 patient, and normalization of serum tumor markers was demonstrated in 6.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In our experience, MTT is significantly resistant to current chemotherapeutic regimens, as demonstrated by its poor radiologic response to treatment.
  • Alternative therapeutic strategies targeted to MTT are thus needed.
  • [MeSH-major] Teratoma / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Retroperitoneal Space

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  • [CommentIn] Urol Oncol. 2009 Mar-Apr;27(2):218; author reply 218-9 [19285238.001]
  • (PMID = 18367105.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-1439
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS610854; NLM/ PMC4121060
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8. Sato S, Tanaka T, Takahashi A, Sasai M, Kitamura H, Masumori N, Tsukamoto T: Late recurrence and second primary malignancy among 139 patients with germ cell tumors: long-term outcome of the disease in a single-center experience. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2010 Feb;40(2):157-62
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  • [Title] Late recurrence and second primary malignancy among 139 patients with germ cell tumors: long-term outcome of the disease in a single-center experience.
  • OBJECTIVE: We retrospectively evaluated long-term oncological outcomes in patients with germ cell tumors (GCTs) primarily treated at our institution and assessed late recurrence and second primary malignancies.
  • METHODS: This study included a total of 139 males with newly diagnosed GCTs of the testis or extragonadal origin who received treatment, including surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy, at our hospital between 1980 and 2005.
  • RESULTS: In patients with seminoma, 5-year progression-free survival and cause-specific survival rates were 87.2% and 100% for Stage I, 88.9% and 100% for Stage II, and 50.0% and 50.0% for Stage III, respectively, whereas in those with non-seminomatous GCTs, they were 79.1% and 96.3% for Stage I, 89.5% and 89.4% for Stage II, and 85.7% and 78.4% for Stage III, respectively.
  • Late recurrence was found in five (3.6%) patients and all of them responded to salvage treatment and achieved disease-free status.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Late recurrence was successfully managed with appropriate treatments, although its incidence was not negligible.
  • Periodic follow-up may be necessary for >5 years in patients with GCTs for early detection of late recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Disease-Free Survival. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Seminoma / pathology. Seminoma / therapy. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 19906660.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3621
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2813544
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9. Albers P, Siener R, Krege S, Schmelz HU, Dieckmann KP, Heidenreich A, Kwasny P, Pechoel M, Lehmann J, Kliesch S, Köhrmann KU, Fimmers R, Weissbach L, Loy V, Wittekind C, Hartmann M, German Testicular Cancer Study Group: Randomized phase III trial comparing retroperitoneal lymph node dissection with one course of bleomycin and etoposide plus cisplatin chemotherapy in the adjuvant treatment of clinical stage I Nonseminomatous testicular germ cell tumors: AUO trial AH 01/94 by the German Testicular Cancer Study Group. J Clin Oncol; 2008 Jun 20;26(18):2966-72
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  • [Title] Randomized phase III trial comparing retroperitoneal lymph node dissection with one course of bleomycin and etoposide plus cisplatin chemotherapy in the adjuvant treatment of clinical stage I Nonseminomatous testicular germ cell tumors: AUO trial AH 01/94 by the German Testicular Cancer Study Group.
  • PURPOSE: Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) and adjuvant chemotherapy are two adjuvant treatment options for patients with clinical stage I nonseminomatous germ cell tumors of the testis (NSGCT).
  • Aim of this trial was to prove the advantage of one cycle of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) chemotherapy compared with RPLND in terms of recurrence.
  • The trial was powered to detect a 7% reduction (from 10% to 3%) of recurrence with chemotherapy compared with surgery.
  • RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 4.7 years, two and 15 recurrences were observed in the intention-to-treat population with chemotherapy and surgery, respectively (P = .0011).
  • The difference in the 2-year recurrence-free survival rate between chemotherapy (99.46%; 95% CI, 96.20% to 99.92%) and surgery (91.87%; 95% CI, 86.87% to 95.02%) was 7.59% (95% CI, 3.13% to 12.05%).
  • The hazard ratio to experience a tumor recurrence with surgery as opposed to chemotherapy was 7.937 (95% CI, 1.808 to 34.48).
  • CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the largest randomized trial investigating adjuvant treatment strategies in clinical stage I NSGCT, which showed the superiority of one course BEP over RPLND performed according to community standards to prevent recurrence.
