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1. Cunningham D, Allum WH, Stenning SP, Thompson JN, Van de Velde CJ, Nicolson M, Scarffe JH, Lofts FJ, Falk SJ, Iveson TJ, Smith DB, Langley RE, Verma M, Weeden S, Chua YJ, MAGIC Trial Participants: Perioperative chemotherapy versus surgery alone for resectable gastroesophageal cancer. N Engl J Med; 2006 Jul 06;355(1):11-20
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  • [Title] Perioperative chemotherapy versus surgery alone for resectable gastroesophageal cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: A regimen of epirubicin, cisplatin, and infused fluorouracil (ECF) improves survival among patients with incurable locally advanced or metastatic gastric adenocarcinoma.
  • METHODS: We randomly assigned patients with resectable adenocarcinoma of the stomach, esophagogastric junction, or lower esophagus to either perioperative chemotherapy and surgery (250 patients) or surgery alone (253 patients).
  • Chemotherapy consisted of three preoperative and three postoperative cycles of intravenous epirubicin (50 mg per square meter of body-surface area) and cisplatin (60 mg per square meter) on day 1, and a continuous intravenous infusion of fluorouracil (200 mg per square meter per day) for 21 days.
  • Rates of postoperative complications were similar in the perioperative-chemotherapy group and the surgery group (46 percent and 45 percent, respectively), as were the numbers of deaths within 30 days after surgery.
  • The resected tumors were significantly smaller and less advanced in the perioperative-chemotherapy group.
  • With a median follow-up of four years, 149 patients in the perioperative-chemotherapy group and 170 in the surgery group had died.
  • As compared with the surgery group, the perioperative-chemotherapy group had a higher likelihood of overall survival (hazard ratio for death, 0.75; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.60 to 0.93; P=0.009; five-year survival rate, 36 percent vs. 23 percent) and of progression-free survival (hazard ratio for progression, 0.66; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.53 to 0.81; P<0.001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: In patients with operable gastric or lower esophageal adenocarcinomas, a perioperative regimen of ECF decreased tumor size and stage and significantly improved progression-free and overall survival. (Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN93793971 [controlled-trials.com].).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Esophageal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Esophageal Neoplasms / surgery. Stomach Neoplasms / drug therapy. Stomach Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Epirubicin / administration & dosage. Esophagectomy. Esophagogastric Junction / surgery. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Gastrectomy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Perioperative Care. Survival Rate


2. Keresztes RS, Port JL, Pasmantier MW, Korst RJ, Altorki NK: Preoperative chemotherapy for esophageal cancer with paclitaxel and carboplatin: results of a phase II trial. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2003 Nov;126(5):1603-8
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  • [Title] Preoperative chemotherapy for esophageal cancer with paclitaxel and carboplatin: results of a phase II trial.
  • OBJECTIVE: Paclitaxel has one of the highest response rates when used as a single agent in patients with esophageal cancer.
  • The combination of paclitaxel and carboplatin has been shown to be a well-tolerated and safe regimen in non-small cell lung cancer.
  • The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of preoperative paclitaxel and carboplatin in patients with carcinoma of the esophagus.
  • Patients with stage I disease and those with visceral metastases were excluded.
  • All underwent preoperative computed tomography scanning and endosonography for staging.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-six (11 epidermoid, 15 adenocarcinoma) patients completed the trial.
  • Preoperative staging showed: stage IIA, 6 patients; stage IIB, 1 patient; and stage III, 19 patients.
  • All patients completed their preoperative chemotherapy.
  • There was no unexpected chemotherapy-related toxicity.
  • CONCLUSION: Paclitaxel-carboplatin combination is a safe and well-tolerated regimen for esophageal cancer with clinical response rates comparable to historical controls.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Esophageal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Esophageal Neoplasms / mortality. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / mortality. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Analysis of Variance. Biopsy, Needle. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / mortality. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Confidence Intervals. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Esophagectomy / methods. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Maximum Tolerated Dose. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Pilot Projects. Preoperative Care / methods. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 14666040.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5223
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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3. Rohatgi P, Swisher SG, Correa AM, Wu TT, Liao Z, Komaki R, Walsh GL, Vaporciyan AA, Rice DC, Roth JA, Ajani JA: Characterization of pathologic complete response after preoperative chemoradiotherapy in carcinoma of the esophagus and outcome after pathologic complete response. Cancer; 2005 Dec 1;104(11):2365-72
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  • [Title] Characterization of pathologic complete response after preoperative chemoradiotherapy in carcinoma of the esophagus and outcome after pathologic complete response.
  • BACKGROUND: The purpose of the current study was to test the hypothesis that a lower clinical TNM stage is associated with a higher rate of pathologic complete response (pathCR) in patients with esophageal carcinoma receiving preoperative chemoradiotherapy and to determine whether outcome after pathCR is related to clinical stage or treatment.
  • METHODS: Clinical parameters and surgical specimens of patients with esophageal carcinoma undergoing preoperative chemoradiotherapy were analyzed to identify predictors of pathCR.
  • In patients with American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Stage II carcinoma, the proportion achieving pathCR was significantly larger than that achieving <pathCR (65% vs. 35%; P = 0.03).
  • The proportion of patients who received induction chemotherapy was higher in the pathCR group than in the <pathCR group (54% vs. 46%; P = 0.05).
  • However, neither TNM classification, primary tumor location, histologic type, gender, therapy sequence, or radiation dose (45 grays [Gy] vs. 50.4 Gy) were found to have any influence on OS or DFS.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with clinical AJCC Stage II esophageal carcinoma are more likely to achieve a pathCR after preoperative chemoradiotherapy than are those with Stage III carcinoma.
  • Chemoradiotherapy as primary therapy for patients with Stage I esophageal carcinoma warrants investigation as a means to preserve their esophagus.
  • [MeSH-major] Esophageal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Esophageal Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16245310.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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4. Kocáková I, Soumarová R, Kocák I, Vyzula R: [Review of combined chemoradiotherapy in the treatment of esophageal carcinoma]. Cas Lek Cesk; 2003;142 Suppl 1:22-5
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  • [Title] [Review of combined chemoradiotherapy in the treatment of esophageal carcinoma].
  • At diagnosis, nearly 50% of patients with carcinoma of the esophagus have a metastatic disease.
  • Radiotherapy alone can be considered for palliation in patients with locoregional disease who are medically unsuitable for surgery and in patients with contraindication for chemotherapy.
  • Effectiveness of chemoradiotherapy has been studied in randomized trials in patients with locoregional carcinoma (stage I-III).
  • Chemoradiotherapy should include 50 to 60 Gy of radiotherapy plus concurrent chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) plus cisplatin.
  • Chemoradiotherapy is now an established alternative to surgical therapy (predominantly in patients with squamous cell carcinoma).
  • Patients with unresectable (T4) carcinoma can be treated with radiotherapy plus concurrent chemotherapy and those with adenocarcinoma of the distal esophagus with positive nodes should receive adjuvant postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy with 5-FU plus cisplatin.
  • [MeSH-major] Esophageal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Esophageal Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans

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  • (PMID = 12924045.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-7335
  • [Journal-full-title] Casopís lékar̆ů c̆eských
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cas. Lek. Cesk.
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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5. Abdel-Latif MM, O'Riordan J, Windle HJ, Carton E, Ravi N, Kelleher D, Reynolds JV: NF-kappaB activation in esophageal adenocarcinoma: relationship to Barrett's metaplasia, survival, and response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Ann Surg; 2004 Apr;239(4):491-500
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  • [Title] NF-kappaB activation in esophageal adenocarcinoma: relationship to Barrett's metaplasia, survival, and response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy.
  • OBJECTIVE: To examine the expression of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) in Barrett's epithelium and adenocarcinoma and the impact of NF-kappaB expression on tumor stage and response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
  • SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Progression of Barrett's esophagus to adenocarcinoma is associated with a wide range of cellular and molecular abnormalities.
  • Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) regulates several genes involved in inflammatory, immune and apoptotic responses, but its role in esophageal inflammation and tumorigenesis has not been reported.
  • METHODS: Mobility shift assay was used to measure NF-kappaB activity in nuclear extracts of fresh-frozen biopsies from tumor and uninvolved tissues (n = 30) and esophageal cell lines OE33, SKGT-4, and OE21.
  • RESULTS: NF-kappaB was not expressed in normal esophageal squamous epithelium, in contrast to increased expression in 40% of patients with Barrett's epithelium.
  • Sixty-one percent of resected tumors (n = 97) displayed NF-kappaB immunoreactivity, and 87.5% of the NF-kappaB-positive tumors were Stage IIb and III compared with only 12.5% of patients with Stage I and IIa disease (P < 0.05).
  • The expression of NF-kappaB inversely correlated with major or complete pathologic responses to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy, with 15/20 (75%) responders in the NF-kappaB-negative group compared with 7/38 (18%) in the NF-kappaB-positive group (P < 0.00001).
  • Moreover, incubation of esophageal cell lines OE33, SKGT-4, and OE21 with deoxycholic acid or low pH induced NF-kappaB expression.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Bile acids and low pH induce NF-kappaB expression in esophageal cell lines.
  • NF-kappaB activation is common in esophageal adenocarcinoma.
  • In patients with Barrett's epithelium and an associated esophageal adenocarcinoma, there is a progressive expression of NF-kappaB through Barrett's tumorigenesis.
  • The absence of NF-kappaB expression in esophageal adenocarcinoma correlates with response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and may be of value in predicting response to neoadjuvant therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Barrett Esophagus / genetics. Esophageal Neoplasms / genetics. Esophageal Neoplasms / therapy. NF-kappa B / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Bile Acids and Salts / pharmacology. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / methods. Deoxycholic Acid / pharmacology. Esophagectomy / methods. Humans. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Neoadjuvant Therapy / methods. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant / methods. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15024310.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4932
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Bile Acids and Salts; 0 / NF-kappa B; 005990WHZZ / Deoxycholic Acid
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1356254
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6. Marano S, Ruol A, Castoro C, Portale G, Cagol M, Alfieri R, Michieletto S, Ancona E: Adenocarcinoma of the proximal esophagus: report of 9 patients and review of the literature. Ann Surg Oncol; 2008 Oct;15(10):2910-4
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  • [Title] Adenocarcinoma of the proximal esophagus: report of 9 patients and review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Adenocarcinoma of the proximal esophagus is a rare clinical entity, with only 28 cases described in the literature.
  • METHODS: Between 1980 and 2004, 1010 patients with esophageal or gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma (from a total of 4655 cancers, 3510 squamous and 1145 adeno) presenting at our department were retrospectively evaluated.
  • RESULTS: Nine patients (0.9%) had adenocarcinoma located in the proximal esophagus.
  • Four patients (Group A) were considered unfit for surgery due to severe comorbidities and/or advanced stage disease.
  • Three of them received endoscopic yttrium-aluminum-garnet (YAG)-laser therapy; 1 patient had feeding gastrostomy.
  • The other 5 patients (Group B) were given a first-line cytoreductive treatment: 4 had complete response, and 1 patient did not complete chemotherapy due to toxicity and underwent surgery for residual disease.
  • The median survival for these 5 patients receiving cytoreductive therapy was 36 months (range, 24-132 months).
  • For the 4 patients with complete clinical response to cytoreductive treatment, the median survival was 54 months (range, 24-132 months).
  • CONCLUSION: First-line chemoradiotherapy is an effective treatment for adenocarcinoma of the proximal esophagus.
  • [MeSH-major] Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology. Esophagectomy. Esophagogastric Junction / pathology. Salvage Therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Aged. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 18696159.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. Yeo SG, Cho MJ, Kim SY, Lim SP, Kim KH, Kim JS: Treatment outcomes of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for stage III non-small cell lung cancer. Cancer Res Treat; 2005 Oct;37(5):273-8
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  • [Title] Treatment outcomes of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for stage III non-small cell lung cancer.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the treatment outcomes of the three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT), in conjunction with induction chemotherapy, for the treatment of stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between November 1998 and March 2003, 22 patients with histologically proven, clinical stage III NSCLC, treated with induction chemotherapy, followed by 3D-CRT, were retrospectively analyzed.
  • There were 21 males (96%) and 1 female (4%), with a median age of 68.5 (range, 42 approximately 79).
  • The histologies were squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and others in 73, 18 and 9%, respectively.
  • Twenty patients (91%) received induction chemotherapy before radiation therapy.
  • The majority of the chemotherapy regimen consisted of cisplatin and gemcitabine.
  • Radiation was delivered with conventional anteroposterior/posteroanterior fields for 36 Gy, and then 3D-CRT was performed.
  • The total radiation dose was 70.2 Gy.
  • The prognostic factors for overall survival by a univariate analysis were age, histology and T stage (p<0.05).
  • Acute radiation toxicities, as evaluated by the RTOG toxicity criteria, included two cases of grade 3 lung toxicity and one case of grade 2 esophagus toxicity.
  • It also seems to be a safe, well-tolerated and effective treatment modality for stage III NSCLC.

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  • (PMID = 19956526.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-9256
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research and treatment : official journal of Korean Cancer Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res Treat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2785930
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Chemoradiotherapy / Conformal radiotherapy / Non-small cell lung carcinoma
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8. Coia LR, Minsky BD, Berkey BA, John MJ, Haller D, Landry J, Pisansky TM, Willett CG, Hoffman JP, Owen JB, Hanks GE: Outcome of patients receiving radiation for cancer of the esophagus: results of the 1992-1994 Patterns of Care Study. J Clin Oncol; 2000 Feb;18(3):455-62
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  • [Title] Outcome of patients receiving radiation for cancer of the esophagus: results of the 1992-1994 Patterns of Care Study.
  • PURPOSE: A Patterns of Care Study examined the records of patients with esophageal cancer (EC) treated with radiation in 1992 through 1994 to determine the national practice processes of care and outcomes and to compare the results with those of clinical trials.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A national survey of 63 institutions was conducted using two-stage cluster sampling, and specific information was collected on 400 patients with squamous cell (62%) or adenocarcinoma (37%) of the thoracic esophagus who received radiation therapy (RT) as part of primary or adjuvant treatment.
  • Fifteen percent of patients had clinical stage (CS) I disease, 40% had CS II disease, and 30% had CS III disease.
  • Seventy-five percent of patients received chemotherapy; 84% of these received concurrent chemotherapy and radiation (CRT).
  • RESULTS: Significant variables for overall survival in multivariate analysis include the use of esophagectomy (risk ratio [RR] = 0.62), the use of chemotherapy (RR = 0.63), Karnofsky performance status (KPS) greater than 80 (RR = 0.61), CS I or II disease (RR = 0.66), and facility type (RR = 0.72).
  • Preoperative CRT resulted in a nonsignificantly higher 2-year survival rate compared with definitive CRT alone (63% v 39%; P =.11), whereas 2-year survival by planned treatment rather than treatment given was 47.7% for preoperative CRT and 35.4% for definitive CRT (P =.23).
  • Definitive CRT compared with definitive RT alone resulted in significantly higher 2-year survival (39% v 20.6%; P =.027) and lower 2-year local regional failure (30% v 57.9%; P =. 0031).
  • CONCLUSION: This study confirms the value of CRT in EC treatment.
  • The suggested value of esophagectomy and superiority of preoperative CRT over CRT alone in this study should be tested in a randomized trial.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Esophageal Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Clinical Trials as Topic. Cluster Analysis. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] J Clin Oncol. 2000 Feb;18(3):453-4 [10653859.001]
  • (PMID = 10653860.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Swisher SG, Pisters PW, Komaki R, Lahoti S, Ajani JA: Gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma. Curr Treat Options Oncol; 2000 Dec;1(5):387-98
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  • [Title] Gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma.
  • The incidence rate of adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction (AEG) is increasing in association with the epidemiologic rise in distal esophageal adenocarcinoma and gastric cardial (AEG type III) tumors.
  • The overall survival rate is poor in most patients with AEG because lymph node or visceral metastases are frequently present at the time patients become symptomatic.
  • A few patients are identified early in the disease because of screening for gastroesophageal reflux and Barrett's esophagus.
  • Early stage AEG (T1N0 or T2NO, carcinoma in situ, or severe dysplasia ) can in many instances be cured with surgery alone.
  • Ablative treatments for early stage AEG, including endoscopic fulguration by cautery and laser or photodynamic therapy, are investigational at this time.
  • Locoregionally advanced AEG (T3, T4, N1, or M1a ) without distant systemic metastases (M1b) has a poor overall survival rate with surgery alone or definitive chemotherapy and radiation therapy without surgery.
  • Analysis of the use of multimodality treatment strategies for locoregionally advanced AEG types I and II have demonstrated improved survival rates in two small phase III trials with preoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by surgical resection.
  • In contrast, three small phase III trials with preoperative concurrent or sequential chemoradiotherapy in patients with predominantly squamous cell carcinoma did not demonstrate any clear survival advantage.
  • Additionally, a randomized phase III study evaluating preoperative chemotherapy without radiation therapy in esophageal cancer (predominantly adenocarcinoma) has demonstrated no survival benefit.
  • In light of these results, additional large randomized phase III studies are needed to confirm the potential benefit of preoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy.
  • At the present time, preoperative chemoradiotherapy remains investigational.
  • For locoregionally advanced gastric adenocarcinoma, including AEG type III, postoperative concurrent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemoradiotherapy is associated with improved survival as demonstrated in a recently completed random assignment trial (INT 0116).
  • As a result, surgery with postoperative chemoradiotherapy has recently become the standard of care for patients with AJCC stage II and III gastric adenocarcinoma (including patients with AEG type III).
  • Metastatic AEG (M1b) should be treated with palliative chemotherapy (in good performance patients) or supportive care (poor performance) in asymptomatic patients.
  • Radiation therapy and endoscopic stent placement (expandable wire mesh) can be used to palliate dysphagia in patients with M1b disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Esophageal Neoplasms / therapy. Esophagogastric Junction / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Esophagectomy. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 12057146.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-2729
  • [Journal-full-title] Current treatment options in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Treat Options Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 47
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10. Liao Z, Zhang Z, Jin J, Ajani JA, Swisher SG, Stevens CW, Ho L, Smythe R, Vaporciyan AA, Putnam JB Jr, Walsh GL, Roth JA, Yao JC, Allen PK, Cox JD, Komaki R: Esophagectomy after concurrent chemoradiotherapy improves locoregional control in clinical stage II or III esophageal cancer patients. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2004 Dec 1;60(5):1484-93
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  • [Title] Esophagectomy after concurrent chemoradiotherapy improves locoregional control in clinical stage II or III esophageal cancer patients.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of surgical resection on the outcome of patients with clinical Stage II or III cancer of the esophagus treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: A retrospective review of 132 consecutive patients with clinical Stage II or III esophageal cancer treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy between January 1990 and December 1998 was performed.
  • The median radiation dose was 50 Gy (range, 30-64.8 Gy) in the definitive chemoradiation group and 45 Gy (range, 30-50.4 Gy) in the chemoradiation plus esophagectomy group.
  • Patients who underwent definitive chemoradiotherapy were older (p = 0.0004) and more likely to have squamous cell carcinoma than adenocarcinoma (p <0.000), upper thoracic or cervical esophageal tumors (p <0.000), and T4 tumors (p = 0.024).
  • Patients treated with chemoradiation plus esophagectomy had statistically significant superior 5-year loco-regional control (67.1% vs. 22.1%, p <0.000), disease-free survival (40.7% vs. 9.9%, p < 0.000), and 5-year overall survival (52.6% vs. 6.5%, p < 0.000) rates and median survival time (62 vs. 12 months) compared with patients treated with chemoradiotherapy only.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Locoregional control was better in clinical Stage II or III esophageal cancer patients treated with concurrent chemoradiation plus esophagectomy.
  • The results from this study suggest the need for a randomized trial to compare chemoradiation with or without esophagectomy in the treatment of cancer of the esophagus.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Esophageal Neoplasms / surgery. Esophagectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Analysis of Variance. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 15590179.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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11. Horgan AM, Darling G, Wong R, Visbal A, Guindi M, Jonker D, Liu G, Hornby J, Xu W, Knox JJ: Adjuvant sunitinib following chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and surgery for esophageal cancer: A phase II trial. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e15550

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  • [Title] Adjuvant sunitinib following chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and surgery for esophageal cancer: A phase II trial.
  • : e15550 Background: Locally advanced esophageal cancer (LAEC) has a 5-year survival of < 30 %.
  • Most patients (pts) fail after curative intent tri-modality treatment with distant metastatic disease.
  • This phase II trial aims to determine if adjuvant targeted therapy, after neoadjuvant CRT plus surgery for resectable LAEC, may impact on systemic disease without significant toxicity.
  • METHODS: Pts with LAEC of the thoracic esophagus or gastroesophageal junction, ECOG PS 0,1 and surgical candidates treated with: preoperative Irinotecan (65mg/m<sup>2</sup> initially, ammended to 50mg/m<sup>2</sup>) + Cisplatin (30mg/m<sup>2</sup>) on weeks 1,2,4,5,7,8 + concurrent conformal radiotherapy (50Gy/25 fractions) on weeks 4-8.
  • Median age 64 yr (43-71), male: 22, adenocarcinoma: squamous 22:6; 10 pts stage IIA, 5 IIB and 13 III.
  • 28 pts completed CRT - 18 pts (64%) received ≥80% of planned chemotherapy dose, 23 pts (82%) received full radiation dose.
  • 2 deaths on chemotherapy (1 bacterial meningitis, 1 FN) leading to irinotecan dose- reduction.
  • Complete pathological response in 4 (22%), downstaging in 3 (17%), stable disease in 11 (61%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: In LAEC, induction Irinotecan/Cisplatin and radiotherapy followed by esophagectomy is associated with a significant but manageable toxicity profile.