  • Although not standard treatment, one course of BEP is active in an unselected group of patients with clinical stage I disease and merits further investigation.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Bleomycin / adverse effects. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Disease-Free Survival. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Etoposide / adverse effects. Humans. Lymph Node Excision / adverse effects. Lymph Node Excision / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Orchiectomy

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  • [CommentIn] J Clin Oncol. 2008 Jun 20;26(18):2934-6 [18458042.001]
  • [CommentIn] J Clin Oncol. 2009 May 1;27(13):2114-6 [19307494.001]
  • [ErratumIn] J Clin Oncol. 2010 Mar 10;28(8):1439. Dosage error in article text
  • (PMID = 18458040.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase III; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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10. Yamamoto G, Shimada T, Nishida T, Ishida Y, Iba T, Nakata T, Ohtsuki T, Takigami K, Yamaguchi Y, Yoshitake K, Tanaka A, Tsuda Y: [Evaluation of a combination chemotherapy with nedaplatin and 5-FU for oral cancers]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2001 Aug;28(8):1111-5
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  • [Title] [Evaluation of a combination chemotherapy with nedaplatin and 5-FU for oral cancers].
  • Nedaplatin (cis-diammine-glycolato platinum: CDGP) is a platinum compound with a molecular weight of 303.18 that was recently developed in Japan.
  • There have been reports of the antineoplastic effects of Nedaplatin on cancers in the cranio-cervical region, lung, esophagus, urinary bladder, testis, ovary, and uterus.
  • In this study, we performed combined therapy of CDGP and fluorouracil (5-FU) for 8 patients with oral cancers, and evaluated the results to elucidate the clinical effect and adverse side effects.
  • The subjects were 8 patients with squamous cell carcinoma (5 males and 3 females aged 33-65 years).
  • The primary carcinoma regions were the tongue in 5 patients, oral floor in 2 patients, and mandibular gingiva in 1 patient.
  • The T-classification was T2 in 6 patients and T4 in 2 patients, and the clinical staging was Stage II in 5 patients, Stage III in 1 patient and Stage IV in 2 patients.
  • One patient was Grade IIA, 5 patients Grade IIB, and 2 patients Grade III.
  • Although the oral cancers in this study were extroverted superficial ulcerative cancers, and the number of patients was low at 8, this combined therapy is considered useful and worth evaluating in further accumulated cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Mouth Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Organoplatinum Compounds / administration & dosage. Remission Induction

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  • (PMID = 11525027.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 8UQ3W6JXAN / nedaplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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11. Donohue JP: Evolution of retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy (RPLND) in the management of non-seminomatous testicular cancer (NSGCT). Urol Oncol; 2003 Mar-Apr;21(2):129-32
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  • [Title] Evolution of retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy (RPLND) in the management of non-seminomatous testicular cancer (NSGCT).
  • The metastatic lymphatic drainage of testis cancer to the retroperitoneum was noted clinically about a century ago.
  • The advent of platinum based combination chemotherapy has had a major impact on both the timing of and the technical requirements of RPLND.
  • Our experience with over 2500 RPLNDs in the last 3 decades is divided between low stage (I and II) and high stage (III, postchemotherapy) disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Node Excision / history. Testicular Neoplasms / history

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  • (PMID = 12856641.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-1439
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Historical Article; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Maldonado-Valadez R, Schilling D, Anastasiadis AG, Sturm W, Stenzl A, Corvin S: Post-chemotherapy laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph-node dissection in testis cancer patients. J Endourol; 2007 Dec;21(12):1501-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Post-chemotherapy laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph-node dissection in testis cancer patients.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) is still the most sensitive and specific method for the detection of malignant tumor and mature teratoma in stage II nonseminomatous testicular carcinoma after chemotherapy.
  • In this study, we describe our experiences with laparoscopic RPLND for stage II testicular carcinoma after chemotherapy.
  • METHODS: Sixteen patients underwent 17 laparoscopic RPLND after chemotherapy for clinical stage IIA-III nonseminomatous testicular cancer.
  • Patients with post-chemotherapy residual masses >1 cm and normalization of tumor markers were considered for the procedure.
  • Our dissection field included the resection of the residual tumor as well as the ipsilateral template.
  • Operative time ranged from 125 to 370 minutes (mean 240 +/- 56 min).