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  • (PMID = 27962341.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Sekine I, Sumi M, Ito Y, Nokihara H, Yamamoto N, Kunitoh H, Ohe Y, Tamura T: Phase I study of concurrent high-dose three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) without elective nodal irradiation with chemotherapy using cisplatin and vinorelbine for unresectable stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):7546

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  • [Title] Phase I study of concurrent high-dose three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) without elective nodal irradiation with chemotherapy using cisplatin and vinorelbine for unresectable stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
  • : 7546 Background: The optimal dose of radiotherapy remains unclear in concurrent chemoradiotherapy for unresectable stage III NSCLC.
  • METHODS: Eligible patients (unresectable stage III NSCLC, age ≥ 20 years, PS 0-1, V<sub>20</sub> ≤ 30%) received cisplatin (80mg/m<sup>2</sup> day 1) and vinorelbine (20mg/m<sup>2</sup> days 1 and 8) repeated every 4 weeks for 3-4 cycles.
  • The dose of 3D-CRT was 66 Gy in 33 fractions, 72 Gy in 36 fractions, and 78 Gy in 39 fractions at levels 1-3, respectively.
  • The dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), defined as grade ≥3 esophagitis, pneumonitis, myelitis, dermatitis and heart injury, and early stop of protocol treatment, was evaluated in 6-12 patients at each level.
  • A total of 26 patients were excluded because of V<sub>20</sub> > 30% (n=10), overdose to the esophagus (n=8) and brachial plexus (n=2), comorbidity (n=3), or patient refusal (n=3).
  • There were 26 men and 5 women with a median (range) age of 60 (41-75) years.
  • Of these, 23 (74%) had adenocarcinoma and 20 (65%) had stage IIIA disease.
  • The full planned dose of radiotherapy could be administered in all the patients, and more than 80% of the patients received 3-4 cycles of chemotherapy.
  • In a preliminary survival analysis, the median progression-free and overall survivals were determined to be 15.0 months and 37.6 months, respectively.
  • Toxicity was relatively mild up to 78 Gy in this highly selective patient group.
  • Thus, we determined that the recommended dose of 3D-CRT administered concurrently with cisplatin and vinorelbine chemotherapy was 72Gy.

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  • (PMID = 27963322.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Bubis JA, Williams I, Dragnev KH, Sutton JE, Gordon SR, Zaki BI, Cole BF, Rigas JR, Comprehensive Thoracic and Gastrointestinal Oncology Programs, Norris Cotton Cancer Center: Docetaxel (DTX) and carboplatin (CP) followed by a dose-ranging study of oral capecitabine, weekly DTX, concomitant radiotherapy and surgery for the treatment of patients with stage II-III carcinoma of the esophagus. J Clin Oncol; 2004 Jul 15;22(14_suppl):4049

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  • [Title] Docetaxel (DTX) and carboplatin (CP) followed by a dose-ranging study of oral capecitabine, weekly DTX, concomitant radiotherapy and surgery for the treatment of patients with stage II-III carcinoma of the esophagus.
  • : 4049 Background: We previously reported promising phase I data using neoadjuvant weekly DTX and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) with thoracic irradiation followed by surgery in patients with locally advanced esophageal cancer.
  • METHODS: 18 patients with esophageal cancer (16 = adenocarcinoma, 2 = squamous) were consented and enrolled on this study.
  • Patients (Pts) were staged with a CT scan and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS).
  • Neoadjuvant therapy included DTX, 80 mg/M<sup>2</sup>, and CP, AUC 6, intravenously every three weeks for 2 cycles.
  • Subsequently, concomitant chemoradiotherapy (CXRT) was initiated with DTX, 15 mg/M<sup>2</sup>, weekly for five doses and C (7 = 500 mg, 3 = 1000 mg, 8 = 1500 mg) orally prior to each fraction of irradiation (50.4 Gy in 28 fractions).
  • RESULTS: Patient characteristics: EUS stage, 1 = T3N0, 2 = T2N1, 15 = T3N1.
  • Only 3 pts required a feeding tube; 11 pts had weight gain over the course of therapy.
  • Antitumor response following chemotherapy and CXRT was 78% (95% confidence interval: 52%-94%) by EUS.
  • Pts have tolerated combined modality therapy well with minimal side effects, thereby allowing for weight gain without the need for a feeding tube in the majority of enrollees.

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  • (PMID = 28014356.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Cronin-Fenton DP, Mooney MM, Clegg LX, Harlan LC: Treatment and survival in a population-based sample of patients diagnosed with gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma. World J Gastroenterol; 2008 May 28;14(20):3165-73
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  • [Title] Treatment and survival in a population-based sample of patients diagnosed with gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma.
  • AIM: To examine the extent of use of specific therapies in clinical practice, and their relationship to therapies validated in clinical trials.
  • METHODS: The US National Cancer Institutes' Patterns of Care study was used to examine therapies and survival of patients diagnosed in 2001 with histologically-confirmed gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma (n = 1356).
  • The study re-abstracted data and verified therapy with treating physicians for a population-based stratified random sample.
  • RESULTS: Approximately 62% of patients had stomach adenocarcinoma (SAC), while 22% had gastric-cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA), and 16% lower esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC).
  • Stage IV/unstaged esophageal cancer patients were most likely and stage I-III stomach cancer patients least likely to receive chemotherapy as all or part of their therapy; gastric-cardia patients received chemotherapy at a rate between these two.
  • In multivariable analysis by anatomic site, patients 70 years and older were significantly less likely than younger patients to receive chemotherapy alone or chemoradiation for all three anatomic sites.
  • Among esophageal and stomach cancer patients, receipt of chemotherapy was associated with lower mortality; but no association was found among gastric-cardia patients.
  • CONCLUSION: This study highlights the relatively low use of clinical trials-validated anti-cancer therapies in community practice.
  • Use of chemotherapy-based treatment was associated with lower mortality, dependent on anatomic site.
  • Findings suggest that physicians treat lower esophageal and SAC as two distinct entities, while gastric-cardia patients receive a mix of the treatment strategies employed for the two other sites.

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  • (PMID = 18506920.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01PC35143; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01PC35138; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01PC35141; United States / NCI NIH HHS / PC / N02 PC015105; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01PC35137; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01PC35133; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01PC35142; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01PC35135; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01PC35145; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01PC35136; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01PC35139
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2712847
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15. Okines A, Sharma B, Cunningham D: Perioperative management of esophageal cancer. Nat Rev Clin Oncol; 2010 Apr;7(4):231-8
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  • [Title] Perioperative management of esophageal cancer.
  • There is no international consensus on the optimal management of operable esophageal cancer.
  • Surgery alone is associated with a poor prognosis and is only appropriate in patients with very early-stage disease.
  • Data from randomized phase III clinical trials support the use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, neoadjuvant chemoradiation and perioperative chemotherapy for patients with adenocarcinomas of the esophagus and neoadjuvant chemotherapy, neoadjuvant chemoradiation or definitive chemoradiation for localized squamous cell carcinomas (SCC).
  • Meta-analyses of published clinical trials have not assessed the role of perioperative chemotherapy and definitive chemoradiation, but have demonstrated a comparable survival benefit from neoadjuvant chemotherapy and chemoradiation for operable adenocarcinomas of the esophagus.
  • A greater benefit for neoadjuvant chemoradiation compared with chemotherapy, however, was noted for localized SCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Esophageal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Humans. Prognosis. Pyrimidines / therapeutic use. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20212503.001).
  • [ISSN] 1759-4782
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature reviews. Clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Rev Clin Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Pyrimidines; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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16. O'Neil BH, Raftery L, Calvo BF, Chakravarthy AB, Ivanova A, Myers MO, Kim HJ, Chan E, Wise PE, Caskey LS, Bernard SA, Sanoff HK, Goldberg RM, Tepper JE: A phase I study of bortezomib in combination with standard 5-fluorouracil and external-beam radiation therapy for the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic rectal cancer. Clin Colorectal Cancer; 2010 Apr;9(2):119-25
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  • [Title] A phase I study of bortezomib in combination with standard 5-fluorouracil and external-beam radiation therapy for the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic rectal cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Standard therapy for stage II/III rectal cancer consists of a fluoropyrimidine and radiation therapy followed by surgery.
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of bortezomib in combination with chemotherapy and radiation.
  • Bortezomib was administered on days 1, 4, 8, and 11 every 21 days for 2 cycles with 5-fluorouracil at 225 mg/m2/day continuously and 50.4 Gy of radiation.
  • CONCLUSION: The MTD of bortezomib in combination with chemotherapy and radiation may be below a clinically relevant dose, limiting the clinical applicability of this combination.
  • Performing biopsies before and during irradiation for determining gene expression in response to radiation therapy is feasible.

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  • (PMID = 20378507.001).
  • [ISSN] 1938-0674
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical colorectal cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Colorectal Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA095103; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K23 CA118431; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / KL2 RR025746-02; None / None / / KL2 RR025746-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50CA106991; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA068485; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024975; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50CA95103; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30CA068485; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K23CA118431; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA106991
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Boronic Acids; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Pyrazines; 69G8BD63PP / Bortezomib; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS200786; NLM/ PMC2893386
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17. Javle MM, Nwogu CE, Donohue KA, Iyer RV, Brady WE, Khemka SV, Smith JL, Demmy TL, Yang GY, Nava HR: Management of locoregional stage esophageal cancer: a single center experience. Dis Esophagus; 2006;19(2):78-83
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of locoregional stage esophageal cancer: a single center experience.
  • Therapeutic options for locoregional esophageal cancer (EC) include primary surgery, neoadjuvant or definitive chemoradiation and systemic chemotherapy.
  • The role of surgery in these multimodal strategies has recently been debated and definitive chemoradiation is being offered as an alternative to surgery at many centers.
  • We examined our results with multimodal therapy and surgery in this patient population.
  • We conducted a retrospective analysis of 172 patients with locoregional (AJCC stages I-III) EC treated at RPCI between February 14, 1990 and September 20, 2002.
  • There were 100 regional (stages IIB-III), 69 local (stages I-IIA) and three in situ cases.
  • Initial therapy was either combined modality (n = 122) or single modality (surgery) (n = 50).
  • Median survival for all patients was 25.3 months and was better for local stage with surgery alone (75 months) than with neoadjuvant (35.7 months) or definitive chemoradiation (19.1 months, P < 0.001).
  • Survival for patients with regional disease treated with surgery alone, neoadjuvant or definitive chemoradiation was 21.5, 24.4 and 11.8 months, respectively (P = not significant).
  • On multivariate analysis, carefully selected patients treated with surgery alone had better outcomes compared with those treated with definitive chemoradiation (P < 0.001).
  • Patients with locoregional esophageal cancer who are eligible for surgical resection either alone or as a part of multimodal therapy may have better outcomes than those treated with non-surgical approaches.

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  • (PMID = 16643174.001).
  • [ISSN] 1120-8694
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the esophagus : official journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Esophagus
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Suntharalingam M, Moughan J, Coia LR, Krasna MJ, Kachnic L, Haller DG, Willett CG, John MJ, Minsky BD, Owen JB, 1996-1999 Patterns of Care Study: The national practice for patients receiving radiation therapy for carcinoma of the esophagus: results of the 1996-1999 Patterns of Care Study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2003 Jul 15;56(4):981-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The national practice for patients receiving radiation therapy for carcinoma of the esophagus: results of the 1996-1999 Patterns of Care Study.
  • PURPOSE: A Patterns of Care Study (PCS) was conducted to evaluate the standards of practice for patients receiving radiation therapy for esophageal cancer from 1996 to 1999.
  • This study examined the evaluation and treatment schemes used during this time and compared these results to the PCS data obtained between 1992 and 1994 to identify any fundamental changes in national practice.
  • METHODS: A national survey was conducted using a two-stage cluster sampling technique.
  • Specific information was collected on 414 patients with esophageal cancer who received radiotherapy (RT) as part of definitive or adjuvant management at 59 institutions.
  • Patients were staged according to the 1983 AJCC.
  • Eligibility criteria for case review included RT between 1996 and 1999, no evidence of distant metastasis (including CT evidence of either supraclavicular or celiac nodes >1 cm), squamous cell or adenocarcinoma histology, Karnofsky performance status >60, tumors in the thoracic esophagus with <2 cm extension into the stomach, and no prior malignancies within the last 5 years.
  • Statistical analysis was performed on the database using SUDAAN software to accurately reflect the type of sampling technique used by PCS.
  • For the purposes of comparison, the 1992-1994 PCS esophageal survey results were subjected to the same statistical procedures and tests.
  • A review of the histology revealed a nearly 50:50 split between squamous cell and adenocarcinoma.
  • Sixteen percent were clinical Stage I, 39% clinical Stage II, and 33% clinical Stage III according to the 1983 AJCC system.
  • Fifty-six percent of patients received concurrent chemoradiation as definitive treatment.
  • Forty-six percent of patients with adenocarcinoma underwent trimodality therapy as compared to 19% with squamous cell carcinomas (p = 0.0002).
  • The median total dose of external RT was 50.4 Gy, and the median dose per fraction was 1.8 Gy.
  • The chemotherapy agents most commonly used included 5-fluorouracil (82%), cisplatin (67%), and paclitaxel (22%).
  • Paclitaxel was more commonly employed as part of a preoperative chemoradiation regimen than in the setting of definitive chemoradiation (46% vs. 12%, p = 0.03).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The Patterns of Care Survey confirms the use of concurrent chemoradiation as part of the national standards of practice for the management of esophageal cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Benchmarking. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Esophageal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Practice Patterns, Physicians'

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  • (PMID = 12829133.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA65435
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Varadhachary G, Ajani JA: Preoperative and adjuvant therapies for upper gastrointestinal cancers. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther; 2005 Aug;5(4):719-25
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Preoperative and adjuvant therapies for upper gastrointestinal cancers.
  • Survival of esophageal, gastrointestinal junction and gastric cancers is poor given that they frequently present with locally advanced or metastatic disease.
  • The incidence of gastrointestinal junction adenocarcinoma is increasing whereas that of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus is decreasing.
  • The accuracy of staging has improved with newer diagnostic techniques, including positron emission tomography, endoscopic ultrasound and laparoscopy, and this should be integrated in prospective Phase III clinical trials evaluating neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapies for some esophageal and all gastric carcinomas.
  • For esophageal cancer (except for one trial by Walsh and colleagues), four randomized Phase III trials comparing preoperative chemoradiation followed by surgery versus surgery alone have not shown a survival benefit.
  • Neither have the trials, where preoperative chemoradiation followed by surgery, is compared with definitive chemoradiation.
  • Postoperative chemoradiation is favored in the USA for good performance status patients with resected, high-risk gastric or gastroesophageal junction carcinoma (more than Stage IA).
  • The UK-MAGIC trial results, showing survival benefit with perioperative chemotherapy in operable gastric and lower esophageal cancers, probably has an impact on the treatment practice of these cancers in Europe and Asia.
  • Promising results from trials involving preoperative chemoradiation followed by surgery in gastric cancer (pathologic complete response of 20-30%) need to be further evaluated in a Phase III setting and compared with postoperative chemoradiation.
  • Active ongoing research will help us clarify the role of preoperative and adjuvant therapies in esophageal and gastric cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Esophageal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Esophageal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Stomach Neoplasms / drug therapy. Stomach Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Clinical Trials as Topic. Combined Modality Therapy. Esophagogastric Junction / pathology. Humans. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Survival

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  • (PMID = 16111471.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8328
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of anticancer therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Anticancer Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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20. Kolh P, Honore P, Degauque C, Gielen J, Gerard P, Jacquet N: Early stage results after oesophageal resection for malignancy - colon interposition vs. gastric pull-up. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg; 2000 Sep;18(3):293-300
ORBi (University of Liege). Free full Text at ORBi .

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  • [Title] Early stage results after oesophageal resection for malignancy - colon interposition vs. gastric pull-up.
  • METHODS: From January 1990 to December 1998, 130 patients underwent oesophageal resection for malignancy.
  • Indications were squamous cell carcinoma in 69 patients and adenocarcinoma in 61.
  • Preoperatively 30 patients (eight in stage IIB, 18 in stage III, and four in stage IV) received radiochemotherapy.
  • There were 84 subtotal oesophagectomies, with anastomosis in the neck in 44 patients and at the thoracic inlet in 40, and 46 distal oesophageal resections.
  • The incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications was 70% (21/30 patients) in the subgroup who received preoperative radiochemotherapy, as compared to 11% (5/44 patients) in the subgroup of comparable staging, but without preoperative treatment (P<0.001).
  • Our results suggest that preoperative neoadjuvant treatment significantly increases postoperative pulmonary complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Colon / transplantation. Esophageal Neoplasms / surgery. Esophagus / surgery. Stomach / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Anastomosis, Surgical / methods. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Esophagectomy. Female. Hospital Mortality. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Palliative Care. Reoperation. Retrospective Studies. Stomach Neoplasms / drug therapy. Stomach Neoplasms / mortality. Stomach Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Stomach Neoplasms / surgery. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 10973538.001).
  • [ISSN] 1010-7940
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Cardiothorac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
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21. Stein HJ, Feith M, Siewert JR: Individualized surgical strategies for cancer of the esophagogastric junction. Ann Chir Gynaecol; 2000;89(3):191-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Due to their borderline location between the stomach and esophagus the optimal surgical strategy for patients with adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction is controversial.
  • Irrespective of the surgical approach a complete removal of the primary tumor and its lymphatic drainage has to be the primary goal of surgical treatment of such tumors.
  • Based on the experience with surgical resection of more than 1000 patients with adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction we recommend an individualized surgical strategy guided by tumor stage and topographic location of the tumor center or tumor mass.
  • This requires detailed preoperative staging and classification of tumors arising in the vicinity of the esophagogastric junction into adenocarcinoma of the distal esophagus (AEG Type I Tumors), true carcinoma of the gastric cardia (AEG Type II Tumors) and subcardial gastric carcinoma infiltrating the esophagogastric junction (AEG Type III Tumors).
  • In patients with Type I Tumors transthoracic esophagectomy offers no survival benefit over radical transmediastinal esophagectomy, but is associated with higher morbidity.
  • In patients with Type II or Type III tumors an extended total gastrectomy results in equal or superior survival and less postoperative mortality than a more extended esophagogastrectomy.
  • In patients with early tumors, staged as uT1 on preoperative endosonography, a limited resection of the proximal stomach, cardia and distal esophagus with interposition of a pedicled isoperistaltic jejunal segment allows a complete tumor removal with adequate lymphadenectomy and offers excellent functional results.
  • Multimodal treatment protocols with neoadjuvant chemotherapy or combined radiochemotherapy followed by surgical resection appear to markedly improve the prognosis in patients with locally advanced tumors who respond to preoperative treatment.
  • With this tailored approach extensive preoperative staging becomes mandatory for an adequate selection of the appropriate therapeutic concept.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Carcinoma / surgery. Cardia. Esophageal Neoplasms / surgery. Esophagogastric Junction. Stomach Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic. Combined Modality Therapy. Endoscopy. Esophagectomy. Esophagus / pathology. Gastrectomy. Gastric Fundus / surgery. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Palliative Care. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Stomach / pathology. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 11079787.001).
  • [ISSN] 0355-9521
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales chirurgiae et gynaecologiae
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Chir Gynaecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] FINLAND
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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22. Kenjo M, Uno T, Murakami Y, Nagata Y, Oguchi M, Saito S, Numasaki H, Teshima T, Mitsumori M: Radiation therapy for esophageal cancer in Japan: results of the Patterns of Care Study 1999-2001. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2009 Oct 1;75(2):357-63
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  • [Title] Radiation therapy for esophageal cancer in Japan: results of the Patterns of Care Study 1999-2001.
  • PURPOSE: To describe patient characteristics and the process of radiotherapy (RT) for patients with esophageal cancer treated between 1999 and 2001 in Japan.
  • Detailed information was accumulated on 621 patients with thoracic esophageal cancer who received RT.
  • Fifty-five percent had the main lesion in the middle thoracic esophagus.
  • Fourteen percent had clinical Stage 0-I disease, 32% had Stage IIA-IIB, 43% had Stage III, and 10% had Stage IV disease.
  • Chemotherapy was given to 63% of patients; 39% received definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) without surgery and 24% pre- or postoperative CRT.
  • Median total dose of external RT was 60 Gy for definitive CRT patients, 60 Gy for RT alone, and 40 Gy for preoperative CRT.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This PCS describes general aspects of RT for esophageal cancer in Japan.
  • The standard total external RT dose for esophageal cancer was higher in Japan than in the United States.
  • Chemoradiotherapy had become common for esophageal cancer treatment, but patients aged > or =75 years were more likely to be treated by RT only.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Esophageal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Health Care Surveys
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Aged. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / pathology. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / surgery. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Combined Modality Therapy / utilization. Female. Humans. Japan. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy / methods