  • No transfusions were required, and no intra- or postoperative complications occurred because of the procedure.
  • A bleomycin-induced interstitial pneumonia developed in one patient.
  • CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic RPLND after chemotherapy is a feasible and oncologically safe procedure.
  • However, the technique is challenging and should only be performed in selected patients with low residual tumor volume.

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  • (PMID = 18186691.001).
  • [ISSN] 0892-7790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endourology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endourol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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13. Gori S, Porrozzi S, Roila F, Gatta G, De Giorgi U, Marangolo M: Germ cell tumours of the testis. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol; 2005 Feb;53(2):141-64
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  • [Title] Germ cell tumours of the testis.
  • Cancer of the testis is a relatively rare disease, accounting for about 1% of all cancers in men.
  • Cryptorchidism is the only confirmed risk factor for testicular germ cell tumour.
  • Any nodular, hard, or fixed area discovered in the testis, must be considered neoplastic until proved otherwise.
  • The appropriate surgical procedure to make the diagnosis is a radical orchidectomy through an inguinal incision.
  • Many GCT produce tumoural markers (AFP, HCG, LDH), who are useful in the diagnosis and staging of disease; to monitor the therapeutic response and to detect tumour recurrence.
  • In 1997 a prognostic factor-based classification for the metastatic germ cell tumours was developed by the IGCCCG: good, intermediate and poor prognosis, with 5-year survival of 91, 79 and 48%, respectively.
  • GCT of the testis is a highly table, often curable, cancer.
  • Germ cell testicular cancers are divided into seminoma and non-seminoma types for treatment planning because seminomatous testicular cancers are more sensitive to radiotherapy.
  • For patients with low-stage disease, the cure approaches 100%.
  • For patients with non-seminoma tumours, the cure rate is >95% in stages I and II; it is approximately 70% with standard chemotherapy and resection of residual disease, if necessary, in stages III and IV.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma. Testicular Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 15661565.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8428
  • [Journal-full-title] Critical reviews in oncology/hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Number-of-references] 189
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14. Mazloom A, Fowler N, Medeiros LJ, Iyengar P, Horace P, Dabaja BS: Outcome of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the testis by era of treatment: the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center experience. Leuk Lymphoma; 2010 Jul;51(7):1217-24
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  • [Title] Outcome of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the testis by era of treatment: the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center experience.
  • The purpose of this study was to assess the clinicopathologic characteristics and outcomes in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the testis, and to assess the impact of changes in the therapeutic approach that have occurred over the years.
  • Factors analyzed included: age, clinical stage, B-symptoms, serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), beta(2)-microglobulin, treatment received, and outcome.
  • Immunophenotypic data were available for 43 cases, all of which showed B-cell lineage.
  • On univariate analysis, stages III and IV (p = 0.042), elevated serum LDH (p = 0.014), B-symptoms (p = 0.003), and high-intermediate or high International Prognostic Index (IPI) score (p = 0.010) were associated with a significantly decreased overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS).
  • The 5-year OS and PFS for patients after 2000, treated predominantly with R-CHOP, intrathecal chemotherapy (ITC), and scrotal radiotherapy (RT), were 86.6% and 59.3%, respectively.
  • This is compared to 56.3% and 51.7%, respectively, for patients treated between 1977 and 1999 with doxorubicin based chemotherapy without rituximab, who were not uniformly treated with ITC.
  • Patients treated prior to 1977 had an OS and PFS of 15.4% and 15.4%, respectively, and were not treated with doxorubicin based chemotherapy or ITC (p = 0.019 for OS and p = 0.138 for PFS).
  • Advanced stage, elevated serum LDH, B-symptoms, and high IPI are poor prognostic markers.
  • R-CHOP based chemotherapy with intrathecal chemotherapy and scrotal RT is associated with an improved OS.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Humans. L-Lactate Dehydrogenase / blood. Male. Middle Aged. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Radiotherapy Dosage. Rituximab. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage. Young Adult. beta 2-Microglobulin / blood

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  • [CommentIn] Leuk Lymphoma. 2010 Jul;51(7):1159-60 [20497004.001]
  • (PMID = 20443676.001).