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  • (PMID = 19735863.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Hurmuzlu M, Øvrebø K, Monge OR, Smaaland R, Wentzel-Larsen T, Viste A: High-dose chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery versus surgery alone in esophageal cancer: a retrospective cohort study. World J Surg Oncol; 2010;8:46
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  • [Title] High-dose chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery versus surgery alone in esophageal cancer: a retrospective cohort study.
  • BACKGROUND: We aimed to assess whether high-dose preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) improves outcome in esophageal cancer patients compared to surgery alone and to define possible prognostic factors for overall survival.
  • METHODS: Hundred-and-seven patients with disease stage IIA - III were treated with either surgery alone (n = 45) or high-dose preoperative CRT (n = 62).
  • CRT was given as three intensive chemotherapy courses by cisplatin 100 mg/m2 on day 1 and 5-fluorouracil 1000 mg/m2/day, from day 1 through day 5 as continuous infusion.
  • The last two courses were given concurrent with high-dose radiotherapy, 2 Gy/fraction and a median dose of 66 Gy.
  • CONCLUSION: We found no significant survival advantage in esophageal cancer stage IIA-III following preoperative high-dose CRT compared to surgery alone.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Esophageal Neoplasms / therapy. Esophagectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cohort Studies. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy Dosage. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20515502.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2890519
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24. Wolf M, Zehentmayr F, Niyazi M, Ganswindt U, Haimerl W, Schmidt M, Hölzel D, Belka C: Long-term outcome of mitomycin C- and 5-FU-based primary radiochemotherapy for esophageal cancer. Strahlenther Onkol; 2010 Jul;186(7):374-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Long-term outcome of mitomycin C- and 5-FU-based primary radiochemotherapy for esophageal cancer.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: For definitive radiochemotherapy, 5-fluorouracil/cisplatin protocols have been considered the standard of care for esophageal carcinoma over the last 2 decades.
  • The objective of this retrospective analysis was to determine the value of 5-fluorouracil/mitomycin-C-based therapy.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Tumor stage, treatment received, and outcome data of patients treated for esophageal cancer between 1982 and 2007 were collected; endpoint of the analysis was overall survival.
  • RESULTS: 298 patients with inoperable cancer of the esophagus were identified (16.8% adenocarcinoma, 77.5% squamous cell carcinoma).
  • At diagnosis, 61.7% (184/298) had UICC stage III-IV, 54.4% (162/298) positive lymph nodes, and 26.5% (79/298) metastatic disease.
  • 74.5% of all patients (222/298) received radiation doses between 55 and 65 Gy, 65.8% (196/298) were subjected to concomitant chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Despite being nominally inferior to platinum-based radiochemotherapy, the overall survival rates are in a similar range.
  • Thus, the mitomycin-C-based radiochemotherapy approach may considered to be as effective as the standard therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Esophageal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Esophageal Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Fluorouracil / adverse effects. Germany. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mitomycin / administration & dosage. Mitomycin / adverse effects. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted. Registries. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 20582393.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-099X
  • [Journal-full-title] Strahlentherapie und Onkologie : Organ der Deutschen Rontgengesellschaft ... [et al]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Strahlenther Onkol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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25. Taylor MD, Smith PW, Brix WK, Wick MR, Theodosakis N, Swenson BR, Kozower BD, Jones DR: Correlations between selected tumor markers and fluorodeoxyglucose maximal standardized uptake values in esophageal cancer. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg; 2009 Apr;35(4):699-705
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  • [Title] Correlations between selected tumor markers and fluorodeoxyglucose maximal standardized uptake values in esophageal cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: Esophageal cancer tumor biology is best assessed clinically by 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG)-PET.
  • Both FDG-PET maximal positron emission tomography (PET) standardized uptake values (SUVmax) and selected tumor markers have been shown to correlate with stage, nodal disease, and survival in esophageal cancer.
  • Interestingly, there is limited data examining the relationship between FDG-PET SUVmax and expression of these tumor markers in esophageal cancer.
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation of tumor markers with FDG-PET SUVmax in esophageal cancer.
  • METHODS: FDG-PET SUVmax was calculated in 67 patients with esophageal cancer of which 59 (88%) had adenocarcinoma.
  • Neoadjuvant radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy were administered to 42% (28/67) of patients.
  • Esophageal tumor tissue and surrounding normal tissue was obtained and tissue microarrays were created.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis was performed for five known esophageal cancer tumor markers (GLUT-1, p53, cyclin D1, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)).
  • RESULTS: There were 55 men (82%) and 12 women (18%) with a median age of 63 years (range 40-83).
  • Pathologic staging included stage I (n=29, 43%), stage II (n=19, 28%), stage III disease (n=18, 27%), and stage IV disease (n=1, 2%).
  • PET SUVmax correlated with T stage (p=0.001).
  • In patients undergoing surgery without induction therapy, increasing SUVmax values correlated with increased expression of GLUT-1 transporter (p=0.01).
  • CONCLUSIONS: FDG-PET SUVmax correlates with an increased expression of GLUT-1 transporter in esophageal cancer specimens not subjected to induction therapy.
  • No significant difference in tumor marker expression was noted between patients undergoing induction therapy or surgery alone except p53 expression decreased in primary tumors following induction therapy.
  • Failure of SUVmax values to correlate with known prognostic esophageal cancer tumor markers suggests that FDG-PET may have limited clinical utility in assessing response to therapies targeting these markers.