  • [ISSN] 1029-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / beta 2-Microglobulin; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; EC 1.1.1.27 / L-Lactate Dehydrogenase; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone
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15. Visco C, Medeiros LJ, Mesina OM, Rodriguez MA, Hagemeister FB, McLaughlin P, Romaguera JE, Cabanillas F, Sarris AH: Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma affecting the testis: is it curable with doxorubicin-based therapy? Clin Lymphoma; 2001 Jun;2(1):40-6
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  • [Title] Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma affecting the testis: is it curable with doxorubicin-based therapy?
  • This study was designed to determine response, outcome, and patterns of failure of patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma who presented with a testicular mass.
  • Anderson Cancer Center between 1969 and 1999 treated with doxorubicin-based regimens and with radiotherapy and/or intrathecal therapy were considered for this study.
  • Ann Arbor stage (AAS) was I in 22 patients, II in 7 patients, III in 1 patient, and IV in 13 patients.
  • All 43 patients had intermediate-grade lymphomas according to the Working Formulation, and all 31 tumors assessed immunophenotypically were large B-cell lymphoma according to the World Health Organization classification.
  • Thirty-four patients achieved complete remission, 19 of whom relapsed, and 5 failed initial therapy.
  • Progression-free survival for patients with AAS I/II vs. III/IV was 36% +/- 13% vs. 0%, respectively (P = 0.004).
  • At 10 years, the actuarial probability of failure in the central nervous system was 34% +/- 9% and was 21% +/- 9% in contralateral testis.
  • Doxorubicin-based regimens alone appear unable to cure most patients with lymphoma involving the testis, but CHOP with prophylactic intrathecal therapy and adjuvant scrotal radiotherapy appears promising.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 11707869.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-9655
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-16672
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; CHOP protocol
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16. Mosharafa AA, Foster RS, Koch MO, Bihrle R, Donohue JP: Complications of post-chemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for testis cancer. J Urol; 2004 May;171(5):1839-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Complications of post-chemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for testis cancer.
  • PURPOSE: Post-chemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (PC RPLND) is a tool in the management of testis cancer.
  • Our impression has been that the short-term morbidity of standard PC RPLND has diminished with time.
  • Therefore, we attempted to verify this hypothesis by evaluating the morbidity of the procedure in 2 comparable groups of patients from 2 different periods.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We compared 150 patients who underwent post-chemotherapy RPLND between July 2000 and July 2002 to 79 patients who underwent the same procedure between 1990 to 1992.
  • All patients had clinical stage II-III testis cancer and had received 3 to 4 courses of standard platinum based chemotherapy before surgery.
  • RESULTS: The 2 groups were comparable regarding preoperative clinical stage, patient characteristics and postoperative pathological findings.
  • CONCLUSIONS: With time morbidity and hospital stay after standard PC RPLND have decreased.
  • Therefore, comparing newer surgical techniques to historical controls is inappropriate since differences may not actually represent the technical advances of the newer procedure.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Node Excision / adverse effects. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 15076289.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Tavolini IM, Norcen M, Oliva G, Nigro F, Benedetto G, Mazzariol C, Bassi P: [Caval involvement in advanced-stage non-seminoma testicular tumors: surgical strategy and long-term results]. Arch Ital Urol Androl; 2002 Jun;74(2):69-76
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  • [Title] [Caval involvement in advanced-stage non-seminoma testicular tumors: surgical strategy and long-term results].
  • OBJECTIVES: The involvement of vena cava by residual masses after cytoreductive chemotherapy for bulky metastatic germ cell tumors is a rare but possible event.
  • It could ensue by tumor invasion of the inferior vena cava (IVC), venous or neoplastic thrombosis, or by close adherence and encasement of IVC by scar tissue containing fibrosis or cancer; it usually occurs in right testicular neoplasms.
  • In this study we evaluated a group of nine over 86 patients who underwent IVC (and possibly aortic) surgery for post-chemotherapy residual masses and we assessed long term oncological and functional efficacy of the procedure.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 1980 and 1997, 86 patients underwent retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy (RPLND) after induction or additional salvage chemotherapy.
  • A subgroup of nine patients, all with primary tumors of the right testis in stage II C to III, showed evidence of caval involvement, four had caval thrombosis, seven exhibited caval invasion; in one case the IVC was displaced and compressed with no clear evidence of infiltration.

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  • (PMID = 12161940.001).
  • [ISSN] 1124-3562
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivio italiano di urologia, andrologia : organo ufficiale [di] Societa italiana di ecografia urologica e nefrologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Ital Urol Androl
  • [Language] ITA
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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18. Choo R, Sandler H, Warde P, Hruby G, DeBoer G: Survey of radiation oncologists: practice patterns of the management of stage I seminoma of testis in Canada and a selected group in the United States. Can J Urol; 2002 Apr;9(2):1479-85
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  • [Title] Survey of radiation oncologists: practice patterns of the management of stage I seminoma of testis in Canada and a selected group in the United States.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate practice patterns of the management of stage I seminoma of testis in Canada and a selected group in the United States.
  • RT to the para-aortic and ipsilateral pelvis ('dog-leg'), 4. single-agent chemotherapy), the order of first preference was option 1 (44%), 2 (42%), and 3 (14%) for patients who wish to preserve fertility.
  • The commonest dose-fractionation schedule was 25 Gy/20 fractions (68%).
  • Others included 25 Gy/15 f (15%), and 25.5 Gy/17 f (4%).
  • Twenty-nine percent reduced RT volume from the 'dog-leg' to the para-aortic region as the result of MRC Phase III study published in 1999.
  • CONCLUSION: There are significant variations in the practice pattern of the management of stage I seminoma of testis among radiation oncologists in Canada and a selected group in the United States.
  • [MeSH-major] Practice Patterns, Physicians' / statistics & numerical data. Seminoma / therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / therapy

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  • [CommentIn] Can J Urol. 2002 Apr;9(2):1476 [12010591.001]
  • (PMID = 12010592.001).
  • [ISSN] 1195-9479
  • [Journal-full-title] The Canadian journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
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19. Popadiuk S, Korzon M, Chybicka A, Szmyd K, Balwierz W, Trelinska J, Kowalczyk J, Wisniewska-Slusarz H, Woźniak W, Bilska K, Wachowiak J, Wysocki M, Krawczuk-Rybak M, Szumera M, Sznurkowska K, Renke J: [Analysis of risk factor treatment failures in therapeutic programme for malignant germ cell tumours in children. Multicentre prospective study of Polish Pediatric Group for Solid Tumours 1998--2006]. Med Wieku Rozwoj; 2007 Jul-Sep;11(3 Pt 2):301-6

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  • [Title] [Analysis of risk factor treatment failures in therapeutic programme for malignant germ cell tumours in children. Multicentre prospective study of Polish Pediatric Group for Solid Tumours 1998--2006].
  • AIMS: The aim of the study was the analysis of risk factors of therapeutic failures in children with malignant germ cell tumours treated within the multicentre programme of PPGGL from 1999--2006.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The investigated group included 18 (14.3%) patients, of 123 who have finished the treatment of malignant germ cell tumour, in whom no remission was obtained or relapse occurred.
  • RESULTS: Among 18 patients with therapeutic failures 12 died.
  • Two patients from the high risk group died of complications of the treatment--sepsis during neutropenia after chemotherapy and one after haemorrhage to the central nervous system.
  • 10 (82%) of 12 patients who died had extragonadal location and in 11 (92%) the tumour was in stage III or IV of the disease.
  • The most frequent histology in this group was mixed germ cell tumour with component of yolk sac tumour or carcinoma embrionale.
  • In 11 (92%) patients primary chemoresistance was observed, and radical surgery was not possible for the reason of advanced stage of the disease.
  • In 3 patients testis was the primary location (I and II stage), in 3 patients the tumour was localized in the sacrococcygeal region (III and IV stage).
  • All the patients are alive in remission after second line therapy, with 78 months (median) of follow-up.
  • The main risk factor for therapeutic failures in malignant germ cell tumours was primary chemoresistance in inoperable tumours of the sacrococcygeal region.
  • 2. The mortality of treatment complications was low.
  • 3. The relapse of cancer was not a risk factor for therapeutic failure due to the high probability of second remission 4.
  • Therapeutic failures are mainly observed in patients with mixed germ cell tumour with components of yolk sac tumour or carcinoma embrionale.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Poland. Risk Factors. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 18663271.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Medycyna wieku rozwojowego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Wieku Rozwoj
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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20. Fernández Gómez JM, Escaf Barmadah S, Guate Ortiz JL, Martín Huescar A, Fresno Forcelledo F, García Rodríguez J, Rodríguez Faba O, Jalón Monzón A, Rodríguez Martínez JJ: [Urologic treatment of testicular germ cell cancer]. Arch Esp Urol; 2002 Oct;55(8):927-36
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  • [Title] [Urologic treatment of testicular germ cell cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Tratamiento urológico del cáncer germinal de testículo.