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  • (PMID = 19136271.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-734X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Cardiothorac Surg
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL007849-09; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / T32 HL007849; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / T32 HL007849-09
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Glucose Transporter Type 1; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS189314; NLM/ PMC2878130
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26. Kleinberg L, Knisely JP, Heitmiller R, Zahurak M, Salem R, Burtness B, Heath EI, Forastiere AA: Mature survival results with preoperative cisplatin, protracted infusion 5-fluorouracil, and 44-Gy radiotherapy for esophageal cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2003 Jun 1;56(2):328-34
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  • [Title] Mature survival results with preoperative cisplatin, protracted infusion 5-fluorouracil, and 44-Gy radiotherapy for esophageal cancer.
  • PURPOSE: To assess the long-term survival results after cisplatin, protracted infusion 5-fluorouracil, and concurrent radiotherapy (RT) followed by surgical resection of esophageal cancer.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Ninety-two patients with esophageal cancer (65 with adenocarcinoma and 27 with squamous cell carcinoma) were treated in two sequential protocols of preoperative chemoradiotherapy.
  • The patients had tumor confined to the esophagus and regional nodes, including celiac nodes for middle and distal lesions.
  • In trial A (1989-1994), 50 patients were treated with 44 Gy RT (2 Gy/d) along with concurrent 5-fluorouracil 300 mg/m(2)/d given by protracted venous infusion on Days 1-30 and cisplatin 26 mg/m(2) on Days 1-5 and 26-30.
  • In trial B (1995-1997, 42 patients), the chemotherapy dosages during RT were reduced to 5-fluorouracil 225 mg/m(2)/d protracted venous infusion and cisplatin 20 mg/m(2)/d on Days 1-5 and 16-30; three cycles of paclitaxel 135 mg/m(2)and cisplatin 75 mg/m(2) were given postoperatively.
  • Surgery generally occurred 4-6 weeks after completion of the planned preoperative therapy.
  • RESULTS: Of the 92 patients, 86 (93%) underwent surgery (1 refused, 2 died preoperatively, and 3 developed evidence of metastatic disease).
  • Patients with a pathologic complete response had a 67% survival rate at 5 years (median not reached), and the remainder of patients had a 5-year survival rate of 27% (median 21 months; p <0.001).
  • Eight patients with pathologic Stage I tumor at the time of surgery had survival similar to those with a complete response to preoperative therapy.
  • The median survival for patients with pathologic Stage IIA, IIB, III, and IV disease at the time of surgery was 22, 13.5, 18, and 4.9 months, respectively.
  • The pattern of initial failure was local/regional alone in 6% (5 of 90), local/regional plus distant in 3% (3 of 90), and distant alone in 47% (42 of 90).
  • No differences were noted in survival or response rate between those with adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: The promising 5-year survival results and low rate of late cancer-related deaths suggest that these regimens of intensive neoadjuvant therapy may improve the overall cure rate.
  • The pathologic stage after neoadjuvant therapy is an important predictor of survival and may be useful in selecting patients for novel adjuvant therapies.
  • Isolated local failure is uncommon, indicating that efforts to improve the therapeutic outcome should focus on optimizing systemic therapy rather than intensifying the RT.
  • Additional randomized data are needed to assess the benefits of this therapeutic approach fully.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Esophageal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Esophageal Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Esophagectomy. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Proportional Hazards Models. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 12738305.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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27. Stein HJ, Feith M, Siewert JR: Cancer of the esophagogastric junction. Surg Oncol; 2000 Jul;9(1):35-41
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  • In the Western world, there has been an alarming rise in the incidence and prevalence of adenocarcinoma arising at the esophagogastric junction during recent decades.
  • Epidemiological, clinical and pathological data support a sub-classification of adenocarcinomas arising in the vicinity of the esophagogastric junction (AEG) into adenocarcinoma of the distal esophagus (Type I), true carcinoma of the cardia (Type II) and subcardial carcinoma (Type III).
  • While most, if not all, adenocarcinomas of the distal esophagus arise from areas with specialized intestinal metaplasia, which develop as a consequence of chronic gastroesophageal reflux, the etiology and pathogenesis of true carcinoma of the gastric cardia and subcardial gastric cancer is not clear at present.
  • Irrespective of the etiology, a complete removal of the primary tumor and its lymphatic drainage has to be the primary goal of any surgical approach to adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction.
  • Our experience in the management of more than 1000 such patients during the past 18 years suggests that an individualized therapeutic strategy oriented by tumor type and stage results in survival rates superior to those reported with a more indiscriminate approach.
  • This individualized strategy prescribes a transmediastinal esophagectomy with lymphadenectomy in the lower posterior mediastinum and along the celiac axis for Type I tumors, extended total gastrectomy with transhiatal resection of the distal esophagus and D2 lymphadenectomy for Type II and Type III tumors, a limited resection of the esophagogastric junction and distal esophagus with interposition of a pedicled jejunal segment for uT1N0 tumors, and neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by resection for uT3/T4 tumors.
  • Extensive preoperative staging is essential to allow correct selection of the appropriate therapeutic strategy using this tailored approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Esophageal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Esophageal Neoplasms / therapy. Esophagogastric Junction. Stomach Neoplasms / diagnosis. Stomach Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Combined Modality Therapy. Decision Trees. Esophagectomy. Gastrectomy. Gastroesophageal Reflux / complications. Humans. Incidence. Lymph Node Excision. Neoplasm Staging. Preoperative Care. Prevalence. Splenectomy. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 11525305.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-7404
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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28. Anderson SE, Minsky BD, Bains M, Hummer A, Kelsen D, Ilson DH: Combined modality chemoradiation in elderly oesophageal cancer patients. Br J Cancer; 2007 Jun 18;96(12):1823-7
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  • [Title] Combined modality chemoradiation in elderly oesophageal cancer patients.
  • We present a single institution experience with 5-FU, mitomycin-C based chemoradiation for the primary treatment of elderly patients with oesophageal cancer.
  • Twenty-five patients with a median age of 77 years (range 66-88) with a diagnosis of stage II-III squamous cell or adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus were treated at Memorial Sloan Kettering from 1996 to 2001 with two cycles of concurrent 5-FU, mitomycin-C and 50.4 Gy.
  • Of the 23 patients evaluable for response, 17 patients (68%) had a negative post-treatment endoscopy and CT scan without evidence of progressive disease.
  • Eleven patients (44%) are alive and 10 (40%) remain without evidence of recurrent or progressive oesophageal cancer at a median follow-up of 35 months.
  • There was no significant difference in overall survival between Charlson score </=2 and those with a score >/=2 (P=0.10).
  • Similar survival was observed for patients with adenocarcinoma or squamous carcinoma.
  • Primary chemoradiation with two cycles of 5-FU, mitomycin-C, and 50.4 Gy in elderly patients is an active regimen with moderate toxicity, despite the advanced age and heavy comorbidity burden of this cohort.
  • Patients with local/regional oesophageal cancer with adequate functional status should not be excluded from potentially curative treatment based on age alone.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Esophageal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Esophageal Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Mitomycin / administration & dosage. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 17533399.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2359964
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29. An FS, Huang JQ, Xie YT, Chen SH, Rong TH: [A prospective study of combined chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery in the treatment of esophageal carcinoma]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2003 Jul;25(4):376-9
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  • [Title] [A prospective study of combined chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery in the treatment of esophageal carcinoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of combined chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery for patients with esophageal carcinoma.
  • METHODS: Ninety-seven patients with stage II or III esophageal carcinoma without contraindication against operation and chemoradiotherapy, were randomly divided into two groups: combined group (Group A) 48 and control group (Group B) 49.
  • Patients in group A were given neoadjuvant treatment consisted of chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin for 2 cycles and radiotherapy of DT36 Gy/12 f/17 d.
  • The T stage of group A was significantly lowered (P = 0.003 6).
  • The local and regional recurrence rate of two groups were 34.8% and 58.7% (P = 0.023 6), while there was no significant difference in operative complications between the two groups.
  • CONCLUSION: Preoperative neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy is able to reduce the tumor and tumor stage, lower the lymph node metastasis rate and local or regional recurrence rate, also it can improve radical resectability and long-term survival without increasing the operative complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell. Esophageal Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Esophagectomy. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Particle Accelerators. Prospective Studies. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 12921571.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; CF regimen
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30. Khushalani NI, Leichman CG, Proulx G, Nava H, Bodnar L, Klippenstein D, Litwin A, Smith J, Nava E, Pendyala L, Smith P, Greco W, Berdzik J, Douglass H, Leichman L: Oxaliplatin in combination with protracted-infusion fluorouracil and radiation: report of a clinical trial for patients with esophageal cancer. J Clin Oncol; 2002 Jun 15;20(12):2844-50
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  • [Title] Oxaliplatin in combination with protracted-infusion fluorouracil and radiation: report of a clinical trial for patients with esophageal cancer.
  • PURPOSE: To identify a dose and schedule of oxaliplatin (OXP) to be safely administered in combination with protracted-infusion (PI) fluorouracil (5-FU) and external-beam radiation therapy (XRT) for patients with primary esophageal carcinoma (EC).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eligibility included therapeutically naïve EC patients with clinical disease stages II, III, or IV.
  • Initial doses and schedules for cycle 1 consisted of OXP 85 mg/m(2) on days 1, 15, and 29; PI 5-FU 180 mg/m(2) for 24 hours for 35 days; and XRT 1.8 Gy in 28 fractions starting on day 8.
  • Stage IV patients were allowed three cycles in the absence of disease progression.
  • RESULTS: Thirty-eight eligible patients received therapy: 22 noninvasively staged as IV and 16 noninvasively staged as II and III.
  • The combined-modality therapy was well tolerated, but DLT prevented OXP and 5-FU escalation.
  • After cycle 1, 29 patients (81%) had no cancer in the esophageal mucosa.
  • Thirteen patients underwent an operation with intent to resect the esophagus; five patients (38%) exhibited pathologic complete responses.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Esophageal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Esophageal Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Male. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Organoplatinum Compounds / administration & dosage. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12065561.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 16056; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 9154901
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 04ZR38536J / oxaliplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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31. Swanson SJ, Batirel HF, Bueno R, Jaklitsch MT, Lukanich JM, Allred E, Mentzer SJ, Sugarbaker DJ: Transthoracic esophagectomy with radical mediastinal and abdominal lymph node dissection and cervical esophagogastrostomy for esophageal carcinoma. Ann Thorac Surg; 2001 Dec;72(6):1918-24; discussion 1924-5
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  • [Title] Transthoracic esophagectomy with radical mediastinal and abdominal lymph node dissection and cervical esophagogastrostomy for esophageal carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Several techniques for esophageal resection have been reported.
  • This study examines the morbidity, mortality, and early survival of patients after transthoracic esophagectomy for esophageal carcinoma using current staging techniques and neoadjuvant therapy.
  • METHODS: Three hundred forty-two patients had surgery for esophageal carcinoma between 1989 and 2000 at our institution.
  • Kaplan-Meier curves and univariate and multivariate analyses were performed by postsurgical pathologic stage.
  • Eighty-one percent (202) had induction chemotherapy (all patients with clinical T3/4 or N1).
  • Overall survival at 3 years was 44%; median survival was 25 months, and 3-year survival by posttreatment pathologic stage was: stage 0 (complete response) (n = 60), 56%; stage I (n = 32), 65%; stage IIA (n = 67), 41%; stage IIB (n = 30), 46%; and stage III (n = 49), 17%.
  • Five patients with tumor in situ, 6 patients with stage IV disease, and 1 patient who could not be staged (12 pts) were excluded from survival and multivariate calculations.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Total thoracic esophagectomy with node dissection for esophageal cancer appears to have acceptable morbidity and mortality with encouraging survival results in the setting of neoadjuvant therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Barrett Esophagus / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Esophageal Neoplasms / surgery. Esophagectomy / methods. Gastrostomy / methods. Lymph Node Excision / methods. Precancerous Conditions / surgery