  • OBJECTIVE: To review the treatment of testicular germ-cell cancer in our series.
  • METHODS: 73 cases with the diagnosis of germ-cell testicular tumours were reviewed.
  • We reviewed the treatment options employed in our series, analysing different currently recognised risk factors.
  • RESULTS: 34 out of 73 testicular germ-cell tumours were seminomas (46.6%) and 39 non seminomas (54.4%).
  • Clinically 58.9% of the patients had localised, stage I tumours.
  • 85.7% seminomas were stage I at presentation compared to 35.9% (14) non seminomatous tumours.
  • The remainder tumours presented in advanced phases (stages II & III).
  • Inguinal orchiectomy was performed in all cases except 5 patients in whom tumours were incidentally diagnosed (atrophic testis orchiectomy, hydrocelectomy, trauma) and underwent ipsilateral scrotal excision in a second time.
  • 30 patients received chemotherapy after orchiectomy: 3 metastatic seminomas (stage II) (8.8% of seminomas treated with chemotherapy) and 27 non seminomatous tumours (69.2% of them).
  • All metastatic tumours are among the last (25) (Stages II & III) and 2 stage I non seminomatous tumours.
  • Median time to relapse was 4 months (2-102).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Testicular germ-cell cancer needs a well established multidisciplinary approach, in which the role of the urologist is fundamental.
  • Orchiectomy is the primary treatment and allows determination of the dissemination risk.
  • Radiotherapy is very effective for localised seminomas with poor prognostic factors, and for non seminomas 2 cycles of chemotherapy seem to be an effective approach, as well as of little toxicity.
  • We must know and apply optimised programs for observation of these tumours (stage I), and also use follow-up protocols after chemotherapy or radiotherapy.
  • Some cases need complex surgery for residual masses resection or post chemotherapy salvage surgery in disseminated tumours (Stages II & III).
  • Sterility treatment protocols are applied to preserve fertility.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Orchiectomy. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Seminoma / drug therapy. Seminoma / pathology. Seminoma / radiotherapy. Seminoma / surgery. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 12455283.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0614
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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21. Wehrschütz M, Stöger H, Ploner F, Hofmann G, Wolf G, Höfler G, Krippl P, Samonigg H: Seminoma metastases mimicking primary pancreatic cancer. Onkologie; 2002 Aug;25(4):371-3
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  • [Title] Seminoma metastases mimicking primary pancreatic cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: A case of seminoma clinical stage III, arising from the right testis and mimicking a primary pancreatic malignancy is reported.
  • Abdominal CT scan showed a tumor in the head of the pancreas and multiple pathologically enlarged peripancreatic lymph nodes.
  • Further laboratory findings showed an elevation of the human placental alkaline phosphatase (HPLAP) and urological examination revealed a suspect right testis.
  • The patient underwent castration of the right testis and histopathological examination confirmed a seminoma.
  • 4 cycles of chemotherapy including cisplatinum, etoposide and bleomycin led into complete response that is still ongoing.
  • It provides an example of the possibility of an uncommon clinical appearance of seminoma metastases and again underlines the importance of exact radiological and histopathological examination to distinguish between curable and incurable tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Pancreatic Neoplasms / secondary. Seminoma / secondary. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Pancreas / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


22. Peled N, Oton AB, Hirsch FR, Bunn P: MAGE A3 antigen-specific cancer immunotherapeutic. Immunotherapy; 2009 Jan;1(1):19-25
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  • [Title] MAGE A3 antigen-specific cancer immunotherapeutic.
  • Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and melanoma are devastating diseases with high rates of recurrence.
  • Current clinical recommendations include postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy in stages II and IIIA NSCLC, while there is a debate regarding its clinical benefit in stage IB.
  • Recent Phase II trials have demonstrated a clinical benefit by postoperative vaccine with melanoma-specific antigen A3 (MAGE A3) in NSCLC and in stage IV melanoma.
  • These trials have led to the current Phase III trials.
  • MAGE A3 is a tumor-specific shared antigen that is frequently expressed in lung cancer and melanoma, as well as in few other tumors.
  • Its level is associated with disease burden and with prognosis, while normal tissues do not express it, except the testis and the placenta.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / immunology. Cancer Vaccines. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / therapy. Immunotherapy. Lung Neoplasms / therapy. Melanoma / therapy. Neoplasm Proteins / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic. Disease Progression. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Practice Guidelines as Topic

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  • (PMID = 20635969.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-7448
  • [Journal-full-title] Immunotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Immunotherapy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Cancer Vaccines; 0 / MAGEA3 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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23. Casey RG, Aktar M, Hegarty P, Butler M, Thornhill JA: A prospective 10 year audit of a single Irish centre's experience of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for metastatic testis cancer. Surgeon; 2008 Oct;6(5):294-6
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  • [Title] A prospective 10 year audit of a single Irish centre's experience of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for metastatic testis cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Retro-peritoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) following chemotherapy is critical in advanced germ cell tumours with residual retro-peritoneal masses.
  • Post-chemotherapy RPLND is more extensive, may require adjacent organ resection and has higher morbidity.
  • The study aim was to analyse patient demographics, clinical stage, surgical procedures and cure rates following RPLND.
  • METHODS: An RPLND database (1994-2005) was analysed prospectively for demographics, pre/post-RPLND staging, chemotherapy regimen, cure, follow-up and early/late morbidity and mortality.
  • Clinical stage at presentation was; IV (16), III (19), II (27), I (11) and prior to RPLND was IV (12), III (6), II (55), I (0).
  • Eleven patients with stage I disease progressed prior to RPLND.
  • Seventy-one patients received cisplatin-based chemotherapy with partial response (49), minimal response (14), no response (7), disease progression (3) and 13 patients required salvage chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The decision to perform post-chemotherapy RPLND depends on the possibility of viable tumour or teratoma and surgical morbidity.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Node Excision. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Disease Progression. Humans. Ireland. Length of Stay / statistics & numerical data. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Medical Audit. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Retroperitoneal Space / pathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18939377.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-666X
  • [Journal-full-title] The surgeon : journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgeon
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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24. Classen J, Souchon R, Hehr T, Bamberg M: Treatment of early stage testicular seminoma. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol; 2001 Aug;127(8):475-81
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  • [Title] Treatment of early stage testicular seminoma.
  • Stage I and IIA/B testicular seminoma represent approximately 45% of all testicular germ cell tumours.
  • Due to the availability of highly efficient salvage treatment, the disease-specific survival in stage I seminoma is approximately 100%, irrespective of the choice of adjuvant treatment.
  • Radiotherapy with 26 Gy to the paraaortic/paracaval lymph nodes yields excellent cure rates of 95 98% with a favourable profile of acute and late toxicity.
  • Likewise, phase-II trials with single-agent carboplatinum systemic treatment have demonstrated a rate of relapse of 3-4% on average.
  • However, carboplatinum chemotherapy has to be regarded as experimental until data of phase-III trials are available.
  • Surveillance in stage I disease is conflicted with a rate of relapse of approximately 20%.
  • In stage IIA/B seminoma, "dogleg" radiotherapy with 30 Gy and 36 Gy, respectively, provides high cure rates of 90-95%.
  • Testicular intraepithelial neoplasia (TIN) is the common precursor lesion of testicular germ cell tumours except for spermatocytic seminoma.
  • In case of TIN in a single testis or bilateral TIN, local radiotherapy with 18 Gy is recommended as standard treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Seminoma / drug therapy. Seminoma / radiotherapy. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Carboplatin / therapeutic use. Carcinoma in Situ / therapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Population Surveillance. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11501746.001).
  • [ISSN] 0171-5216
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
  • [Number-of-references] 58
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25. Terenziani M, D'Angelo P, Bisogno G, Boldrini R, Cecchetto G, Collini P, Conte M, De Laurentis T, Ilari I, Indolfi P, Inserra A, Piva L, Siracusa F, Spreafico F, Tamaro P, Lo Curto M: Teratoma with a malignant somatic component in pediatric patients: the Associazione Italiana Ematologia Oncologia Pediatrica (AIEOP) experience. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2010 Apr;54(4):532-7
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  • PROCEDURE: The Associazione Italiana Ematologia Oncologia Pediatrica identified 14 cases of TMSC.