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  • (PMID = 11789772.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4975
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Thorac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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32. Liang Z, Hu WD, Gu ZD, Xiong HC, Chen KN: [Evaluation of transhiatus esophagectomy for patients with esophageal cancer]. Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2008 Sep;11(5):451-3
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  • [Title] [Evaluation of transhiatus esophagectomy for patients with esophageal cancer].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the transhiatus esophagectomy for patients with esophageal cancer.
  • METHODS: Clinicopathological data of 46 patients with esophageal cancer undergone transhiatus esophagectomy by single surgeon team from May 2000 to July 2007 were analyzed retrospectively.
  • RESULTS: These 46 patients included 44 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas,1 esophageal adenocarcinoma and 1 esophageal carcinoid.
  • All the patients were classified according to UICC TNM stage classification: 3 cases as stage 0, 6 cases as stage I, 17 cases as stage II a, 2 cases as stage II b, 16 cases as stage III.
  • Six patients received preoperative chemotherapy and pathological complete response was seen in 2 cases.
  • CONCLUSION: Transhiatus esophagectomy is an ideal choice in surgical treatment for patients with esophageal cancer, especially for the ones of aged, poor cardiac or pulmonary function, who can not afford the thoracotomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Esophageal Neoplasms / surgery. Esophagectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Esophagus / surgery. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18803048.001).
  • [ISSN] 1671-0274
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wei chang wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of gastrointestinal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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33. Meluch AA, Greco FA, Gray JR, Thomas M, Sutton VM, Davis JL, Kalman LA, Shaffer DW, Yost K, Rinaldi DA, Hainsworth JD: Preoperative therapy with concurrent paclitaxel/carboplatin/infusional 5-FU and radiation therapy in locoregional esophageal cancer: final results of a Minnie Pearl Cancer Research Network phase II trial. Cancer J; 2003 Jul-Aug;9(4):251-60
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  • [Title] Preoperative therapy with concurrent paclitaxel/carboplatin/infusional 5-FU and radiation therapy in locoregional esophageal cancer: final results of a Minnie Pearl Cancer Research Network phase II trial.
  • PURPOSE: This phase II study was designed to determine the feasibility, toxicity, and therapeutic efficacy of a novel outpatient combined-modality preoperative regimen in patients with localized esophageal cancer.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred twenty-nine eligible patients with previously untreated, potentially resectable, clinical stage I-III carcinoma of the esophagus were treated between July 1995 and July 1999.
  • Combined-modality treatment included: paclitaxel, 200 mg/m2, 1-hour i.v. infusion, days 1 and 22; carboplatin, an area under the concentration time curve 6.0 i.v., days 1 and 22; 5-fluorouracil, 225 mg/m2/day, continuous i.v. infusion, days 1-42; and radiation therapy, 45 Gy, 1.8-Gy single daily fractions 5 days weekly, beginning day 1.
  • All patients underwent surgical resection 4-8 weeks after completion of the preoperative therapy.
  • RESULTS: One hundred twenty-three patients (95%) completed preoperative therapy, 105 patients (81%) underwent attempted resection, and 96 patients (74%) had definitive resection.
  • With a median follow-up of 45 months, the median survival is 22 months (95% CI = 15-32 months), with actuarial 1-, 2-, and 3-year survivals of 71%, 47%, and 41%, respectively.
  • Although 73 patients (57%) required brief hospitalizations during preoperative therapy, there were no treatment-related deaths, and 94% of patients remained candidates for resection after the completion of treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This novel combined-modality regimen is highly active in the treatment of locoregional esophageal cancer, producing an actuarial 3-year survival of 41%.
  • Although this preoperative regimen produced moderate acute toxicity, there were no treatment-related deaths and the large majority of patients were able to undergo subsequent esophageal resection.
  • These results, obtained in a community-based setting and involving multiple surgeons, radiation oncologists, and medical oncologists, compare favorably with those of previous single-center and multicenter results.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Esophageal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Esophageal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Esophagectomy. Neoadjuvant Therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Area Under Curve. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / adverse effects. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant / adverse effects. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Cancer J. 2003 Jul-Aug;9(4):238-40 [12967131.001]
  • (PMID = 12967135.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-9117
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer journal (Sudbury, Mass.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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34. Yamashita H, Nakagawa K, Tago M, Igaki H, Nakamura N, Shiraishi K, Sasano N, Ohtomo K: Radiation therapy combined with cis-diammine-glycolatoplatinum (nedaplatin) and 5-fluorouracil for Japanese stage II-IV esophageal cancer compared with cisplatin plus 5-fluorouracil regimen: a retrospective study. Dis Esophagus; 2006;19(1):15-9
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  • [Title] Radiation therapy combined with cis-diammine-glycolatoplatinum (nedaplatin) and 5-fluorouracil for Japanese stage II-IV esophageal cancer compared with cisplatin plus 5-fluorouracil regimen: a retrospective study.
  • To evaluate the treatment outcome of radiotherapy combined with cis-diammine-glycolatoplatinum (nedaplatin) plus 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) for esophageal cancer.
  • From January 2000 to December 2004, a total of 12 esophageal cancer patients with locally advanced and metastatic esophageal cancer (stages II-IVB) were treated with radiation therapy (50.4 Gy) combined with nedaplatin (80 mg/m(2), bolus infusion) and 5-FU (800 mg/m(2)/24 h, continuous infusion for 4 days) (NDP group).
  • We compared the data with those of patients during the same period receiving a different chemotherapy regimen consisting of cisplatin (75 mg/m(2), bolus infusion) and 5-FU (1000 mg/m(2)/24 h, continuous infusion for 4 days) (n = 29, CDDP group) combined with the same radiation therapy.
  • Grade III and IV leukocytopenia was observed in six (50%) and none of the patients in the NDP group and 14 (48%) and seven (24%) in the CDDP group, respectively.
  • Grade III thrombocytopenia was observed in three (25%) in the NDP group and four (14%) in the CDDP group.
  • Radiation combined with nedaplatin and 5-FU is a safe and effective method for treating esophageal cancer.

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  • (PMID = 16364038.001).
  • [ISSN] 1120-8694
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the esophagus : official journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Esophagus
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 8UQ3W6JXAN / nedaplatin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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35. Stilidi I, Davydov M, Bokhyan V, Suleymanov E: Subtotal esophagectomy with extended 2-field lymph node dissection for thoracic esophageal cancer. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg; 2003 Mar;23(3):415-20
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  • [Title] Subtotal esophagectomy with extended 2-field lymph node dissection for thoracic esophageal cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: To examine the efficacy of the Ivor Lewis esophagectomy with extended 2-field lymph node dissection for thoracic esophageal carcinoma we reviewed our experience.
  • METHODS: We analyzed the cases of 147 consecutive patients who underwent subtotal esophagectomy with extended 2-field lymph node dissection through Ivor Lewis approach for esophageal cancer from January 1996 through December 2000.
  • Eighty-six patients were operated on for cancer of the midthoracic esophagus, 48 for cancer of the lower thoracic esophagus, and 13 for cancer of the aortal segment of the esophagus.
  • No patient had received chemotherapy or radiotherapy before operation.
  • Postsurgical pathological studies revealed squamous cell carcinoma in 139 patients (94.6%), adenocarcinoma in five (3.4%), and adenosquamous carcinoma in three (2%).
  • Even in T(1)-T(2) tumors mediastinal or abdominal lymph nodes are involved in up to 80% of cases.
  • However, in T(3)-T(4) stages the frequency of lymph node involvement is significantly higher (P<0.05).
  • Postsurgical staging was as follows: stage I in three patients (2%), stage IIa in 20 (13.6%), stage IIb in 29 (19.7%), stage III in 54 (36.8%), and stage IV in 41 (27.9%).
  • The 5-year survival rate for patients in stage IIa was 59%; for those in stage IIb, 39.5%; for patients in stage III, 26.7%; and 0% for patients in stage IV.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Subtotal esophagectomy with extended 2-field lymph node dissection through Ivor Lewis approach for esophageal cancer is a safe operation.
  • Long-term survival is stage dependent.
  • Effective multimodality treatment may be helpful for patients with advanced disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Esophageal Neoplasms / surgery. Esophagectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Aged. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / pathology. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / secondary. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 12614816.001).
  • [ISSN] 1010-7940
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Cardiothorac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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36. Button MR, Morgan CA, Croydon ES, Roberts SA, Crosby TD: Study to determine adequate margins in radiotherapy planning for esophageal carcinoma by detailing patterns of recurrence after definitive chemoradiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2009 Mar 1;73(3):818-23
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  • [Title] Study to determine adequate margins in radiotherapy planning for esophageal carcinoma by detailing patterns of recurrence after definitive chemoradiotherapy.
  • PURPOSE: To ascertain the adequacy of radiotherapy (RT) margins by studying the relapse patterns after definitive chemoradiotherapy for carcinoma of the esophagus.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: We performed a retrospective study assessing the first site of disease relapse after definitive chemoradiotherapy that included four 3-weekly cycles of cisplatin and continuous infusion 5-fluorouracil, with conformal RT (50 Gy in 25 fractions) concurrent with Cycles 3 and 4.
  • The RT planning target volume was the endoscopic ultrasonography/computed tomography-defined gross tumor volume with 1.5-cm lateral and 3-cm superoinferior margins.
  • Their average age was 65.4 years, 45% had adenocarcinoma, 61% had lower third esophageal tumors, and 75% had Stage III-IVA disease.
  • The relapse was local (within the RT field) in 55; distant (metastatic) in 13, and a combination of local and distant in 14.
  • The local relapse rates were not influenced by tumor stage, lymph node status, or disease length.
  • Three patients developed a relapse in regions adjacent to the RT fields; however, it is unlikely that larger field margins would have been clinically acceptable or effective in these cases.
  • Future efforts to improve outcomes using definitive chemoradiotherapy should be directed toward reducing the high rates of in-field and distant relapses.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Esophageal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Esophageal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted. Retrospective Studies. Tumor Burden

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  • [CommentIn] Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2009 Dec 1;75(5):1623; author reply 1623 [19931740.001]
  • (PMID = 18718726.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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37. Knox JJ, Wong R, Visbal AL, Horgan AM, Guindi M, Hornby J, Xu W, Ringash J, Keshavjee S, Chen E, Haider M, Darling G: Phase 2 trial of preoperative irinotecan plus cisplatin and conformal radiotherapy, followed by surgery for esophageal cancer. Cancer; 2010 Sep 1;116(17):4023-32
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  • [Title] Phase 2 trial of preoperative irinotecan plus cisplatin and conformal radiotherapy, followed by surgery for esophageal cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Esophagectomy for locally advanced esophageal cancer (LAEC) is associated with limited survival.
  • Trimodality therapy yields a small survival advantage, with cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil regimens most frequently studied.
  • METHODS: Patients with LAEC of the thoracic esophagus or gastroesophageal junction underwent chemotherapy with preoperative irinotecan (65 mg/m(2)) plus cisplatin (30 mg/m(2)) on Weeks 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, and 8 with concurrent conformal radiotherapy (40 grays [Gy]/20 fractions during Weeks 4-7) and external beam boost (10 Gy/5 fractions at Week 8).
  • Nineteen patients had American Joint Committee on Cancer stage II, 22 had stage III, and 11 had stage IVA disease.
  • Three patients withdrew from treatment due to toxicity.
  • There was 1 treatment-related death.
  • Median and 3-year overall survival for patients receiving trimodality therapy was 36 months and 51%, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Esophageal Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Combined Modality Therapy. Esophagectomy. Esophagogastric Junction. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Radiotherapy, Conformal