  • RESULTS: The series (9 female, 5 male) showed the following disease: testis (2), sacrococcygeal (3), ovary (3), retroperitoneum (3), mediastinum (2), and foot soft tissue (1).
  • Distribution of the somatic component was: carcinoma (4), pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (1), neuroblastoma (3), rhabdomyosarcoma (3), rhabdomyosarcoma plus liposarcoma, chondrosarcoma, neurogenic sarcoma (1), chondrosarcoma plus neuroectodermal sarcoma (1), malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (1).
  • Three patients were in stage I, four in stage II, three in stage III, and four in stage IV.
  • All but one patient underwent surgery and only females showed carcinoma components.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Prognosis for germ cell tumors (GCTs) containing MSC is worse than that for GCTs.
  • The pediatric disease appears to be more heterogeneous in tumor site distribution and MSC histology than in adults.
  • Chemotherapy optimized for histology should include reagents directed to the somatic malignancy, if chemosensitive.
  • Malignant GCT warrants GCT-directed chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Italy. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20049928.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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26. Lagrange JL, Ramaioli A, Theodore CH, Terrier-Lacombe MJ, Beckendorf V, Biron P, Chevreau CH, Chinet-Charrot P, Dumont J, Delobel-Deroide A, D'Anjou J, Chassagne C, Parache RM, Karsenty JM, Mercier J, Droz JP, Radiation Therapy Group and the Genito-Urinary Group of the French Federation of Cancer Centres: Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the testis: a retrospective study of 84 patients treated in the French anticancer centres. Ann Oncol; 2001 Sep;12(9):1313-9
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  • [Title] Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the testis: a retrospective study of 84 patients treated in the French anticancer centres.
  • Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the testicle is rare.
  • Disease was classified as stages I in 42 cases, stages II in 19 and stages III-IV in 23.
  • Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was diagnosed in 75% of cases.
  • Treatment included orchidectomy and radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy.
  • A complete response was obtained in 72.6% of the patient population and in 100%, 68% and 33% of stage I, II and III-IV disease respectively.
  • Recurrence occurred in 32 cases and the most frequent site was the central nervous system: six of these patients presented stage I disease.
  • Median overall survival was 32 months for the entire population, 52 months for stage I, 32 months for stage II, and 12 months for stage III-IV cases (P < 0.0001).
  • Among patients presenting stage I disease, no difference was found between those treated with combined surgery and chemotherapy or surgery followed or not followed by radiotherapy.
  • This study confirms that non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the testicle carries a poor prognosis.
  • Systemic adjuvant chemotherapy should be discussed because of the high recurrence rate.

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  • (PMID = 11697846.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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27. Spiess PE, Brown GA, Liu P, Tu SM, Tannir NM, Evans JG, Kamat AM, Kassouf W, Pisters LL: Recurrence pattern and proposed surveillance protocol following post-chemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection. J Urol; 2007 Jan;177(1):131-8
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  • [Title] Recurrence pattern and proposed surveillance protocol following post-chemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection.
  • PURPOSE: We evaluated the recurrence pattern in patients with nonseminomatous germ cell tumors treated with post-chemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection and determined the optimal surveillance strategy in these patients.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 1980 and 2003, 236 patients with clinical stage IIA-III nonseminomatous germ cell tumors underwent post-chemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection.
  • Patients with increased preoperative tumor markers (alpha-fetoprotein greater than 15 ng/ml and/or beta-human chorionic gonadotropin greater than 2.2 U/ml) were excluded from study resulting in 198 patients for analysis.
  • We retrospectively reviewed medical records for pertinent clinical and treatment related outcomes.
  • In our patient population recurrence developed in 45 (23%) patients and 22 (11%) died of disease at a median followup of 41 months (range 6 to 250) after retroperitoneal lymph node dissection.
  • RESULTS: The clinical stage of testis cancer was IIA in 17, IIB in 49, IIC in 83 and III in 49 patients.
  • Of the cases of recurrence 21 (46.7%) were in those of clinical stage III, 18 (40%) stage IIC and 6 (11.8%) stage IIB disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Based on the recurrence pattern we propose stage specific surveillance guidelines for the followup of patients after post-chemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Node Excision. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17162023.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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