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  • [Copyright] Cancer 2010. (c) 2010 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 20533506.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 7673326042 / irinotecan; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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38. Mühr-Wilkenshoff F, Stahl M, Faiss S, Zeitz M, Scherübl H: [Current diagnosis and therapy of esophageal carcinoma]. Z Gastroenterol; 2004 Jul;42(7):615-21
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  • [Title] [Current diagnosis and therapy of esophageal carcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Aktuelle Diagnostik und Therapie des Osophaguskarzinoms.
  • In Germany the incidence of esophageal cancer is 6 - 10 per 100,000.
  • At the time of diagnosis about 75 % of the patients suffer from UICC stage III or IV esophageal cancer.
  • Diagnosis and staging relies on esophagoscopy including biopsies, endoscopic ultrasonography, and computerized tomography of the chest and abdomen.
  • Chemoradiation is the definitive treatment of choice for localized squamous cell cancer of the proximal esophagus.
  • As far as overall survival is concerned definitive chemoradiation is not inferior to esophagectomy even in patients with localized squamous cell cancer of the middle or lower esophagus.
  • In case of high surgical risk chemoradiation should be offered to those patients as the therapy of choice.
  • Esophagectomy should be performed in operable patients suffering from resectable adenocarcinoma of the esophagus.
  • Preoperative chemoradiation is recommended in locally advanced (non-resectable) adenocarcinoma.
  • If staging reveals distant metastases, palliative therapy is indicated.
  • Palliative chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin should be offered to patients with good performance status.
  • Esophageal intubation (with expandable metal stents) is the palliative treatment of choice for firm stenosing, non-resectable tumors, where rapid relief of dysphagia is required.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Esophageal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Cross-Sectional Studies. Esophagectomy. Follow-Up Studies. Germany. Humans. Incidence. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 15248111.001).
  • [ISSN] 0044-2771
  • [Journal-full-title] Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Z Gastroenterol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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39. Daly JM, Fry WA, Little AG, Winchester DP, McKee RF, Stewart AK, Fremgen AM: Esophageal cancer: results of an American College of Surgeons Patient Care Evaluation Study. J Am Coll Surg; 2000 May;190(5):562-72; discussion 572-3
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  • [Title] Esophageal cancer: results of an American College of Surgeons Patient Care Evaluation Study.
  • BACKGROUND: The last two decades have seen changes in the prevalence, histologic type, and management algorithms for patients with esophageal cancer.
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the presentation, stage distribution, and treatment of patients with esophageal cancer using the National Cancer Database of the American College of Surgeons.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Consecutively accessed patients (n = 5,044) with esophageal cancer from 828 hospitals during 1994 were evaluated in 1997 for case mix, diagnostic tests, and treatment modalities.
  • RESULTS: The mean age of patients was 67.3 years with a male to female ratio of 3:1; non-Hispanic Caucasians made up most patients.
  • Approximately 50% of patients had the tumor in the lower third of the esophagus.
  • Of all patients, 51.6% had squamous cell histology and 41.9% had adenocarcinoma.
  • Barrett's esophagus occurred in 777 patients, or 39% of those with adenocarcinoma.
  • Of those patients that underwent surgery initially, pathology revealed stage I (13.3%), II (34.7%), III (35.7%), and IV (12.3%) disease.
  • For patients with various stages of squamous cell cancer, radiation therapy plus chemotherapy were the most common treatment modalities (39.5%) compared with surgery plus adjuvant therapy (13.2%).
  • For patients with adenocarcinoma, surgery plus adjuvant therapy were the most common treatment methods.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Cancer of the esophagus shows an increasing occurrence of adenocarcinoma in the lower third of the esophagus and is frequently associated with Barrett's esophagus.
  • Choice of treatment was influenced by tumor histology and tumor site.
  • Multimodality (neoadjuvant) therapy was the most common treatment method for patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma.
  • The use of multimodality treatment did not appear to increase postoperative morbidity.
  • [MeSH-major] Esophageal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Combined Modality Therapy. Esophagus / pathology. Esophagus / radiography. Female. General Surgery. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasm Staging. Postoperative Complications / epidemiology. Registries / statistics & numerical data. Societies, Medical. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. United States

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  • (PMID = 10801023.001).
  • [ISSN] 1072-7515
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American College of Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Coll. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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40. Ruol A, Castoro C, Portale G, Cavallin F, Sileni VC, Cagol M, Alfieri R, Corti L, Boso C, Zaninotto G, Peracchia A, Ancona E: Trends in management and prognosis for esophageal cancer surgery: twenty-five years of experience at a single institution. Arch Surg; 2009 Mar;144(3):247-54; discussion 254
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  • [Title] Trends in management and prognosis for esophageal cancer surgery: twenty-five years of experience at a single institution.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate trends in results of esophagectomies to treat esophageal cancer at a single high-volume institution during the past 25 years.
  • DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective cohort study in a university tertiary referral center.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with cancer of the thoracic esophagus or esophagogastric junction seen from 1980 through 2004 were included (N = 3493).
  • Three time periods were defined: 1980-1987, 1988-1995, and 1996-2004.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Clinical presentation, tumor characteristics, and morbidity, mortality, and survival rates among patients with esophageal cancer undergoing esophagectomy.
  • RESULTS: The ratio of squamous cell carcinoma to adenocarcinoma decreased from 3.3 to 1.7 (P <.001) during the study period, in parallel with an increase in the number of patients with tumors in the lower esophagus/esophagogastric junction.
  • An increasing proportion of patients who underwent resection received neoadjuvant treatment (chemotherapy/chemoradiotherapy), and 1978 patients underwent esophagectomy.
  • In addition, an increasing proportion of patients had early-stage tumor in the resected specimen.
  • Pathological tumor stage, completeness of the resection, time period, sex, tumor histological type, and tumor location influenced the prognosis of patients with esophageal cancer undergoing esophagectomy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A change in location and histological type of esophageal cancer has occurred during the past 25 years.
  • Earlier diagnosis, a multidisciplinary approach, and refinements in surgical technique and perioperative care have led to a significant reduction in postoperative mortality rate and improved long-term survival among patients with cancer of the thoracic esophagus or esophagogastric junction.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Esophageal Neoplasms / surgery. Esophagectomy / trends. Esophagogastric Junction

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  • (PMID = 19289664.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3644
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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41. Low DE, Kunz S, Schembre D, Otero H, Malpass T, Hsi A, Song G, Hinke R, Kozarek RA: Esophagectomy--it's not just about mortality anymore: standardized perioperative clinical pathways improve outcomes in patients with esophageal cancer. J Gastrointest Surg; 2007 Nov;11(11):1395-402; discussion 1402
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Esophagectomy--it's not just about mortality anymore: standardized perioperative clinical pathways improve outcomes in patients with esophageal cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Esophageal resection (ER) remains the standard therapy for early esophageal cancer; however, because of concerns regarding high levels of morbidity and mortality reported in analyses of national databases, many patients are relegated to less effective endoscopic or chemotherapeutic approaches.
  • All aspects of work-up and treatment were guided by an evolving standardized perioperative clinical pathway.
  • RESULTS: Three hundred forty consecutive patients, mean age of 64 (33-90), underwent ER for Barrett's esophagus (17) or invasive cancer stages I-87, II-133, III-94, IV-9.
  • One hundred thirty-nine (41%) had neoadjuvant therapy.
  • Sixty-three percent were American Society of Anesthesiologists class III or IV, and five different operative approaches were used.
  • Patient were managed intraoperatively with a "fluid restriction" protocol.
  • No significant differences were seen in length of stay, operative time, blood loss, or complications in patients receiving neoadjuvant therapy.
  • For stages I, II, and III, patients between 1998-2004 Kaplan-Meier 5-year cumulative survival was 92.4, 57.1, and 34.5%, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Surgical treatment of esophageal cancer can be done with moderate morbidity and very low mortality, and the expectation of improved levels of survival, especially in early-stage patients.
  • Standardized perioperative clinical pathways can provide the infrastructure for the treatment of these patients and should include increased efforts to minimize blood loss and transfusions, improve postoperative pain control and extubation rates, and facilitate early mobilization and discharge.
  • ER, as sole therapy or in combination with radiation/chemotherapy, should remain the standard of care in patients with early and locoregional esophageal cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / mortality. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / mortality. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Critical Pathways. Esophageal Neoplasms / mortality. Esophageal Neoplasms / surgery. Esophagectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Barrett Esophagus / surgery. Blood Loss, Surgical. Female. Humans. Length of Stay. Male. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17763917.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-255X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastrointest. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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42. Oettle H, Arnold D, Kern M, Hoepffner N, Settmacher U, Neuhaus P, Riess H: Phase I study of gemcitabine in combination with cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil and folinic acid in patients with advanced esophageal cancer. Anticancer Drugs; 2002 Sep;13(8):833-8
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. LEUCOVORIN .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Phase I study of gemcitabine in combination with cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil and folinic acid in patients with advanced esophageal cancer.
  • The prognosis for advanced esophageal carcinoma is poor with a median survival of 9-12 months and 5-year-survival rate of 10-20%.
  • Combination chemotherapy with cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is considered to be the standard therapy, but has a high potential of side effects and is usually not given on an ambulatory basis.
  • All drugs were to be given on a day 1, 8, 15 and 22 of a 6-weekly cycle in an outpatient setting.
  • Nineteen chemonaive patients with inoperable stage IIa, III and IV squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the esophagus were enrolled into the study.
  • One hundred and eighty-one out of 187 treatments (55 cycles) were given on an outpatient basis.
  • The side effect profile seen in this study in combination with the preliminary evidence of efficacy justifies further testing in a phase II setting with a cisplatin dose of 25 mg/m(2) and offers a treatment option for patients in an outpatient setting.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Esophageal Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. CIS-DIAMINEDICHLOROPLATINUM .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. FLUOROURACIL .
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  • (PMID = 12394268.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-4973
  • [Journal-full-title] Anti-cancer drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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